The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Private




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Children
1 M Private (details suppressed for this person)

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Sigurd Earl of Northumberland and Aelfflaed of Bernicia




Husband Sigurd Earl of Northumberland 3 4 5

            AKA: Siward Earl of Northumbria, Siward Biornsson, Sigurd Bjornsson Earl of Northumberland
           Born: Bef 1013 - <Denmark>
     Christened: 
           Died: 1055 - York, Yorkshire, England
         Buried:  - Galmanho Abby, York, Yorkshire, England


         Father: Bjorn Ulfiusson (Abt 1021-Abt 1049) 5
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife Aelfflaed of Bernicia 5 6 7

            AKA: Aelfled of Bernicia, Elfleda of Bernicia
           Born: Abt 1031 - <Bernicia, Northumbria>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Ealdred Earl of Bernicia (Abt 0994-1038) 5 6 8
         Mother: 




Children
1 M Waltheof II Earl of Northumberland 5 6 7

           Born: 1050
     Christened: 
           Died: 31 May 1076 - Winchester, (Hampshire), England
         Buried:  - Chapter House of Croyland Abbey, Winchester, Hampshire, England
         Spouse: Judith of Lens (1054-      ) 5 7 9
           Marr: 1070 - Artois, (France)




Birth Notes: Husband - Sigurd Earl of Northumberland

FamilySearch has b. abt 1020.


Research Notes: Husband - Sigurd Earl of Northumberland

From Wikipedia - Siward, Earl of Northumbria :

Siward or Sigurd (Old English : Sigeweard) was an earl and commander in 11th-century northern England. The Old Norse nickname Digri ("the Stout") and Latin translation Grossus ("the Fat") are given to him by near-contemporary texts.[1] The English name Sigeweard was cognate to the single Old Norse name written variously as Sigvarðr and Sigurðr.[2]


Probably of Scandinavian origin, Siward emerged as a powerful regional strongman in England during the reign of Cnut (1016-1035). By 1033 Siward was in control of what is now Yorkshire, governing southern Northumbria as earl on Cnut's behalf. He married Ælfflæd, the daughter of an Earl of Bamburgh . After killing a different Earl of Bamburgh in 1041, Siward gained control of all Northumbria. He exerted his power in support of Kings Harthacnut and Edward , and turned against the Scottish King Mac Bethad mac Findlaích ("Macbeth"), whom he defeated in battle in 1054. Siward died the following year.

Henry of Huntingdon, in his Historia Anglorum, related that when Siward was attacked by dysentery , fearing to die "like a cow" and wishing rather to die like a soldier, he clothed himself in armour and took to hand an axe and shield. Ennobled in such a manner, Siward died.[81] This anecdote is of doubtful historicity, and is thought to be derived from the saga devoted to Earl Siward, now lost.[82] The Vita Ædwardi Regis said that Siward died at York and was buried in "the monastery of St Olaf", i.e., Galmanho , a claim confirmed by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Worcester Chronicle, and the Historia Regum among others.[83] 3 4 5


Research Notes: Wife - Aelfflaed of Bernicia

From Wikipedia - Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria :

[Waltheof] was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria . His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia , son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria . In 1054, Waltheof's brother, Osbearn, who was much older than him, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father's heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom. 5 6 7


Death Notes: Child - Waltheof II Earl of Northumberland

Beheaded


Research Notes: Child - Waltheof II Earl of Northumberland

From Wikipedia - Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria :

Waltheof (1050 -31 May 1076 ), Earl of Northumbria and last of the Anglo-Saxon earls . He was the only English aristocrat to be formally executed during the reign of William I . He was reputed for his physical strength but was weak and unreliable in character.

Early Life
He was the second son of Siward, Earl of Northumbria . His mother was Aelfflaed, daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bernicia , son of Uhtred, Earl of Northumbria . In 1054, Waltheof's brother, Osbearn, who was much older than him, was killed in battle, making Waltheof his father's heir. Siward himself died in 1055, and Waltheof being far too young to succeed as Earl of Northumbria, King Edward appointed Tostig Godwinson to the earldom.

He was said to be devout and charitable and was probably educated for a monastic life. In fact, around 1065 he became an earl, governing Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire . Following the Battle of Hastings he submitted to William and was allowed to keep his pre-Conquest title and possessions. He remained at William's court until 1068.

First revolt
When Sweyn II invaded Northern England in 1069 Waltheof and Edgar Ætheling joined the Danes and took part in the attack on York . He would again make a fresh submission to William after the departure of the invaders in 1070. He was restored to his earldom, and went on to marry William's niece, Judith of Lens . In 1072, he was appointed Earl of Northampton .

The Domesday Book mentions Waltheof ("Walleff"); "'In Hallam ("Halun"), one manor with its sixteen hamlets, there are twenty-nine carucates [~14 km²] to be taxed. There Earl Waltheof had an "Aula" [hall or court]. There may have been about twenty ploughs. This land Roger de Busli holds of the Countess Judith." (Hallam, or Hallamshire , is now part of the city of Sheffield .

In 1072, William expelled Gospatric from the earldom of Northumbria. Gospatric was Waltheof's cousin and had taken part in the attack on York with him, but like Waltheof, had been pardoned by William. Gospatric fled into exile and William appointed Waltheof as the new earl.

Waltheof had many enemies in the north. Amongst them were members of a family who had killed Waltheof's maternal great-grandfather, Uchtred the Bold , and his grandfather Ealdred . This was part of a long-running blood feud. In 1074, Waltheof moved against the family by sending his retainers to ambush them, succeeding in killing the two eldest of four brothers.

Second revolt and death
In 1075 Waltheof joined the Revolt of the Earls against William. His motives for taking part in the revolt are unclear, as is the depth of his involvement. However he repented, confessing his guilt first to Archbishop Lanfranc , and then in person to William, who was at the time in Normandy . He returned to England with William but was arrested, brought twice before the king's court and sentenced to death.

He spent almost a year in confinement before being beheaded on May 31 , 1076 at St. Giles's Hill , near Winchester . He was said to have spent the months of his captivity in prayer and fasting. Many people believed in his innocence and were surprised when the execution was carried out. His body was initially thrown in a ditch, but was later retrieved and was buried in the chapter house of Croyland Abbey .

Family and children
In 1070 he married Judith of Lens , daughter of Lambert II, Count of Lens and Adelaide of Normandy , Countess of Aumale . They had three daughters, the eldest of whom, Maud , brought the earldom of Huntingdon to her second husband, David I of Scotland , and another of whom, Adelise, married the Anglo-Norman noble Raoul III of Tosny .

One of Waltheof's grandsons was Waltheof (d. 1159), abbot of Melrose . 5 6 7


Ælfgar Earl of Mercia and Ælfgifu




Husband Ælfgar Earl of Mercia 5 10

            AKA: Ælfgar III Earl of Mercia
           Born: Abt 1002 - <Mercia>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1062 - <Mercia>, England
         Buried:  - Coventry, Warwickshire, England


         Father: Leofric (0968-1057) 5 11
         Mother: Godgifu (Abt 1010-1067) 5 12


       Marriage: 

Events

• Earl of East Anglia: 1053.

• Earl of Mercia: 1057.

• Banished: 1058.




Wife Ælfgifu 5 13

            AKA: Elgifu Princess of England
           Born: Abt 997 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Æthelred II "the Redeless" King of England (Abt 0968-1016) 5 14 15
         Mother: Ælfgifu of York (Abt 0968-Abt 1002) 5 16 17



   Other Spouse: Uchtred the Bold Earl of Northumbria (Abt 0971-1016) 5 18 19


Children
1 F Edith 5 20

            AKA: Aldgyth, Ealdgyth Queen of England
           Born: Abt 1034 - <Mercia>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1086
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Gruffydd I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales (Abt 1011-1063) 5 21
           Marr: Abt 1057
         Spouse: Harold II King of England (Abt 1022-1066) 22
           Marr: Abt 1064



2 M Eadwine 13

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3 M Morkere 13

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4 M Burchard 13

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Edmund I "the Magnificent" King of England and St. Ælfgifu




Husband Edmund I "the Magnificent" King of England 23 24




            AKA: Eadmund King of England, Edmund I "the Elder" King of England, Edmund I "the Magnificent" King of England
           Born: 920 or 921 - Wessex, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 26 May 946 - England
         Buried: 967 - Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset, England


         Father: Edward I "the Elder" King of England (Between 0871/0875-0924/0925) 25 26 27
         Mother: Eadgifu (Abt 0881-0968) 28 29


       Marriage: 940



Wife St. Ælfgifu 30

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 944
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Edgar "the Peaceful" King of England 5 31

           Born: 944 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Jul 975 - Wessex, England
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Ælfthryth (0945-1000) 5 32
           Marr: 965




Burial Notes: Husband - Edmund I "the Magnificent" King of England

Source: Wikipedia - Glastonbury Abbey (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glastonbury_abbey)


Research Notes: Husband - Edmund I "the Magnificent" King of England

King of England 939-946.

From Wikipedia - Edmund I of England :

Edmund I (or Eadmund) 922 - May 26 , 946 ), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, the Just or the Magnificent, was King of England from 939 until his death. He was a son of Edward the Elder and half-brother of Athelstan .

Athelstan died on October 27 , 939 , and Edmund succeeded him as king. Shortly after his proclamation as king he had to face several military threats. King Olaf I of Dublin conquered Northumbria and invaded the Midlands . When Olaf died in 942 Edmund reconquered the Midlands. In 943 he became the god-father of King Olaf of York . In 944, Edmund was successful in reconquering Northumbria. In the same year his ally Olaf of York lost his throne and left for Dublin in Ireland . Olaf became the king of Dublin as Olaf Cuaran and continued to be allied to his god-father. In 945 Edmund conquered Strathclyde but conceded his rights on the territory to King Malcolm I of Scotland . In exchange they signed a treaty of mutual military support. Edmund thus established a policy of safe borders and peaceful relationships with Scotland . During his reign, the revival of monasteries in England began.

Edmund was murdered in 946 by Leofa, an exiled thief. He had been having a party in Pucklechurch , when he spotted Leofa in the crowd. After the outlaw refused to leave, the king and his advisors fought Leofa. Edmund and Leofa were both killed. He was succeeded as king by his brother Edred, king from 946 until 955.

Edmund's sons later ruled England as:
Edwy of England , King from 955 until 957, king of only Wessex and Kingdom of Kent from 957 until his death on October 1 , 959 .
Edgar of England , king of only Mercia and Northumbria from 957 until his brother's death in 959, then king of England from 959 until 975. 23 24


Uchtred the Bold Earl of Northumbria and Ælfgifu




Husband Uchtred the Bold Earl of Northumbria 5 18 19

            AKA: Ughtred of Northumbria, Uhtred of Bamburgh, Uhtred Earl of Northumbria
           Born: Abt 971
     Christened: 
           Died: 1016
         Buried: 


         Father: Waltheof of Bamburgh (Abt 0960-      ) 5 33
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Ecgfrida (Abt 0973-      ) 5 8



Wife Ælfgifu 5 13

            AKA: Elgifu Princess of England
           Born: Abt 997 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Æthelred II "the Redeless" King of England (Abt 0968-1016) 5 14 15
         Mother: Ælfgifu of York (Abt 0968-Abt 1002) 5 16 17



   Other Spouse: Ælfgar Earl of Mercia (Abt 1002-After 1062) 5 10


Children
1 F Ealdgyth Princess of Northumbria 5 34

            AKA: Aglithia Princess of Northumberland, Aldgitha, Ealdgytfh
           Born: Abt 1020 - Northumberland, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Maldred Lord of Carlisle and Allerdale (Abt 1015-1045) 5 35




Death Notes: Husband - Uchtred the Bold Earl of Northumbria

Assassinated by Thurbrand the Hold


Research Notes: Husband - Uchtred the Bold Earl of Northumbria

3rd husband of Ælfgifu

From Wikipedia - Uhtred of Bamburgh :
Uchtred or Uhtred, called the Bold, was the ealdorman of all Northumbria from 1006 to 1016, when he was assassinated. He was the son of Waltheof I , ealdorman of Bamburgh , whose ancient family had ruled from the castle of Bamburgh on the Northumbrian coast.

In 995, according to Symeon of Durham , when the remains of St Cuthbert were transferred from Chester-le-Street to Durham , Uhtred helped the monks clear the site of the new cathedral. The new cathedral was founded by Bishop Aldhun , and Uhtred married Aldhun's daughter, Ecgfrida, probably at about this time. From his marriage he received several estates that had belonged to the church. [1]

In 1006 Malcolm II of Scotland invaded Northumbria and besieged the newly founded episcopal city of Durham . At that time the Danes were raiding southern England and King Ethelred was unable to send help to the Northumbrians. Ealdorman Waltheof was too old to fight and remained in his castle at Bamburgh . Ealdorman Ælfhelm of York also took no action. Uhtred, acting for his father, called together an army from Bernicia and Yorkshire and led it against the Scots. The result was a decisive victory for Uhtred. Local women washed the severed heads of the Scots, receiving a payment of a cow for each, and the heads were fixed on stakes to Durham's walls. Uhtred was rewarded by King Ethelred II with the ealdormanry of Bamburgh even though his father was still alive. In the mean time, Ethelred had had Ealdorman Ælfhelm of York murdered, and he allowed Uhtred to succeed Ælfhelm as ealdorman of York, thus uniting northern and souther Northumbria under the house of Bamburgh. It seems likely that Ethelred did not trust the Scandinavian population of southern Northumbria and wanted an Anglo-Saxon in power there. [2]

After receiving these honours Uhtred dismissed his wife, Ecgfrida, and married Sige, daughter of Styr, son of Ulf. Styr was a rich citizen of York. It appears that Uhtred was trying to make political allies amongst the Danes in Deira. [2]

In 1013 King Sweyn of Denmark invaded England, sailing up the Humber and Trent to the town of Gainsborough . Uhtred submitted to him there, as did all of the Danes in the north. In July 1013 Ethelred was forced into exile in Normandy. After London had finally submitted to him, Swein was accepted as king by Christmas 1013. However he only reigned for five weeks, for he died at, or near, Gainsborough on 2 February 1014. At Sweyn's death, Ethelred was able to return from exile and resume his reign. Uhtred, along with many others, transferred his allegiance back to Ethelred, on his return. Uhtred also married Ethelred's daughter Ælfgifu about this time. [2]

In 1016 Uhtred campaigned with Ethelred's son Edmund Ironside in Cheshire and the surrounding shires. While Uhtred was away from his lands, Sweyn's son, Cnut , invaded Yorkshire. Cnut's forces were too strong for Uhtred to fight, and so Uhtred did homage to him as King of England . Uhtred was summoned to a meeting with Cnut, and on the way there, he and forty of his men were murdered by Thurbrand the Hold, with the connivance of Cnut. Uhtred was succeeded in Bernicia by his brother Eadwulf Cudel . Cnut made the Norwegian, Eric of Hlathir , ealdorman ("earl" in Scandinavian terms) in southern Northumbria. [1]

The killing of Uhtred by Thurbrand the Hold started a blood feud that lasted for many years. Uhtred's son Ealdred subsequently avenged his father by killing Thurbrand, but Ealdred in turn was killed by Thurbrand's son, Carl. Eadred's vengeance had to wait until the 1070s, when Waltheof , Eadred's grandson had his soldiers kill most of Carl's sons and grandsons. This is an example of the notorious Northumbrian blood feuds that were common at this time. [3]

Uhtred's dynasty continued to reign in Bernicia through Ealdred (killed 1038) his son from his marriage to Ecgfrida, and Eadulf (killed 1041) his son from his marriage to Sige, and briefly Eadulf's son Osulf held the earldom of northern Northumbria 1067 until he too was killed. Uhtred's marriage to Ælfgifu produced a daughter, Ealdgyth, who married Maldred, brother of Duncan I of Scotland and who gave birth to a son, Gospatric , who was Earl of Northumbria from 1068 to 1072. [4] 5 18 19




Æthelred II "the Redeless" King of England and Ælfgifu of York




Husband Æthelred II "the Redeless" King of England 5 14 15




            AKA: Ethelred II "the Unready" King of England
           Born: Abt 968 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 23 Apr 1016 - <London, Middlesex>, England
         Buried:  - St. Paul's, London, Middlesex, England


         Father: Edgar "the Peaceful" King of England (0944-0975) 5 31
         Mother: Ælfthryth (0945-1000) 5 32


       Marriage: 985

   Other Spouse: Emma Princess of Normandy (      -1052) 5 36 - Abt 1002

Events

• King of England: 978-1016.




Wife Ælfgifu of York 5 16 17

            AKA: Elgiva
           Born: Abt 968 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1002
         Buried: 


         Father: Thored Ealdorman of York (      -After 0992) 5 36 37
         Mother: 


Events

• Living: 1002.


Children
1 M Edmund II "Ironside" King of England 38 39

            AKA: Eadmund II "Ironside" King of England
           Born: Abt 989
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 Nov 1016 - <Oxford or London>, England
         Buried:  - Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset, England
         Spouse: Ealdgyth (      -      ) 40 41
           Marr: 1015



2 F Ælfgifu 5 13

            AKA: Elgifu Princess of England
           Born: Abt 997 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Ælfgar Earl of Mercia (Abt 1002-After 1062) 5 10
         Spouse: Uchtred the Bold Earl of Northumbria (Abt 0971-1016) 5 18 19




Research Notes: Husband - Æthelred II "the Redeless" King of England

From Wikipedia - Ethelred the Unready :

Ethelred II (c. 968 - April 23 , 1016 ), also known as Ethelred the Unready or Aethelred the Unready (Old English Æþelræd Unræd), was King of England (978 -1013 , and 1014 -1016 ). He was the son of Edgar , King of all England (959 -975 ) and Ælfthryth . The majority of his reign (991 -1016) was marked by a defensive war against Viking invaders...

Conflict with the Danes
England had experienced a period of peace after the reconquest of the Danelaw in the mid-10th century . However, a new wave of raids began in 980 and a sizable Danish force began a sustained campaign in 991 . During the next quarter of a century England was devastated by a succession of large Danish armies, either under the leadership of King Sweyn I of Denmark or of other commanders such as Olaf Tryggvason and Thorkell the Tall , which Ethelred's government failed to combat effectively. He was only able to halt the depredations of these armies by the payment of large sums of money known as Danegeld . Each payment led to the withdrawal of the Danes, but on each occasion a fresh onslaught began after a year or two, and each Danegeld payment was much larger than the last. Ethelred's most desperate response was the massacre of the Danes living in England on St Brice 's Day (November 13 ) 1002 . Finally in 1013 English resistance collapsed and Sweyn conquered the country, forcing Ethelred into exile, but after his victory Sweyn lived for only another five weeks. In 1014 , Canute the Great was proclaimed King of England by the Danish army in England, but was forced out of England that year. Canute launched a new invasion in 1015 . Subsequently, Ethelred's control of England was already collapsing once again when he died at London on 23 April 1016 . Ethelred was buried in St Paul's and was succeeded by his son, Edmund Ironside .

Marriages and issue

Ethelred married first Ælfgifu , daughter of Thored , the ealdorman of York , by whom he had six sons: Æthelstan Ætheling (died 1011), Edmund Ironside , Ecgberht Ætheling , Eadred Ætheling , Eadwig Ætheling (killed 1017) and Eadgar Ætheling the Elder . They also had as many as four daughters: Edith, who married Eadric Streona , ealdorman of Mercia , and Ælfgifu, who married Uchtred the Bold , ealdorman of Bamburgh . Less certainly there may also have been a daughter named Wulfhild married to Ulfcytel Snillingr , and perhaps a fourth daughter, whose name is not recorded, who was abbess of Wherwell .

His second marriage, in 1002, was to Emma of Normandy , whose grandnephew, William I of England , would later use this relationship as the basis of his claim on the throne. They had two sons, Eadweard (later King of England and known now as Edward the Confessor ) and Ælfred Ætheling . By this marriage, he also had Goda of England , who married Drogo of Mantes , Count of Vexin ... 5 14 15


Research Notes: Wife - Ælfgifu of York

From Wikipedia - Ælfgifu of York :

Ælfgifu (fl. c. 985-1002) was presumably a daughter of Thored , earl of southern Northumbria, and the first wife of King Æthelred (r. 978-1016), by whom she bore many offspring, including Edmund Ironside .

Identity and background
Her name and paternity do not surface in the sources until sometime after the Conquest. The first to offer any information at all, Sulcard of Westminster (fl. 1080s), merely describes her as being "of very noble English stock" (ex nobilioribus Anglis), without naming her,[1] while in in the early 12th century, William of Malmesbury has nothing to report. All primary evidence comes from two Anglo-Norman historians. John of Worcester , in a chronicle which is thought to rely on earlier material compiled c. 1100, tells that Æthelred's first wife was Ælfgifu, daughter of the nobleman Æthelberht (comes Agelberhtus) and the mother of Edmund, Æthelstan, Eadwig and Eadgyth.[2] Writing in the 1150s, Ailred of Rievaulx had reason to identify Æthelred's first wife as a daughter of earl (comes) Thored and the mother of Edmund, though he supplies no name.[3] Ailred had been seneschal at the court of King David I of Scotland (r. 1124-53), whose mother Margaret descended from King Æthelred and his first wife. Although his testimony is late, his proximity to the royal family may have given him access to genuine information.[4]

These two accounts are irreconcilable at the point of ascribing two different fathers to Æthelred's first wife (in both cases, Edmund's mother). One way out of it would be to assume the existence of two different wives before the arrival of Queen Emma , Æthelred's Norman wife, although this interpretation presents difficulties of its own, especially as the sources envisage a single woman.[5] Historians generally favour the view that John of Worcester was in error about the father's name, as Æthelberht's very existence is under suspicion:[6] if Latin comes is to be interpreted as a gloss on the office of ealdorman , only two doubtful references to one or two duces (ealdormen) of this name can be put forward that would fit the description.[7] All in all, the combined evidence suggests that Æthelred's first wife was Ælfgifu, the daughter of Earl Thored. This magnate is likely to have been the Thored who was a son of Gunnar and earl of (southern) Northumbria.[8]

Marriage and offspring
Based largely on the careers of her sons, Ælfgifu's marriage has been dated approximately to the (mid-)980s.[9] Considering Thored's authority as earl of York and apparently, the tenure of that office without royal appointment, the union would have signified an important step for the West-Saxon royal family by which it secured a foothold in the north.[10] Such a politically weighty union would help explain the close connections maintained by Ælfgifu's eldest sons Edmund and Æthelstan with noble families based in the northern Danelaw.[11]

The marriage produced six sons, all of whom were named after Æthelred's predecessors, and an indefinite number of daughters. The eldest sons Æthelstan, Ecgberht, Eadred and Edmund first attest charters in 993, while the younger sons Eadwig and Edgar first make an appearance in them in 997 and 1001 respectively.[12] Some of these sons seem to have spent part of their childhood in fosterage elsewhere, possibly with Æthelred's mother Ælfthryth .[13]

The only ætheling to become king was Edmund Ironside, whose brief reign came to an end when Cnut won a series of victories and so conquered England (1016). Æthelred gave three of his daughters in marriage to ealdormen, presumably in order to secure the loyalties of his nobles and so to consolidate a defence system against Viking attacks.[14]

sons
Æthelstan (born before 993, d. 1014)
Ecgberht (born before 993, d. 1005)
Edmund (II) Ironside (born before 993, d. 1016)
Eadred (d. 1012 x 1015)
Eadwig (born before 997, exiled and killed 1017)
Edgar (born before 1001, d. 1012 x 1015)

daughters
Eadgyth (born before 993), married Eadric Streona , ealdorman of Mercia.[15]
Ælfgifu, married ealdorman Uhtred of Northumbria.[16]
(possibly) Wulfhild, who married Ulfcytel (Snillingr) (d. 1016), apparently ealdorman of East Anglia.[17]
possibly an unnamed daughter who married the Æthelstan who was killed fighting the Danes at the Battle of Ringmere in 1010. He is called Æthelred's aðum, meaning either son-in-law or brother-in-law.[18] Ann Williams, however, argues that the latter meaning is the appropriate one and refers to Æthelstan as being Ælfgifu's brother.[19]
possibly unnamed daughter, who became abbess of Wherwell.[20]
Life and death
Ælfgifu seems to have kept a low profile in her husband's political life, to judge by her total absence from royal diplomas. She did, however, make at least some impression on the contemporary record. In a will issued between 975/980 and 987, the thegn Beorhtric and his wife bequeathed to their "lady" (hlæfdige) an armlet worth 30 gold mancuses and a stallion, calling upon her authority to oversee that the arrangements set out by will were implemented.[21] In a will of later date (AD 990 x 1001), in which she is addressed as "my lady" (mire hlæfdian), the noblewoman Æthelgifu promised a bequest of 30 mancuses of gold.[22] Just as little is known of Ælfgifu's life, so the precise date and circumstances of her death cannot be recovered.[23] In any event, she appears to have died by 1002, when Æthelred took to wife Emma, daughter of Count Richard of Rouen, who received or adopted her predecessor's Anglo-Saxon name, Ælfgifu. 5 16 17


Research Notes: Child - Edmund II "Ironside" King of England

From Wikipedia - Edmund Ironside :
Edmund Ironside or Edmund II (c. 988/993 - 30 November 1016) was king of the English from 23 April to 30 November 1016. The cognomen "Ironside" refers to his efforts to fend off a Danish invasion led by King Cnut . His actual authority was limited to Wessex, or the area south of Thames . The north was controlled by Cnut, who became "king of all England" upon Edmund's death. His name is also spelled Eadmund.

Family
Edmund was the second son of King Æthelred the Unready (also known as Æthelred II) and his first wife, Ælfgifu of York . He had three brothers, the elder being Æthelstan , and the younger two being Eadred and Ecgbert. His mother was dead by 996, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy .

Æthelstan died in 1014, leaving Edmund as heir. A power-struggle began between Edmund and his father, and in 1015 King Æthelred had two of Edmund's allies, Sigeferth and Morcar , executed. Edmund then took Sigeferth's widow, Ealdgyth , from Malmesbury Abbey where she had been imprisoned and married her in defiance of his father. During this time, Cnut the Great attacked England with his forces. In 1016 Edmund staged a rebellion in conjunction with Earl Uhtred of Northumbria , but after Uhtred deserted him and submitted to Cnut, Edmund was reconciled with his father.

Royal and military history

Æthelred, who had earlier taken ill, died on 23 April 1016. Edmund succeeded to the throne and mounted a last-ditch effort to revive the defence of England. While the Danes laid siege to London , Edmund headed for Wessex , where he gathered an army. When the Danes pursued him he fought them to a standstill. He then raised a renewed Danish siege of London and won repeated victories over Cnut. However, on 18 October, Cnut decisively defeated him at the Battle of Ashingdon in Essex . After the battle the two kings negotiated a peace in which Edmund kept Wessex while Cnut held the lands north of the River Thames . In addition, they agreed that if one of them should die, territories belonging to the deceased would be ceded to the living.[1]

Death
On 30 November 1016, King Edmund died in Oxford or London and his territories were ceded to Cnut who then became king of England. The cause of Edmund's death has never been clear, with many accounts listing natural causes [2], while others suggest that he was assassinated.[3] Edmund was buried at Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset . His burial site is now lost. During the Dissolution of the Monasteries , any remains of a monument or crypt were destroyed and the location of his body is unknown.

Heirs
Edmund had two children by Ealdgyth: Edward the Exile and Edmund, who both were sent by Cnut the Great to Sweden , in order to be murdered but were sent from there to Kiev , ending up in Hungary . 38 39




Baldwin II Count of Flanders and Artois and Ælfthryth of Wessex




Husband Baldwin II Count of Flanders and Artois 5 42 43 44

            AKA: Baldwin Calvus Count of Flanders, Baldwin II "the Bald" Count of Flanders
           Born: Abt 864 - Flanders, (Belgium)
     Christened: 
           Died: 10 Sep 918
         Buried: 


         Father: Baldwin I Count of Flanders (Abt 0836-0879) 5 45 46 47
         Mother: Judith Princess of France (0844-After 0870) 48 49 50


       Marriage: 884



Wife Ælfthryth of Wessex 51 52 53 54

            AKA: Ælflaeda, Ælfreda, Elfleda, Elfrida Countess of Flanders, Ethelswith of Wessex
           Born: Abt 869 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: 9 Jun 929
         Buried: 


         Father: Alfred the Great King of Wessex, King of England (Between 0847/0849-0899) 55 56 57
         Mother: Ealhswith of the Gaini, Queen of the Anglo-Saxons (Abt 0852-0904/0905) 58 59 60




Children
1 M Arnulf I Count of Flanders and Artois 5 61 62 63

            AKA: Arnold I "the Old" Count of Flanders and Artois, Arnoul I Count of Flanders, Arnulf the Great Count of Flanders and Artois
           Born: Abt 890 - Flanders (Belgium or France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 27 Mar 964 or 965 - Flanders (France or Belgium)
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Adele of Vermandois (Between 0910/0915-0960) 5 64 65 66
           Marr: 934



2 M Adalulf Count of Boulogne 67

           Born: Abt 890
     Christened: 
           Died: 933
         Buried: 



3 F Ealswid

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



4 F Ermentrud

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Baldwin II Count of Flanders and Artois

From Wikipedia - Baldwin II, Count of Flanders

Baldwin II (c. 865 - September 10 , 918 ), nicknamed Calvus (the Bald) was the second count of Flanders . He was also hereditary abbot of St. Bertin from 892 till his death. He was the son of Baldwin I of Flanders and Judith , a daughter of Charles the Bald .

The early years of Baldwin's rule were marked by a series of devastating Viking raids. Little north of the Somme was untouched. Baldwin recovered, building new fortresses and improving city walls, and taking over abandoned property, so that in the end he held far more territory, and held it more strongly, than had his father. He also took advantage of the conflicts between Charles the Simple and Odo, Count of Paris to take over the Ternois and the Boulonnias .

In 884 Baldwin married Ælfthryth (Ælfthryth, Elftrude, Elfrida), a daughter of King Alfred the Great of England . The marriage was motivated by the common Flemish-English opposition to the Vikings, and was the start of an alliance that was a mainstay of Flemish policy for centuries to come.
In 900 , he tried to curb the power of Archbishop Fulk of Rheims by assassinating him, but he was excommunicated by Pope Benedict IV .
He died at Blandimberg and was succeeded by his eldest son Arnulf I of Flanders . His younger son Adalulf was (the first) count of Boulogne .

Family
He married Ælfthryth, a daughter of Alfred the Great , King of England. They had the following:
Arnulf I of Flanders (c. 890 -964 ), married Adela of Vermandois
Adalulf (c. 890 -933 ), Count of Boulogne
Ealswid
Ermentrud
His fifth child however, was illegitimate.
Albert (d. 977 ) 5 42 43 44



Death Notes: Wife - Ælfthryth of Wessex

Ancestral Roots has d. 7 June 929 and d. 9 June 929


Research Notes: Wife - Ælfthryth of Wessex

From Wikipedia - Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders

Ælfthryth, also known as Elfrida, (died 929), was the last child of Alfred the Great , the Saxon King of England and his wife Ealhswith . She had four or five siblings, including KingEdward the Elder and Ethelfleda .

Ælfthryth married Baldwin II (d. 918), Count of Flanders . One of their descendants, Matilda of Flanders (d. 1083), would go on to marry William the Conqueror , therefore starting the Anglo-Norman line of Kings of England . Through her descendant, Henry I of England , she is also a direct ancestor of the current monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , Elizabeth II . 51 52 53 54


Research Notes: Child - Arnulf I Count of Flanders and Artois

From Wikipedia - Arnulf I, Count of Flanders

Arnulf I of Flanders (c. 890 - March 28 , 965 ), called the Great, was the third count of Flanders .

Arnulf was the son of count Baldwin II of Flanders and Ælfthryth , daughter of Alfred the Great . He was named after his distant ancestor, Saint Arnulf of Metz ; this was intended to emphasize his family's descent from the Carolingian dynasty.

History
Arnulf greatly expanded Flemish rule to the south, taking all or part of Artois , Ponthieu , Amiens , and Ostravent . He exploited the conflicts between Charles the Simple and Robert I of France , and later those between Louis IV and his barons .

In his southern expansion Arnulf inevitably had conflict with the Normans , who were trying to secure their northern frontier. This led to the 943 murder of the Duke of Normandy , William Longsword , at the hands of Arnulf's men.

The Viking threat was receding during the later years of Arnulf's life, and he turned his attentions to the reform of the Flemish government.

Family
In 934 he married Adele of Vermandois , daughter of Herbert II of Vermandois . Their children were:
Luitgard, married Wichmann, Count of Hamaland
Egbert, died 953
Baldwin III of Flanders
Elftrude, married Siegfried, Count of Guînes
He also had a previous daughter, Hildegard.
Arnulf made his eldest son and heir Baldwin III of Flanders co-ruler in 958, but Baldwin died untimely in 962, so Arnulf was succeeded by Baldwin's infant son, Arnulf II of Flanders . 5 61 62 63


Research Notes: Child - Ealswid

Source: Wikipedia - Baldwin II, Count of Flanders


Research Notes: Child - Ermentrud

Source: Baldwin II, Count of Flanders


Edgar "the Peaceful" King of England and Ælfthryth




Husband Edgar "the Peaceful" King of England 5 31

           Born: 944 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Jul 975 - Wessex, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Edmund I "the Magnificent" King of England (0920/0921-0946) 23 24
         Mother: St. Ælfgifu (      -0944) 30


       Marriage: 965

Events

• Crowned: King of England, 959.




Wife Ælfthryth 5 32

            AKA: Elfrida, Elfthryth, Ethelfleda
           Born: 945 - <Devonshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1000 - Wherwell, Hampshire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Ordgar Ealdorman of Devon (Abt 0922-      ) 5 32
         Mother: 




Children
1 M Æthelred II "the Redeless" King of England 5 14 15




            AKA: Ethelred II "the Unready" King of England
           Born: Abt 968 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 23 Apr 1016 - <London, Middlesex>, England
         Buried:  - St. Paul's, London, Middlesex, England
         Spouse: Ælfgifu of York (Abt 0968-Abt 1002) 5 16 17
           Marr: 985
         Spouse: Emma Princess of Normandy (      -1052) 5 36
           Marr: Abt 1002




Death Notes: Wife - Ælfthryth

A nun at Wherwell when she died.


Research Notes: Wife - Ælfthryth

2nd wife of Edgard "the Peaceful." 5 32


Research Notes: Child - Æthelred II "the Redeless" King of England

From Wikipedia - Ethelred the Unready :

Ethelred II (c. 968 - April 23 , 1016 ), also known as Ethelred the Unready or Aethelred the Unready (Old English Æþelræd Unræd), was King of England (978 -1013 , and 1014 -1016 ). He was the son of Edgar , King of all England (959 -975 ) and Ælfthryth . The majority of his reign (991 -1016) was marked by a defensive war against Viking invaders...

Conflict with the Danes
England had experienced a period of peace after the reconquest of the Danelaw in the mid-10th century . However, a new wave of raids began in 980 and a sizable Danish force began a sustained campaign in 991 . During the next quarter of a century England was devastated by a succession of large Danish armies, either under the leadership of King Sweyn I of Denmark or of other commanders such as Olaf Tryggvason and Thorkell the Tall , which Ethelred's government failed to combat effectively. He was only able to halt the depredations of these armies by the payment of large sums of money known as Danegeld . Each payment led to the withdrawal of the Danes, but on each occasion a fresh onslaught began after a year or two, and each Danegeld payment was much larger than the last. Ethelred's most desperate response was the massacre of the Danes living in England on St Brice 's Day (November 13 ) 1002 . Finally in 1013 English resistance collapsed and Sweyn conquered the country, forcing Ethelred into exile, but after his victory Sweyn lived for only another five weeks. In 1014 , Canute the Great was proclaimed King of England by the Danish army in England, but was forced out of England that year. Canute launched a new invasion in 1015 . Subsequently, Ethelred's control of England was already collapsing once again when he died at London on 23 April 1016 . Ethelred was buried in St Paul's and was succeeded by his son, Edmund Ironside .

Marriages and issue

Ethelred married first Ælfgifu , daughter of Thored , the ealdorman of York , by whom he had six sons: Æthelstan Ætheling (died 1011), Edmund Ironside , Ecgberht Ætheling , Eadred Ætheling , Eadwig Ætheling (killed 1017) and Eadgar Ætheling the Elder . They also had as many as four daughters: Edith, who married Eadric Streona , ealdorman of Mercia , and Ælfgifu, who married Uchtred the Bold , ealdorman of Bamburgh . Less certainly there may also have been a daughter named Wulfhild married to Ulfcytel Snillingr , and perhaps a fourth daughter, whose name is not recorded, who was abbess of Wherwell .

His second marriage, in 1002, was to Emma of Normandy , whose grandnephew, William I of England , would later use this relationship as the basis of his claim on the throne. They had two sons, Eadweard (later King of England and known now as Edward the Confessor ) and Ælfred Ætheling . By this marriage, he also had Goda of England , who married Drogo of Mantes , Count of Vexin ... 5 14 15


Ingelger I Comte d'Anjou et Vicomte d'Orléans and Aelinde de Gastinois




Husband Ingelger I Comte d'Anjou et Vicomte d'Orléans 68

           Born: Abt 845
     Christened: 
           Died: 888
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Aelinde de Gastinois 68

           Born: Abt 848
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Foulques "le Roux" Comté d'Anjou 69

            AKA: Fulk "the Red" Count of Anjou
           Born: Abt 870 - <Anjou, (France)>
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 942 - Anjou, (France)
         Buried:  - Église Saint-Martin, Châteauneuf, <(Alpes-Maritime)>, France
         Spouse: Roscille de Lochar (Abt 0874-      ) 70





Robert I Duke of France and Aelis




Husband Robert I Duke of France 71

            AKA: Robert I King of the West Franks
           Born: 866 - <Burgundy, France>
     Christened: 
           Died: 15 Jun 923 - Soissons, (Aisne), Picardy, France
         Buried: 


         Father: Rutpert IV Count of Wormgau, Paris, Anjou & Blois (Abt 0817-0866) 5 72
         Mother: Adelaide of Tours and Alsace (Abt 0819-After 0866) 5 73 74


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Beatrice de Vermandois (0880-After 0931) 5 75 - After 893

Events

• Count of Paris: 888.

• King of the Franks: 922-923.




Wife Aelis 5 76 77

            AKA: Adaele, Adele
           Born: Abt 864 - <France>
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Liegarde of France 5 78

            AKA: Adela of France, Hildebrante of France
           Born: Abt 886 - <Vermandois, (Aisne), Picardy, France>
     Christened: 
           Died: After 931
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Herbert II Count of Vermandois, Soissons and Troyes (Between 0880/0890-0943) 53 79 80 81
           Marr: by 907




Research Notes: Husband - Robert I Duke of France

Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris, Marquis of Neustria and Orleans, King of the West Franks (France)

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) has title King of France.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871957 :

Duke of France, Marquis of Neustria, Count of Paris and Poitiers. Robert was killed at the battle of Soissons. He had been named King of the West Franks in 922 to succeed his brother. 71


Research Notes: Wife - Aelis

First wife of Robert I. 5 76 77


Birth Notes: Child - Liegarde of France

FamilySearch has b. abt 897 in Vermandois, Neustria.


Research Notes: Child - Liegarde of France

Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)
and
http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871885

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 49-18 (Herbert II) has "m. bef. 907, LIEGARDE (Hildebrante) (Adela) (48-19), of France, dau. of ROBERT I (48-18), King of the West Franks, by his first wife, Aelis." 5 78


Sources


1 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105925 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

2 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105924 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

3 Wikipedia.org, Siward, Earl of Northumbria.

4 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 13-25 (Judith of Lens).

5 http://www.familysearch.org.

6 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 130-25 (Judith of Lens).

7 Wikipedia.org, Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria.

8 Wikipedia.org, Ealdred, Earl of Bamburgh.

9 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 130-25, 98A-23, 148-22 (Lambert of Boulogne).

10 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-3.

11 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-2.

12 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-2 (Leofric).

13 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-3 (Aelfgar).

14 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-18, 34-19.

15 Wikipedia.org, Ethelred "the Unready."

16 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-18 (Ethelred II).

17 Wikipedia.org, Ælfgifu of York.

18 Wikipedia.org, Uhtred of Bamburgh.

19 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 34-20 (Ælfgifu).

20 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-4.

21 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176-2.

22 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1B-23.

23 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872188.

24 Wikipedia.org, Edmund I of England.

25 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-15, 45-16.

26 Wikipedia.org, Edward the Elder.

27 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872162.

28 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872190.

29 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-15 (Edward I).

30 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-16 (Edmund I).

31 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-17.

32 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-17 (Edgar).

33 Wikipedia.org, Waltheof of Bamburgh.

34 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 34-21.

35 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 172-20.

36 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-18 (Aethelred II).

37 Wikipedia.org, Thored.

38 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-19.

39 Wikipedia.org, Edmund Ironside.

40 Wikipedia.org, Ealdgyth (floruit 1015–1016).

41 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-19 (Edmund II).

42 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 162-17.

43 Wikipedia.org, Baldwin II.

44 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871978.

45 Wikipedia.org, Baldwin I, Count of Flanders.

46 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 162-16 (Judith).

47 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871946.

48 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871945.

49 Wikipedia.org, Judith of Flanders.

50 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13 (AEthelwulf).

51 Wikipedia.org, Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders.

52 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 44-16, 162-17 (Baldwin II).

53 http://www.familysearch.org, (Kevin Bradford).

54 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, Line 1-16 (Edmund I).

55 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-14, 44-15.

56 Wikipedia.org, Alfred the Great.

57 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I59387198.

58 Wikipedia.org, Ealhswith, Alfred the Great.

59 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-14 (Alfred the Great), 44-15 (Alfred the Great).

60 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871981.

61 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 162-18.

62 Wikipedia.org, Arnulf I, Count of Flanders.

63 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871976.

64 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-20; 162-18 (Arnold I).

65 Wikipedia.org, Arnulf I, Count of Flanders; Herbert II, Count of Vermandois.

66 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871977.

67 Wikipedia.org, Baldwin II, Count of Flanders.

68 Website:, http://cybergata.com/roots/6928.htm.

69 Website:, http://cybergata.com/roots/2477.htm.

70 Website:, http://cybergata.com/roots/2478.htm.

71 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Lines 48-18, 53-18, 101-18.

72 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-17.

73 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 181-6.

74 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872395.

75 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-18, 53-18 (Robert I), 101-18 (Robert I).

76 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 49-18 (Herbert II), 48-18 (Robert I).

77 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871888.

78 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-19, 50-18 (Herbert II).

79 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 50-18.

80 Wikipedia.org, Herbert II, Count of Vermandois.

81 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871672.


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