The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Sancho III King of Navarre and Nunnia Princess of Castile




Husband Sancho III King of Navarre 1

           Born: Abt 980 - <Navarre>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: Feb 1035
         Buried: 


         Father: Garcia III King of Navarre (Abt 0955-1000) 1
         Mother: Chimine Queen of Navarre (Abt 0960-      ) 1


       Marriage: Abt 1001



Wife Nunnia Princess of Castile 1

           Born: Abt 985 - <Castile>, Spain
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Children
1 M Ferdinand I King of Castile and LÚon 1 2

            AKA: Fernando I "the Great" King of Castile and LÚon
           Born: Abt 1018 - <Burgos, Castile>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 27 Dec 1065 - LÚon, LÚon, Spain
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Sancha Princess of LÚon (Abt 1013-1067) 1 2
           Marr: Abt Nov 1032 - LÚon, LÚon, Spain




Odemar IV King of the Franks




Husband Odemar IV King of the Franks 3

           Born:  - <Gallia Lugdunensis (France)>, Gaul
     Christened: 
           Died: 128
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         Father: Richimir I King of the Franks (0070-0114) 4
         Mother: 


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Children
1 M Marcomir IV King of the Franks [Legendary] 5 6

            AKA: Markomir IV King of the Franks
           Born: Abt 0080 - <Gallia Lugdunensis (France)>, Gaul
     Christened: 
           Died: 149
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Athildis [Legendary] (      -      ) 7 8
           Marr: Abt 103



Research Notes: Child - Marcomir IV King of the Franks [Legendary]

Source http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873359 considers him legendary.


Odin




Husband Odin 1

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Children
1 M Sigar Odinsson 1

           Born: Abt 625 - <Norway>
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Odoacre Count of Harlebec




Husband Odoacre Count of Harlebec 1 9 10

            AKA: Odacre, Odoacer, Odoscer
           Born: Abt 801 - <Flanders (Belgium)>
     Christened: 
           Died: Between 862 and 864
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         Father: Engelram (Abt 0770-0802) 1 11
         Mother: 


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Children
1 M Baldwin I Count of Flanders 1 12 13 14

            AKA: Baldwin "Iron Arm" Count of Flanders, Baldwin I "Bras de Fer" Count of Flanders, Baudouin I Count of Flanders
           Born: Abt 836 - <Flanders (Belgium)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 879 - Flanders (Belgium)
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Judith Princess of France (0844-After 0870) 15 16 17
           Marr: Jan 862 - <Flanders (Belgium)>



Birth Notes: Husband - Odoacre Count of Harlebec

FamilySearch has b. abt 810 in Flanders, Nord Dept, France


Research Notes: Child - Baldwin I Count of Flanders

From Wikipedia - Baldwin I, Count of Flanders :


Baldwin I (probably born 830s, died 879 ), also known as Baldwin Iron Arm (the epithet is first recorded in the 12th century), was the first count of Flanders .

Baldwin was the son of a certain Audacer , about whom nothing definite is known; his legendary origins are rejected by modern scholarship. At the time Baldwin first appears in the records he was already a count, presumably in the area of Flanders, but this is not known. Count Baldwin rose to prominence when he eloped with princess Judith , daughter of Charles the Bald , king of West Francia . Judith had previously been married to Ethelwulf and his son (from an earlier marriage) Ethelbald , kings of Wessex, but after the latter's death in 860 she had returned to France.

Around Christmas 861, at the instigation of Baldwin and with her brother Louis' consent Judith escaped the custody she had been put under in the city of Senlis after her return from England. She fled north with Count Baldwin. Charles had given no permission for a marriage and tried capture Baldwin, sending letters to Rorik of Dorestad and Bishop Hungar , forbidding them to shelter the fugitive.

After Baldwin and Judith had evaded his attempts to capture them, Charles had his bishops excommunicate the couple. Judith and Baldwin responded by traveling to Rome to plead their case with Pope Nicholas I . Their plea was successful and Charles was forced to accept. The marriage took place on 13 December 863 in Auxerre . By 870 Baldwin had acquired the lay-abbacy of St. Pieter in Ghent and is assumed to have also acquired the counties of Flanders and Waas, or parts thereof by this time. Baldwin developed himself as a very faithful and stout supporter of Charles and played an important role in the continuing wars against the Vikings . He is named in 877 as one of those willing to support the emperor's son, Louis the Stammerer . During his life Baldwin expanded his territory into one of the major principalities of Western Francia , he died in 879 and was buried in the Abbey of Saint-Bertin, near Saint-Omer .

Family

Baldwin was succeeded by his son by Judith, Baldwin II (c. 866 - 918 ). The couple's first son was named Charles after his maternal grandfather, but he died young. His third son Raoul (Rodulf) (c. 869 - murdered 896) became Count of Cambrai around 888 , but he and his brother joined king Zwentibold of Lotharingia in 895. In 896 they attacked Vermandois and captured Arras , Saint-Quentin and Peronne , but later that year Raoul was captured by count Heribert and killed.



Hergrim Arngrimsson and Ogn




Husband Hergrim Arngrimsson 1

           Born: Abt 410 - Norway
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Wife Ogn 1

           Born: Abt 414 - Norway
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Children
1 M Grim Hergrimsson 1

           Born: Abt 428 - Norway
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         Spouse: Bauggerd Starksdatter (Abt 0432-      ) 1




Hroar Halfdansson and Ogne Princess of Northumberland




Husband Hroar Halfdansson 1

           Born: Abt 526 - <Roskilde, Denmark>
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         Father: Halfdan Frodasson (Abt 0503-      ) 18
         Mother: Sigris (      -      ) 18


       Marriage: Abt 546 - Denmark



Wife Ogne Princess of Northumberland 1

           Born: Abt 530 - <Northumberland, England>
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         Father: Norbrii King of Northumberland (0504-      ) 1
         Mother: 




Children
1 M Valdar Hroarsson 1

           Born: Abt 547 - <Denmark>
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           Died: 
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Ohthere King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]




Husband Ohthere King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary] 1 19

            AKA: Ohtere King of Sweden, Ottar Vendelkrňka (Vendelcrow) King of Sweden, Ëttarr "Vendilkrßka" Egilsson King in Sweden
           Born: Abt 515
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           Died: Abt 530
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         Father: Ongentheow King in Sweden [Semi-legendary] (      -Abt 0515) 1 20
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

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Children
1 M Eadgils King in Uppsala [Semi-Legendary] 1 21

            AKA: Adhel King of Sweden, Adils Ottarsson King in Uppsala, A­Ýsl King of Sweden, Athisl King of Sweden
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 580
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Yrsa of Saxony [Legendary] (      -      ) 22



Research Notes: Husband - Ohthere King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]

Semi-legendary king of Sweden, in the house of Ynglings.

From Wikipedia - Ohthere :

Ohthere, Ohtere (the name is sometimes misspelt Oh■ere), Ëttarr, Ëttarr vendilkrßka or Ottar Vendelkrňka (Vendelcrow) (ca 515 - ca 530[1]) was a semi-legendary king of Sweden belonging to the house of Scylfings .

His name has been reconstructed as Proto-Norse * or * meaning "feared warrior".[2]

Beowulf
In the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf the name of Ohthere only appears in constructions referring to his father Ongen■eow (fŠder Ohtheres),[3] mother (Onelan modor and Ohtheres),[4] and his sons Eadgils (suna Ohteres,[5] sunu Ohteres[6]) and Eanmund (suna Ohteres).[7]

When Ohthere and his actions are concerned, he is referred to as Ongen■eow's offspring together with his brother Onela . The section deals with Ohthere and Onela pillaging the Geats at the death of their king Hre­el , restarting the Swedish-Geatish wars :

Later, it is implied in the poem that Ohthere has died, because his brother Onela is king. Ohthere's sons Eadgils and Eanmund fled to the Geats and the wars began anew.

Scandinavian sources

Ynglingatal , Ynglinga saga , ═slendingabˇk and Historia Norvegiae all present Ëttarr as the son of Egill (called Ongen■eow in Beowulf) and as the father of A­Ýsl/A­ils/athils/Adils (Eadgils ).

According to the latest source, Ynglinga saga , Ëttarr refused to pay tribute to the Danish king Frˇ­i for the help that his father had received. Then Frˇ­i sent two men to collect the tribute, but Ëttarr answered that the Swedes had never paid tribute to the Daner and would not begin with him. Frˇ­i then gathered a vast host and looted in Sweden, but the next summer he pillaged in the east. When Ëttarr learnt that Frˇ­i was gone, he sailed to Denmark to plunder in return and went into the Limfjord where he pillaged in Vendsyssel . Frˇ­i's jarls Vott and Faste attacked Ëttarr in the fjord. The battle was even and many men fell, but the Daner were reinforced by the people in the neighbourhood and so the Swedes lost (a version apparently borrowed from the death of Ëttarr's predecessor Jorund ). The Daner put Ëttarr's dead corpse on a mound to be devoured by wild beasts, and made a wooden crow that they sent to Sweden with the message that the wooden crow was all that Ëttarr was worth. After this, Ëttarr was called Vendelcrow.

It is only Snorri who uses the epithet Vendelcrow, whereas the older sources Historia Norvegiae and ═slendingabˇk use it for his father Egill . Moreover, it is only in Snorri's work that story of Ëttarr's death in Vendsyssel appears, and it is probably his own invention.[1

Historia NorvegiŠ only informs that Ohthere was killed by the Danish brothers Ottar [sic.] and Faste in a Danish province called Vendel.

Ohthere's barrow
Ohthere's barrow (Swedish: Ottarsh÷gen) (60░08'N 17░34'E? / ?60.133░N 17.567░E? / 60.133; 17.567 ) is located in Vendel parish, Uppland , Sweden . The barrow is 5 metres high and 40 metres wide. In the 17th century the barrow was known locally as Ottarsh÷gen.[14]
The barrow was excavated in the period 1914-1916.[14] It showed the remains of both a man and a woman, and the finds were worthy of a king.[15] The Swedish archaeologist Sune Lindqvist[16] reported that in its centre there was a wooden vessel with ashes. There were few finds but they were well-preserved. There were some decorative panels similar to those found in the other Vendel era graves nearby. A comb with a case was found, as well as a golden Roman coin, a solidus , dated to be no later than 477. It had been perforated and was probably used as decoration, but it showed signs of wear and tear and had probably been worn for a longer time. Lindquist stated that the identification of the barrow as that of Ohthere could not receive more archaeological confirmation than those provided by the excavation.


Research Notes: Child - Eadgils King in Uppsala [Semi-Legendary]

Semi-legendary king of Sweden, in the house of Yngling.

From Wikipedia - Eadgils :

Eadgils, Adils, A­ils, Adillus, A­Ýsl at Upps÷lum, Athisl, Athislus, Adhel was a semi-legendary king of Sweden , who is estimated to have lived during the 6th century.[1]

Beowulf and Old Norse sources present him as the son of Ohthere and as belonging to the ruling Yngling (Scylfing) clan . These sources also deal with his war against Onela , which he won with foreign assistance: in Beowulf he gained the throne of Sweden by defeating his uncle Onela with Geatish help, and in two Scandinavian sources (Skßldskaparmßl and Skj÷ldunga saga ), he is also helped to defeat Onela in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vńnern , but with Danish help. However, Scandinavian sources mostly deal with his interaction with the legendary Danish king Hrˇlfr Kraki (Hro­ulf), and Eadgils is mostly presented in a negative light as a rich and greedy king.

Name
The Norse forms are based an older (Proto-Norse ) *A■ag (where *a■a is short for *a■ala meaning "noble, foremost" (German 'adel') and *g means "arrow shaft"[2]). However, the Anglo-Saxon form is not etymologically identical. The A-S form would have been *Ădgils, but Eadgils (Proto-Norse *Au­a-g, *au­a- meaning "wealth") was the only corresponding name used by the Anglo-Saxons[3]. The name A­ils was so exceedingly rare even in Scandinavia that among almost 6000 Scandinavian runic inscriptions, it is only attested in three runestones (U 35 , DR 221 and Br Olsen;215)[4].

Beowulf
The Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf , which was composed sometime between the 8th century and the 11th century, is beside the Norwegian skaldic poem Ynglingatal (9th century) the oldest source that mentions Eadgils.

It is implied in Beowulf that the Swedish king Ohthere died and was succeeded by his younger brother Onela , because Ohthere's two sons, Eadgils and Eanmund had to seek refuge with Heardred , Hygelac 's son and successor as king of the Geats [5]. This caused Onela to attack the Geats, and Heardred was killed. Onela returned home and Beowulf succeeded Heardred as the king of Geatland . In the following lines, Onela is referred to as the Scylfings helmet and the son of Ongen■eow , whereas Eadgils and Eanmund are referred to as the sons of Ohtere:

Later in the poem, it tells that during the battle, Eadgils' brother Eanmund was killed by Onela's champion Weohstan , Wiglaf 's father. In the following lines, Eanmund also appears as the son of Ohtere and as a brother's child:

Eadgils, however, survived and later, Beowulf helped Eadgils with weapons and warriors. Eadgils won the war and killed his uncle Onela. In the following lines, Eadgils is mentioned by name and as the son of Ohtere, whereas Onela is referred to as the king:

This event also appears in the Scandinavian sources Skßldskaparmßl and Skj÷ldunga saga , which will be treated below.

Norwegian and Icelandic sources
The allusive manner in which Eadgils and his relatives are referred to in Beowulf suggests that the scop expected his audience to have sufficient background knowledge about Eadgils, Ohthere and Eanmund to understand the references. Likewise, in the roughly contemporary Norwegian Ynglingatal , Eadgils (A­ils) is called Onela's enemy (┴la[11] dˇlgr), which likewise suggests that the conflict was familiar to the skald and his audience.
The tradition of Eadgils and Onela resurfaces in several Old Norse works in prose and poetry, and another matter also appears: the animosity between Eadgils and Hrˇlfr Kraki , who corresponds to Hro­ulf in Beowulf.

Ynglingatal
The skaldic poem Ynglingatal is a poetic recital of the line of the Yngling clan . They are also called Skilfingar in the poem (in stanza 19), a name that appears in its Anglo-Saxon form Scylfingas in Beowulf when referring to Eadgils' clan. It is presented as composed by Ůjˇ­ˇlfr of Hvinir by Snorri Sturluson in the Ynglinga saga.

Although its age has been debated, most scholars hold to date from the 9th century[12]. It survives in two versions: one is found in the Norwegian historical work Historia NorvegiŠ in Latin , and the other one in Snorri Sturluson 's Ynglinga saga , a part of his Heimskringla . It presents A­ils (Eadgils) as the successor of Ëttarr (Ohthere ) and the predecessor of Eysteinn . The stanza on A­ils refers to his accidental death when he fell from his horse:

Note that Eadgils' animosity with Onela also appears in Ynglingatal as A­ils is referred to as Ole's deadly foe (┴la dˇlgr). This animosity is treated in more detail in the Skj÷ldunga saga and Skßldskaparmßl , which follow.

The Historia NorwegiŠ , which is a terse summary in Latin of Ynglingatal, only states that Eadgils fell from his horse and died during the sacrifices. In this Latin translation, the DÝsir are rendered as the Roman goddess Diana :
Cujus filius Adils vel Athisl ante Šdem DianŠ, dum idolorum, sacrificia fugeret, equo lapsus exspiravit. Hic genuit Eustein, [...][15] His son Adils gave up the ghost after falling from his horse before the temple of Diana, while he was performing the sacrifices made to idols. He became sire to ěystein, [...][16] The same information is found the Swedish Chronicle from the mid-15th century, which calls him Adhel. It is probably based on the Ynglingatal tradition and says that he fell from his horse and died while he worshipped his god.

═slendingabˇk
In ═slendingabˇk from the early 12th century, Eadgils only appears as a name in the listing of the kings of the Yngling dynasty as A­Ýsl at Uppsala . The reason what that the author, Ari Ůorgilsson , traced his ancestry from Eadgils, and its line of succession is the same as that of Ynglingatal.

i Yngvi Tyrkjakonungr. ii Nj÷r­r SvÝakonungr. iii Freyr. iiii Fj÷lnir. sß er dˇ at Fri­frˇ­a. v Sveg­ir. vi Vanlandi. vii Visburr. viii Dˇmaldr. ix Dˇmarr. x Dyggvi. xi Dagr. xii Alrekr. xiii Agni. xiiii Yngvi. xv J÷rundr. xvi Aun inn gamli. xvii Egill Vendilkrßka. xviii Ëttarr. xix A­Ýsl at Upps÷lum. xx Eysteinn. xxi Yngvarr. xxii Braut-Ínundr. xxiii Ingjaldr inn illrß­i. xxiiii Ëlßfr trÚtelgja...[17]
As can be seen it agrees with the earlier Ynglingatal and Beowulf in presenting Eadgils as the successor of Ëttarr (Ohthere ).

Skj÷ldunga saga
The Skj÷ldunga saga was a Norse saga which is believed to have been written in the period 1180-1200. The original version is lost, but it survives in a Latin summary by ArngrÝmur Jˇnsson .

ArngrÝmur's summary relates that Eadgils, called Adillus, married Yrsa with whom he had the daughter Scullda . Some years later, the Danish king Helgo (Halga ) attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa, not knowing that she was his own daughter, the result of Helgo raping Olava, the queen of the Saxons . Helgo raped Yrsa as well and took her back to Denmark, where she bore the son Rolfo (Hro­ulf ). After a few years, Yrsa's mother, queen Olava, came to visit her and told her that Helgo was her own father. In horror, Yrsa returned to Adillus, leaving her son behind. Helgo died when Rolfo was eight years old, and Rolfo succeeded him, and ruled together with his uncle Roas (Hro­gar ). Not much later, Roas was killed by his half-brothers RŠrecus and Frodo, whereupon Rolfo became the sole king of Denmark.
In Sweden, Yrsa and Adillus married Scullda to the king of Íland , Hi°rvardus/Hiorvardus/Hevardus (Heoroweard ). As her half-brother Rolfo was not consulted about this marriage, he was infuriated and he attacked Íland and made Hi°rvardus and his kingdom tributary to Denmark.
After some time, there was animosity between king Adillus of Sweden and the Norwegian king Ale of Oppland . They decided to fight on the ice of Lake Vńnern . Adillus won and took his helmet, chainmail and horse. Adillus won because he had requested Rolfo's aid against king Ale and Rolfo had sent him his berserkers. However, Adillus refused to pay the expected tribute for the help and so Rolfo came to Uppsala to claim his recompense. After surviving some traps, Rolfo fled with Adillus' gold, helped by his mother Yrsa. Seeing that the Swedish king and his men pursued him, Rolfo "sowed" the gold on the Fyrisvellir , so that the king's men would pick up the gold, instead of continuing the pursuit.

As can be seen, the Skj÷ldunga saga retells the story of Eadgils fighting his uncle Onela , but in this version Onela is no longer Eadgils' uncle, but a Norwegian king of Oppland . This change is generally considered to be a late confusion between the core province of the Swedes, Uppland , and its Norwegian namesake Oppland[18]. Whereas, Beowulf leaves the Danish court with the suspicion that Hro­ulf (Rolfo Krage, Hrˇlfr Kraki) might claim the Danish throne for himself at the death of Hro­gar (Roas, Hrˇarr), it is exactly what he does in Scandinavian tradition. A notable difference is that, in Beowulf, Eadgils receives the help of the Geatish king Beowulf against Onela, whereas it is the Danish king Hro­ulf who provides help in Scandinavian tradition.

Skßldskaparmßl
Skßldskaparmßl was written by Snorri Sturluson , c. 1220, in order to teach the ancient art of kennings to aspiring skalds . It presents Eadgils, called A­ils, in two sections.

Snorri also presents the story of A­ils and Hrˇlfr Kraki (Hro­ulf ) in order to explain why gold was known by the kenning Kraki's seed. Snorri relates that A­ils was in war with a Norwegian king named ┴li (Onela ), and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vńnern . A­ils was married to Yrsa , the mother of Hrˇlfr and so sent an embassy to Hrˇlfr asking him for help against ┴li. He would receive three valuable gifts in recompense. Hrˇlfr was involved in a war against the Saxons and could not come in person but sent his twelve berserkers, including B÷­varr Bjarki . ┴li died in the war, and A­ils took ┴li's helmet Battle-boar and his horse Raven. The berserkers demanded three pounds of gold each in pay, and they demanded to choose the gifts that A­ils had promised Hrˇlfr, that is the two pieces of armour that nothing could pierce: the helmet battle-boar and the mailcoat Finn's heritage. They also wanted the famous ring SvÝagris. A­ils considered the pay outrageous and refused.

When Hrˇlfr heard that A­ils refused to pay, he set off to Uppsala . They brought the ships to the river Fyris and rode directly to the Swedish king's hall at Uppsala with his twelve berserkers. Yrsa welcomed them and led them to their lodgings. Fires were prepared for them and they were given drinks. However, so much wood was heaped on the fires that the clothes started to burn away from their clothes. Hrˇlfr and his men had enough and threw the courtiers on the fire. Yrsa arrived and gave them a horn full of gold, the ring SvÝagris and asked them to flee. As they rode over the Fyrisvellir , they saw A­ils and his men pursuing them. The fleeing men threw the gold on the plain so that the pursuers would stop to collect it. A­ils, however, continued the chase on his horse Sl÷ngvir. Hrˇlfr then threw SvÝagris and saw how A­ils stooped down to pick up the ring with his spear. Hrˇlfr exclaimed that he had seen the mightiest man in Sweden bend his back.

Ynglinga saga
The Ynglinga saga was written c. 1225 by Snorri Sturluson and he used Skj÷ldunga saga as a source when he told the story of A­ils[23]. Snorri relates that A­ils succeeded his father Ëttar (Ohthere ) and betook himself to pillage the Saxons, whose king was Geir■jˇfr and queen Alof the Great. The king and consort were not at home, and so A­ils and his men plundered their residence at ease driving cattle and captives down to the ships. One of the captives was a remarkably beautiful girl named Yrsa , and Snorri writes that everyone was soon impressed with the well-mannered, pretty and intelligent girl. Most impressed was A­ils who made her his queen.

Some years later, Helgi (Halga ), who ruled in Lejre , attacked Sweden and captured Yrsa. As he did not know that Yrsa was his own daughter, he raped her, and took her back to Lejre , where she bore him the son Hrˇlfr kraki . When the boy was three years of age, Yrsa's mother, queen Alof of Saxony, came to visit her and told her that her husband Helgi was her own father. Horrified, Yrsa returned to A­ils, leaving her son behind, and stayed in Sweden for the rest of her life. When Hrˇlfr was eight years old, Helgi died during a war expedition and Hrˇlfr was proclaimed king.
A­ils waged a war against king ┴li (Onela of Oppland , and they fought in the Battle on the Ice of Lake Vńnern . ┴li died in this battle. Snorri writes that there was a long account of this battle in the Skj÷ldunga Saga, which also contained an account of how Hrˇlf came to Uppsala and sowed gold on the Fyrisvellir .

Snorri also relates that A­ils loved good horses and had the best horses in his days (interestingly, the contemporary Gothic scholar Jordanes noted that the Swedes were famed for their good horses). One horse was named Sl÷ngvi and another one Raven, which he had taken from ┴li. From this horse he had bred a horse also named Raven which he sent to king Godgest of Hňlogaland , but Godgest could not manage it and fell from it and died, in Omd on the island of And°ya . A­ils himself died in a similar way at the DÝsablˇt . A­ils was riding around the Disa shrine when Raven stumbled and fell, and the king was thrown forward and hit his skull on a stone. The Swedes called him a great king and buried him at Uppsala . He was succeeded by Eysteinn

Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga
Hrˇlfr Kraki's saga is believed to have been written in the period c. 1230 - c. 1450[24]. Helgi and Yrsa lived happily together as husband and wife, not knowing that Yrsa was Helgi's daughter. Yrsa's mother queen Oluf travelled to Denmark to tell her daughter the truth. Yrsa was shocked and although Helgi wanted their relationship to remain as it was, Yrsa insisted on leaving him to live alone. She was later taken by the Swedish king A­ils as his queen, which made Helgi even more unhappy. Helgi went to Uppsala to fetch her, but was killed by A­ils in battle. In Lejre , he was succeeded by his son Hrˇlfr Kraki .

After some time, B÷­varr Bjarki encouraged Hrˇlfr to go Uppsala to claim the gold that A­ils had taken from Helgi after the battle. Hrˇlfr departed with 120 men and his twelve beserkers and during a rest they were tested by a farmer called Hrani (Odin in disguise) who advised Hrˇlfr to send back all his troops but his twelve beserkers, as numbers would not help him against A­ils.

They were at first well received, but in his hall, A­ils did his best to stop Hrˇlfr with pit traps and hidden warriors who attacked the Danes. Finally A­ils entertained them but put them to a test where they had to endure immense heat by a fire. Hrˇlfr and his beserkers finally had enough and threw the courtiers, who were feeding the fire, into the fire and lept at A­ils. The Swedish king disappeared through a hollow tree trunk that stood in his hall.

Yrsa admonished A­ils for wanting to kill her son, and went to meet the Danes. She gave them a man named V÷ggr to entertain them. This V÷ggr remarked that Hrˇlfr had the thin face of a pole ladder, a Kraki. Happy with his new cognomen Hrˇlfr gave V÷ggr a golden ring, and V÷ggr swore to avenge Hrˇlfr if anyone should kill him. Hrˇlfr and his company were then attacked by a troll in the shape of a boar in the service of A­ils, but Hrˇlfr's dog Gram killed it.

They then found out that A­ils had set the hall on fire, and so they broke out of the hall, only to find themselves surrounded by heavily armed warriors in the street. After a fight, king A­ils retreated to summon reinforcements.

Yrsa then provided her son with a silver drinking horn filled with gold and jewels and a famous ring, SvÝagris. Then she gave Hrˇlf and his men twelve of the Swedish king's best horses, and all the armour and provisions they needed.

Hrˇlfr took a fond farewell of his mother and departed over the Fyrisvellir . When they saw A­ils and his warriors in pursuit, they spread the gold behind themselves. A­ils saw his precious SvÝagris on the ground and stooped to pick it up with his spear, whereupon Hrˇlf cut his back with his sword and screamed in triumph that he had bent the back of the most powerful man in Sweden.

Danish sources

Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundenses
The Chronicon Lethrense (and the included Annales Lundenses) tell that when the Danish kings Helghe (Halga ) and Ro (Hro­gar ) were dead, the Swedish king Hakon/Athisl[25] forced the Daner to accept a dog as king. The dog king was succeeded by Rolf Krage (Hrˇlfr Kraki ).

Gesta Danorum
The Gesta Danorum (book 2), by Saxo Grammaticus , tells that Helgo (Halga ) repelled a Swedish invasion, killed the Swedish king Hothbrodd , and made the Swedes pay tribute. However, he committed suicide due to shame for his incestuous relationship with Urse (Yrsa ), and his son Roluo (Hrˇlfr Kraki ) succeeded him.

The new king of Sweden, Athislus, thought that the tribute to the Daner might be smaller if he married the Danish king's mother and so took Urse for a queen. However, after some time, Urse was so upset with the Swedish king's greediness that she thought out a ruse to run away from the king and at the same time liberate him of his wealth. She encited Athislus to rebell against Roluo, and arranged so that Roluo would be invited and promised a wealth in gifts.

At the banquet Roluo was at first not recognised by his mother, but when their fondness was commented on by Athisl, the Swedish king and Roluo made a wager where Roluo would prove his endurance. Roluo was placed in front of a fire that exposed him to such heat that finally a maiden could suffer the sight no more and extinguished the fire. Roluo was greatly recompensed by Athisl for his endurance.

When the banquet had lasted for three days, Urse and Roluo escaped from Uppsala, early in the morning in carriages where they had put all the Swedish king's treasure. In order to lessen their burden, and to occupy any pursuing warriors they spread gold in their path (later in the work, this is referred to as "sowing the Fyrisvellir "), although there was a rumour that she only spread gilded copper. When Athislus, who was pursuing the escapers saw that a precious ring was lying on the ground, he bent down to pick it up. Roluo was pleased to see the king of Sweden bent down, and escaped in the ships with his mother.

Roluo later defeated Athislus and gave Sweden to young man named Hiartuar (Heoroweard ), who also married Roluo's sister Skulde . When Athislus learnt that Hiartuar and Skulde had killed Roluo, he celebrated the occasion, but he drank so much that he killed himself.

Archaeology

According to Snorri Sturluson , Eadgils was buried in one of the royal mounds of Gamla Uppsala , and he is believed to be buried in Adils' Mound (also known as the Western mound or Thor's mound) one of the largest mounds at Uppsala . An excavation in this mound showed that a man was buried there c. 575 on a bear skin with two dogs and rich grave offerings. There were luxurious weapons and other objects, both domestic and imported, show that the buried man was very powerful. These remains include a Frankish sword adorned with gold and garnets and a board game with Roman pawns of ivory . He was dressed in a costly suit made of Frankish cloth with golden threads, and he wore a belt with a costly buckle. There were four cameos from the Middle East which were probably part of a casket. The finds show the distant contacts of the House of Yngling in the 6th century.

Snorri's account that Adils had the best horses of his days, and Jordanes' account that the Swedes of the 6th century were famed for their horses find support in archaeology. This time was the beginning of the Vendel Age , a time characterised by the appearance of stirrups and a powerful mounted warrior elite in Sweden, which rich graves in for instance Valsgńrde and Vendel .



Oilliol King of Leinster




Husband Oilliol King of Leinster 1

           Born: Abt 830 - Leinster, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 869
         Buried: 


         Father: Dunlaing King of Leinster (Abt 0800-0867) 1
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Ugaire King of Leinster 1

           Born: Abt 860 - Leinster, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 915
         Buried: 





Oliba II Count of Carcassonne




Husband Oliba II Count of Carcassonne 1

           Born: Abt 830 - Carcassonne, (Aude), Languedoc, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Louis Eliganius Count of Carcassonne (Abt 0804-      ) 1
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Alfred Count of Carcassonne 1

           Born: Abt 860 - Carcassonne, (Aude), Languedoc, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Adelaide (Abt 0867-      ) 1




Ongentheow King in Sweden [Semi-legendary]




Husband Ongentheow King in Sweden [Semi-legendary] 1 20

            AKA: Egil Aunsson King in Sweden, Egill King of Sweden, Eigil King of Sweden
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 515
         Buried: 


         Father: Aun "the Old" Jorundsson King in Uppsala [Legendary] (      -      ) 1 23
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Ohthere King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary] 1 19

            AKA: Ohtere King of Sweden, Ottar Vendelkrňka (Vendelcrow) King of Sweden, Ëttarr "Vendilkrßka" Egilsson King in Sweden
           Born: Abt 515
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 530
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Ongentheow King in Sweden [Semi-legendary]

Semi-legendary king of Sweden, in the house of the Scylfings.

From Wikipedia - Ongentheow :

Ongentheow, (Anglo-Saxon Ongen■eow, Ongen■io, Ongend■eow; Swedish Angantyr) (- ca 515) was the name of a semi-legendary Swedish king of the house of Scylfings , who appears in Anglo-Saxon sources. He is generally identified with the Swedish king Egil (also Swedish Egill, Eigil) who appears in Ynglingatal , Historia Norwegiae and in Ynglinga saga .[1][2][3][4]

The names are different and have little etymological connection. Ongen■eow would in Proto-Norse have been *Angana■ewaz, whereas Egil would have been *Agilaz. The reason why they are thought to have been the same is that they have the same position in the line of Swedish kings and are described as the fathers of Ohthere and grandfathers of Eadgils . As will be shown below, it can be argued that they are based on the same person and the same events, but not every scholar is open to the historicity of the characters in Beowulf , and in the Norse sagas .

Anglosaxon sources
In the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf Ongentheow is described as a fearsome warrior and it took two warriors Eofor and Wulf Wonreding to take him down.

The epic tells that the Geats under their new king HŠ■cyn captured the Swedish queen, but old king Ongen■eow saved her, at a hill fort called Hrefnesholt , although they lost her gold.[5] Ongentheow killed HŠ■cyn,[6] and besieged the Geats at Hrefnesholt.[7] The Geats were, however, rescued by Hygelac , HŠ■cyn's brother,[8] who arrived the next day with reinforcements.[9] Having lost the battle, but rescued his queen, Ongen■eow and his warriors returned home.[10]

However, the war was not over. Hygelac, the new king of the Geats, attacked the Swedes.[11] The Geatish warriors Eofor and Wulf fought together against the hoary king Ongen■eow.[12] Wulf hit Ongentheow's head with his sword so that the old king bled over his hair, but the king hit back and wounded Wulf.[13] Then, Eofor retaliated by cutting through the Swedish king's shield and through his helmet,[14] giving Ongentheow a death-blow.[15] Eofor took the Swedish king's helmet, sword and breastplate and carried them to Hygelac.[16] When they came home, Eofor and Wulf were richly awarded,[17] and Eofor was given Hygelac's daughter.[18] Because of this battle, Hygelac is referred to as Ongentheow's slayer.[19]

Egil
In Ari Ůorgilsson 's ═slendingabˇk and in Historia Norwegiae , he was called Egil Vendelcrow (Vendilcraca/Vendilkrßka, a name traditionally given to those living at the royal estate of Vendel in Sweden). Snorri Sturluson , however, gave the name Vendelcrow to Egil's son Ottar (Ohthere ). In these sources, Egil was the son of Aun the Old , and like him, not very warlike. After he had made the thrall Tunni (or Tonne) responsible for the treasury , Tunni rebelled against Egil. They fought eight battles after which Egil fled to Denmark, according to the Ynglinga saga (Ynglingatal does not mention where he fled and Historia Norwegiae does not mention any escape at all). Snorri wrote that Frˇ­i , the Danish king, aided Egil in defeating Tunni, and made Egil a tributary to the Danish king.
Egil was killed by a bull during the sacrifices at Gamla Uppsala .

The Historia NorwegiŠ presents a Latin summary of Ynglingatal, older than Snorri's quotation:

Aukun's son was Egil Vendelkrňke, whose own bondman, Tunne, drove him from his kingdom; and though a mere servant he joined in eight civil combats with his master and won supremacy in all of them, but in a ninth he was finally defeated and killed. Shortly afterwards however the monarch was gored and slaughtered by a ferocious bull. The successor to the throne was his son Ottar, [...][25] The even earlier source ═slendingabˇk also cites the line of descent in Ynglingatal and it also gives Egil as the successor of Aunn and the predecessor of Ëttarr : xvi Aun inn gamli. xvii Egill Vendilkrßka. xviii Ëttarr.[26]

Comments
The two versions seem contradictory, but it has been shown that the two stories may very well describe the same event (SchŘck H. 1907, Nerman B. 1925), and that Ynglingatal was probably misinterpreted by Snorri due to a different dialectal meaning of the word farra.

If there is any authenticity behind the traditions, the origin of Ynglingatal was most probably a Swedish poem which has not survived (see also Sundquist 2004). In Old Swedish, farra did not mean "bull" but it meant "boar " (cf. English farrow meaning "young pig"). Moreover, in Old Norse Trjˇna normally meant a pig's snout (modern Scandinavian tryne). FlŠmingr meant "sword" (originally a Flemish sword imported by Vikings).
Moreover, the sword of the snout can hardly refer to the horns of a bull, but it is more natural to interpret it as the tusks of a boar. In English, the lines can be translated as but the giant beast coloured its tusk red on Egil.

In Anglo-Saxon , the name eofor meant "boar" and consequently Ynglingatal could very well relate of Eofor (the boar) killing Egil with kennings for boars. These kennings, sung originally by Swedes, were later misinterpreted by Norwegians and Icelanders as literal expressions due to the different dialectal meanings of farra.

Moreover, according to SchŘck, the name Tunni which has no meaning in Old Norse should in Proto-Norse have been *Tun■a and derived from *Tun■uz. Consequently, it would have been the same word as the Gothic Tun■us which meant "tooth". This would mean that the name of Egil's enemy, actually meant "tooth" and Tunni and the bull/boar would consequently have been the same enemy, i.e. Eofor.

Some scholars have suggested that the name Ongentheow is connected to the Danish king Ongendus, (fl. c. 700) who appears in one sentence of Alcuin 's life of Willibrord .[27][28]


Research Notes: Child - Ohthere King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]

Semi-legendary king of Sweden, in the house of Ynglings.

From Wikipedia - Ohthere :

Ohthere, Ohtere (the name is sometimes misspelt Oh■ere), Ëttarr, Ëttarr vendilkrßka or Ottar Vendelkrňka (Vendelcrow) (ca 515 - ca 530[1]) was a semi-legendary king of Sweden belonging to the house of Scylfings .

His name has been reconstructed as Proto-Norse * or * meaning "feared warrior".[2]

Beowulf
In the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf the name of Ohthere only appears in constructions referring to his father Ongen■eow (fŠder Ohtheres),[3] mother (Onelan modor and Ohtheres),[4] and his sons Eadgils (suna Ohteres,[5] sunu Ohteres[6]) and Eanmund (suna Ohteres).[7]

When Ohthere and his actions are concerned, he is referred to as Ongen■eow's offspring together with his brother Onela . The section deals with Ohthere and Onela pillaging the Geats at the death of their king Hre­el , restarting the Swedish-Geatish wars :

Later, it is implied in the poem that Ohthere has died, because his brother Onela is king. Ohthere's sons Eadgils and Eanmund fled to the Geats and the wars began anew.

Scandinavian sources

Ynglingatal , Ynglinga saga , ═slendingabˇk and Historia Norvegiae all present Ëttarr as the son of Egill (called Ongen■eow in Beowulf) and as the father of A­Ýsl/A­ils/athils/Adils (Eadgils ).

According to the latest source, Ynglinga saga , Ëttarr refused to pay tribute to the Danish king Frˇ­i for the help that his father had received. Then Frˇ­i sent two men to collect the tribute, but Ëttarr answered that the Swedes had never paid tribute to the Daner and would not begin with him. Frˇ­i then gathered a vast host and looted in Sweden, but the next summer he pillaged in the east. When Ëttarr learnt that Frˇ­i was gone, he sailed to Denmark to plunder in return and went into the Limfjord where he pillaged in Vendsyssel . Frˇ­i's jarls Vott and Faste attacked Ëttarr in the fjord. The battle was even and many men fell, but the Daner were reinforced by the people in the neighbourhood and so the Swedes lost (a version apparently borrowed from the death of Ëttarr's predecessor Jorund ). The Daner put Ëttarr's dead corpse on a mound to be devoured by wild beasts, and made a wooden crow that they sent to Sweden with the message that the wooden crow was all that Ëttarr was worth. After this, Ëttarr was called Vendelcrow.

It is only Snorri who uses the epithet Vendelcrow, whereas the older sources Historia Norvegiae and ═slendingabˇk use it for his father Egill . Moreover, it is only in Snorri's work that story of Ëttarr's death in Vendsyssel appears, and it is probably his own invention.[1

Historia NorvegiŠ only informs that Ohthere was killed by the Danish brothers Ottar [sic.] and Faste in a Danish province called Vendel.

Ohthere's barrow
Ohthere's barrow (Swedish: Ottarsh÷gen) (60░08'N 17░34'E? / ?60.133░N 17.567░E? / 60.133; 17.567 ) is located in Vendel parish, Uppland , Sweden . The barrow is 5 metres high and 40 metres wide. In the 17th century the barrow was known locally as Ottarsh÷gen.[14]
The barrow was excavated in the period 1914-1916.[14] It showed the remains of both a man and a woman, and the finds were worthy of a king.[15] The Swedish archaeologist Sune Lindqvist[16] reported that in its centre there was a wooden vessel with ashes. There were few finds but they were well-preserved. There were some decorative panels similar to those found in the other Vendel era graves nearby. A comb with a case was found, as well as a golden Roman coin, a solidus , dated to be no later than 477. It had been perforated and was probably used as decoration, but it showed signs of wear and tear and had probably been worn for a longer time. Lindquist stated that the identification of the barrow as that of Ohthere could not receive more archaeological confirmation than those provided by the excavation.


Sources


1. http://www.familysearch.org.

2. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 113-23 (Constance of Burgundy).

3. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99035 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

4. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99036 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

5. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99034 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

6. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873359.

7. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105874 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

8. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873360.

9. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873413.

10. Website:, http://library.gramps-project.org/users/tpf/I1912.html.

11. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873414.

12. Wikipedia.org, Baldwin I, Count of Flanders.

13. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 162-16 (Judith).

14. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871946.

15. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871945.

16. Wikipedia.org, Judith of Flanders.

17. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13 (AEthelwulf).

18. Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f51/a0025105.htm.

19. Wikipedia.org, Ohthere.

20. Wikipedia.org, Ongentheow.

21. Wikipedia.org, Eadgils.

22. Wikipedia.org, Yrsa.

23. Wikipedia.org, Aun.


Sources


1 http://www.familysearch.org.

2 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 113-23 (Constance of Burgundy).

3 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99035 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

4 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99036 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

5 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99034 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

6 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873359.

7 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105874 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

8 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873360.

9 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873413.

10 Website:, http://library.gramps-project.org/users/tpf/I1912.html.

11 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873414.

12 Wikipedia.org, Baldwin I, Count of Flanders.

13 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 162-16 (Judith).

14 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871946.

15 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871945.

16 Wikipedia.org, Judith of Flanders.

17 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13 (AEthelwulf).

18 Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f51/a0025105.htm.

19 Wikipedia.org, Ohthere.

20 Wikipedia.org, Ongentheow.

21 Wikipedia.org, Eadgils.

22 Wikipedia.org, Yrsa.

23 Wikipedia.org, Aun.


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