The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Eochaid II King of Dál Riata and Spondana




Husband Eochaid II King of Dál Riata 1 2 3

            AKA: Findon King of Scotland, Eochaid mac Domangairt King of Dál Riata
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 697
         Buried: 


         Father: Domangart mac Domnaill King in Dál Riata (      -0673) 4 5
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife Spondana 3

           Born: Abt 677 - Scotland
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Eochaid III King of Dál Riata

            AKA: Eochaid mac Echdach King of Dál Riata
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 733
         Buried: 




Death Notes: Husband - Eochaid II King of Dál Riata

Killed


Research Notes: Husband - Eochaid II King of Dál Riata

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 170-9. Killed about 697 after ruling three years(?).

From Wikipedia - Eochaid mac Domangairt :

Eochaid mac Domangairt (d. ca. 697 ) was a king of Dál Riata (modern western Scotland ) in about 697 . He was a member of the Cenél nGabráin , the son of Domangart mac Domnaill and father of Eochaid mac Echdach ; Alpín mac Echdach may also be a son of this Eochaid.

He is named in Dál Riata king-lists, the Duan Albanach and the Synchronisms of Flann Mainistrech . In some sources he is called Eochaid Crook-Nose (Riannamail), but modern readings take this is a being a garbled reference to Fiannamail ua Dúnchado rather than an epithet .

The killing of Eochu nepos Domnaill, Eochaid grandson of Domnall Brecc , is reported in the Annals of Ulster for 697.


References
Anderson, Alan Orr , Early Sources of Scottish History A.D 500-1286, volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8
Broun, Dauvit , The Irish Identity of the Kingdom of the Scots in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. Boydell, Woodbridge, 1999. ISBN 0-85115-375-5


Research Notes: Child - Eochaid III King of Dál Riata

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 170-9A. Ruled about 721-733.

From Wikipedia - Eochaid mac Echdach


Eochaid mac Echdach was king of Dál Riata (modern western Scotland ) from 726 until 733 . He was a son of Eochaid mac Domangairt .
Eochaid came to power as king of Dál Riata in 726, presumably deposing Dúngal mac Selbaig . Selbach may have tried to restore his son to power, and fought against Eochaid's supporters at Irros Foichnae in 727, but without apparent success. The annals vary as to whether the despatch of a fleet from Dál Riata to Ireland to aid Flaithbertach mac Loingsig in his war with Áed Allán should be placed in the reign of Eochaid, or that of his successor.
At his death in 733, Eochaid is named king rather than lord of Dál Riata, which may suggest that after the defeat of Dúngal and Selbach his reign was unchallenged. His son, Áed Find , was later king of Dál Riata.
As Dál Riata certainly maintained a separate existence until 736, Eochaid must have had a successor, or successors. It appears that he was succeeded by Muiredach mac Ainbcellaig , who had replaced Dúngal mac Selbaig as king of the Cenél Loairn .


Eochaid III King of Dál Riata




Husband Eochaid III King of Dál Riata

            AKA: Eochaid mac Echdach King of Dál Riata
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 733
         Buried: 


         Father: Eochaid II King of Dál Riata (      -Abt 0697) 1 2 3
         Mother: Spondana (Abt 0677-      ) 3


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Áed Find "the White King of Dál Riata 3 6 7

            AKA: Áed the White King of Dál Riata, Aodh Hugh Fionn, Áed mac Echdach King of Dál Riata
           Born: Bef 733 - (Scotland)
     Christened: 
           Died: 778
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Eochaid III King of Dál Riata

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 170-9A. Ruled about 721-733.

From Wikipedia - Eochaid mac Echdach


Eochaid mac Echdach was king of Dál Riata (modern western Scotland ) from 726 until 733 . He was a son of Eochaid mac Domangairt .
Eochaid came to power as king of Dál Riata in 726, presumably deposing Dúngal mac Selbaig . Selbach may have tried to restore his son to power, and fought against Eochaid's supporters at Irros Foichnae in 727, but without apparent success. The annals vary as to whether the despatch of a fleet from Dál Riata to Ireland to aid Flaithbertach mac Loingsig in his war with Áed Allán should be placed in the reign of Eochaid, or that of his successor.
At his death in 733, Eochaid is named king rather than lord of Dál Riata, which may suggest that after the defeat of Dúngal and Selbach his reign was unchallenged. His son, Áed Find , was later king of Dál Riata.
As Dál Riata certainly maintained a separate existence until 736, Eochaid must have had a successor, or successors. It appears that he was succeeded by Muiredach mac Ainbcellaig , who had replaced Dúngal mac Selbaig as king of the Cenél Loairn .


Research Notes: Child - Áed Find "the White King of Dál Riata

From Wikipedia - Áed Find :

Áed Find (Áed the White) or Áed mac Echdach (before 736-778) was king of Dál Riata (modern western Scotland ). Áed was the son of Eochaid mac Echdach , a descendant of Domnall Brecc in the main line of Cenél nGabráin kings.

According to later genealogies, Áed was the great-grandfather of Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín) who is traditionally counted as the first king of Scots . This descent ran through Áed's son Eochaid mac Áeda Find and Eochaid's son Alpín mac Echdach . The evidence for the existence of Eochaid and Alpín is late and uncompelling, and shows signs of fabrication in the High Middle Ages .

The Annals of Ulster in 768 report "Bellum i Fortrinn iter Aedh & Cinaedh": a battle in Fortriu between Áed and Cináed. This is usually read as meaning Áed Find and the Pictish king Ciniod , who is called "Cinadhon" in the notice of his death in 775. The Annals of the Four Masters , a less reliable source, give a different version, placing this battle in Leinster and naming the victor as Cináed mac Flainn of the Uí Failgi and his defeated enemy as one Áed.

Áed's death in 778 is noted by the Annals of Ulster. He appears to have been followed as king by his brother Fergus mac Echdach .
The "Laws of Áed Eochaid's son" are mentioned by the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba in the reign of Áed's supposed great-grandson Donald MacAlpin (Domnall mac Ailpín): "In his time the Gaels with their king made the rights and laws of the kingdom [that are called the laws] of Áed Eochaid's son, in Forteviot ." What these laws concerned is not known.

References
For primary sources, see also External links below
Anderson, Alan Orr , Early Sources of Scottish History A.D 500-1286, volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8
Bannerman, John, "The Scottish Takeover of Pictland" in Dauvit Broun & Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.) Spes Scotorum: Hope of Scots. Saint Columba, Iona and Scotland. T & T Clark, Edinburgh, 1999. ISBN 0-567-08682-2
Broun, Dauvit, The Irish Identity of the Kingdom of the Scots. Boydell, Woodbridge, 1999. ISBN 0-85115-375-5
Broun, Dauvit, "Pictish Kings 761-839: Integration with Dál Riata or Separate Development" in Sally M. Foster (ed.), The St Andrews Sarcophagus: A Pictish masterpiece and its international connections. Four Courts, Dublin, 1998. ISBN 1-85182-414-6




Eoppa of Wessex




Husband Eoppa of Wessex 8

           Born: Abt 706
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Ingild of Wessex (Abt 0672-0718) 9 10
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Eafa of Wessex 11

            AKA: Eoffa de Wessex
           Born: Abt 723
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: < > [Kentish princess] (      -      ) 12



Research Notes: Husband - Eoppa of Wessex

Did not rule.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 1-9

From Wikipedia - Eoppa :

Eoppa of Wessex was a member of the House of Wessex . Although a member of the direct male line from Cynric to Egbert , Eoppa was never king due to usurpations by junior branches of the family (see House of Wessex family tree ). He was born c. 706 and his death date is unknown.
His father was Ingild of Wessex . Eoppa had one son, Eafa , born c. 730.


Research Notes: Child - Eafa of Wessex

Did not rule.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 1-10

From Wikipedia - Eafa :

Eafa of Wessex was a member of the House of Wessex . Although a member of the direct male line from Cynric to Egbert , Eafa was never king due to usurpations by junior branches of the family (see House of Wessex family tree ). . He was born c. 730 and his death date is unknown.
His father was Eoppa . He married a Kentish princess (name unknown), thus giving his son Ealhmund a claim to the Kentish throne, which he duly occupied. Ealhmund went on to be the father of Egbert of Wessex , the first King of England.


Erard I Count of Brienne and Alix de Rameru Dame of Rameru




Husband Erard I Count of Brienne 13

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1115
         Buried: 


         Father: Gautier I (      -1090) 14
         Mother: Eustace of Bar-sur-Seine (      -      ) 14


       Marriage: 



Wife Alix de Rameru Dame of Rameru 15

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Andre I de Rameru and d'Arcis-sur-Aube (      -1118) 16
         Mother: Guisemode (      -      ) 17




Children
1 F Félicité de Brienne 13

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 21 Jul 1178
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Geoffroi III de Joinville Sénéchal of Champagne and of Bar-sur-Seine (Bef 1127-1188) 18
           Marr: Bef 1141



Research Notes: Child - Félicité de Brienne

Widow of Simon de Broye, d. 1132


Erchembaldus and Gerberga




Husband Erchembaldus 19

           Born: Abt 590
     Christened: 
           Died: 661
         Buried: 


         Father: Ega (Abt 0572-0646) 20
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife Gerberga 21

           Born: Abt 574
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Richmeres Duke of Franconia (Abt 0543-      ) 22
         Mother: Gertrudis (Abt 0545-      ) 23




Children
1 M Lendifius 24

           Born: Abt 611
     Christened: 
           Died: 680
         Buried: 





Theodemir King of the Ostrogoths and Erelieva Queen of the Ostrogoths




Husband Theodemir King of the Ostrogoths

            AKA: Theodemer
           Born: Abt 430 - Hispaniae (Spain)
     Christened: 
           Died: 474
         Buried: 


         Father: Vandalarius of the Ostrogoths (Abt 0405-Abt 0459)
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife Erelieva Queen of the Ostrogoths 25 26

            AKA: Erchiva, Erelicia
           Born: Abt 434 - Hispaniae (Spain)
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Theodoric King of the Ostrogoths 27 28

            AKA: Theodoric "the Great" King of the Ostrogoths
           Born: Abt 454 - Pannonia (Hungary)
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 Aug 526 - Ravenna, (Italy)


         Buried: 
         Spouse: Audefleda Meroving Princess of the Franks (Abt 0452-0535) 29
           Marr: 493
         Spouse: < > of Moesia [Concubine of Theodoric] (      -      ) 28



Research Notes: Husband - Theodemir King of the Ostrogoths

FamilySearch.org Compact Disc #94 Pin #308142 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer)

http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875427 has b. abt 441, d. 475.


Research Notes: Child - Theodoric King of the Ostrogoths

Raised as a hostage in Constantinople.

From Wikipedia - Theodoric the Great :
Theodoric the Great (Gothic : Þiudareiks; Latin : Fl Theodoricus; Greek : (Thev'ðerichos, ??v'ð?rixos ); Old English : Þ; German : Dietrich von Bern ; Old Norse : Þjóðrekr, Þiðrek; 454 - August 30 , 526 ), was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526),[1] ruler of Italy (493-526), regent of the Visigoths (511-526), and a viceroy of the (Eastern) Roman Empire. He became a hero of Germanic legend.

Youth

The man who ruled under the name of Theodoric was born in 454 on the banks of the Neusiedler See near Carnuntum , a year after the Ostrogoths had thrown off nearly a century of domination by the Huns . The son of the King Theodemir and Erelieva , Theodoric went to Constantinople as a young boy, as a hostage to secure the Ostrogoths' compliance with a treaty Theodemir had concluded with the Byzantine Emperor Leo .

He lived at the court of Constantinople for many years and learned a great deal about Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he became the Gothic ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized "barbarian people", as Oriental kingdoms used to call tribes living on the European continent, what is presently known as Western Europe [Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi] . Treated with favor by the Emperors Leo I and Zeno , he became magister militum (Master of Soldiers) in 483, and one year later he became consul . Afterwards, he returned to live among the Ostrogoths when he was 31 years old and became their king in 488.

Reign

At the time, the Ostrogoths were settled in Byzantine territory as foederati (allies) of the Romans, but were becoming restless and increasingly difficult for Zeno to manage. Not long after Theodoric became king, the two men worked out an arrangement beneficial to both sides. The Ostrogoths needed a place to live, and Zeno was having serious problems with Odoacer , the King of Italy who had overthrown the Western Roman Empire in 476. Ostensibly a viceroy for Zeno, Odoacer was menacing Byzantine territory and not respecting the rights of Roman citizens in Italy. At Zeno's encouragement, Theodoric invaded Odoacer's kingdom.

Theodoric came with his army to Italy in 488, where he won the battles of Isonzo and Verona in 489 and at the Adda in 490. In 493 he took Ravenna . On February 2, 493, Theodoric and Odoacer signed a treaty that assured both parties would rule over Italy. A banquet was organised in order to celebrate this treaty. It was at this banquet that Theodoric, after making a toast, killed Odoacer with his own hands.

Like Odoacer, Theodoric was ostensibly only a viceroy for the emperor in Constantinople. In reality, he was able to avoid imperial supervision, and dealings between the emperor and Theodoric were as equals. Unlike Odoacer, however, Theodoric respected the agreement he had made and allowed Roman citizens within his kingdom to be subject to Roman law and the Roman judicial system. The Goths, meanwhile, lived under their own laws and customs. In 519, when a mob had burned down the synagogues of Ravenna, Theodoric ordered the town to rebuild them at its own expense.

Theodoric the Great sought alliances with, or hegemony over, the other Germanic kingdoms in the west. He allied with the Franks by his marriage to Audofleda , sister of Clovis I , and married his own female relatives to princes or kings of the Visigoths , Vandals and Burgundian . He stopped the Vandals from raiding his territories by threatening the weak Vandal king Thrasamund with invasion, and sent a guard of 5,000 troops with his sister Amalfrida when she married Thrasamund in 500. For much of his reign, Theodoric was the de facto king of the Visigoths as well, becoming regent for the infant Visigothic king, his grandson Amalric , following the defeat of Alaric II by the Franks under Clovis in 507. The Franks were able to wrest control of Aquitaine from the Visigoths, but otherwise, Theodoric was able to defeat their incursions.

Thedoric's achievements began to unravel even before his death. He had married his daughter Amalasuntha to the Visigoth Eutharic , but Eutharic died in 522 or 523, so no lasting dynastic connection of Ostrogoths and Visigoths was established. In 522, the Catholic Burgundian king Sigismund killed his own son, Theodoric's grandson, Sergeric. Theodoric retaliated by invading, probably in 523, annexing the southern part of the Burgundian kingdom. The rest was ruled Sigismund's Arian brother Godomar , under Gothic protection against the Franks who had captured Sigismund. This brought the territory ruled by Theodoric to its height (see map), but in 523 or 524 the new Catholic Vandal king Hilderic imprisoned Amalfrida, and killed her Gothic guard. Theodoric was planning an expedition to restore his power over the Vandal kingdom when he died in 526.

Family and Issue
Theodoric was married once.

He had a concubine in Moesia , name unknown, and had two daughters:
Theodegotha (ca. 473 - ?). In 494, she was married to Alaric II as a part of her father's alliance with the Visigoths.
Ostrogotha or Arevagni (ca. 475 - ?). In 494 or 496, she was married to the king Sigismund of Burgundy as a part of her father's alliance with the Burgundians.

Married to Audofleda in 493 and had one daughter:
Amalasuntha , Queen of the Goths. She was married to Eutharic and had two children: Athalaric and Matasuentha (the latter being married to Witiges first, then, after Witiges' death, married to Germanus Justinus , neither had children). Any hope for a reconciliation between the Goths and the Romans in the person of a Gotho-Roman Emperor from this family lineage was shattered.

After his death in Ravenna in 526, Theodoric was succeeded by his grandson Athalaric . Athalaric was at first represented by his mother Amalasuntha, who was a regent queen from 526 until 534. The kingdom of the Ostrogoths, however, began to wane and was conquered by Justinian I starting in 535 and finally ending in 553 with the Battle of Mons Lactarius ."


Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem and Erembourg Countess of Maine




Husband Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem 30 31 32

            AKA: Fulk of Jerusalem, Fulk V Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem
           Born: 1092 - Angers, (Maine-et-Loire), Anjou, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 10 Nov 1144 - Acre, Palestine (Israel)
         Buried: 


         Father: Fulk IV "le Réchin" Count of Anjou (1043-1109) 33 34 35
         Mother: Bertrade de Montfort (Abt 1070-1117) 36


       Marriage: 1110

   Other Spouse: Melisende de Rethel (      -1161) 37 - 2 Jun 1129

Events

• Count of Anjou: 1109-1129.

• King of Jerusalem: 1131-1144.




Wife Erembourg Countess of Maine 38 39

            AKA: Eremburg of Maine, Eremburga of La Flêche, Ermengarde of Maine, Erembourg de la Flêche
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1126
         Buried: 


         Father: Hélie de la Flêche Count of Maine (      -1110) 37 40
         Mother: Matilda of Château-du-Loire (      -      ) 40


Events

• Countess of Maine: 1110-1126.

• Lady of Château-du-Loire: 1110-1126.


Children
1 F Sybil of Anjou 41 42

            AKA: Sibylla of Anjou
           Born: Abt 1112 - <Anjou, France>
     Christened: 
           Died: 1165
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Thierry I of Lorraine, Count of Flanders (Abt 1099-1168) 43 44
           Marr: 1131


2 M Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy 45 46 47

            AKA: Geoffrey V Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Geoffrey 'the Fair' Plantagenet Count of Anjou
           Born: 24 Aug 1113 - Anjou, (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 Sep 1151
         Buried:  - Le Mans, (Sarthe), Maine, (France)
         Spouse: Empress Matilda Countess of Anjou (Abt 1102-1167) 48 49
           Marr: 22 May 1128 - Le Mans, (Sarthe), Maine, (France)
         Spouse: < > (      -      )



Birth Notes: Husband - Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem

May have been born in Anjou.


Death Notes: Husband - Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem

May have died in Jerusalem.


Research Notes: Husband - Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871915 :

Count of Anjou; King of Jerusalem (1131-1143). Fulk married the only daughter of Helias, Count of Maine, thereby uniting Anjou and Maine. In 1120 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In 1128 a delegation from Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem (RIN # 4676), arrived in France, asking Louis VII to choose one of the French nobility to marry his daughter Melisande and become heir to the throne of Jerusalem. Fulk, by then a widower, was chosen. He married Melisande in 1129 and succeeded as King of Jerusalem in 1131. To defend the holy city from the Muslim champion, Zengi, Fulk allied with the emir of Damascus and the emperor of Constantinople during the early 1130's. Turkish raiders took him prisoner in 1137, but then freed him.
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 19,37-9,46-8,60-1

----
From Wikipedia - Fulk of Jerusalem :

Fulk (1089/1092 in Angers - November 13, 1143 in Acre ), also known as Fulk the Younger, was Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129, and King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. He was also the paternal grandfather of Henry II of England .

Count of Anjou
Fulk was born in Angers between 1089 and 1092, the son of Count Fulk IV of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort . In 1092, Bertrade deserted her husband and bigamously married King Philip I of France .

He became count of Anjou upon his father's death in 1109, at the age of approximately twenty. In that year, he married Erembourg of Maine , cementing Angevin control over the County of Maine .

He was originally an opponent of King Henry I of England and a supporter of King Louis VI of France , but in 1127 he allied with Henry when Henry arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Fulk's son Geoffrey of Anjou . Fulk went on crusade in 1120, and became a close friend of the Knights Templar . After his return he began to subsidize the Templars, and maintained two knights in the Holy Land for a year.

Crusader and King
By 1127 Fulk was preparing to return to Anjou when he received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem . Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him. Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughter's inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord. Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a frontier state always in the grip of war.

However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen; he wanted to be king alongside Melisende. Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulk's fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk abdicated his county seat of Anjou to his son Geoffery and left for Jerusalem , where he married Melisende on June 2, 1129. Later Baldwin II bolstered Melisende's position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III , born in 1130.

Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin II's death. From the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility. The other crusader states to the north feared that Fulk would attempt to impose the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them, as Baldwin II had done; but as Fulk was far less powerful than his deceased father-in-law, the northern states rejected his authority. Melisende's sister Alice of Antioch , exiled from the Principality by Baldwin II, took control of Antioch once more after the death of her father. She allied with Pons of Tripoli and Joscelin II of Edessa to prevent Fulk from marching north in 1132; Fulk and Pons fought a brief battle before peace was made and Alice was exiled again.

In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the second generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These "natives" focused on Melisende's cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset , count of Jaffa , who was devotedly loyal to the Queen. Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and it did not help matters when Hugh's own stepson accused him of disloyalty. In 1134, in order to expose Hugh, Fulk accused him of infidelity with Melisende. Hugh rebelled in protest. Hugh secured himself to Jaffa, and allied himself with the Muslims of Ascalon . He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, but this situation could not hold. The Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence.

However, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh. Fulk, or his supporters, were commonly believed responsible, though direct proof never surfaced. The scandal was all that was needed for the queen's party to take over the government in what amounted to a palace coup. Author and historian Bernard Hamilton wrote that the Fulk's supporters "went in terror of their lives" in the palace. Contemporary author and historian William of Tyre wrote of Fulk "he never attempted to take the initiative, even in trivial matters, without (Melisende's) consent". The result was that Melisende held direct and unquestioned control over the government from 1136 onwards. Sometime before 1136 Fulk reconciled with his wife, and a second son, Amalric was born.

Securing the borders
Jerusalem's northern border was of great concern. Fulk had been appointed regent of the Principality of Antioch by Baldwin II. As regent he had Raymund of Poitou marry the infant Constance of Antioch , daughter of Bohemund II and Alice of Antioch , and niece to Melisende. However, the greatest concern during Fulk's reign was the rise of Atabeg Zengi of Mosul .

In 1137 Fulk was defeated in battle near Barin but allied with Mu'in ad-Din Unur , the vizier of Damascus . Damascus was also threatened by Zengi. Fulk captured the fort of Banias , to the north of Lake Tiberias and thus secured the northern frontier.

Fulk also strengthened the kingdom's southern border. His butler Paganus built the fortress of Kerak to the south of the Dead Sea , and to help give the kingdom access to the Red Sea , Fulk had Blanche Garde , Ibelin , and other forts built in the south-west to overpower the Egyptian fortress at Ascalon. This city was a base from which the Egyptian Fatimids launched frequent raids on the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Fulk sought to neutralise this threat.

In 1137 and 1142, Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus arrived in Syria attempting to impose Byzantine control over the crusader states . John's arrival was ignored by Fulk, who declined an invitation to meet the emperor in Jerusalem.

Death
In 1143, while the king and queen were on holiday in Acre , Fulk was killed in a hunting accident. His horse stumbled, fell, and Fulk's skull was crushed by the saddle, "and his brains gushed forth from both ears and nostrils", as William of Tyre describes. He was carried back to Acre, where he lay unconscious for three days before he died. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Though their marriage started in conflict, Melisende mourned for him privately as well as publicly. Fulk was survived by his son Geoffrey of Anjou by his first wife, and Baldwin III and Amalric I by Melisende.

According to William, Fulk was "a ruddy man, like David... faithful and gentle, affable and kind... an experienced warrior full of patience and wisdom in military affairs." His chief fault was an inability to remember names and faces.

William of Tyre described Fulk as a capable soldier and able politician, but observed that Fulk did not adequately attend to the defense of the crusader states to the north. Ibn al-Qalanisi (who calls him al-Kund Anjur, an Arabic rendering of "Count of Anjou") says that "he was not sound in his judgment nor was he successful in his administration." The Zengids continued their march on the crusader states, culminating in the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144, which led to the Second Crusade (see Siege of Edessa ).

Family
In 1110, Fulk married Ermengarde of Maine (died 1126), the daughter of Elias I of Maine . Their four children were:
Geoffrey V of Anjou , father of Henry II of England .
Sibylla of Anjou (1112-1165, Bethlehem ), married in 1123 William Clito (div. 1124), married in 1134 Thierry, Count of Flanders .
Alice (or Isabella ) (1107-1154, Fontevrault), married William Adelin ; after his death in the White Ship she became a nun and later Abbess of Fontevrault .
Elias II of Maine (died 1151)

His second wife was Melisende , Queen of Jerusalem
Baldwin III of Jerusalem
Amalric I of Jerusalem


Research Notes: Wife - Erembourg Countess of Maine

First wife of Fulk V. Only daughter of Helie de la Flêche.

From Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Maine :

Ermengarde or Erembourg of Maine, also known as Erembourg de la Flèche (died 1126 ), was Countess of Maine and the Lady of Château-du-Loir from 1110 to 1126 . She was the daughter of Elias I of Maine , Count of Maine, and Mathilda of Château-du-Loire.

In 1109 she married Fulk V of Anjou , thereby finally bringing Maine under Angevin control. She gave birth to:
Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (d. 1151 )
Elias II of Maine (d. 1151 )
Matilda of Anjou (d. 1119 ), who married William Adelin , the son and heir to Henry I of England
Sibylla of Anjou (d. 1119 ), married in 1121 to William Clito , and then (after an annulment in 1124) to Thierry, Count of Flanders

She died in 1126 , on either the 15th January or the 12 October. After her death, Fulk left his lands to their son Geoffrey, and set out for the Holy Land , where he married Melisende of Jerusalem and became King of Jerusalem .


Notes: Marriage

May have been married in 1109.


Research Notes: Child - Sybil of Anjou

Second wife of Thierry I of Lorraine (also known as Dietrich I, Count of Alsace).

From Wikipedia - Sibylla of Anjou :

Sibylla of Anjou (c. 1112-1165) was a daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine , and wife of William Clito and Thierry, Count of Flanders .

In 1123 Sibylla married William Clito, son of the Norman Robert Curthose and future Count of Flanders . Sibylla brought the County of Maine to this marriage, which was annulled in 1124 on grounds of consanguinity . The annulment was made by Pope Honorius II upon request from Henry I of England , William's uncle; Fulk opposed it and did not consent until Honorius excommunicated him and placed an interdict over Anjou . Sibylla then accompanied her widower father to the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem , where he married Melisende , the heiress of the kingdom, and became king himself in 1131. In 1139 she married Thierry, Count of Flanders , who had arrived on his first pilgrimage to the Holy Land.

She returned to Flanders with her new husband, and during his absence on the Second Crusade the pregnant Sibylla acted as regent of the county. Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut took the opportunity to attack Flanders, but Sibylla led a counter-attack and pillaged Hainaut . In response Baldwin ravaged Artois . The archbishop of Reims intervened and a truce was signed, but Thierry took vengeance on Baldwin when he returned in 1149.

In 1157 she travelled with Thierry on his third pilgrimage, but after arriving in Jerusalem she separated from her husband and refused to return home with him. She became a nun at the convent of St. Lazarus in Bethany , where her step-aunt, Ioveta of Bethany , was abbess. Ioveta and Sibylla supported Queen Melisende and held some influence over the church, and supported the election of Amalric of Nesle as Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem over a number of other candidates. Sibylla died in Bethany in 1165.

With Thierry she had six children:
Philip , Count of Flanders
Matthew , Count of Boulogne , married Marie of Boulogne
Margaret , Countess of Flanders and Hainaut, married Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut
Gertrude
Matilda
Peter


Research Notes: Child - Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy

Second husband of Matilda.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871913 :
'The Fair' Count of Anjou (1129-1151); founder of the Plantagenet dynasty. Geoffey's nickname derived from his physical appearance - he was said to be tall, handsome, graceful and strong. He was also known as Geoffrey Plantagenet, appearantly from the sprig of broom (genet) he wore in his hat. In 1127, aged 14, he was married to Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England and the widow of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. They disliked each other, but maintained an uneasy political alliance and produces three sons, Henry (the future Henry II of England), Geoffrey and William. An illegitimate son, Hamelin became the Duke of Salisbury. Geoffrey spent much of his youth imposing order on his unruly vassals, including his own brother Helias II, Count of Maine, who rebelled against him in 1131; Geoffrey captured Helias and held him prisoner in Tours, Helias died soon after his release from a disease contracted in prison. In 1135 Henry I of England died, and Matilda's cousin Stephen of Blois (RIN # 1643) seized the English throne, together with Normandy, traditionally coveted by the counts of Anjou. Geoffrey laid claim to the duchy in his wife's right. Between 1135-1138 Geoffrey launched four expeditions into Normandy, none of which achieved great success. The expedition in 1137 was striken by dysentery, and forced to return swiftly to Anjou. In 1139 Matilda invaded England, seeking to press her claim to the English throne, and Geoffrey remained in Anjou to continue the war against Normandy. The Morman barons opposed Geoffrey, not through loyalty to Stephen, who had only visited Normandy once, but out of hatred of their traditional enemy, Anjou. However, Norman morale was weakened when Matilda captured Stephen at Lincoln in 1141, and many castles surrendered to Geoffrey, leaving him in control of most of the lands between Bayeux and the Seine. In 1142 he took the Avranchin and Mortain, and in 1143 moved east of the Seine, overunning the Cotentin. He was invested as Duke of Normandy in 144 after the fall of Rouen, and Arques, the last castle opposing him, capitulated in 1145, leaving him unchallenged master of Normandy. After the conquest of Normandy, Geoffrey joined Louis VII of France in the abortive Second Crusade (1147-9), returning in 1149. In 1150 he ceded Normandy to his son Henry, who also inhereted the family claim to the English throne. Geoffrey died in 1151, and was buried in Le Mans Cathedral; founder of a great dynasty of kings through his son, Henry II of England. For more on the Second Crusade, see RIN # 1618.
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 38-63,80,102,140,154

----

From Wikipedia - Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou :

Geoffrey (24 August 1113 - 7 September 1151), called the Handsome (French : le Bel) and Plantagenet, was the Count of Anjou , Touraine , and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage to the Empress Matilda , daughter and heiress of Henry I of England , Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle , who succeeded to the English throne and founded the Plantagenet dynasty to which Geoffrey gave his nickname.

Biography
Geoffrey was the elder son of Fulk V of Anjou and Eremburga of La Flèche , heiress of Elias I of Maine . Geoffrey received his nickname for the yellow sprig of broom blossom (genêt is the French name for the genista, or broom shrub) he wore in his hat as a badge. King Henry I of England, having heard good reports on Geoffrey's talents and prowess, sent his royal legates to Anjou to negotiate a marriage between Geoffrey and his own daughter, Matilda. Consent was obtained from both parties, and on 10 June 1128 the fifteen-year-old Geoffrey was knighted in Rouen by King Henry in preparation for the wedding. Interestingly, there was no opposition to the marriage from the Church, despite the fact that Geoffrey's sister was the widow of Matilda's brother (only son of King Henry) which fact had been used to annul the marriage of another of Geoffrey's sisters to the Norman pretender William Clito .

On 17 June 1128 Geoffrey married Empress Matilda, the daughter and heiress of King Henry I of England by his first wife Edith of Scotland , and widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . The marriage was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, very proud of her status as an Empress (as opposed to being a mere Countess). Their marriage was a stormy one with frequent long separations, but she bore him three sons and survived him.

The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king ), leaving Geoffrey behind as count of Anjou. John of Marmoutier describes Geoffrey as handsome, red-headed, jovial, and a great warrior; however, Ralph of Diceto alleges that his charm concealed his cold and selfish character.

When King Henry I died in 1135, Matilda at once entered Normandy to claim her inheritance. The border districts submitted to her, but England chose her cousin Stephen of Blois for its king, and Normandy soon followed suit. The following year, Geoffrey gave Ambrieres, Gorron, and Chatilon-sur-Colmont to Juhel de Mayenne, on condition that he help obtain the inheritance of Geoffrey's wife. In 1139 Matilda landed in England with 140 knights, where she was besieged at Arundel Castle by King Stephen. In the "Anarchy" which ensued, Stephen was captured at Lincoln in February, 1141, and imprisoned at Bristol. A legatine council of the English church held at Winchester in April 1141 declared Stephen deposed and proclaimed Matilda "Lady of the English". Stephen was subsequently released from prison and had himself recrowned on the anniversary of his first coronation.

During 1142 and 1143, Geoffrey secured all of Normandy west and south of the Seine, and, on 14 January 1144, he crossed the Seine and entered Rouen. He assumed the title of Duke of Normandy in the summer of 1144. In 1144, he founded an Augustine priory at Chateau-l'Ermitage in Anjou. Geoffrey held the duchy until 1149, when he and Matilda conjointly ceded it to their son, Henry, which cession was formally ratified by King Louis VII of France the following year.

Geoffrey also put down three baronial rebellions in Anjou, in 1129, 1135, and 1145-1151. He was often at odds with his younger brother, Elias , whom he had imprisoned until 1151. The threat of rebellion slowed his progress in Normandy, and is one reason he could not intervene in England. In 1153, the Treaty of Westminster allowed Stephen should remain King of England for life and that Henry, the son of Geoffrey and Matilda should succeed him.

Geoffrey died suddenly on September 7, 1151. According to John of Marmoutier, Geoffrey was returning from a royal council when he was stricken with fever. He arrived at Château-du-Loir , collapsed on a couch, made bequests of gifts and charities, and died. He was buried at St. Julien's Cathedral in Le Mans France. Geoffrey and Matilda's children were:
Henry II of England (1133-1189)
Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (1 June 1134 Rouen - 26 July 1158 Nantes ) died unmarried and was buried in Nantes
William X, Count of Poitou (1136-1164) died unmarried

Geoffrey also had illegitimate children by an unknown mistress (or mistresses): Hamelin ; Emme, who married Dafydd Ab Owain Gwynedd , Prince of North Wales ; and Mary, who became a nun and Abbess of Shaftesbury and who may be the poetess Marie de France . Adelaide of Angers is sometimes sourced as being the mother of Hamelin.

The first reference to Norman heraldry was in 1128, when Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law Geoffrey and granted him a badge of gold lions (or leopards ) on a blue background. (A gold lion may already have been Henry's own badge.) Henry II used two gold lions and two lions on a red background are still part of the arms of Normandy. Henry's son, Richard I , added a third lion to distinguish the arms of England.


Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks and Ermengarde of Hesbaye




Husband Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks 50 51 52 53




            AKA: Louis I "the Fair" Holy Roman Emperor, Louis the Debonaire Holy Roman Emperor, Louis the Pious Holy Roman Emperor
           Born: 16 Apr 778 - <Villa Cassinogilum (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou), (Poitou-Charentes)>, Aquitaine (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 20 Jun 840 - Ingelheim Kaiserpfalz, (Ingelheim am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany)
         Buried: 


         Father: Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom (0747-0814) 54 55 56 57
         Mother: Hildegard of Vinzgouw (Abt 0758-0783) 58 59 60 61


       Marriage: Between 794 and 795 - Garonne, France

   Other Spouse: Judith of Bavaria (Abt 0798-0843) 62 63 64 - Feb 819

Events

• King of Aquitaine: 781-817.

• King of the Franks: 814-840.

• Holy Roman Emperor: 814-840.




Wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye 65 66 67

            AKA: Irmengarde of Hesbaye
           Born: Abt 778 - <Hesbaye (Belgium)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 3 Oct 818 - Angers, (Maine-et-Loire), Anjou, France
         Buried: 


         Father: Ingram Count of Hesbaye (Abt 0752-      ) 66 68
         Mother: Hedwig of Bavaria (      -      )




Children
1 M Lothair I Holy Roman Emperor 3 69 70 71

            AKA: Lothaire I Holy Roman Emperor
           Born: 795 - Altdorf, Bavaria, (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Sep 855 - Monastery of Prüm, Westeifel, Prussia (Germany)
         Buried:  - Monastery of Prüm, Westeifel, Prussia (Germany)
         Spouse: Ermengarde of Tours (Abt 0805-0851) 3 72
           Marr: 15 Oct 821 - Diedenhofen (Thionville), Allemania, (Moselle, France)


2 M Pepin I of Aquitaine 73

           Born: 797
     Christened: 
           Died: 13 Dec 838
         Buried: 



3 F Adelaide

           Born: Abt 799
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



4 F Rotrude 74

           Born: Abt 800 - <(France)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Count Gerard of Auvergne (      -0841) 75
           Marr: Abt 814


5 F Hildegard

            AKA: Matilda
           Born: Abt 802
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



6 M Louis II King of Germany

           Born: Abt 805
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Sep 876 - Frankfurt, Germany
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Emma de Andech (Abt 0805-      )



Death Notes: Husband - Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks

Near Mainz


Research Notes: Husband - Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks

Holy Roman Emperor 814-840

King of the Franks, Crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rheims 816-840. Louis began the partitioning of his father's empire.

-------------
From Wikipedia - Louis the Pious :

Louis the Pious (also known as Louis I, Louis the Fair, and Louis the Debonaire, German : Ludwig der Fromme, French : Louis le Pieux or Louis le Débonnaire, Italian : Luigi il Pio or Ludovico il Pio, Spanish : Luis el Piadoso or Ludovico Pío) (778 - 20 June 840 ) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks from 814 to his death in 840 .

Birth and Rule in Aquitaine
Louis was born while his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain, at the Carolingian villa of Cassinogilum, according to Einhard and the anonymous chronicler called Astronomus ; the place is usually identified with Chasseneuil , near Poitiers.[1] He was the third son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard .

Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine as a child in 781 and sent there with regents and a court. Charlemagne constituted the sub-kingdom in order to secure the border of his kingdom after his devastating defeat at the hands of Basques in Roncesvalles in (778).

In 794, Charlemagne settled four former Gallo-Roman villas on Louis, in the thought that he would take in each in turn as winter residence: Doué-la-Fontaine in today's Anjou , Ebreuil in Allier , Angeac-Charente , and the disputed Cassinogilum. Charlemagne's intention was to see all his sons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing the national costume of the region and ruling by the local customs. Thus were the children sent to their respective realms at so young an age. Each kingdom had its importance in keeping some frontier, Louis's was the Spanish March . In 797 , Barcelona , the greatest city of the Marca, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799 . However, Louis marched the entire army of his kingdom, including Gascons with their duke Sancho I of Gascony , Provençals under Leibulf , and Goths under Bera , over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801 , when it capitulated. The sons were not given independence from central authority, however, and Charlemagne ingrained in them the concepts of empire and unity by sending them on military expeditions far from their home bases. Louis campaigned in the Mezzogiorno against the Beneventans at least once.

Louis was one of Charlemagne's three legitimate sons to survive infancy, and, according to Frankish custom, Louis had expected to share his inheritance with his brothers, Charles the Younger , King of Neustria , and Pepin , King of Italy . In the Divisio Regnorum of 806 , Charlemagne had slated Charles the Younger as his successor as emperor and chief king, ruling over the Frankish heartland of Neustria and Austrasia , while giving Pepin the Iron Crown of Lombardy , which Charlemagne possessed by conquest. To Louis's kingdom of Aquitaine, he added Septimania , Provence , and part of Burgundy .

But in the event, Charlemagne's other legitimate sons died - Pepin in 810 and Charles in 811 - and Louis alone remained to be crowned co-emperor with Charlemagne in 813 . On his father's death in 814 , he inherited the entire Frankish kingdom and all its possessions (with the sole exception of Italy, which remained within Louis's empire, but under the direct rule of Bernard , Pepin's son).

Emperor
He was in his villa of Doué-la-Fontaine , Anjou , when he received news of his father's passing. Hurrying to Aachen , he crowned himself and was proclaimed by the nobles with shouts of Vivat Imperator Ludovicus.
In his first coinage type, minted from the start of his reign, he imitated his father Charlemagne's portrait coinage, giving an image of imperial power and prestige in an echo of Roman glory [2]. He quickly enacted a "moral purge", in which he sent all of his unmarried sisters to nunneries, forgoing their diplomatic use as hostage brides in favour of the security of avoiding the entanglements that powerful brothers-in-law might bring. He spared his illegitimate half-brothers and tonsured his father's cousins, Adalard and Wala, son of Bernard , shutting them up in Noirmoutier and Corbie , respectively, despite the latter's initial loyalty.

His chief councillors were Bernat, margrave of Septimania , and Ebbo , whom, born a serf, Louis would raise to the archbishopric of Rheims but who would ungratefully betray him later. He retained some of his father's ministers, such as Elisachar , abbot of St Maximin near Trier , and Hildebold, Archbishop of Cologne . Later he replaced Elisachar with Hildwin, abbot of many monasteries.

He also used Benedict of Aniane (the Second Benedict), a Septimanian Visigoth and monastic founder, to help him reform the Frankish church. One of Benedict's primary reforms was to ensure that all religious houses in Louis' realm adhered to the Rule of St Benedict , named for its creator, the First Benedict, Benedict of Nursia (480 -550 ).

In 816 , Pope Stephen V , who had succeeded Leo III , visited Rheims and again crowned Louis. The Emperor thereby strengthened the papacy by recognising the importance of the pope in imperial coronations.

Ordinatio imperii
On Maundy Thursday 817 , Louis and his court were crossing a wooden gallery from the cathedral to the palace in Aachen when the gallery collapsed, killing many. Louis, having barely survived and feeling the imminent danger of death, began planning for his succession; three months later he issued an Ordinatio Imperii, an imperial decree that laid out plans for an orderly succession. In 815 , he had already given his two eldest sons a share in the government, when he had sent his elder sons Lothair and Pepin to govern Bavaria and Aquitaine respectively, though without the royal titles. Now, he proceeded to divide the empire among his three sons and his nephew Bernard of Italy :

Lothair was proclaimed and crowned co-emperor in Aix-la-Chapelle by his father. He was promised the succession to most of the Frankish dominions (excluding the exceptions below), and would be the overlord of his brothers and cousin.

Bernard, the son of Charlemagne's son Pippin of Italy , was confirmed as King of Italy, a title he had been allowed to inherit from his father by Charlemagne.

Pepin was proclaimed King of Aquitaine, his territory including Gascony, the march around Toulouse, and the counties of Carcassonnne, Autun, Avallon and Nevers.

Louis , the youngest son, was proclaimed King of Bavaria and the neighbouring marches.

If one of the subordinate kings died, he was to be succeeded by his sons. If he died childless, Lothar would inherit his kingdom. In the event of Lothar dying without sons, one of Louis the Pious' younger sons would be chosen to replace him by "the people". Above all, the Empire would not be divided: the Emperor would rule supreme over the subordinate kings, whose obedience to him was mandatory.

With this settlement, Louis tried to combine his sense for the Empire's unity, supported by the clergy, while at the same time providing positions for all of his sons. Instead of treating his sons equally in status and land, he elevated his first-born son Lothair above his younger brothers and gave him the largest part of the Empire as his share.

Bernard's rebellion and Louis's penance
The ordinatio imperii of Aachen left Bernard of Italy in an uncertain and subordinate position as king of Italy, and he began plotting to declare independence upon hearing of it. Louis immediately directed his army towards Italy, and betook himself to Chalon-sur-Saône . Intimidated by the emperor's swift action, Bernard met his uncle at Chalon, under invitation, and surrendered. He was taken to Aix-la-Chapelle by Louis, who there had him tried and condemned to death for treason. Louis had the sentence commuted to blinding, which was duly carried out; Bernard did not survive the ordeal, however, dying after two days of agony. Others also suffered: Theodulf of Orleans , in eclipse since the death of Charlemagne, was accused of having supported the rebellion, and was thrown into a monastic prison, where he died soon after - poisoned, it was rumoured.[3] The fate of his nephew deeply marked Louis's conscience for the rest of his life.


In 822, as a deeply religious man, Louis performed penance for causing Bernard's death, at his palace of Attigny near Vouziers in the Ardennes , before Pope Paschal I , and a council of ecclesiastics and nobles of the realm that had been convened for the reconciliation of Louis with his three younger half-brothers, Hugo whom he soon made abbot of St-Quentin, Drogo whom he soon made Bishop of Metz , and Theodoric. This act of contrition, partly in emulation of Theodosius I , had the effect of greatly reducing his prestige as a Frankish ruler, for he also recited a list of minor offences about which no secular ruler of the time would have taken any notice. He also made the egregious error of releasing Wala and Adalard from their monastic confinements, placing the former in a position of power in the court of Lothair and the latter in a position in his own house.

Frontier wars
At the start of Louis's reign, the many tribes - Danes , Obotrites , Slovenes , Bretons , Basques - which inhabited his frontierlands were still in awe of the Frankish emperor's power and dared not stir up any trouble. In 816, however, the Sorbs rebelled and were quickly followed by Slavomir, chief of the Obotrites, who was captured and abandoned by his own people, being replaced by Ceadrag in 818. Soon, Ceadrag too had turned against the Franks and allied with the Danes, who were to become the greatest menace of the Franks in a short time.

A greater Slavic menace was gathering on the southeast. There, Ljudevit Posavski , duke of Pannonia , was harassing the border at the Drava and Sava rivers. The margrave of Friuli , Cadolah , was sent out against him, but he died on campaign and, in 820, his margarvate was invaded by Slovenes. In 821, an alliance was made with Borna , duke of the Dalmatia , and Ljudevit was brought to heel. Peace continued until 827, when the younger Louis had to deal with a Bulgar horde descending on Pannonia.

On the far southern edge of his great realm, Louis had to control the Lombard princes of Benevento whom Charlemagne had never subjugated. He extracted promises from Princes Grimoald IV and Sico , but to no effect.
On the southwestern frontier, problems commenced early when, in 815, Séguin , duke of Gascony , revolted. He was defeated and replaced by Lupus III , who was dispossessed in 818 by the emperor. In 820 an assembly at Quierzy-sur-Oise decided to send an expedition against the Cordoban caliphate. The counts in charge of the army, Hugh , count of Tours , and Matfrid , count of Orléans , were slow in acting and the expedition came to naught.

First civil war
In 818, as Louis was returning from a campaign to Brittany , he was greeted by news of the death of his wife, Ermengarde . Ermengarde was the daughter of Ingerman , the duke of Hesbaye. Louis had been close to his wife, who had been involved in policymaking. It was rumoured that she had played a part in her nephew's death and Louis himself believed her own death was divine retribution for that event. It took many months for his courtiers and advisors to convince him to remarry, but eventually he did, in 820, to Judith , daughter of Welf , count of Altdorf . In 823 Judith gave birth to a son, who was named Charles .

The birth of this son damaged the Partition of Aachen, as Louis's attempts to provide for his fourth son met with stiff resistance from his older sons, and the last two decades of his reign were marked by civil war.

At Worms in 829, Louis gave Charles Alemannia with the title of king or duke (historians differ on this), thus enraging his son and co-emperor Lothair,[4] whose promised share was thereby diminished. An insurrection was soon at hand. With the urging of the vengeful Wala and the cooperation of his brothers, Lothair accused Judith of having committed adultery with Bernard of Septimania, even suggesting Bernard to be the true father of Charles. Ebbo and Hildwin abandoned the emperor at that point, Bernard having risen to greater heights than either of them. Agobard , Archbishop of Lyon , and Jesse , bishop of Amiens , too, opposed the redivision of the empire and lent their episcopal prestige to the rebels.

In 830, at Wala's insistence that Bernard of Septimania was plotting against him, Pepin of Aquitaine led an army of Gascons , with the support of the Neustrian magnates, all the way to Paris . At Verberie , Louis the German joined him. At that time, the emperor returned from another campaign in Brittany to find his empire at war with itself. He marched as far as Compiègne , an ancient royal town, before being surrounded by Pepin's forces and captured. Judith was incarcerated at Poitiers and Bernard fled to Barcelona.

Then Lothair finally set out with a large Lombard army, but Louis had promised his sons Louis the German and Pepin of Aquitaine greater shares of the inheritance, prompting them to shift loyalties in favour of their father. When Lothair tried to call a general council of the realm in Nijmegen , in the heart of Austrasia , the Austrasians and Rhinelanders came with a following of armed retainers, and the disloyal sons were forced to free their father and bow at his feet (831). Lothair was pardoned, but disgraced and banished to Italy. Pepin returned to Aquitaine and Judith - after being forced to humiliate herself with a solemn oath of innocence - to Louis's court. Only Wala was severely dealt with, making his way to a secluded monastery on the shores of Lake Geneva . Though Hilduin , abbot of Saint Denis , was exiled to Paderborn and Elisachar and Matfrid were deprived of their honours north of the Alps; they did not lose their freedom.

Second civil war
The next revolt occurred a mere two years later (832). The disaffected Pepin was summoned to his father's court, where he was so poorly received he left against his father's orders. Immediately, fearing that Pepin would be stirred up to revolt by his nobles and desiring to reform his morals, Louis the Pious summoned all his forces to meet in Aquitaine in preparation of an uprising, but Louis the German garnered an army of Slav allies and conquered Swabia before the emperor could react. Once again the elder Louis divided his vast realm. At Jonac , he declared Charles king of Aquitaine and deprived Pepin (he was less harsh with the younger Louis), restoring the whole rest of the empire to Lothair, not yet involved in the civil war. Lothair was, however, interested in usurping his father's authority. His ministers had been in contact with Pepin and may have convinced him and Louis the German to rebel, promising him Alemannia, the kingdom of Charles.

Soon Lothair, with the support of Pope Gregory IV , whom he had confirmed in office without his father's support, joined the revolt in 833. While Louis was at Worms gathering a new force, Lothair marched north. Louis marched south. The armies met on the plains of the Rothfeld. There, Gregory met the emperor and may have tried to sow dissension amongst his ranks. Soon much of Louis's army had evaporated before his eyes, and he ordered his few remaining followers to go, because "it would be a pity if any man lost his life or limb on my account." The resigned emperor was taken to Saint Médard at Soissons , his son Charles to Prüm , and the queen to Tortona . The despicable show of disloyalty and disingenuousness earned the site the name Field of Lies, or Lügenfeld, or Campus Mendacii, ubi plurimorum fidelitas exstincta est[5]


On November 13 , 833 , Ebbo of Rheims presided over a synod in the Church of Saint Mary in Soissons which deposed Louis and forced him to publicly confess many crimes, none of which he had, in fact, committed. In return, Lothair gave Ebbo the Abbey of Saint Vaast. Men like Rabanus Maurus , Louis' younger half-brothers Drogo and Hugh, and Emma, Judith's sister and Louis the German's new wife, worked on the younger Louis to make peace with his father, for the sake of unity of the empire. The humiliation to which Louis was then subjected at Notre Dame in Compiègne turned the loyal barons of Austrasia and Saxony against Lothair, and the usurper fled to Burgundy , skirmishing with loyalists near Châlons-sur-Saône . Louis was restored the next year, on 1 March 834 .

On Lothair's return to Italy, Wala, Jesse, and Matfrid, formerly count of Orléans, died of a pestilence and, on 2 February 835 , the Synod of Thionville deposed Ebbo, Agobard, Bernard , Bishop of Vienne , and Bartholomew , Archbishop of Narbonne . Lothair himself fell ill; events had turned completely in Louis favour once again.

In 836, however, the family made peace and Louis restored Pepin and Louis, deprived Lothair of all save Italy, and gave it to Charles in a new division, given at the diet of Crémieux . At about that time, the Vikings terrorised and sacked Utrecht and Antwerp . In 837, they went up the Rhine as far as Nijmegen, and their king, Rorik , demanded the wergild of some of his followers killed on previous expeditions before Louis the Pious mustered a massive force and marched against them. They fled, but it would not be the last time they harried the northern coasts. In 838, they even claimed sovereignty over Frisia , but a treaty was confirmed between them and the Franks in 839. Louis the Pious ordered the construction of a North Sea fleet and the sending of missi dominici into Frisia to establish Frankish sovereignty there.

Third civil war
In 837, Louis crowned Charles king over all of Alemannia and Burgundy and gave him a portion of his brother Louis's land. Louis the German promptly rose in revolt, and the emperor redivided his realm again at Quierzy-sur-Oise , giving all of the young king of Bavaria's lands, save Bavaria itself, to Charles. Emperor Louis did not stop there, however. His devotion to Charles knew no bounds. When Pepin died in 838, Louis declared Charles the new king of Aquitaine. The nobles, however, elected Pepin's son Pepin II . When Louis threatened invasion, the third great civil war of his reign broke out. In the spring of 839, Louis the German invaded Swabia, Pepin II and his Gascon subjects fought all the way to the Loire , and the Danes returned to ravage the Frisian coast (sacking Dorstad for a second time).

Lothair, for the first time in a long time, allied with his father and pledged support at Worms in exchange for a redivision of the inheritance. By a final placitum issued there, Louis gave Bavaria to Louis the German and disinherited Pepin II, leaving the entire remainder of the empire to be divided roughly into an eastern part and a western. Lothair was given the choice of which partition he would inherit and he chose the eastern, including Italy, leaving the western for Charles. The emperor quickly subjugated Aquitaine and had Charles recognised by the nobles and clergy at Clermont-en-Auvergne in 840. Louis then, in a final flash of glory, rushed into Bavaria and forced the younger Louis into the Ostmark . The empire now settled as he had declared it at Worms, he returned in July to Frankfurt am Main , where he disbanded the army. The final civil war of his reign was over.

Death
Louis fell ill soon after his final victorious campaigns and went to his summer hunting lodge on an island in the Rhine, by his palace at Ingelheim . On 20 June 840 , he died, in the presence of many bishops and clerics and in the arms of his half-brother Drogo, though Charles and Judith were absent in Poitiers. Soon dispute plunged the surviving brothers into a civil war that was only settled in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun , which split the Frankish realm into three parts, to become the kernels of France and Germany , with Burgundy and the Low Countries between them. The dispute over the kingship of Aquitaine was not fully settled until 860.

Louis the Pious, along with his half-brother Drogo, were buried in Saint Pierre aux Nonnains Basilica in Metz .

Marriage and issue
By his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye (married ca 794-98), he had three sons and three daughters:
Lothair (795 -855 ), king of Middle Francia
Pepin (797 -838 ), king of Aquitaine
Adelaide (b. c. 799 ), perhaps married Robert the Strong
Rotrude (b. 800 ), married Gerard
Hildegard (or Matilda) (b. c. 802 ), married Gerard , Count of Auvergne
Louis the German (c. 805 -875 ), king of East Francia
By his second wife, Judith of Bavaria , he had a daughter and a son:
Gisela , married Eberhard I of Friuli
Charles the Bald , king of West Francia
By Theodelinde of Sens[citation needed ], he had two illegitimate children:
Arnulf of Sens
Alpais
-------
From Wikipedia - Chasseneuil-du-Poitou :

The town, then simply the villa Cassinogilum, was a royal residence of first the Merovingian , and then Carolingian dynasties in France.[8] Louis the Pious , later King of Aquitaine and King of the Franks was born in the villa on 16 April 778 , when his mother, Hildegard of Vinzgouw was staying in the villa whilst his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain .


Research Notes: Wife - Ermengarde of Hesbaye

First wife of Louis I.

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871904 has b. abt 774

From Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Hesbaye :
Ermengarde, or Irmengarde of Hesbaye (c. 778 - 818 ) was the daughter of Ingram , count of Hesbaye and Hedwig of Bavaria. She was a Frank . Her family is known as the Robertians
Ermengarde married in 794 /795 Louis the Pious , king of Aquitania , king of Franks , king of Italy, ruler of the Holy Roman Empire .
She had six children :
Lothair I , born 795 in Altdorf, Bavaria
Pepin of Aquitaine , born 797
Adelaide, born. ca. 799 . Possible wife of Robert the Strong , possible mother of Odo, Count of Paris and Robert I of France .
Rotrude, born 800 .
Hildegard / Matilda, born ca. 802 . Wife of Gerard, Count of Auvergne , possible mother of Ranulf I of Poitiers .
Louis the German , born ca. 805 .
She died at Angers , France on 3 October 818 . Louis was married to Judith a few years later and became father of Charles the Bald .


Burial Notes: Child - Lothair I Holy Roman Emperor

Some source says he was buried at Saint-Sauveur, but he was actually buried at the monastery in Prüm.


Research Notes: Child - Lothair I Holy Roman Emperor

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871901 :

King of the Franks, Holy Roman Emperor 840-855. Lothair received most of Burgundy and many German and French port cities upon the breakup of his grandfather's empire by his father, Louis. Upon his father's death, Lothair attepted to sieze the entire empire, but was defeated by his brothers Louis and Charles at the battle of Fontenoy in 841. He remained Emperor until his death in 855.

From Wikipedia - Lothair I :

Lothair I (German : Lothar, French : Lothaire, Italian : Lotario) (795 - 29 September 855 ), king of Italy (818 - 855) and crowned Carolingian King of (Northern) Italy, Emperor of the Romans and (nominally) was Emperor of the Franks (840 - 855).

Lothair was the eldest son of the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye , daughter of Ingerman , duke of Hesbaye . He led his full-brothers Pippin I of Aquitaine and Louis the German in revolt against their father on several occasions, in protest against his attempts to make their half-brother Charles the Bald a co-heir to the Frankish domains. Upon the death of the father, Charles and Louis joined forces against Lothair in a three year civil war (840-843), the struggles between the brothers leading directly to the break up of the great Frankish Empire assembled by their grandfather Charlemagne , and would lay the foundation for the development of modern France and Germany.

Little is known of his early life, which was probably passed at the court of his grandfather Charlemagne . Shortly after the accession of his father, he was sent to govern Bavaria. He first comes to historical attention in 817, when Louis the Pious drew up his Ordinatio Imperii. In this, Louis designated Lothair as his principal heir, to whom his younger brothers Pippin of Aquitaine and Louis the German, as well as his cousin Bernard of Italy , would be subject after the death of their father; he would also inherit their lands if they were to die childless. Lothair was then crowned joint emperor by his father at Aix-la-Chapelle . At the same time, Aquitaine and Bavaria were granted to his brothers Pippin and Louis respectively as subsidiary kingdoms. Following the murder of Bernard, King of Italy, by Louis the Pious, Lothair also received the Kingdom of Italy. In 821, he married Ermengarde (d. 851), daughter of Hugh , count of Tours . In 822, he assumed the government of Italy , and at Easter, 5 April 823 , he was crowned emperor again by Pope Paschal I , this time at Rome .

In November 824, he promulgated a statute concerning the relations of pope and emperor which reserved the supreme power to the secular potentate, and he afterwards issued various ordinances for the good government of Italy.

On his return to his father's court his stepmother Judith won his consent to her plan for securing a kingdom for her son Charles , a scheme which was carried out in 829, when the young prince was given Alemannia as king. Lothair, however, soon changed his attitude and spent the succeeding decade in constant strife over the division of the Empire with his father. He was alternately master of the Empire, and banished and confined to Italy, at one time taking up arms in alliance with his brothers and at another fighting against them, whilst the bounds of his appointed kingdom were in turn extended and reduced.

The first rebellion began in 830. All three brothers fought their father, whom they deposed. In 831, he was reinstated and he deprived Lothair of his imperial title and gave Italy to the young Charles. The second rebellion was instigated by Angilbert II, Archbishop of Milan , in 833, and again Louis was deposed and reinstated the next year (834). Lothair, through the loyalty of the Lombards and later reconciliations, retained Italy and the imperial position through all remaining divisions of the Empire by his father.

When Louis the Pious was dying in 840, he sent the imperial insignia to Lothair, who, disregarding the various partitions, claimed the whole of the Empire. Negotiations with his brother Louis the German and his half-brother Charles, both of whom armed to resist this claim, were followed by an alliance of the younger brothers against Lothair. A decisive battle was fought at Fontenay-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841 , when, in spite of his and his allied nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine 's personal gallantry, Lothair was defeated and fled to Aachen. With fresh troops he began a war of plunder, but the forces of his brothers were too strong for him, and taking with him such treasure as he could collect, he abandoned to them his capital. He met with the leaders of the Stellinga in Speyer and promised them his support in return for theirs, but Louis and then the native Saxon nobility put down the Stellinga in the next years.

Peace negotiations began, and in June 842 the brothers met on an island in the Saône , and agreed to an arrangement which developed, after much difficulty and delay, into the Treaty of Verdun signed in August 843. By this, Lothair received the imperial title as well as northern Italy and a long stretch of territory from the North Sea to the Mediterranean , essentially along the valleys of the Rhine and the Rhone . He soon left Italy to his eldest son, Louis , and remained in his new kingdom, engaging in alternate quarrels and reconciliations with his brothers and in futile efforts to defend his lands from the attacks of the Northmen (as Vikings were known in Frankish writings) and the Saracens .

In 855, he became seriously ill and, despairing of recovery, renounced the throne, divided his lands between his three sons, and on September 23 , entered the monastery of Prüm , where he died six days later. He was buried at Prüm, where his remains were found in 1860.

His kingdom was divided among his three sons - the eldest, Louis II , received Italy and the title of Emperor; the second, Lothair II , received Lotharingia ; while the youngest, Charles , received Provence .

Family
He married Ermengarde of Tours , who died in 851. The last of his nine children are illegitimate.
Louis II (825-875)
Hiltrude (826-865)
Bertha (c.830-852)
Irmgard (c.830-849)
Gisela (c.830-856)
Lothair II (835-869)
Rotrude (c.840)
Charles (845-863)
Carloman (853)


Research Notes: Child - Pepin I of Aquitaine

Died childless.

From Wikipedia - Pepin I of Aquitaine :
Pepin I (797 - December 13 , 838 ) was King of Aquitaine . He was the second son of Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye .
When his father assigned to each of his sons a kingdom (within the Empire ) in August 817, he received Aquitaine, which had been Louis's own subkingdom during his father Charlemagne's reign. Ermoldus Nigellus was his court poet and accompanied him on a campaign into Brittany in 824.
Pepin rebelled in 830 at the insistence of his brother Lothair 's advisor Wala . He took an army of Gascons with him and marched all the way to Paris , with the support of the Neustrians . His father marched back from a campaign in Brittany all the way to Compiègne , where Pepin surrounded and captured him. The rebellion, however, broke up.
In 832, Pepin rebelled again and his brother Louis the German soon followed. Louis the Pious was in Aquitaine to subdue any revolt, but the younger Louis' Bavarian insurrection drew him off. Pepin took Limoges and other Imperial territories. The next year, Lothair joined the rebellion and, with the assistance of Ebbo , archbishop of Rheims , they deposed their father in 833. Lothair's later behaviour alienated him and he was on his father's side when Louis the Pious was reinstated on 1 March 834 . Pepin was restored to his former status.
Pepin died scarcely four years later and was buried in Sainte-Croix in Poitiers . Louis the Pious named Charles, his son by a second wife, king. The Aquitainians, however, elected Pepin's son, Pepin II .

In 822, he married Ingeltrude,[1] daughter of Theodobert, count of Madrie , with whom he had two sons: Pepin (823-after 864), his successor in Aquitaine, and Charles (b.825-830, d.4 June 863), who became archbishop of Mainz and briefly claimed the kingdom. Both died childless.


Research Notes: Child - Adelaide

From Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Hesbaye :

Adelaide, born. ca. 799 . Possible wife of Robert the Strong , possible mother of Odo, Count of Paris and Robert I of France .


Research Notes: Child - Rotrude

Probably the mother of Ranulf I, Duke of Aquitaine.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871967 :
(Hildegarde) Hidegarde born 802-4 is unlikely mother. Most records state that Rotrude of Hildegarde are the mother. As Rotrude is the earlier issue of Louis, she seems the likelier choice.


Research Notes: Child - Hildegard

Source: Wikipedia - Ermengarde of Hesbaye


Research Notes: Child - Louis II King of Germany

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875189 :

King of Germany. Louis received Bavaria and the eastern lands of the empire of his grandfather Charlemange when the empire was divided among Louis' brothers.


Herbert III Count of Vermandois and Ermengarde




Husband Herbert III Count of Vermandois 3 76

           Born: Between 942 and 953
     Christened: 
           Died: 993
         Buried: 


         Father: Albert I "the Pious" Count of Vermandois (Abt 0920-0988) 77 78
         Mother: Gerberga of Lorraine (Abt 0935-0978) 79


       Marriage: by 987

   Other Spouse: Ogiva of England (0902-After 0955) - 951



Wife Ermengarde 3 80

           Born: Abt 946 - Burgundy, (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1042
         Buried: 


         Father: Reinald Count of Bar (Abt 0920-      ) 3 81
         Mother: 


Events

• Living: 1021-1043.


Children
1 M Otto of Vermandois 3 82

            AKA: Eudes Count of Vermandois, Otho Count of Vermandois
           Born: Abt 1000 - <Vermandois, (Aisne), Picardy, France>
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 May 1045 - France
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Parvie (      -      ) 83



Birth Notes: Husband - Herbert III Count of Vermandois

Ancestral Roots has b. abt 955, but if he married Ogiva in 951, something is in error.
FamilySearch has b. between 942 and 953


Death Notes: Husband - Herbert III Count of Vermandois

FamilySearch has d. 29 Aug 0997/1015.
Ancestral Roots has d. 993


Research Notes: Husband - Herbert III Count of Vermandois

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-20. This source has b. abt 955, but if he married Ogiva in 951, something is in error.


Birth Notes: Wife - Ermengarde

May have been born in Champagne.


Research Notes: Wife - Ermengarde

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-20 (Herbert III). "[Possibly] wid. of Milon II, of Tonnerre, dau. of Reinald, Count of Bar-sur-Seine. (ES III.1/49, III.4/730; West Winter, VIII.4 doubts that Ermengarde was of Bar, or was wid. of Milon; ES III.4.681 shows Ingeltrudis, m. Milon, Count of Tonnerre, as a questionable dau. of Englebert I of Brienne)."


Notes: Marriage

FamilySearch has m. bef. 974.


Research Notes: Child - Otto of Vermandois

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-21

Also Wikipedia - Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois


Robert "the Old" Duke of Burgundy and Ermengarde of Anjou




Husband Robert "the Old" Duke of Burgundy 84 85

            AKA: Robert I Duke of Burgundy, Robert Capet Duke of Burgundy
           Born: Abt 1011
     Christened: 
           Died: 21 Mar 1076 - <Burgundy, (France)>
         Buried: 


         Father: Robert II "the Pious" King of France (0972-1031) 86 87
         Mother: Constance of Provence (Abt 0986-1032) 88 89


       Marriage: Abt 1048

   Other Spouse: Hélie (1016-1055) 90 - Abt 1033

   Other Spouse: Hildegarde of Metz (      -      ) 91



Wife Ermengarde of Anjou 92 93

            AKA: Ermangarde d'Anjou, Ermengarde d'Anjou
           Born: Abt 952 - <Anjou, (France)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 27 Jun 992
         Buried: 


         Father: Geoffroi Comté d'Anjou (Abt 0938-0987) 94 95
         Mother: Adelaide of Vermandois (0950-0975/0978) 96



   Other Spouse: Conan I Count of Rennes, Duke of Brittany (Abt 0927-0992) 3 97 98 - 980 - Rennes, (Illes-et-Vilaine), Brittany, (France)


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Robert "the Old" Duke of Burgundy

Duke of Burgundy from 1032 to his death in 1076.

From Wikipedia - Robert I, Duke of Burgundy :

Robert I Capet (1011 - March 21 , 1076 ) was duke of Burgundy between 1032 to his death. Robert was son of King Robert II of France and brother of Henry I .
In 1025 , with the death of his eldest brother Hugh Magnus, he and Henry rebelled against their father and defeated him, forcing him back to Paris . In 1031 , after the death of his father the king, Robert participated in a rebellion against his brother, in which he was supported by his mother, Queen Constance d'Arles . Peace was only achieved when Robert was given Burgundy (1032 ).

Throughout his reign, he was little more than a robber baron who had no control over his own vassals, whose estates he often plundered, especially those of the Church. He seized the income of the diocese of Autun and the wine of the canons of Dijon . He burgled the abbey of St-Germain at Auxerre . In 1055 , he repudiated his wife, Helie of Semur, and assassinated her brother Joceran and murdered her father, his father-in-law, Lord Dalmace I of Semur , with his own hands. In that same year, the bishop of Langres , Harduoin, refused to dedicate the church of Sennecy so as not "to be exposed to the violence of the duke."
His first son, Hugh, died in battle at a young age and his second son, Henry , also predeceased him. He was succeeded by Henry's eldest son, his grandson, Hugh I .

Family
He married his first wife, Helie of Semur , about 1033 , and repudiated her in 1055. Robert and Helie had five children:
Hugh (1034-1059), killed in battle
Henry (1035-ca.1074)
Robert (1040-1113), poisoned; married Violante of Sicily, daughter of Roger I of Sicily
Simon (1045-1087)
Constance (1046-1093), married Alfonso VI of Castile
From his second wife, Ermengarde of Anjou, daughter of Fulk III of Anjou , he had one daughter:
Hildegard (c.1056-1104), married Duke William VIII of Aquitaine

Sources
Gwatking, H. M. , Whitney, J. P. , et al. Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III-Germany and the Western Empire. Cambridge University Press : London , 1930 .


Research Notes: Wife - Ermengarde of Anjou

2nd wife of Robert the Old.


Sources


1. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-9.

2. Wikipedia.org, Eochaid mac Domangairt.

3. http://www.familysearch.org.

4. Wikipedia.org, Domangart mac Domnaill.

5. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-8.

6. Wikipedia.org, Áed Find.

7. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-10.

8. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872470.

9. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872471.

10. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), line 1-8.

11. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872469.

12. Wikipedia.org, House of Wessex family tree.

13. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 71A-27 (Geoffroi III de Joinville).

14. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 151A-24 (Alix de Rameru).

15. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 71A-27 (Geoffroi III de Joinville), 151A-24.

16. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 151A-23, 71A-27 (Geoffroi III de Joinville).

17. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 151A-23 (Andre I de Rameru).

18. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 71A-27.

19. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875378.

20. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875379.

21. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875380.

22. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875381.

23. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875382.

24. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875377.

25. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #308141 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

26. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875428.

27. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105823 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

28. Wikipedia.org, Theodoric the Great.

29. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105822 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

30. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 118-24.

31. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871915.

32. Wikipedia.org, Fulk of Jerusalem.

33. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 118-23.

34. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871918.

35. Wikipedia.org, Fulk IV, Count of Anjou.

36. Wikipedia.org, Bertrade de Montfort.

37. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 118-24 (Fulk V).

38. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 129-24 (Fulk V).

39. Wikipedia.org, Ermengarde of Maine.

40. Wikipedia.org, Elias I of Maine.

41. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 129-25, 165-25 (Thierry of Lorraine).

42. Wikipedia.org, Sibylla of Anjou.

43. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 164-25, 165-25, 129-25 (Sybil of Anjou).

44. Wikipedia.org, Thierry, Count of Flanders.

45. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 118-25, 123-25.

46. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871913.

47. Wikipedia.org, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.

48. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-23, 118-25 (Geoffrey V).

49. Wikipedia.org, Empress Matilda.

50. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-14, 148-14.

51. Wikipedia.org, Louis the Pious.

52. Wikipedia.org, Chasseneuil-du-Poitou.

53. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871724.

54. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), 50-13, 140-13, 190-13.

55. Wikipedia.org, Charlemagne.

56. Wikipedia.org, Rhenish Hesse.

57. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #91438 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

58. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 182-5, 140-13 (Charlemagne), 148-13 (Charlemagne), 190-13 (Charlemagne).

59. Wikipedia.org, Hildegard of Vinzgouw.

60. http://www.familysearch.org, (Kevin Bradford).

61. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #91440 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

62. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-14 (Louis I), 148-14 (Louis I).

63. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871879.

64. Wikipedia.org, Judith of Bavaria (795-843).

65. Wikipedia.org, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

66. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-14 (Louis I).

67. Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f98/a0019865.htm.

68. Wikipedia.org, Ingerman of Hesbaye.

69. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-15.

70. Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f98/a0019866.htm.

71. Wikipedia.org, Lothair I.

72. Wikipedia.org, Ermengarde of Tours.

73. Wikipedia.org, Pepin I of Aquitaine, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

74. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 144A-15.

75. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 144A-15 (Rotrude).

76. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 50-20.

77. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 50-19, 140-19 (Gerberga), 142-19 (Gerberga).

78. Wikipedia.org, Adalbert I, Count of Vermandois.

79. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-19, 50-20 (Herbert III).

80. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 50-20 (Herbert III), 140-20 (Herbert III).

81. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-20 (Herbert III).

82. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 50-21, 140-21.

83. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-21 (Otho).

84. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 108-22, 113-22.

85. Wikipedia.org, Robert I, Duke of Burgundy.

86. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 101-21.

87. Wikipedia.org, Robert II of France.

88. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A-21, 101-21 (Robert II).

89. Wikipedia.org, Constance of Arles.

90. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 108-22 (Robert the Old), 113-22 (Robert the Old).

91. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 108-22 (Robert the Old).

92. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 119A-21.

93. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #125 Pin #874597 Maitland Dirk Brower.

94. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 118-20 (Adelaide de Vermandois).

95. Website:, http://cybergata.com/roots/4316.htm.

96. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 118-20, 121-20.

97. http://www.familysearch.org, Disc #125 Pin #891165 Maitland Dirk Brower & Kevin Bradford.

98. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 121E-21 (Richard II).


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44 Wikipedia.org, Thierry, Count of Flanders.

45 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 118-25, 123-25.

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72 Wikipedia.org, Ermengarde of Tours.

73 Wikipedia.org, Pepin I of Aquitaine, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

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78 Wikipedia.org, Adalbert I, Count of Vermandois.

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85 Wikipedia.org, Robert I, Duke of Burgundy.

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87 Wikipedia.org, Robert II of France.

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89 Wikipedia.org, Constance of Arles.

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93 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #125 Pin #874597 Maitland Dirk Brower.

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96 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 118-20, 121-20.

97 http://www.familysearch.org, Disc #125 Pin #891165 Maitland Dirk Brower & Kevin Bradford.

98 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 121E-21 (Richard II).


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