These pages represent the work of an amateur researcher and should not be used as a sole source by any other researcher. Few primary sources have been available. Corrections and contributions are encouraged and welcomed. -- Karen (Johnson) Fish

Descendants of IGOR of Kiev (d. 945)


First Generation  Next


1. Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev died in 945. Another name for Igor was Ingvar.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Sviatoslav I of Kiev

From Wikipedia - Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev :

Igor (Old East Slavic : , Old Norse : Ingvar, Ukrainian: ) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus from 912 to 945 . Very little is known about him from the Primary Chronicle . It has been speculated that the chroniclers chose not to enlarge on his reign, as the region was dominated by Khazaria at that time. That he was Rurik 's son is also questioned on chronological grounds.
He twice besieged Constantinople , in 941 and 944 , and in spite of his fleet being destroyed by Greek fire , concluded with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle. In 913 and 944 , the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions of the Rus , but it's not clear whether Igor had anything to do with these campaigns.
Drastically revising the chronology of the Primary Chronicle, Constantine Zuckerman argues that Igor actually reigned for three years, between summer 941 and his death in early 945. He explains the epic 33-year span of his reign in the chronicle by its author's faulty interpretation of Byzantine sources.[1] Indeed, none of Igor's activity are recorded in the chronicle prior to 941.
Igor was killed[2] while collecting tribute from the Drevlians in 945 and revenged by his wife, Olga of Kiev . The Primary Chronicle blames his death on his own excessive greed, indicating that he was attempting to collect tribute a second time in a month. As a result, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie ) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.

[edit ] References
^
Zuckerman, Constantine. On the Date of the Khazars' Conversion to Judaism and the Chronology of the Kings of the Rus Oleg and Igor. A Study of the Anonymous Khazar Letter from the Genizah of Cairo. // Revue des études byzantines. 1995. 53. Pp. 237-270.
^ Leo the Deacon describes how Igor met his death: "They had bent down two birch trees to the prince's feet and tied them to his legs; then they let the trees straighten again, thus tearing the prince's body apart."[1]



Igor married Olga, of Kiev. Olga was born about 890 and died on 11 Jul 969 in Kiev, Ukraine about age 79. Other names for Olga were Saint Olga of Kiev and Olga Prekrasa.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev

From Wikiepdia - Olga of Kiev :
Saint Olga (Russian and Ukrainian : also called Olga Prekrasa ( or Olga the Beauty, Old Norse : Helga; born c. 890 died July 11 , 969 , Kiev ) was a Pskov woman of Varangian extraction who married the future Igor of Kiev , arguably in 903 . The Primary Chronicle gives 879 as her date of birth, which is rather unlikely, given the fact that her only son was probably born some 65 years after that date. After Igor's death, she ruled Kievan Rus as regent (945 -c. 963 ) for their son, Svyatoslav .
At the start of her reign, Olga spent great effort to avenge her husband's death at the hands of the Drevlians , and succeeded in slaughtering many of them and interring some in a ship burial , while still alive. She is reputed to have scalded captives to death and another, probably apocryphal, story tells of how she destroyed a town hostile to her. She asked that each household present her with a dove as a gift, then tied burning papers to the legs of each dove which she then released to fly back to their homes. Each avian incendiary set fire to the thatched roof of their respective home and the town was destroyed. More importantly in the long term, Olga changed the system of tribute gathering (poliudie ) in what may be regarded as the first legal reform recorded in Eastern Europe.
She was the first Rus ruler to convert to Christianity , either in 945 or in 957 . The ceremonies of her formal reception in Constantinople were minutely described by Emperor Constantine VII in his book De Ceremoniis . Following her baptism she took the Christian name Yelena, after the reigning Empress Helena Lekapena. The Slavonic chronicles add apocryphal details to the account of her baptism, such as the story how she charmed and "outwitted" Constantine and how she spurned his matrimonial proposals. In truth, at the time of her baptism, Olga was an old woman, while Constantine had a wife.

Seven Latin sources document Olga's embassy to Emperor Otto I in 959 . The continuation of Regino of Prüm mentions that the envoys requested the Emperor to appoint a bishop and priests for their nation. The chronicler accuses the envoys of lies, commenting that their trick was not exposed until later. Thietmar of Merseburg says that the first archbishop of Magdeburg , before being promoted to this high rank, was sent by Emperor Otto to the country of the Rus (Rusciae) as a simple bishop but was expelled by pagans. The same data is duplicated in the annals of Quedlinburg and Hildesheim , among others.
Olga was one of the first people of Rus to be proclaimed saint, for her efforts to spread the Christian religion in the country. However, she failed to convert Svyatoslav , and it was left to her grandson and pupil Vladimir I to make Christianity the lasting state religion . During her son's prolonged military campaigns, she remained in charge of Kiev, residing in the castle of Vyshgorod together with her grandsons. She died soon after the city's siege by the Pechenegs in 968 .


The child from this marriage was:

+ 2 M    i. Sviatoslav I, of Kiev 1 was born about 942 and died in Mar 972 about age 30.

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2. Sviatoslav I, of Kiev 1 (Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 942 and died in Mar 972 about age 30.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Sviatoslav I of Kiev :

Sviatoslav I of Kiev (Old East Slavic : ([1] (Sventoslav Igorevich), Russian : Ukrainian : Bulgarian : Greek : (Sfendoslavos) ) (c. 942 - March 972) was a warrior prince of Kievan Rus' . The son of Igor of Kiev and Olga , Sviatoslav is famous for his incessant campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe-Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire ; he also subdued the Volga Bulgars , the Alans , and numerous East Slavic tribes, and at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars . His decade-long reign over Rus' was marked by rapid expansion into the Volga River valley, the Pontic steppe and the Balkans . By the end of his short life, Sviatoslav carved out for himself the largest state in Europe , eventually moving his capital from Kiev to Pereyaslavets on the Danube in 969. In contrast with his mother's conversion to Christianity , Sviatoslav remained a staunch pagan all of his life. Due to his abrupt death in combat, Sviatoslav's conquests, for the most part, were not consolidated into a functioning empire, while his failure to establish a stable succession led to civil war among his successors.

Sviatoslav was the first ruler of Kievan Rus' whose name is indisputably Slavic in origin (as opposed to his predecessors, whose names are ultimately derived from Old Norse ). This name is not recorded in other medieval Slavic countries. Even in Rus', it was attested only among the members of the house of Rurik , as were the names of Sviatoslav's immediate successors: Vladimir , Yaroslav , Mstislav ).[2] Some scholars speculate that the name of Sviatoslav, composed of the Slavic roots for "holy" and "glory", was an artificial derivation combining those of his predecessors Oleg and Rurik (they mean "holy" and "glorious" in Old Norse, respectively).[3]

Virtually nothing is known about his childhood and youth, which he spent reigning in Novgorod . Sviatoslav's father, Igor , was killed by the Drevlians around 942 and his mother, Olga , ruled as regent in Kiev until Sviatoslav's majority (ca. 963).[4] His tutor was a Varangian named Asmud . "Quick as a leopard,"[5] Sviatoslav appears to have had little patience for administration. His life was spent with his druzhina (roughly, "troops") in permanent warfare against neighboring states. According to the Primary Chronicle .

" Upon his expeditions he carried with him neither wagons nor kettles, and boiled no meat, but cut off small strips of horseflesh, game or beef, and ate it after roasting it on the coals. Nor did he have a tent, but he spread out a horse-blanket under him, and set his saddle under his head, and all his retinue did likewise.[6] " Sviatoslav was noted by Leo the Deacon to be of average height and build. He shaved his head and his beard (or possibly just had a wispy beard) but wore a bushy mustache and a one or two sidelocks as a sign of his nobility. He preferred to dress in white, and it was noted that his garments were much cleaner than those of his men. He wore a single large gold earring bearing a ruby and two pearls .[7] [8]

His mother converted to Christianity at the court of Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in 945 or 957. However,[9] Sviatoslav continued to worship Perun , Veles , Svarog and the other gods and goddesses of the Slavic pantheon . He remained a stubborn pagan for all of his life; according to the Primary Chronicle, he believed that his warriors would lose respect for him and mock him if he became a Christian.[10] The allegiance of his warriors was of paramount importance in his conquest of an empire that stretched from the Volga to the Danube.

Family

Very little is known of Sviatoslav's family life. It is possible that Sviatoslav was not the only (and the eldest) son of his parents. The Russo-Byzantine treaty of 945 mentions a certain Predslava, Volodislav's wife, as the noblest of the Rus' women after Olga. George Vernadsky was among many historians to speculate that Volodislav was Igor's eldest son and heir who died at some point during Olga's regency. At the time of Igor's death, Sviatoslav was still a child and he was raised by his mother or at her instructions. Her influence, however, did not extend to his religious observance.

Sviatoslav, had several children, but the origin of his wives is not specified in the chronicle. By his wives, he had Yaropolk and Oleg .[11] By Malusha , a woman of indeterminate origins,[12] Sviatoslav had Vladimir , who would ultimately break with his father's paganism and convert Rus to Christianity . John Skylitzes reported that Vladimir had a brother named Sfengus ; whether this Sfengus was a son of Sviatoslav, a son of Malusha by a prior or subsequent husband, or an unrelated Rus' nobleman is unclear.[13]
When Sviatoslav went on campaign he left his various relations as regents in the main cities of his realm: his mother Olga and later Yaropolk in Kiev, Vladimir in Novgorod, and Oleg over the Drevlians...

Death and aftermath


Fearing that the peace with Sviatoslav would not endure, the Byzantine emperor induced the Pecheneg khan Kurya to kill Sviatoslav before he reached Kiev. This was in line with the policy outlined by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in De Administrando Imperio of fomenting strife between the Rus' and the Pechenegs.[35] According to the Slavic chronicle, Sveneld attempted to warn Sviatoslav to avoid the Dnieper cataracts , but the prince slighted his wise advice and was ambushed and slain by the Pechenegs when he tried to cross the cataracts near Khortitsa early in 972. The Primary Chronicle reports that his skull was made into a chalice by the Pecheneg khan, Kurya.[36]

Following Sviatoslav's death, tensions between his sons grew. A war broke out between Sviatoslav's legitimate sons, Oleg and Yaropolk , in 976, at the conclusion of which Oleg was killed. In 977 Vladimir fled Novgorod to escape Oleg's fate and went to Scandinavia , where he raised an army of Varangians and returned in 980. Yaropolk was killed and Vladimir became the sole ruler of Kievan Rus'.

Notes
^
E.g. in the Primary Chronicle under year 970
^ X-XVI [Choice of personal names for the Russian princes of the 10th-16th centuries.] Moscow: Indrik, 2006. ISBN 5-85759-339-5 . Page 43.
^ See in (Moscow, 1970).
^ If Olga was indeed born in 879, as the Primary Chronicle seems to imply, she should have been about 65 at the time of Svyatoslav's birth. There are clearly some problems with chronology.
^ Primary Chronicle entry for 968
^ Cross and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Primary Chronicle, p. 84.
^ Vernadsky 276-277. The sidelock is reminiscent of Turkic hairstyles and practices and was later mimicked by Cossacks .
^ For the alternative translations of the same passage of the Greek original that say that Sviatoslav may have not shaven but wispy beard and not one but two sidelocks on each side of his head, see eg. Ian Heath "The Vikings (Elite 3)", Osprey Publishing 1985; ISBN: 9780850455656, p.60 or David Nicolle "Armies of Medieval Russia 750-1250 (Men-at-Arms 333)" Osprey Publishing 1999; ISBN: 9781855328488, p.44
^ Based on his analysis of De Ceremoniis Alexander Nazarenko hypothesizes that Olga hoped to orchestrate a marriage between Svyatoslav and a Byzantine princess. If her proposal was peremptorily declined (as it most certainly would have been), it is hardly surprising that Sviatoslav would look at Byzantium and her Christian culture with suspicion. Nazarenko 302.
^ Primary Chronicle _____.
^ Whether Yaropolk and Oleg were whole or half brothers, and who their mother or mothers were, is a matter hotly debated by historians.
^ She is traditionally identified in Russian historiography as Dobrynya 's sister; for other theories on her identity, see here .
^ Indeed, Franklin and Shepard advanced the hypothesis that Sfengus was identical with Mstislav of Tmutarakan . Franklin and Shepard 200-201.
^ "Rus", Encyclopaedia of Islam
^ Christian 345. It is disputed whether Svyatoslav invaded the land of Vyatichs that year. The only campaign against the Vyatichs explicitly mentioned in the Primary Chronicle is dated to 966.
^ Russian Primary Chronicle ( - 2. - 1908, ) for year 6472. The chronicler may have wished to contrast Sviatoslav's open declaration of war to stealthy tactics employed by many other early medieval conquerors.
^ For Sviatoslav's reliance on nomad cavalry, see, e.g., Franklin and Shepard 149; Christian 298; Pletneva 18.
^ Christian 298. The Primary Chronicle is very succinct about the whole campaign against Khazars, saying only that Sviatoslav "took their city and Belaya Vezha".
^ The town was an important trade center located near the portage between the Volga and Don Rivers . By the early 12th century, however, it had been destroyed by the Kipchaks .
^ See, generally Christian 297-298; Dunlop passim.
^ Logan (1992), p. 202
^ Artamonov 428; Christian 298.
^ The campaign against Ossetians is attested in the Primary Chronicle. The Novgorod First Chronicle specifies that Sviatoslav resettled the Ossetians near Kiev, but Sakharov finds this claim dubitable.
^ The Mandgelis Document refers to a Khazar potentate in the Taman Peninsula around 985, long after Sviatoslav's death. Kedrenos reported that the Byzantines and Rus' collaborated in the conquest of a Khazar kingdom in the Crimea in 1016 and still later, Ibn al-Athir reported an unsuccessful attack by al-Fadl ibn Muhammad against the Khazars in the Caucasus in 1030. For more information on these and other references, see Khazars#Late references to the Khazars .
^ Christian 298.
^ Most historians believe the Greeks were interested in the destruction of Khazaria. Another school of thought essentializes Yahya of Antioch 's report that, prior to the Danube campaign, the Byzantines and the Rus' were at war. See Sakharov, chapter I.
^ The exact date of Sviatoslav's Bulgarian campaign, which likely did not commence until the conclusion of his Khazar campaign, is unknown.
^ Mikhail Tikhomirov and Vladimir Pashuto, among others, assume that the Emperor was interested primarily in diverting Sviatoslav's attention from Chersonesos , a Byzantine possession in the Crimea . Indeed, Leo the Deacon three times mentions that Svyatoslav and his father Igor controlled Cimmerian Bosporus . If so, a conflict of interests in the Crimea was inevitable. The Suzdal Chronicle, though a rather late source, also mentions Sviatoslav's war against Chersonesos. In the peace treaty of 971 , Sviatoslav promised not to wage wars against either Constantinople or Chersonesos. Byzantine sources also report that Kalokyros attempted to persuade Sviatoslav to support Kalokyros in a coup against the reigning Byzantine emperor. As a remuneration for his help, Sviatoslav was supposed to retain a permanent hold on Bulgaria. Modern historians, however, assign little historical importance to this story. Kendrick 157.
^ All figures in this article, including the numbers of Svyatoslav's troops, are based on the reports of Byzantine sources, which may differ from those of the Slavonic chronicles. Greek sources report Khazars and "Turks" in Sviatoslav's army as well as Pechenegs. As used in such Byzantine writings as Constantine Porphyrogenitus' De Administrando Imperio , "Turks" refers to Magyars . The Rus'-Magyar alliance resulted in the Hungarian expedition against the second largest city of the empire, Thessalonika , in 968.
^ Boris II was captured by the Byzantines in 971 and carried off to Constantinople as a prisoner.
^ Kendrick 158
^ Simultaneously, Otto I attacked Byzantine possessions in the south of Italy. This remarkable coincidence may be interpreted as an evidence of the anti-Byzantine German-Russian alliance. See: Manteuffel 41.
^ Grekov 445-446. The Byzantine sources report the enemy casualties to be as high as 20,000, the figure modern historians find to be highly improbable.
^ Franklin and Shepard 149-150
^ Constantine VII pointed out that, by virtue of their controlling the Dnieper cataracts, the Pechenegs may easily attack and destroy the Rus' vessels sailing along the river.
^ The use of a defeated enemy's skull as a drinking vessel is reported by numerous authors through history among various steppe peoples, such as the Scythians . Kurya likely intended this as a compliment to Sviatoslav; sources report that Kurya and his wife drank from the skull and prayed for a son as brave as the deceased Rus' warlord. Christian 344; Pletneva 19; Cross and Sherbowitz-Wetzor 90.
^ E. A Lanceray. "Svyatoslav on the way to Tsargrad .", The Russian History in the Mirror of the Fine Arts (Russian)
^ Cooke, Raymond Cooke. Velimir Khlebnikov: A Critical Study. Cambridge University Press, 1987. Pages 122-123
^ London: Shapiro, Vallentine, 1926
^ (Moscow: Det. lit., 1989).
^
^ "The Federation of Jewish Communities protests against the presence of a Star of David in a new sculpture in Belgorod" , Interfax, November 21, 2005; Kozhevnikova, Galina, "Radical nationalism and efforts to oppose it in Russia in 2005" ; "FJC Russia Appeal Clarifies Situation Over Potentially Anti-Semitic Monument" (Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS Press Release), November 23, 2005; Dahan, David, "Jews protest trampled Star of David statue", European Jewish Press, November 22, 2005

References
Artamonov, Mikhail Istoriya Khazar. Leningrad , 1962.
Barthold, W. . "Khazar". Encyclopaedia of Islam (Brill Online). Eds.: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 1996.
Chertkov A. D. Opisanie voin velikago kniazya Svyatoslava Igorevicha. Moscow, 1843.
Chlenov, A.M. ( "K Voprosu ob Imeni Sviatoslava." Lichnye Imena v proshlom, Nastoyaschem i Buduschem Antroponomiki (" ) (Moscow, 1970).
Christian, David . A History of Russia, Mongolia and Central Asia. Blackwell, 1999.
Cross, S. H., and O.P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor. The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text. Cambridge, Mass.: Medieval Academy of America, 1953.
Dunlop, D.M. History of the Jewish Khazars. Princeton Univ. Press, 1954.
Golden, P.B. "Rus." Encyclopaedia of Islam (Brill Online). Eds.: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2006.
Grekov, Boris . Kiev Rus. tr. Sdobnikov, Y., ed. Ogden, Denis. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959
Kendrick, Thomas D. A History of the Vikings. Courier Dover Publications, 2004. ISBN 0-486-43396-X
Logan, Donald F. The Vikings in History 2nd ed. Routledge, 1992. ISBN 0-415-08396-6
Manteuffel Th. "Les tentatives d'entrainement de la Russie de Kiev dans la sphere d'influence latin". Acta Poloniae Historica. Warsaw, t. 22, 1970.
Nazarenko, A.N. ( Drevniaya Rus' na Mezhdunarodnykh Putiakh ( ). Moscow, Russian Academy of Sciences, World History Institute, 2001. ISBN 5-7859-0085-8 .
Pletneva, Svetlana . Polovtsy Moscow: Nauka, 1990.
Sakharov, Andrey . The Diplomacy of Svyatoslav. Moscow: Nauka , 1982. (online )
Subtelny, Orest . Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6
Vernadsky, G.V. The Origins of Russia. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959.



Sviatoslav married Malusha.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Vladimir I of Kiev


The child from this marriage was:

+ 3 M    i. Vladimir I, of Kiev 2 3 was born about 958 and died on 15 Jul 1015 in Berestovo, Ukraine about age 57.

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3. Vladimir I, of Kiev 2 3 (Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 958 and died on 15 Jul 1015 in Berestovo, Ukraine about age 57. Other names for Vladimir were Saint Vladimir of Kiev, Vladimir the Great, and Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Vladimir I of Kiev

Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. 958 - 15 July 1015 , Berestovo ) was the grand prince of Kiev who converted to Christianity in 988, and proceeded to baptise the whole Kievan Rus . His name may be spelled in different ways: in Old East Slavic as Volodimir (), in modern Ukrainian as Volodymyr (), in Old Church Slavonic and modern Russian as Vladimir (), in Old Norse as Valdamarr and the modern Scandinavian languages as Valdemar.

Way to the throne

Vladimir was the youngest son of Sviatoslav I of Kiev by his housekeeper Malusha , described in the Norse sagas as a prophetess who lived to the age of 100 and was brought from her cave to the palace to predict the future. Malusha's brother Dobrynya was Vladimir's tutor and most trusted advisor. Hagiographic tradition of dubious authenticity also connects his childhood with the name of his grandmother, Olga Prekrasa , who was Christian and governed the capital during Sviatoslav's frequent military campaigns.

Transferring his capital to Preslavets in 969, Sviatoslav designated Vladimir ruler of Novgorod the Great but gave Kiev to his legitimate son Yaropolk . After Sviatoslav's death (972), a fratricidal war erupted (976) between Yaropolk and his younger brother Oleg , ruler of the Drevlians . In 977 Vladimir fled to his kinsmen Haakon Sigurdsson , ruler of Norway in Scandinavia , collecting as many of the Viking warriors as he could to assist him to recover Novgorod, and on his return the next year marched against Yaropolk.

On his way to Kiev he sent ambassadors to Rogvolod (Norse: Ragnvald), prince of Polotsk , to sue for the hand of his daughter Rogneda (Norse: Ragnhild). The well-born princess refused to affiance herself to the son of a bondswoman, but Vladimir attacked Polotsk, slew Rogvolod, and took Ragnhild by force. Actually, Polotsk was a key fortress on the way to Kiev, and the capture of Polotsk and Smolensk facilitated the taking of Kiev (980), where he slew Yaropolk by treachery, and was proclaimed konung , or kagan , of all Kievan Rus .

Years of pagan rule
In addition to his father's extensive domain, Vladimir continued to expand his territories. In 981 he conquered the Cherven cities, the modern Galicia ; in 983 he subdued the Yatvingians , whose territories lay between Lithuania and Poland ; in 985 he led a fleet along the central rivers of Russia to conquer the Bulgars of the Kama , planting numerous fortresses and colonies on his way.

Though Christianity had won many converts since Olga's rule, Vladimir had remained a thorough going pagan, taking eight hundred concubines (besides numerous wives) and erecting pagan statues and shrines to gods. It is argued that he attempted to reform Slavic paganism by establishing thunder-god Perun as a supreme deity.

Baptism of Rus

The Primary Chronicle reports that in the year 987 , as the result of a consultation with his boyars , Vladimir sent envoys to study the religions of the various neighboring nations whose representatives had been urging him to embrace their respective faiths. The result is amusingly described by the chronicler Nestor . Of the Muslim Bulgarians of the Volga the envoys reported there is no gladness among them; only sorrow and a great stench, and that their religion was undesirable due to its taboo against alcoholic beverages and pork ; supposedly, Vladimir said on that occasion: "Drinking is the joy of the Rus'." Russian sources also describe Vladimir consulting with Jewish envoys (who may or may not have been Khazars ), and questioning them about their religion but ultimately rejecting it, saying that their loss of Jerusalem was evidence of their having been abandoned by God . Ultimately Vladimir settled on Christianity . In the churches of the Germans his emissaries saw no beauty; but at Constantinople , where the full festival ritual of the Byzantine Church was set in motion to impress them, they found their ideal: "We no longer knew whether we were in heaven or on earth," they reported, describing a majestic Divine Liturgy in Hagia Sophia , "nor such beauty, and we know not how to tell of it." If Vladimir was impressed by this account of his envoys, he was yet more so by political gains of the Byzantine alliance.

In 988 , having taken the town of Chersonesos in Crimea , he boldly negotiated for the hand of the emperor Basil II 's sister, Anna. Never had a Greek imperial princess, and one "born-in-the-purple" at that, married a barbarian before, as matrimonial offers of French kings and German emperors had been peremptorily rejected. In short, to marry the 27-year-old princess off to a pagan Slav seemed impossible. Vladimir, however, was baptized at Cherson, taking the Christian name of Basil out of compliment to his imperial brother-in-law; the sacrament was followed by his wedding with Anna . Returning to Kiev in triumph, he destroyed pagan monuments and established many churches, starting with the splendid Church of the Tithes (989) and monasteries on Mt. Athos .

Arab sources, both Muslim and Christian, present a different story of Vladimir's conversion. Yahya of Antioch , al-Rudhrawari , al-Makin , al-Dimashki , and ibn al-Athir [1] all give essentially the same account. In 987, Bardas Sclerus and Bardas Phocas revolted against the Byzantine emperor Basil II . Both rebels briefly joined forces, but then Bardas Phocas proclaimed himself emperor on September 14 , 987 . Basil II turned to the Kievan Rus' for assistance, even though they were considered enemies at that time. Vladimir agreed, in exchange for a marital tie; he also agreed to accept Orthodox Christianity as his religion and bring his people to the new faith. When the wedding arrangements were settled, Vladimir dispatched 6,000 troops to the Byzantine Empire and they helped to put down the revolt.[2]


Christian reign

He now formed a great council out of his boyars, and set his twelve sons over his subject principalities. With his neighbors he lived at peace, the incursions of the Pechenegs alone disturbing his tranquillity. After Anna's death, he married again, most likely to a granddaughter of Otto the Great .
He died at Berestovo, near Kiev, while on his way to chastise the insolence of his son, Prince Yaroslav of Novgorod . The various parts of his dismembered body were distributed among his numerous sacred foundations and were venerated as relics . One of the largest Kievan cathedrals is dedicated to him. The University of Kiev was named after the man who both civilized and Christianized Kievan Rus. There is the Order of St. Vladimir in Russia and Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary in the United States . The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches celebrate the feast day of St. Vladimir on 15 July .

His memory was also kept alive by innumerable Russian folk ballads and legends, which refer to him as Krasno Solnyshko, that is, the Fair Sun. With him the Varangian period of Eastern Slavic history ceases and the Christian period begins.

-------------

From Wikipedia - Family life and children of Vladimir I :

Until his baptism, Vladimir I of Kiev (c.958 -1015 ) was described by Thietmar of Merseburg as a great profligate (Latin : fornicator maximus). He had a few hundred concubines in Kiev and in the country residence of Berestovo . He also had official pagan wives, the most famous being Rogneda of Polotsk . His other wives are mentioned in the Primary Chronicle , with various children assigned to various wives in the different versions of the document. Hence, speculations abound.

Norse wife
Norse sagas mention that, while ruling in Novgorod in his early days, Vladimir had a Varangian wife named Olava or Allogia. This unusual name is probably a feminine form of Olaf . According to Snorri Sturluson the runaway Olaf Tryggvason was sheltered by Allogia in her house; she also paid a large fine for him.

Several authorities, notably Rydzevskaya ("Ancient Rus and Scandinavia in 9-14 cent.", 1978), hold that later skalds confused Vladimir's wife Olava with his grandmother and tutor Olga , with Allogia being the distorted form of Olga's name. Others postulate Olava was a real person and the mother of Vysheslav, the first of Vladimir's sons to reign in Novgorod, as behooves the eldest son and heir. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the tradition of sending the eldest son of Kievan monarch to Novgorod existed at such an early date.

Those scholars who believe that this early Norse wife was not fictitious, suppose that Vladimir could have married her during his famous exile in Scandinavia in the late 970s. They usually refer an account in Ingvars saga (in a part called Eymund's saga ) which tells that Eric VI of Sweden married his daughter to a 'konung of fjord lying to the East from Holmgard '. This prince may have been Vladimir the Great.

Polotsk wife
Main article: Rogneda of Polotsk
Rogneda of Polotsk is the best known of Vladimir's pagan wives, although her ancestry has fuelled the drollest speculations. See this article for extensive but tenuous arguments for her Yngling royal descent.
The Primary Chronicle mentions three of Rogneda's sons - Izyaslav of Polotsk (+1001), Vsevolod of Volhynia (+ca 995), and Yaroslav the Wise . Following an old Yngling tradition, Izyaslav inherited the lands of his maternal grandfather, i.e., Polotsk . According to the Kievan succession law, his progeny forfeited their rights to the Kievan throne, because their forefather had never ruled in Kiev supreme. They, however, retained the principality of Polotsk and formed a dynasty of local rulers, of which Vseslav the Sorcerer was the most notable.

Greek wife
During his unruly youth, Vladimir begot his eldest son, Sviatopolk , relations with whom would cloud his declining years. His mother was a Greek nun captured by Svyatoslav I in Bulgaria and married to his lawful heir Yaropolk I . Russian historian Vasily Tatischev , invariably erring in the matters of onomastics, gives her the fanciful Roman name of Julia. When Yaropolk was murdered by Vladimir's agents, the new sovereign raped his wife and she soon (some would say, too soon) gave birth to a child. Thus, Sviatopolk was probably the eldest of Vladimir's sons, although the issue of his parentage has been questioned and he has been known in the family as "the son of two fathers".

Bohemian wife
Vladimir apparently had a Czech wife, whose name is given by Vasily Tatishchev as Malfrida. Historians have gone to extremes in order to provide a political rationale behind such an alliance, as the Czech princes are assumed to have backed up Vladimir's brother Yaropolk rather than Vladimir. His children by these marriage were probably Svyatoslav of Smolensk, killed during the 1015 internecine war, and Mstislav of Chernigov . Some chronicles, however, report that Rogneda was Mstislav's mother.

Bulgarian wife
Another wife was a Bulgarian lady, whose name is given by Tatishchev as Adela. Historians have disagreed as to whether she came from Volga Bulgaria or from Bulgaria on the Danube . According to the Primary Chronicle , both Boris and Gleb were her children. This tradition, however, is viewed by most scholars as a product of later hagiographical tendency to merge the identity of both saints. Actually, they were of different age and their names point to different cultural traditions. Judging by his Oriental name, Boris could have been Adela's only offspring.

Anna Porphyrogeneta
Anna Porphyrogeneta, daughter of Emperor Romanos II and Theophano , was the only princess of the Makedones to have been married to a foreigner. The Byzantine emperors regarded the Franks and Russians as barbarians, refusing Hugues Capet 's proposals to marry Anna to his son Robert I , so the Baptism of Kievan Rus was a prerequisite for this marriage. Following the wedding, Vladimir is said to have divorced all his pagan wives, although this claim is disputed. Regarded by later Russians as a saint, Anna was interred with her husband in the Church of the Tithes .

Anna is not known to have had any children. Either her possible barrenness or the Byzantine house rule could account for this. Had she had any progeny, the prestigious and much sought imperial parentage would have certainly been advertised by her descendants. Hagiographic sources, contrary to the Primary Chronicle , posit Boris and Gleb as her offspring, on the understanding that holy brothers should have had a holy mother.

German wife
Anna is known to have predeceased Vladimir by four years. Thietmar of Merseburg , writing from contemporary accounts, mentions that Boleslaw I of Poland captured Vladimir's widow during his raid on Kiev in 1018 . The historians long had no clue as to identity of this wife. The emigre historian Nicholas Baumgarten, however, pointed to the controversial record of the "Genealogia Welforum" and the "Historia Welforum Weingartensis" that one daughter of Count Kuno von Oenningen (future Duke Konrad of Swabia ) by "filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris" (Otto the Great 's daughter; possibly Rechlinda Otona [Regelindis], claimed by some as illegitimate daughter and by others legitimate, born from his first marriage with Edith of Wessex) married "rex Rugorum" (king of Russia). He interpreted this evidence as pertaining to Vladimir's last wife.

It is believed that the only child of this alliance was Dobronega, or Maria, who married Casimir I of Poland between 1038 and 1042 . As her father Vladimir died about 25 years before that marriage and she was still young enough to bear at least five children, including two future Polish dukes (Boleslaw II of Poland , who later became a king, and Wladyslaw Herman ), it is thought probable that she was Vladimir's daughter by the last marriage.

Some sources claimed Agatha , the wife of Edward the Exile of England, was another daughter of this marriage and full-sister of Dobronegra. Their marriage took place by the same time of Dobronegra's wedding (the date of birth of her first child support this) and this maybe because was double wedding of both sisters. This can resolve the question about the conection between Agatha and the Holy Roman Empire claimed by several medieval sources.

Yaroslav's parentage
There is also a case for Yaroslav 's descent from Anna. According to this theory, Nestor the Chronicler deliberately represented Yaroslav as Rogneda's son, because he systematically removed all information concerning Kievan ties with Byzantium , spawning pro-Varangian bias (see Normanist theory for details). Proponents allege that Yaroslav's true age was falsified by Nestor, who attempted to represent him as 10 years older than he actually had been, in order to justify Yaroslav's seizure of the throne at the expense of his older brothers.

The Primary Chronicle , for instance, states that Yaroslav died at the age of 76 in 1054 (thus putting his birth at 978 ), while dating Vladimir's encounter and marriage to Yaroslav's purported mother, Rogneda, to 980 . Elsewhere, speaking about Yaroslav's rule in Novgorod (1016), Nestor says that Yaroslav was 28, thus putting his birth at 988 . The forensic analysis of Yaroslav's skeleton seems to have confirmed these suspicions, estimating Yaroslav's birth at ca. 988-990, after both the Baptism of Kievan Rus and Vladimir's divorce of Rogneda. Consequently, it is assumed that Yaroslav was either Vladimir's natural son born after the latter's baptism or his son by Anna.

Had Yaroslav an imperial Byzantine descent, he likely would not have stinted to advertise it. Some have seen the willingness of European kings to marry Yaroslav's daughters as an indication of this imperial descent. Subsequent Polish chroniclers and historians, in particular, were eager to view Yaroslav as Anna's son. Recent proponents envoke onomastic arguments, which have often proven decisive in the matters of medieval prosopography . It is curious that Yaroslav named his elder son Vladimir (after his own father) and his eldest daughter Anna (as if after his own mother). Also, there is a certain pattern in his sons having Slavic names (as Vladimir), and his daughters having Greek names only (as Anna). However, in the absence of better sources, Anna's maternity remains a pure speculation.

Obscure offspring
Vladimir had several children whose maternity cannot be established with certainty. These include two sons, Stanislav of Smolensk and Sudislav of Pskov, the latter outliving all of his siblings. There is also one daughter, named Predslava, who was captured by Boleslaw I in Kiev and taken with him to Poland as a concubine. Another daughter, Premyslava, is attested in numerous (though rather late) Hungarian sources as the wife of Duke Ladislaus, one of the early Arpadians .

Vladimir married someone.

His child was:

+ 4 M    i. Yaroslav I, of Kiev was born about 978 and died on 20 Feb 1054 in Kiev, Ukraine about age 76.

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4. Yaroslav I, of Kiev (Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 978 and died on 20 Feb 1054 in Kiev, Ukraine about age 76. Other names for Yaroslav were Jarisleif "the Lame and" Yaroslav I "the Wise" of Kiev.

Research Notes: Possibly not the father of Agatha, the wife of Edward the Exile.

From Wikipedia - Yaroslav I the Wise :

Yaroslav I the Wise (c. 978 , Kiev -20 February 1054 , Kiev ) (East Slavic: ; Christian name: George; Old Norse : Jarizleifr) was thrice Grand Prince of Novgorod and Kiev , uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. During his lengthy reign, Kievan Rus' reached a zenith of its cultural flowering and military power.

Early years of Yaroslav's life are enshrouded in mystery. He was one of the numerous sons of Vladimir the Great , presumably his second by Rogneda of Polotsk , although his actual age (as stated in the Primary Chronicle and corroborated by the examination of his skeleton in the 1930s) would place him among the youngest children of Vladimir. It has been suggested that he was a child begotten out of wedlock after Vladimir's divorce with Rogneda and his marriage to Anna Porphyrogeneta , or even that he was a child of Anna Porphyrogeneta herself. Yaroslav figures prominently in the Norse Sagas under the name of Jarisleif the Lame; his legendary lameness (probably resulting from an arrow wound) was corroborated by the scientists who examined his relics...

<<b>>Family life and posterity<</B>>
In 1019, Yaroslav married Ingegerd Olofsdotter , daughter of the king of Sweden , and gave Ladoga to her as a marriage gift. There are good reasons to believe that before that time he had been married to a woman named Anna, of disputed extraction.[citation needed ]

In the Saint Sophia Cathedral , one may see a fresco representing the whole family: Yaroslav, Irene (as Ingigerd was known in Rus), their five daughters and five sons. Yaroslav married three of his daughters to foreign princes who lived in exile at his court: Elizabeth to Harald III of Norway (who had attained her hand by his military exploits in the Byzantine Empire ); Anastasia to the future Andrew I of Hungary , and the youngest daughter Anne of Kiev married Henry I of France and was the regent of France during their son's minority. Another daughter may have been the Agatha who married Edward the Exile , heir to the throne of England and was the mother of Edgar Ætheling and St. Margaret of Scotland .


Yaroslav had one son from the first marriage (his Christian name being Ilya), and 6 sons from the second marriage. Apprehending the danger that could ensue from divisions between brothers, he exhorted them to live in peace with each other. The eldest of these, Vladimir of Novgorod , best remembered for building the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod , predeceased his father. Three other sons-Iziaslav , Sviatoslav , and Vsevolod -reigned in Kiev one after another. The youngest children of Yaroslav were Igor of Volynia and Vyacheslav of Smolensk .

Yaroslav married Ingegerd Olofsdotter, of Sweden,4 5 daughter of Olov II Skotkonung, King of Sweden and Unknown, in 1019. Ingegerd was born about 1001 and died on 10 Feb 1050 about age 49. Other names for Ingegerd were Ingigerd of Sweden and Irina Olofsdotter.

Research Notes: Possibly not the mother of Agatha, the wife of Edward the Exile.

From Wikipedia - Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden :

Princess Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden (1001 - 10 February 1050 ) was a Swedish princess and a Grand Princess of Kiev, the daughter of Swedish King Olof Skötkonung and Estrid of the Obotrites and the consort of Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev.

Biography
Ingegerd was born in Sigtuna ,[citation needed ] Sweden, and was engaged to be married to Norwegian King Olaf II , but when Sweden and Norway got into a feud, Swedish King Olof Skötkonung wouldn't allow for the marriage to happen.

Instead, Ingegard's father quickly arranged for a marriage to the powerful Yaroslav I the Wise of Novgorod . The marriage took place in 1019. Once in Kiev , her name was changed to the Greek Irene. According to several sagas , she was given as a marriage gift Ladoga and adjacent lands, which later received the name Ingria (arguably a corruption of Ingegerd's name). She set her friend jarl Ragnvald Ulfsson to rule in her stead.

Ingegard initiated the building of the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev that was supervised by her husband, who styled himself tsar . They had six sons and four daughters, the latter of whom became Queens of France , Hungary , Norway , and (arguably) England . The whole family is depicted in one of the frescoes of the Saint Sophia. Upon her death, Ingegard was buried in the same cathedral.

Ingegerd-Irene is sometimes confused with Yaroslav's first wife, whose name was Anna and who was later declared a local saint in Novgorod because of her initiative to build the local version of the Saint Sophia . Her remains were exhumed in the 1930s and examined by Soviet scientists who determined that they belonged to a young woman rather than to Ingigerd, who died at the age of fifty or so.

Children

Ingegerd had the following children
Elisiv of Kiev , queen of Norway
Anastasia of Kiev , queen of Hungary
Anne of Kiev , queen of France
(Disputed) Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile
Vladimir of Novgorod
Iziaslav
Sviatoslav
Vsevolod
Igor of Volynia
Vyacheslav of Smolensk .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 5 F    i. Agatha 6 7 was born about 1020 and died after 1070.

+ 6 F    ii. Anne, of Kiev 8 9 was born between 1024 and 1032, died in 1075, and was buried in Villiers Abbey, La-Ferte-Alais, Essonne, (Île-de-France), France.

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5. Agatha 6 7 (Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1020 and died after 1070. Another name for Agatha was Agafiia.

Research Notes: Her origins are disputed.

From Wikipedia - Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile :

Agatha was the wife of Edward the Exile (heir to the throne of England ) and mother of Edgar Ætheling , Saint Margaret of Scotland and Cristina of England . Her antecedents are unclear, and subject to much speculation.

Life
Nothing is known of her early life, and what speculation has appeared is inextricably linked to the contentious issue of Agatha's paternity, one of the unresolved questions of medieval genealogy . She came to England with her husband and children in 1057, but she was widowed shortly after her arrival. Following the Norman conquest of England , in 1067 she fled with her children to Scotland , finding refuge under her future son-in-law Malcolm III . While one modern source indicates that she spent her last years as a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne , dying before circa 1093 [1] , Simeon of Durham [1] carries what appears to be the last reference to her in 1070. [2]

Origin
Medieval sources
Agatha's origin is alluded to in numerous surviving medieval sources, but the information they provide is sometimes imprecise, often contradictory, and occasionally outright impossible. The earliest surviving source, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , along with Florence of Worcester 's Chronicon ex chronicis and Regalis prosapia Anglorum, Simeon of Durham and Ailred of Rievaulx describe Agatha as a kinswoman of "Emperor Henry" (thaes ceseres maga, filia germani imperatoris Henrici). In an earlier entry, the same Ailred of Rievaulx had called her daughter of emperor Henry, as do later sources of dubious credibility such as the Chronicle of Melrose Abbey , while Matthew of Paris calls her the emperor's sister (soror Henrici imperatoris Romani). Geoffrey Gaimar in Lestoire des Engles states that she was daughter of the Hungarian king and queen (Li reis sa fille), although he places the marriage at a time when Edward is thought still to have been in Kiev , while Orderic Vitalis in Historiae Ecclesiasticae is more specific, naming her father as king Solomon (filiam Salomonis Regis Hunorum), actually a contemporary of Agatha's children. William of Malmesbury in De Gestis Regis Anglorum states that Agatha's sister was a Queen of Hungary (reginae sororem) and is echoed in this by Alberic of Trois-Fontaines , while less precisely, Ailred says of Margaret that she was derived from English and Hungarian royal blood (de semine regio Anglorum et Hungariorum extitit oriunda). Finally, Roger of Howden and the anonymous Leges Edwardi Confessoris indicate that while Edward was a guest of Kievan "king Malesclodus" he married a woman of noble birth (nobili progenio), Leges adding that the mother of St. Margaret was of Rus royal blood (ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum).[3]

German and Hungarian theories
While various sources repeat the claims that Agatha was daughter or sister of either Emperor Henry, it seems unlikely that such a sibling or daughter would have been ignored by the German chroniclers.[4]

The description of Agatha as a blood relative of "Emperor Henry" may be applicable to a niece of either Henry II or Henry III , Holy Roman Emperors (although Florence, in Regalis prosapia Anglorum specifies Henry III). Early attempts at reconstructing the relationship focused on the former. Georgio Pray 1764, Annales Regum Hungariae), O.F. Suhm (1777, Geschichte Dänmarks, Norwegen und Holsteins) and Istvan Katona (1779, Historia Critica Regum Hungariae) each suggested that Agatha was daughter of Henry II's brother Bruno of Augsburg (an ecclesiastic described as beatae memoriae, with no known issue), while Daniel Cornides (1778, Regum Hungariae) tried to harmonise the German and Hungarian claims, making Agatha daughter of Henry II's sister Giselle of Bavaria , wife of Stephen I of Hungary .[5] This solution remained popular among scholars through a good part of twentieth century.[6]

As tempting as it may be to thus view St. Margaret as a granddaughter of another famous saint, Stephen of Hungary, this popular solution fails to explain why Stephen's death triggered a dynastic crisis in Hungary. If St. Stephen and Giselle were indeed Agatha's parents, her offspring might have succeeded to the Hungarian crown and the dynastic strife that followed Stephen's death could have been averted. Actually, there is no indication in Hungarian sources that any of Stephen's children outlived him. Likewise, all of the solutions involving Henry II would seem to make Agatha much older than her husband, and prohibitively old at the time of the birth of her son, Edgar.

Based on a more strict translation of the Latin description used by Florence and others as well as the supposition that Henry III was the Emperor designated in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, genealogist Szabolcs de Vajay popularised another idea first suggested in 1939. In that year, Joszef Herzog published an analysis suggesting that Agatha was daughter of one of the half-brothers of Henry III, born to his mother Gisela of Swabia by one of her earlier marriages to Ernest I of Swabia and Bruno of Brunswick , probably the former based on more favourable chronology.[7] De Vajay reevaluated the chronology of the marriages and children of Gisela and concluded that Agatha was the daughter of Henry III's elder (uterine) half-brother, Liudolf, Margrave of Frisia .[8] This theory saw broad acceptance for thirty years [9] until René Jetté resurrected a Kievan solution to the problem,[10] since which time opinion has been divided among several competing possibilities.[11]

Kievan theory

Jetté pointed out that William of Malmesbury in De Gestis Regis Anglorum and several later chronicles unambiguously state that Agatha's sister was a Queen of Hungary. From what we know about the biography of Edward the Exile , he loyally supported Andrew I of Hungary , following him from Kiev to Hungary in 1046 and staying at his court for many years. Andrew's wife and queen was Anastasia, a daughter of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev by Ingigerd of Sweden . Following Jetté's logic, Edward's wife was another daughter of Yaroslav.

This theory accords with the seemingly incongruous statements of Geoffrey Gaimar and Roger of Howden that, while living in Kiev, Edward took a nativeborn wife "of noble parentage" or that his father-in-law was a "Rus king".[12]

Jetté's theory seems to be supported by an onomastic argument.[13] Among the medieval royalty, Agatha's rare Greek name is first recorded in the Macedonian dynasty of Byzantium ; it was also one of the most frequent feminine names in the Kievan Rurikid dynasty.[14] After Anna of Byzantium married Yaroslav's father, he took the Christian name of the reigning emperor, Basil II , while some members of his family were named after other members of the imperial dynasty. Agatha could have been one of these.[15]

The names of Agatha's immediate descendants-Margaret, Cristina, David , Alexander -were likewise extraordinary for Anglo-Saxon Britain. They may provide a clue to Agatha's origin. The names Margaret and Cristina are today associated with Sweden, the native country of Yaroslav's wife Ingigerd.[16] The name of Margaret's son, David, obviously echoes that of Solomon , the son and heir of Andrew I.[17] Furthermore, the first saint of the Rus (canonized ca. 1073) was Yaroslav's brother Gleb , whose Christian name was David.

The name of Margaret's other son, Alexander, may point to a variety of traditions, both occidental and oriental: the biography of Alexander the Great was one of the most popular books in eleventh-century Kiev.

One inference from the Kievan theory is that Edgar Atheling and St. Margaret were, through their mother, first cousins of Philip I of France . The connection is too notable to be omitted from contemporary sources, yet we have no indication that medieval chroniclers were aware of it. The argumentum ex silentio leads critics of the Kievan theory to search for alternative explanations.

Bulgarian theory
In response to the recent flurry of activity on the subject, Ian Mladjov reevaluated the question and presented a completely novel solution.[18] He dismissed each of the prior theories in turn as insufficiently grounded and incompatible given the historical record, and further suggested that many of the proposed solutions would have resulted in later marriages that fell within the prohibited degrees of kinship. He argued that the documentary testimony of Agatha's origins is tainted or late, and concurred with Humphreys' evaluation that the names of the children and grandchildren of Agatha, so central to prior reevaluations, may have had non-family origins (for example, Pope Alexander II played a critical role in the marriage of Malcolm and Margaret). However, he then focused in on the name of Agatha as being critical to determining her origin. He concluded that of the few contemporary Agathas, only one could possibly have been an ancestor of the wife of Edward the Exile, Agatha,[19] wife of Samuel of Bulgaria . Some of the other names associated with Agatha and used to corroborate theories based in onomastics are also readily available within the Bulgarian ruling family at the time, including Mary and several Davids. Mladjov inferred that Agatha was daughter of Gavril Radomir , Tsar of Bulgaria , Agatha's son, by his first wife, a Hungarian princess thought to have been the daughter of Duke Géza of Hungary . This hypothesis has Agatha born in Hungary after her parents divorced, her mother being pregnant when she left Bulgaria, and naming her daughter after the mother of the prince who had expelled her. Traditional dates of this divorce would seem to preclude the suggested relationship, but the article re-examined some long-standing assumptions about the chronology of Gavril Radomir's marriage to the Hungarian princess, and concludes that its dating to the late 980s is unsupportable, and its dissolution belongs in c. 1009-1014. The argument is based almost exclusively on the onomastic precedent but is said to vindicate the intimate connection between Agatha and Hungary attested in the Medieval sources. Mladjov speculates further that the medieval testimony could largely be harmonized were one to posit that Agatha's mother was the same Hungarian princess who married Samuel Aba of Hungary , his family fleeing to Kiev after his downfall, thereby allowing a Russian marriage for Agatha.

This solution fails to conform with any of the relationships appearing in the primary record. It is inferred that the relative familiarity with Germany and unfamiliarity with Hungary partly distorted the depiction of Agatha in the English sources; her actual position would have been that of a daughter of the (unnamed) sister of the King of Hungary (Stephen I), himself the brother-in-law of the Holy Roman Emperor (Henry II, and therefore kinsman of Henry III).

Other theories
In 2002, in an article meant to refute the Kievan hypothesis, John Carmi Parsons suggested yet another possible origin. He made Agatha daughter of a documented count Cristinus (explaining the name Christina for Agatha's daughter) by Oda of Haldensleben, hypothesized to be maternal granddaughter of Vladimir I of Kiev by a German wife, kinswoman to Emperor Henry III. He also floated the possibility that Edward may have married twice, suggesting that the contradictory primary record may in part reflect the confusion between two distinct wives.[20] Recently, one additional theory has appeared. John P. Ravilious has proposed that she was daughter of Mieszko II Lambert of Poland by his German wife, making her kinswoman of both Emperors Henry, as well as sister of a Hungarian queen, the wife of Béla I .[21]

Agatha married Edward "the Exile", Saxon Prince of England,10 11 son of Edmund II "Ironside", King of England and Ealdgyth, about 1040. Edward was born in 1016 in England and died in Feb 1057 in England at age 41. Another name for Edward was Edward "the Atheling" Saxon Prince of England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Edward the Exile :

Edward the Exile (1016 - February 1057), also called Edward Ætheling, son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth , gained the name of "Exile" from his life spent mostly far from the England of his forefathers. After the Danish conquest of England in 1016 Canute had him and his brother, Edmund, exiled to the Continent. Edward was only a few months old when he was brought to the court of Olof Skötkonung , (who was either Canute's half-brother or stepbrother), with instructions to have the child murdered. Instead, Edmund was secretly sent to Kiev , where Olof's daughter Ingigerd was the Queen, and then made his way to Hungary , probably in the retinue of Ingigerd's son-in-law, King András .

On hearing the news of his being alive, Edward the Confessor recalled him to England and made him his heir . Edward offered the last chance of an undisputed succession within the Saxon royal house . News of Edward's existence came at time when the old Anglo-Saxon Monarchy, restored after a long period of Danish domination, was heading for catastrophe. The Confessor, personally devout but politically weak, was unable to make an effective stand against the steady advance of the powerful and ambitious sons of Earl Godwin . From across the Channel William, Duke of Normandy also had an eye on the succession. Edward the Exile appeared at just the right time. Approved by both king and by the Witan , the Council of the Realm, he offered a way out of the impasse, a counter both to the Godwins and to William, and one with a legitimacy that could not be readily challenged.

Edward, who had been in the custody of Henry III , the Holy Roman Emperor, finally came back to England at the end of August 1057. But he died within two days of his arrival. The exact cause of Edward's death remains unclear, but he had many powerful enemies, and there is a strong possibility that he was murdered, although by whom it is not known with any certainty. It is known, though, that his access to the king was blocked soon after his arrival in England for some unexplained reason, at a time when the Godwins, in the person of Harold Godwinson , were once again in the ascendant. This turn of events left the throne of England to be disputed by Earl Harold and Duke William, ultimately leading to the Norman Conquest of England .

Edward's wife was a woman named Agatha , whose origins are disputed. Their children were Edgar Ætheling , Saint Margaret of Scotland and Cristina . Edgar was nominated as heir apparent, but was too young to count for much, and was eventually swept aside by Harold Godwinson.


Noted events in his life were:

• Exiled to Sweden: 1016. to be killed there. Instead, he was sent from there to Kiev , ending up in Hungary .

The child from this marriage was:

+ 7 F    i. SaintMargaret, of Scotland 12 13 was born in 1045 in Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, Southern Transdanubia, Hungary, died on 16 Nov 1093 in St Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, Midlothian, Scotland at age 48, and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.


6. Anne, of Kiev 8 9 (Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born between 1024 and 1032, died in 1075, and was buried in Villiers Abbey, La-Ferte-Alais, Essonne, (Île-de-France), France. Other names for Anne were Agnes of Kiev, Anna of Kiev, and Anna Yaroslavna.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots line 241-6 has d. aft. 1075

Research Notes: 3rd wife of Henry I of France.

From Wikipedia - Anne of Kiev :

Anne of Kiev or Anna Yaroslavna (between 1024 and 1032 - 1075 ), daughter of Yaroslav I of Kiev and his wife Ingegerd Olofsdotter , was the queen consort of France as the wife of Henry I , and regent for her son Philip I .

After the death of his first wife, Matilda, King Henry searched the courts of Europe for a suitable bride, but could not locate a princess who was not related to him within illegal degrees of kinship. At last he sent an embassy to distant Kiev , which returned with Anne (also called Agnes or Anna). Anne and Henry were married at the cathedral of Reims on May 19 , 1051 .

They had three sons:

Philip (May 23 , 1052 - July 30 , 1108 ) - Anne is credited with bringing the name Philip to Western Europe . She imported this Greek name (Philippos, from philos (love) and hippos (horse), meaning "the one that love horses") from her Eastern Orthodox culture.
Hugh (1057 - October 18 , 1102 ) - called the Great or Magnus, later Count of Crépi, who married the heiress of Vermandois and died on crusade in Tarsus , Cilicia .
Robert (c. 1055 -c. 1060 )

For six years after Henry's death in 1060 , she served as regent for Philip, who was only seven at the time. She was the first queen of France to serve as regent. Her co-regent was Count Baldwin V of Flanders . Anne was a literate woman, rare for the time, but there was some opposition to her as regent on the grounds that her mastery of French was less than fluent.
A year after the king's death, Anne, acting as regent, took a passionate fancy for Count Ralph III of Valois , a man whose political ambition encouraged him to repudiate his wife to marry Anne in 1062 . Accused of adultery, Ralph's wife appealed to Pope Alexander II , who excommunicated the couple. The young king Philip forgave his mother, which was just as well, since he was to find himself in a very similar predicament in the 1090s . Ralph died in September 1074 , at which time Anne returned to the French court. She died in 1075 , was buried at Villiers Abbey , La-Ferte-Alais , Essonne and her obits were celebrated on September 5 .

Sources
Bauthier, Robert-Henri. Anne de Kiev reine de France et la politique royale au Xe siècle, revue des Etudes Slaves, Vol. 57, 1985
Retrieved from ""



Anne married Henry I, of France,14 15 son of Robert II "the Pious", King of France and Constance, of Provence, on 19 May 1051 in Cathedral de Rheims, Rheims, France. Henry was born on 4 May 1008 in Reims, Marne, Champagne, France, died on 4 Aug 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie, France at age 52, and was buried in St. Denis Basilica, Paris, (Île-de-France), France.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 241-6 has m. 20 Jan 1044 or 1045. Wikipedia has 19 May 1051. Was 1044/45 the betrothal?

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry I of France :

Henry I (4 May 1008 - 4 August 1060 ) was King of France from 1031 to his death. The royal demesne of France reached its lowest point in terms of size during his reign and for this reason he is often seen as emblematic of the weakness of the early Capetians . This is not entirely agreed upon, however, as other historians regard him as a strong but realistic king, who was forced to conduct a policy mindful of the limitations of the French monarchy.

A member of the House of Capet , Henry was born in Reims , the son of King Robert II (972-1031) and Constance of Arles (986-1034). He was crowned King of France at the Cathedral in Reims on May 14 , 1027 , in the Capetian tradition, while his father still lived. He had little influence and power until he became sole ruler on his father's death.

The reign of Henry I, like those of his predecessors, was marked by territorial struggles. Initially, he joined his brother Robert , with the support of their mother, in a revolt against his father (1025 ). His mother, however, supported Robert as heir to the old king, on whose death Henry was left to deal with his rebel sibling. In 1032 , he placated his brother by giving him the duchy of Burgundy which his father had given him in 1016 .

In an early strategic move, Henry came to the rescue of his very young nephew-in-law, the newly appointed Duke William of Normandy (who would go on to become William the Conqueror ), to suppress a revolt by William's vassals. In 1047 , Henry secured the dukedom for William in their decisive victory over the vassals at the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes near Caen .

A few years later, when William, who was cousin to King Edward the Confessor of England (1042-66), married Matilda , the daughter of the count of Flanders , Henry feared William's potential power. In 1054 , and again in 1057 , Henry went to war to try to conquer Normandy from William, but on both occasions he was defeated. Despite his efforts, Henry I's twenty-nine-year reign saw feudal power in France reach its pinnacle.

Henry had three meetings with Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor -all at Ivois . In early 1043 , he met him to discuss the marriage of the emperor with Agnes of Poitou , the daughter of Henry's vassal. In October 1048 , the two Henries met again, but the subject of this meeting eludes us. The final meeting took place in May 1056 . It concerned disputes over Lorraine. The debate over the duchy became so heated that the king of France challenged his German counterpart to single combat. The emperor, however, was not so much a warrior and he fled in the night. But Henry did not get Lorraine.

King Henry I died on August 4 , 1060 in Vitry-en-Brie , France, and was interred in Saint Denis Basilica . He was succeeded by his son, Philip I of France , who was 7 at the time of his death; for six years Henry I's Queen, Anne of Kiev , ruled as regent.

He was also Duke of Burgundy from 1016 to 1032 , when he abdicated the duchy to his brother Robert Capet .

Marriages and family
Henry I was betrothed to Matilda, the daughter of the Emperor Conrad II (1024-39), but she died prematurely in 1034 . Henry I then married Matilda , daughter of Liudolf, Margrave of Frisia, but she died in 1044 , following a Caesarean section. Casting further afield in search of a third wife, Henry I married Anne of Kiev on May 19 , 1051 . They had four children:
Philip I (May 23, 1052 - July 30, 1108)
Emma (1054-?)
Robert (c. 1055-c. 1060)
Hugh the Great (1057-1102)

Noted events in his life were:

• King of France: 1031-1060.

• Count of Paris:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 8 M    i. Philip I, of France was born on 23 May 1052 and died on 30 Jul 1108 at age 56.

+ 9 F    ii. Emma 16 was born in 1054.

+ 10 M    iii. Robert was born about 1055 and died about 1060 about age 5.

+ 11 M    iv. Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France 17 18 was born in 1057 and died on 18 Oct 1102 in Tarsus, Cilicia, (Turkey) at age 45.

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7. SaintMargaret, of Scotland 12 13 (Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1045 in Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, Southern Transdanubia, Hungary, died on 16 Nov 1093 in St Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, Midlothian, Scotland at age 48, and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland. Another name for Margaret was Margaret of Scotland.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Saint Margaret of Scotland :
Saint Margaret (c. 1045 - 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling , the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England . She married Malcolm III , King of Scots , becoming his Queen consort .

Early life
Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile , son of Edmund Ironside . She was probably born at Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd , in the region of Southern Transdanubia , Hungary .[citation needed ] The provenance of her mother, Agatha , is disputed.

Margaret had one brother Edgar and one sister Christina.

When her uncle, Saint Edward the Confessor , the French-speaking Anglo-Saxon King of England , died in 1066, she was living in England where her brother, Edgar Ætheling , had decided to make a claim to the vacant throne.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans , the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland , where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III . The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry .

Malcolm was probably a widower , and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.

Family
Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
Edward, killed 1093.
Edmund of Scotland
Ethelred , abbot of Dunkeld
King Edgar of Scotland
King Alexander I of Scotland
King David I of Scotland
Edith of Scotland , also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
Mary of Scotland , married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

Veneration
Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10 , because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16 . In Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death.

Per the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, the Church transferred her feast day to November 16, the actual day of her death.[1] Traditional Roman Catholics continue to celebrate the feast day of "St Margaret, Queen of Scots, Widow" on June 10 as a Semi-Double feast, or a 3rd Class feast.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow) , Queen Margaret Union , Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline ), North Queensferry , South Queensferry , Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church .



Margaret married Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scots,19 20 son of Duncan I MacCrinan, King of Scots and < >, [Daughter of Siward, Danish Earl of Northumbria], 1068 or 1069 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. Malcolm was born about 1031 and died on 13 Nov 1093 in Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England about age 62. Other names for Malcolm were Malcolm III King of Scotland, Malcolm III "Canmore" King of Scots, and Máel Coluim mac Donnchada.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 170-21 (Malcolm III Canmore) has m. 1068/9 in Dunfermline. St. Margaret was Malcolm's 2nd wife.

Death Notes: Slain while besieging Alnwick Castle.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Malcolm III of Scotland :

Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (Modern Gaelic : Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh),[1] called in most Anglicised regnal lists Malcolm III, and in later centuries nicknamed Canmore, "Big Head"[2][3] or Long-neck [4] (died 13 November 1093), was King of Scots . It has also been argued recently that the real "Malcolm Canmore" was this Malcolm's great-grandson Malcolm IV , who is given this name in the contemporary notice of his death.[5] He was the eldest son of King Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin). Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age.

Malcolm's Kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland : the north and west of Scotland remained in Scandinavian , Norse-Gael and Gaelic control, and the areas under the control of the Kings of Scots would not advance much beyond the limits set by Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) until the 12th century. Malcolm III fought a succession of wars against the Kingdom of England , which may have had as their goal the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria . However, these wars did not result in any significant advances southwards. Malcolm's main achievement is to have continued a line which would rule Scotland for many years,[6] although his role as "founder of a dynasty" has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David, and his descendants, than with any historical reality.[7]

Malcolm's second wife, Saint Margaret of Scotland , was later beatified and is Scotland's only royal saint. However, Malcolm himself gained no reputation for piety. With the notable exception of Dunfermline Abbey he is not definitely associated with major religious establishments or ecclesiastical reforms.

Background
Malcolm's father Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin) became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda), Duncan's maternal grandfather. According to John of Fordun , whose account is the original source of part at least of William Shakespeare 's Macbeth , Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria ,[8][9] but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen.[10]

Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed by Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findlaích) on 15 August 1040. Although Shakespeare's Macbeth presents Malcolm as a grown man and his father as an old one, it appears that Duncan was still young in 1040,[11] and Malcolm and his brother Donalbane (Domnall Bán) were children.[12] Malcolm's family did attempt to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt.[13]

Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety - exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm (then aged about 9) was sent to England, and his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles.[14][15] Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeth's seventeen year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor .[16][17]
According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson , Earl of Orkney , an enemy of Macbeth's family, and perhaps Duncan's kinsman by marriage.[18]

An English invasion in 1054, with Earl Siward in command, had as its goal the installation of Máel Coluim , "son of the King of the Cumbrians (i.e. of Strathclyde )". This Máel Coluim, perhaps a son of Owen the Bald , disappears from history after this brief mention. He has been confused with King Malcolm III.[19][20] In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolm's hand, on 15 August 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire .[21][22] Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach , who was crowned at Scone , probably on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by treachery",[23] near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm became king, perhaps being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this.[24]

Malcolm and Ingibiorg

If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as King may have been to travel south to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret , who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary .[25] If he did visit the English court, he was the first reigning King of Scots to do so in more than eighty years. If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, however, it was not kept, and this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered.[26] Equally, Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, which was under Malcolm's control by 1070.[27]

The Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg , a daughter of Finn Arnesson .[28] Although Ingibiorg is generally assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058.[29] The Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim), who was later king.[4] Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury , claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim .[30] Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Saga. He is assumed to have been born to Ingibiorg.[31]

Malcolm's marriage to Ingibiorg secured him peace in the north and west. The Heimskringla tells that her father Finn had been an adviser to Harald Hardraade and, after falling out with Harald, was then made an Earl by Sweyn Estridsson , King of Denmark , which may have been another recommendation for the match.[32] Malcolm enjoyed a peaceful relationship with the Earldom of Orkney , ruled jointly by his stepsons, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson . The Orkneyinga Saga reports strife with Norway but this is probably misplaced as it associates this with Magnus Barefoot , who became king of Norway only in 1093, the year of Malcolm's death.[33]

Malcolm and Margaret

Although he had given sanctuary to Tostig Godwinson when the Northumbrians drove him out, Malcolm was not directly involved in the ill-fated invasion of England by Harald Hardraade and Tostig in 1066, which ended in defeat and death at the battle of Stamford Bridge .[34] In 1068, he granted asylum to a group of English exiles fleeing from William of Normandy , among them Agatha , widow of Edward the Confessor's nephew Edward the Exile , and her children: Edgar Ætheling and his sisters Margaret and Cristina . They were accompanied by Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria . The exiles were disappointed, however, if they had expected immediate assistance from the Scots.[35]

In 1069 the exiles returned to England, to join a spreading revolt in the north. Even though Gospatric and Siward's son Waltheof submitted by the end of the year, the arrival of a Danish army under Sweyn Estridsson seemed to ensure that William's position remained weak. Malcolm decided on war, and took his army south into Cumbria and across the Pennines , wasting Teesdale and Cleveland then marching north, loaded with loot, to Wearmouth . There Malcolm met Edgar and his family, who were invited to return with him, but did not. As Sweyn had by now been bought off with a large Danegeld , Malcolm took his army home. In reprisal, William sent Gospatric to raid Scotland through Cumbria. In return, the Scots fleet raided the Northumbrian coast where Gospatric's possessions were concentrated.[36] Late in the year, perhaps shipwrecked on their way to a European exile, Edgar and his family again arrived in Scotland, this time to remain. By the end of 1070, Malcolm had married Edgar's sister Margaret, the future Saint Margaret of Scotland .[37]

The naming of their children represented a break with the traditional Scots Regal names such as Malcolm, Cináed and Áed. The point of naming Margaret's sons, Edward after her father Edward the Exile , Edmund for her grandfather Edmund Ironside , Ethelred for her great-grandfather Ethelred the Unready and Edgar for her great-great-grandfather Edgar was unlikely to be missed in England, where William of Normandy's grasp on power was far from secure.[38] Whether the adoption of the classical Alexander for the future Alexander I of Scotland (either for Pope Alexander II or for Alexander the Great ) and the biblical David for the future David I of Scotland represented a recognition that William of Normandy would not be easily removed, or was due to the repetition of Anglo-Saxon Royal name-another Edmund had preceded Edgar-is not known.[39] Margaret also gave Malcolm two daughters, Edith , who married Henry I of England , and Mary, who married Eustace III of Boulogne .

In 1072, with the Harrying of the North completed and his position again secure, William of Normandy came north with an army and a fleet. Malcolm met William at Abernethy and, in the words of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle "became his man" and handed over his eldest son Duncan as a hostage and arranged peace between William and Edgar.[40] Accepting the overlordship of the king of the English was no novelty, previous kings had done so without result. The same was true of Malcolm; his agreement with the English king was followed by further raids into Northumbria, which led to further trouble in the earldom and the killing of Bishop William Walcher at Gateshead . In 1080, William sent his son Robert Curthose north with an army while his brother Odo punished the Northumbrians. Malcolm again made peace, and this time kept it for over a decade.[41]

Malcolm faced little recorded internal opposition, with the exception of Lulach's son Máel Snechtai . In an unusual entry, for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains little on Scotland, it says that in 1078:
" Malcholom [Máel Coluim] seized the mother of Mælslæhtan [Máel Snechtai] ... and all his treasures, and his cattle; and he himself escaped with difficulty.[42] " Whatever provoked this strife, Máel Snechtai survived until 1085.[43]

Malcolm and William Rufus

When William Rufus became king of England after his father's death, Malcolm did not intervene in the rebellions by supporters of Robert Curthose which followed. In 1091, however, William Rufus confiscated Edgar Ætheling's lands in England, and Edgar fled north to Scotland. In May, Malcolm marched south, not to raid and take slaves and plunder, but to besiege Newcastle , built by Robert Curthose in 1080. This appears to have been an attempt to advance the frontier south from the River Tweed to the River Tees . The threat was enough to bring the English king back from Normandy , where he had been fighting Robert Curthose. In September, learning of William Rufus's approaching army, Malcolm withdrew north and the English followed. Unlike in 1072, Malcolm was prepared to fight, but a peace was arranged by Edgar Ætheling and Robert Curthose whereby Malcolm again acknowledged the overlordship of the English king.[44]

In 1092, the peace began to break down. Based on the idea that the Scots controlled much of modern Cumbria , it had been supposed that William Rufus's new castle at Carlisle and his settlement of English peasants in the surrounds was the cause. However, it is unlikely that Malcolm did control Cumbria, and the dispute instead concerned the estates granted to Malcolm by William Rufus's father in 1072 for his maintenance when visiting England. Malcolm sent messengers to discuss the question and William Rufus agreed to a meeting. Malcolm travelled south to Gloucester , stopping at Wilton Abbey to visit his daughter Edith and sister-in-law Cristina. Malcolm arrived there on 24 August 1093 to find that William Rufus refused to negotiate, insisting that the dispute be judged by the English barons. This Malcolm refused to accept, and returned immediately to Scotland.[45]


It does not appear that William Rufus intended to provoke a war,[46] but, as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports, war came:
" For this reason therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King Malcolm returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more hostility than behoved him ... " Malcolm was accompanied by Edward, his eldest son by Margaret and probable heir-designate (or tánaiste), and by Edgar.[47] Even by the standards of the time, the ravaging of Northumbria by the Scots was seen as harsh.[48]

Death
While marching north again, Malcolm was ambushed by Robert de Mowbray , Earl of Northumbria, whose lands he had devastated, near Alnwick on 13 November 1093. There he was killed by Arkil Morel, steward of Bamburgh Castle . The conflict became known as the Battle of Alnwick .[49] Edward was mortally wounded in the same fight. Margaret, it is said, died soon after receiving the news of their deaths from Edgar.[50] The Annals of Ulster say:

" Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French i.e. in Inber Alda in England. His queen, Margaret, moreover, died of sorrow for him within nine days.[51] " Malcolm's body was taken to Tynemouth Priory for burial, where it remains to this day. A body of a local farmer was sent north for burial in Dunfermline Abbey in the reign of his son Alexander or perhaps on Iona .[52]

On 19 June 1250, following the canonisation of Malcolm's wife Margaret by Pope Innocent IV , Margaret's remains were disinterred and placed in a reliquary. Tradition has it that as the reliquary was carried to the high altar of Dunfermline Abbey , past Malcolm's grave, it became too heavy to move. As a result, Malcolm's remains were also disinterred, and buried next to Margaret beside the altar.[53]

Issue
Malcolm and Ingebjorg had a son:
Duncan II of Scotland , suceeded his father as King of Scotland

Malcolm and Margaret had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
Edward, killed 1093.
Edmund of Scotland
Ethelred , abbot of Dunkeld
King Edgar of Scotland
King Alexander I of Scotland
King David I of Scotland
Edith of Scotland , also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
Mary of Scotland , married Eustace III of Boulogne


Noted events in his life were:

• Crowned: King of Scots, 17 Mar 1057 or 1058, Scone, (Perth and Kinross), Scotland. King of Scots 1058-1093

Children from this marriage were:

+ 12 F    i. Matilda, of Scotland was born in 1079 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland and died on 1 May 1118 in Westminster Palace, London, England at age 39.

+ 13 M    ii. David I "The Saint", King of Scots 21 22 was born about 1083, died on 24 May 1153 in Carlisle about age 70, and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.

+ 14 F    iii. Mary, of Scotland 23 died on 18 Apr 1118.

8. Philip I, of France (Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 23 May 1052 and died on 30 Jul 1108 at age 56.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Anne of Kiev:

Philip (May 23 , 1052 - July 30 , 1108 ) - Anne is credited with bringing the name Philip to Western Europe . She imported this Greek name (Philippos, from philos (love) and hippos (horse), meaning "the one that love horses") from her Eastern Orthodox culture.

9. Emma 16 (Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1054.

10. Robert (Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1055 and died about 1060 about age 5.

Research Notes: Source: Anne of Kiev. Died in childhood

11. Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France 17 18 (Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1057 and died on 18 Oct 1102 in Tarsus, Cilicia, (Turkey) at age 45. Other names for Hugh were Hugh of Vermandois, Hugues "le Grand" de France, Hugh Magnus, and Hugh de Vermandois.

Death Notes: Died on crusade.

Research Notes: Duke of France and Burgundy, Marquis of Orleans, Count of Amiens, Chaumont, Paris, Valois, and Vermandois. He was a leader of the First Crusade.

First husband of Adelaide de Vermandois.

From Wikipedia - Hugh of Vermandois :

Hugh of Vermandois (1053 - October 18 , 1101 ), was son to King Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev , and the younger brother of King Philip I of France . He was in his own right Count of Vermandois . William of Tyre called him "Hugh Magnus", Hugh the Great, but he was an ineffectual leader and soldier, great only in his boasting. Indeed, Sir Steven Runciman is certain that "Magnus" is a copyist's error, and should be "minus", "the younger" (referring to Hugh as younger brother of the King of France).

In early 1096 Hugh and Philip began discussing the First Crusade after news of the Council of Clermont reached them in Paris . Although Philip could not participate, as he had been excommunicated , Hugh was said to have been influenced to join the Crusade after an eclipse of the moon on February 11 , 1096.

That summer Hugh's army left France for Italy , where they would cross the Adriatic Sea into territory of the Byzantine Empire , unlike the other Crusader armies who were travelling by land. On the way, many of the soldiers led by fellow Crusader Emicho joined Hugh's army after Emicho was defeated by the Hungarians , whose land he had been pillaging. Hugh crossed the Adriatic from Bari in Southern Italy , but many of his ships were destroyed in a storm off the Byzantine port of Dyrrhachium .
Hugh and most of his army was rescued and escorted to Constantinople , where they arrived in November of 1096. Prior to his arrival, Hugh sent an arrogant, insulting letter to Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus , according to the Emperor's biography by his daughter (the Alexiad), demanding that Alexius meet with him:

"Know, O King, that I am King of Kings, and superior to all, who are under the sky. You are now permitted to greet me, on my arrival, and to receive me with magnificence, as befits my nobility."

Alexius was already wary of the armies about to arrive, after the unruly mob led by Peter the Hermit had passed through earlier in the year. Alexius kept Hugh in custody in a monastery until Hugh swore an oath of vassalage to him.

After the Crusaders had successfully made their way across Seljuk territory and, in 1098 , captured Antioch , Hugh was sent back to Constantinople to appeal for reinforcements from Alexius. Alexius was uninterested, however, and Hugh, instead of returning to Antioch to help plan the siege of Jerusalem , went back to France. There he was scorned for not having fulfilled his vow as a Crusader to complete a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and Pope Paschal II threatened to excommunicate him. He joined the minor Crusade of 1101 , but was wounded in battle with the Turks in September, and died of his wounds in October in Tarsus .

Family and children
He married Adele of Vermandois, the daughter of Herbert IV of Vermandois and Adele of Valois .They had nine children:
Count Raoul I of Vermandois
Henry, senior of Chaumont-en-Vexin , (d. 1130 ).
Simon, Bishop of Noyon
Elizabeth de Vermandois , married
Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester ;
William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey
Matilde de Vermandois, married Raoul I of Beaugency
Constance de Vermandois, married Godefroy de la Ferte-Gaucher
Agnes de Vermandois, married Margrave Boniface del Vasto . Mother of Adelaide del Vasto .
Beatrix de Vermandois, married Hugh III of Gournay-en-Bray
Emma de Vermandois


Hugh married Adelaide de Vermandois, Countess of Vermandois and Valois,24 25 26 daughter of Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois and Valois and Adela, of Valois and Vexin, before 1080. Adelaide was born about 1065 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France> and died on 28 Sep 1120 in <Vermandois> about age 55. Another name for Adelaide was Adele of Vermandois.

Marriage Notes: After 1067 and before 1080?
FamilySearch has m. abt 1064.

Death Notes: Possibly d. 1124

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

[Adele of Vermandois] was the heiress of the county of Vermandois, and descendant of a junior patrilineal line of descent from Charlemagne . The first Count of Vermandois was Pepin of Vermandois . He was a son of Bernard of Italy , grandson of Pippin of Italy and great-grandson of Charlemagne and Hildegard .

As such, Elizabeth had distinguished ancestry and connections. Her father was a younger brother of Philip I of France and her mother was among the last Carolingians . She was also distantly related to the Kings of England , the Dukes of Normandy , the Counts of Flanders and through her Carolingian ancestors to practically every major nobleman in Western Europe .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 15 F    i. Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester 24 27 was born about 1081 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France>, died on 13 Feb 1131 in England about age 50, and was buried in Lewes, Sussex, England.

+ 16 M    ii. Raoul I, Count of Vermandois .

+ 17 M    iii. Henry, of Chaumont-en-Vexin died in 1130.

+ 18 M    iv. Simon, Bishop of Noyon .

+ 19 F    v. Matilde de Vermandois .

+ 20 F    vi. Constance de Vermandois .

+ 21 F    vii. Agnes de Vermandois .

+ 22 F    viii. Beatrix de Vermandois .

+ 23 F    ix. Emma de Vermandois .

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12. Matilda, of Scotland (Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1079 in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland and died on 1 May 1118 in Westminster Palace, London, England at age 39. Other names for Matilda were Edith of Scotland and Maud of Scotland.

Birth Notes: Place name may be Dermfermline.

Research Notes: Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-22

From Wikipedia - Matilda of Scotland :

Matilda of Scotland
[1] (born Edith; c. 1080 - 1 May 1118) was the first wife and queen consort of Henry I .

Matilda was born around 1080 in Dunfermline , the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret . She was christened Edith, and Robert Curthose stood as godfather at her christening - the English queen Matilda of Flanders was also present at the font and may have been her godmother.
When she was about six years old, Matilda (or Edith as she was then probably still called) and her sister Mary were sent to Romsey , where their aunt Cristina was abbess. During her stay at Romsey and Wilton , The Scottish princess was much sought-after as a bride; she turned down proposals from both William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , and Alan Rufus , Lord of Richmond. Hermann of Tournai even claims that William II Rufus considered marrying her. She was out of the monastery by 1093, when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury ordering that the daughter of the king of Scotland be returned to the monastery that she had left.

After the death of William II Rufus in August 1100, his brother Henry quickly seized the royal treasury and the royal crown. His next task was to marry, and Henry's choice fell on Matilda. Because Matilda had spent most of her life in a nunnery, there was some controversy over whether or not she had been veiled as a nun and would thus be ineligible for marriage. Henry sought permission for the marriage from Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , who returned to England in September 1100 after a long exile. Professing himself unwilling to decide so weighty a matter on his own, Anselm called a council of bishops in order to determine the legality of the proposed marriage. Matilda testified to the archbishop and the assembled bishops of the realm that she had never taken holy vows. She insisted that her parents had sent her and her sister to England for educational purposes, and that her aunt Cristina had veiled her only to protect her "from the lust of the Normans ." Matilda claimed she had pulled the veil off and stamped on it, and her aunt beat and scolded her most horribly for this. The council concluded that Matilda had never been a nun, nor had her parents intended that she become one, and gave their permission for the marriage.
Matilda and Henry seem to have known one another for some time before their marriage - William of Malmesbury states that Henry had "long been attached" to her, and Orderic Vitalis says that Henry had "long adored" Edith's character. Through her mother she was descended from Edmund Ironside and thus Alfred the Great and the old line of the kings of Wessex; this was very important as Henry wanted to help make himself more popular with the English people and Matilda represented the old English dynasty. In their children the Norman and Anglo-Saxon dynasties would be united. Another benefit of the marriage was that England and Scotland became politically closer; three of her brothers served as kings of Scotland and were unusually friendly to England during this period.

After Matilda and Henry were married on 11 November 1100 at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , she was crowned as "Matilda", a fashionable Norman name. She gave birth to a daughter, Matilda, in February 1102, and a son, William, in November 1103. As queen, she maintained her court primarily at Westminster , but accompanied her husband in his travels all across England, and, circa 1106-1107, probably visited Normandy with him. She also served in a vice-regal capacity when Henry was away from court. Her court was filled with musicians and poets; she commissioned a monk, probably Thurgot , to write a biography of her mother, Saint Margaret . She was an active queen, and like her mother was renowned for her devotion to religion and the poor. William of Malmesbury describes her as attending church barefoot at Lent , and washing the feet and kissing the hands of the sick. She also administered extensive dower properties and was known as a patron of the arts, especially music.

After Matilda died on 1 May 1118 at Westminster Palace , she was buried at Westminster Abbey . The death of her only son and Henry's failure to produce a legitimate son from his second marriage led to the succession crisis of The Anarchy .

Matilda married Henry I "Beauclerc", King of England,28 29 son of William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, King of England and Matilda, of Flanders, on 11 Nov 1100 in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England. Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069 in <Selby, Yorkshire>, England and died on 1 Dec 1135 in St. Denis-le-Fermont, France. Other names for Henry were Henry I King of England and Henry I Beauclerc King of England.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots line 124-25 has b. 1070.

Research Notes: Fourth son of William the Conqueror.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

Henry I (c. 1068/1069 - 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror . He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose , to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties , which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta , which subjected the King to law.

The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury . He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship . His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda , but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy .

Early life
Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069, probably in Selby in Yorkshire . His mother, Queen Matilda , was descended from Alfred the Great (but not through the main West Saxon Royal line). Queen Matilda named the infant Prince Henry, after her uncle, Henry I of France . As the youngest son of the family, he was almost certainly expected to become a Bishop and was given rather more extensive schooling than was usual for a young nobleman of that time. The Chronicler William of Malmesbury asserts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate King was a crowned ass. He was certainly the first Norman ruler to be fluent in the English language .

William I's second son Richard was killed in a hunting accident in 1081, so William bequeathed his dominions to his three surviving sons in the following manner:
Robert received the Duchy of Normandy and became Duke Robert II
William Rufus received the Kingdom of England and became King William II
Henry Beauclerc received 5,000 pounds in silver

The Chronicler Orderic Vitalis reports that the old King had declared to Henry: "You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power."

Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other but eventually, wary of his devious manoeuvring, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. This sought to bar Prince Henry from both Thrones by stipulating that if either King William or Duke Robert died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.

Seizing the throne of England

When, on 2 August 1100 , William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the First Crusade . His absence allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at Winchester, Hampshire , where he buried his dead brother. There are suspicions that, on hearing that Robert was returning alive from his crusade with a new bride, Henry decided to act and arranged the murder of William by the French Vexin Walter Tirel .[1] Thus he succeeded to the throne of England, guaranteeing his succession in defiance of William and Robert's earlier agreement. Henry was accepted as King by the leading Barons and was crowned three days later on 5 August at Westminster Abbey . He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement: he issued a Charter of Liberties which is considered a forerunner of the Magna Carta .

First marriage

On 11 November 1100 Henry married Edith , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling and the great-granddaughter of Edward the Confessor 's paternal half-brother Edmund Ironside , the marriage united the Norman line with the old English line of Kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman Barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities Edith changed her name to Matilda upon becoming Queen. The other side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.

The chronicler William of Malmesbury described Henry thus: "He was of middle stature, greater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black and set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy."

Conquest of Normandy
In the following year, 1101, Robert Curthose , Henry's eldest brother, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton , Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King of England and return peacefully to Normandy , upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 silver marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.

In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and the drain on his fiscal resources from the annual payment, Henry led an expeditionary force across the English Channel .

Battle of Tinchebray
On the morning of 28 September 1106, exactly 40 years after William had made his way to England, the decisive battle between his two surviving sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. Henry and his army were marching south from Barfleur on their way to Domfront and Robert was marching with his army from Falaise on their way to Mortain. They met at the crossroads at Tinchebray and the running battle which ensued was spread out over several kilometres. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Towards evening Robert tried to retreat but was captured by Henry's men at a place three kilometres (just under two miles) north of Tinchebray where a farm named "Prise" (taken) stands today on the D22 road. The tombstones of three knights are nearby on the same road.

King of England and Ruler of Normandy
After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Robert, initially in the Tower of London , subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. One day whilst out riding Robert attempted to escape from Cardiff but his horse was bogged down in a swamp and he was recaptured. To prevent further escapes Henry had Robert's eyes burnt out. Henry appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of the Kingdom of England and reunited his father's dominions. Even after taking control of the Duchy of Normandy he didn't take the title of Duke, he chose to control it as the King of England.

In 1113, Henry attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, William Adelin , to the daughter of Fulk of Jerusalem (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. They were married in 1119. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momentous union was made between Henry's daughter, (the former Empress) Matilda and Fulk's son Geoffrey Plantagenet , which eventually resulted in the union of the two Realms under the Plantagenet Kings.


Activities as a King

Henry's need for finance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activities of centralized government. As King, Henry carried out social and judicial reforms, including:
issuing the Charter of Liberties
restoring the laws of Edward the Confessor .

Between 1103 and 1107 Henry was involved in a dispute with Anselm , the Archbishop of Canterbury , and Pope Paschal II in the investiture controversy , which was settled in the Concordat of London in 1107. It was a compromise. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. Employing the distinction, Henry gave up his right to invest his bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come and do homage for the "temporalities " (the landed properties tied to the episcopate), directly from his hand, after the bishop had sworn homage and feudal vassalage in the ceremony called commendatio, the commendation ceremony , like any secular vassal.

Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a treacherous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of Ivry , exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parley at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daughter and son-in-law.

Legitimate children
He had two children by Matilda (Edith), who died on 1 May 1118 at the palace of Westminster. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Matilda . (c. February 1102 - 10 September 1167 ). She married firstly Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor , and secondly, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou , having issue by the second.
William Adelin , (5 August 1103 - 25 November 1120 ). He married Matilda (d.1154), daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou .

Second marriage
On 29 January 1121 he married Adeliza , daughter of Godfrey I of Leuven , Duke of Lower Lotharingia and Landgrave of Brabant , but there were no children from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Matilda , widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor , as his heir.

Death and legacy

Henry visited Normandy in 1135 to see his young grandsons, the children of Matilda and Geoffrey. He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarrelled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.

Henry died on 1 December 1135 of food poisoning from eating "a surfeit of lampreys " (of which he was excessively fond) at Saint-Denis-en-Lyons (now Lyons-la-Forêt ) in Normandy. His remains were sewn into the hide of a bull to preserve them on the journey, and then taken back to England and were buried at Reading Abbey , which he had founded fourteen years before. The Abbey was destroyed during the Protestant Reformation . No trace of his tomb has survived, the probable site being covered by St James' School. Nearby is a small plaque and a large memorial cross stands in the adjoining Forbury Gardens .

Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their Queen, her gender and her remarriage into the House of Anjou , an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois , to come to England and claim the throne with popular support.

The struggle between the former Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as the Anarchy . The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's naming of Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet , as his heir in 1153.

Illegitimate children
King Henry is famed for holding the record for the largest number of acknowledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number being around 20 or 25. He had many mistresses, and identifying which mistress is the mother of which child is difficult. His illegitimate offspring for whom there is documentation are:
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester . Often, said to have been a son of Sybil Corbet.
Maud FitzRoy, married Conan III, Duke of Brittany
Constance FitzRoy, married Richard de Beaumont
Mabel FitzRoy, married William III Gouet
Aline FitzRoy, married Matthieu I of Montmorency
Gilbert FitzRoy, died after 1142. His mother may have been a sister of Walter de Gand.
Emma, born c. 1138; married Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. [Uncertain, born 2 years after Henry died.][2]

With Edith
Matilda, married in 1103 Count Rotrou II of Perche. She perished 25 Nov 1120 in the wreck of the White Ship . She left two daughters; Philippa who married Helie of Anjou (son of Fulk V) and Felice.

With Gieva de Tracy
William de Tracy

With Ansfride
Ansfride was born c. 1070. She was the wife of Anskill of Seacourt, at Wytham in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire ).
Juliane de Fontevrault (born c. 1090); married Eustace de Pacy in 1103. She tried to shoot her father with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughters to be blinded.
Fulk FitzRoy (born c. 1092); a monk at Abingdon .
Richard of Lincoln (c. 1094 - 25 November 1120 ); perished in the wreck of the White Ship .

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.
Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170.

With Edith FitzForne
Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton, (1093-1172) married Dame Maud d'Avranches du Sap. They had one daughter, Mary, who married Renaud, Sire of Courtenay (son of Miles, Sire of Courtenay and Ermengarde of Nevers).
Adeliza FitzEdith. Appears in charters with her brother Robert.

With Princess Nest
Nest ferch Rhys was born about 1073 at Dinefwr Castle , Carmarthenshire , the daughter of Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth and his wife, Gwladys ferch Rhywallon. She married, in 1095, to Gerald de Windsor (aka Geraldus FitzWalter) son of Walter FitzOther, Constable of Windsor Castle and Keeper of the Forests of Berkshire . She had several other liaisons - including one with Stephen of Cardigan, Constable of Cardigan (1136) - and subsequently other illegitimate children. The date of her death is unknown.
Henry FitzRoy , 1103-1158.

With Isabel de Beaumont
Isabel (Elizabeth) de Beaumont (after 1102 - after 1172), daughter of Robert de Beaumont , sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke , in 1130. She was also known as Isabella de Meulan.
Isabel Hedwig of England
Matilda FitzRoy , abbess of Montvilliers, also known as Montpiller

Noted events in his life were:

• King of England: 1100-1135.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 24 F    i. EmpressMatilda, Countess of Anjou 30 31 was born about 7 Feb 1102 and died on 10 Sep 1167 about age 65.

+ 25 M    ii. William Adelin, Duke of Normandy 32 was born in 1103 and died on 25 Nov 1120 at age 17.

Matilda next married someone on 11 Nov 1100.

13. David I "The Saint", King of Scots 21 22 (Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1083, died on 24 May 1153 in Carlisle about age 70, and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland. Another name for David was Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - David I of Scotland :

David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern : Daibhidh I mac [Mhaoil] Chaluim;[1] 1083 x 1085 - 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians (1113-1124) and later King of the Scots (1124-1153). The youngest son of Malcolm III and Margaret , David spent most of his childhood in Scotland , but was exiled to England temporarily in 1093. Perhaps after 1100, he became a dependent at the court of King Henry I . There he was influenced by the Norman and Anglo-French culture of the court.

When David's brother Alexander I of Scotland died in 1124, David chose, with the backing of Henry I, to take the Kingdom of Scotland (Alba ) for himself. He was forced to engage in warfare against his rival and nephew, Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair . Subduing the latter seems to have taken David ten years, a struggle that involved the destruction of Óengus , Mormaer of Moray . David's victory allowed expansion of control over more distant regions theoretically part of his Kingdom. After the death of his former patron Henry I, David supported the claims of Henry's daughter and his own niece, the former Empress-consort, Matilda , to the throne of England. In the process, he came into conflict with King Stephen and was able to expand his power in northern England, despite his defeat at the Battle of the Standard in 1138.

The term "Davidian Revolution " is used by many scholars to summarise the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during his reign. These included his foundation of burghs , implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform , foundation of monasteries , Normanisation of the Scottish government, and the introduction of feudalism through immigrant French and Anglo-French knights.

Childhood and flight to England
David was born at an unknown point between 1083 and 1085.[2] He was probably the eighth son of King Malcolm III , and certainly the sixth and youngest produced by Malcolm's second marriage to Queen Margaret .[3]

In 1093 King Malcolm and David's brother Edward were killed at the river Aln during an invasion of Northumberland .[4] David and his two brothers Alexander and Edgar , both future kings of Scotland, were probably present when their mother died shortly afterwards.[5] According to later medieval tradition, the three brothers were in Edinburgh when they were besieged by their uncle, Donald Bane .[6]


Donald became King of Scotland.[7] It is not certain what happened next, but an insertion in the Chronicle of Melrose states that Donald forced his three nephews into exile, although he was allied with another of his nephews, Edmund .[8] John of Fordun wrote, centuries later, that an escort into England was arranged for them by their maternal uncle Edgar Ætheling .[9]


Intervention of William Rufus and English exile
William Rufus , King of the English, opposed Donald's accession to the northerly kingdom. He sent the eldest son of Malcolm III, David's half-brother Donnchad , into Scotland with an army. Donnchad was killed within the year,[10] and so in 1097 William sent Donnchad's half-brother Edgar into Scotland. The latter was more successful, and was crowned King by the end of 1097.[11]

During the power struggle of 1093-97, David was in England. In 1093, was probably about nine years old.[12] From 1093 until 1103 David's presence cannot be accounted for in detail, but he appears to have been in Scotland for the remainder of the 1090s. When William Rufus was killed, his brother Henry Beauclerc seized power and married David's sister, Matilda . The marriage made David the brother-in-law of the ruler of England. From that point onwards, David was probably an important figure at the English court.[13] Despite his Gaelic background, by the end of his stay in England, David had become a full-fledged Normanised prince. William of Malmesbury wrote that it was in this period that David "rubbed off all tarnish of Scottish barbarity through being polished by intercourse and friendship with us".[14]

Prince of the Cumbrians, 1113-1124

David's time as Prince of the Cumbrians marks the beginning of his life as a great territorial lord. The year of these beginnings was probably 1113, when Henry I arranged David's marriage to Matilda, Countess of Huntingdon , who was the heiress to the Huntingdon-Northampton lordship. As her husband David used the title of Earl , and there was the prospect that David's children by her would inherit all the honours borne by Matilda's father Waltheof . 1113 is the year when David, for the first time, can be found in possession of territory in what is now Scotland.

Obtaining the inheritance
David's brother, King Edgar, had visited William Rufus in May 1099 and bequeathed to David extensive territory to the south of the river Forth .[15] On 8 January 1107, Edgar died. It has been assumed that David took control of his inheritance , the southern lands bequeathed by Edgar, soon after the latter's death.[16] However, it cannot be shown that he possessed his inheritance until his foundation of Selkirk Abbey late in 1113.[17] According to Richard Oram , it was only in 1113, when Henry returned to England from Normandy, that David was at last in a position to claim his inheritance in southern "Scotland".[18]

King Henry's backing seems to have been enough to force King Alexander to recognise his younger brother's claims. This probably occurred without bloodshed, but through threat of force nonetheless.[19] David's aggression seems to have inspired resentment amongst some native Scots. A Gaelic quatrain from this period complains that:
Olc a ndearna mac Mael Colaim, It's bad what Máel Coluim's son has done;, ar cosaid re hAlaxandir, dividing us from Alexander; do-ní le gach mac rígh romhaind, he causes, like each king's son before; foghail ar faras Albain. the plunder of stable Alba. [20] If "divided from" is anything to go by, this quatrain may have been written in David's new territories in southern "Scotland".[21]

The lands in question consisted of the pre-1975 counties of Roxburghshire , Selkirkshire , Berwickshire , Peeblesshire and Lanarkshire . David, moreover, gained the title princeps Cumbrensis, "Prince of the Cumbrians ", as attested in David's charters from this era.[22] Although this was a large slice of Scotland south of the river Forth, the region of Galloway-proper was entirely outside David's control.[23]

David may perhaps have had varying degrees of overlordship in parts of Dumfriesshire , Ayrshire , Dunbartonshire and Renfrewshire .[24] In the lands between Galloway and the Principality of Cumbria, David eventually set up large-scale marcher lordships, such as Annandale for Robert de Brus, Cunningham for Hugh de Morville, and possibly Strathgryfe for Walter Fitzalan .[25]

In England

In the later part of 1113, King Henry gave David the hand of Matilda of Huntingdon, daughter and heiress of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland . The marriage brought with it the "Honour of Huntingdon", a lordship scattered through the shires of Northampton , Huntingdon , and Bedford ; within a few years, Matilda de Senlis bore a son, whom David named Henry after his patron.[26]

The new territories which David controlled were a valuable supplement to his income and manpower, increasing his status as one of the most powerful magnates in the Kingdom of the English. Moreover, Matilda's father Waltheof had been Earl of Northumberland , a defunct lordship which had covered the far north of England and included Cumberland and Westmorland , Northumberland -proper, as well as overlordship of the bishopric of Durham. After King Henry's death, David would revive the claim to this earldom for his son Henry.[27]

David's activities and whereabouts after 1114 are not always easy to trace. He spent much of his time outside his principality, in England and in Normandy. Despite the death of his sister on 1 May 1118, David still possessed the favour of King Henry when his brother Alexander died in 1124, leaving Scotland without a king.[28]


Political and military events in Scotland during David's kingship

Michael Lynch and Richard Oram portray David as having little initial connection with the culture and society of the Scots;[29] but both likewise argue that David became increasingly re-Gaelicised in the later stages of his reign.[30] Whatever the case, David's claim to be heir to the Scottish kingdom was doubtful. David was the youngest of eight sons of the fifth from last king. Two more recent kings had produced sons. William fitz Duncan , son of King Donnchad II, and Máel Coluim , son of the last king Alexander, both preceded David in terms of the slowly emerging principles of primogeniture . However, unlike David, neither William nor Máel Coluim had the support of Henry. So when Alexander died in 1124, the aristocracy of Scotland could either accept David as King, or face war with both David and Henry I.[31]

Coronation and struggle for the kingdom

Alexander's son Máel Coluim chose war. Orderic Vitalis reported that Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair "affected to snatch the kingdom from [David], and fought against him two sufficiently fierce battles; but David, who was loftier in understanding and in power and wealth, conquered him and his followers".[32] Máel Coluim escaped unharmed into areas of Scotland not yet under David's control, and in those areas gained shelter and aid.[33]

In either April or May of the same year David was crowned King of Scotland (Gaelic : rí(gh) Alban; Latin : rex Scottorum )[34] at Scone . If later Scottish and Irish evidence can be taken as evidence, the ceremony of coronation was a series of elaborate traditional rituals,[35] of the kind infamous in the Anglo-French world of the 12th century for their "unchristian" elements.[36] Ailred of Rievaulx, friend and one time member of David's court, reported that David "so abhorred those acts of homage which are offered by the Scottish nation in the manner of their fathers upon the recent promotion of their kings, that he was with difficulty compelled by the bishops to receive them".[37]

Outside his "Cumbrian" principality and the southern fringe of Scotland-proper, David exercised little power in the 1120s, and in the words of Richard Oram, was "king of Scots in little more than name".[38] He was probably in that part of Scotland he did rule for most of the time between late 1127 and 1130.[39] However, he was at the court of Henry in 1126 and in early 1127,[40] and returned to Henry's court in 1130, serving as a judge at Woodstock for the treason trial of Geoffrey de Clinton .[39] It was in this year that David's wife, Matilda of Huntingdon, died. Possibly as a result of this,[41] and while David was still in southern England,[42] Scotland-proper rose up in arms against him.

The instigator was, again, his nephew Máel Coluim, who now had the support of Óengus of Moray . King Óengus was David's most powerful "vassal", a man who, as grandson of King Lulach of Scotland , even had his own claim to the kingdom. The rebel Scots had advanced into Angus , where they were met by David's Mercian constable , Edward ; a battle took place at Stracathro near Brechin . According to the Annals of Ulster , 1000 of Edward's army, and 4000 of Óengus' army, including Óengus himself, died.[43]

According to Orderic Vitalis, Edward followed up the killing of Óengus by marching north into Moray itself, which, in Orderic's words, "lacked a defender and lord"; and so Edward, "with God's help obtained the entire duchy of that extensive district".[44] However, this was far from the end of it. Máel Coluim escaped, and four years of continuing "civil war" followed; for David this period was quite simply a "struggle for survival".[45]

It appears that David asked for and obtained extensive military aid from his patron, King Henry. Ailred of Rievaulx related that at this point a large fleet and a large army of Norman knights, including Walter l'Espec, were sent by Henry to Carlisle in order to assist David's attempt to root out his Scottish enemies.[46] The fleet seems to have been used in the Irish Sea , the Firth of Clyde and the entire Argyll coast, where Máel Coluim was probably at large among supporters. In 1134 Máel Coluim was captured and imprisoned in Roxburgh Castle .[47] Since modern historians no longer confuse him with Malcolm MacHeth , it is clear that nothing more is ever heard of Máel Coluim mac Alaxadair, except perhaps that his sons were later allied with Somerled .[48]

Pacification of the west and north
Richard Oram puts forward the suggestion that it was during this period that David granted Walter fitz Alan the kadrez of Strathgryfe , with northern Kyle and the area around Renfrew , forming what would become the "Stewart" lordship of Strathgryfe; he also suggests that Hugh de Morville may have gained the kadrez of Cunningham and the settlement of "Strathyrewen" (i.e. Irvine ). This would indicate that the 1130-34 campaign had resulted in the acquisition of these territories.[49]

How long it took to pacify Moray is not known, but in this period David appointed his nephew William fitz Duncan to succeed Óengus, perhaps in compensation for the exclusion from the succession to the Scottish throne caused by the coming of age of David's son Henry . William may have been given the daughter of Óengus in marriage, cementing his authority in the region. The burghs of Elgin and Forres may have been founded at this point, consolidating royal authority in Moray.[50] David also founded Urquhart Priory , possibly as a "victory monastery", and assigned to it a percentage of his cain (tribute) from Argyll.[51]

During this period too, a marriage was arranged between the son of Matad, Mormaer of Atholl , and the daughter of Haakon Paulsson , Earl of Orkney . The marriage temporarily secured the northern frontier of the Kingdom, and held out the prospect that a son of one of David's Mormaers could gain Orkney and Caithness for the Kingdom of Scotland. Thus, by the time Henry I died on 1 December 1135, David had more of Scotland under his control than ever before.[52]

Dominating the north

While fighting King Stephen and attempting to dominate northern England in the years following 1136, David was continuing his drive for control of the far north of Scotland. In 1139, his cousin, the five year old Harald Maddadsson , was given the title of "Earl" and half the lands of the earldom of Orkney , in addition to Scottish Caithness. Throughout the 1140s Caithness and Sutherland were brought back under the Scottish zone of control.[53] Sometime before 1146 David appointed a native Scot called Aindréas to be the first Bishop of Caithness , a bishopric which was based at Halkirk , near Thurso , in an area which was ethnically Scandinavian.[54]

In 1150, it looked like Caithness and the whole earldom of Orkney were going to come under permanent Scottish control. However, David's plans for the north soon began to encounter problems. In 1151, King Eystein II of Norway put a spanner in the works by sailing through the waterways of Orkney with a large fleet and catching the young Harald unawares in his residence at Thurso. Eystein forced Harald to pay fealty as a condition of his release. Later in the year David hastily responded by supporting the claims to the Orkney earldom of Harald's rival Erlend Haraldsson , granting him half of Caithness in opposition to Harald. King Eystein responded in turn by making a similar grant to this same Erlend, cancelling the effect of David's grant. David's weakness in Orkney was that the Norwegian kings were not prepared to stand back and let him reduce their power.[55]

England

David's relationship with England and the English crown in these years is usually interpreted in two ways. Firstly, his actions are understood in relation to his connections with the King of England. No historian is likely to deny that David's early career was largely manufactured by King Henry I of England. David was the latter's "greatest protégé",[56] one of Henry's "new men".[57] His hostility to Stephen can be interpreted as an effort to uphold the intended inheritance of Henry I, the succession of his daughter, Matilda , the former Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. David carried out his wars in her name, joined her when she arrived in England, and later knighted her son, the future Henry II .[58]

However, David's policy towards England can be interpreted in an additional way. David was the independence-loving king trying to build a "Scoto-Northumbrian" realm by seizing the most northerly parts of the English kingdom. In this perspective, David's support for Matilda is used as a pretext for land-grabbing. David's maternal descent from the House of Wessex and his son Henry's maternal descent from the English Earls of Northumberland is thought to have further encouraged such a project, a project which only came to an end after Henry II ordered David's child successor Máel Coluim IV to hand over the most important of David's gains. It is clear that neither one of these interpretations can be taken without some weight being given to the other.[59]


Usurpation of Stephen and First Treaty of Durham
Henry I had arranged his inheritance to pass to his daughter Empress Matilda . Instead, Stephen , younger brother of Theobald II, Count of Blois , seized the throne.[60] David had been the first lay person to take the oath to uphold the succession of Matilda in 1127, and when Stephen was crowned on 22 December 1135, David decided to make war.[61]

Before December was over, David marched into northern England, and by the end of January he had occupied the castles of Carlisle , Wark , Alnwick , Norham and Newcastle . By February David was at Durham, but an army led by King Stephen met him there. Rather than fight a pitched battle, a treaty was agreed whereby David would retain Carlisle, while David's son Henry was re-granted the title and half the lands of the earldom of Huntingdon, territory which had been confiscated during David's revolt. On Stephen's side he received back the other castles; and while David would do no homage, Stephen was to receive the homage of Henry for both Carlisle and the other English territories. Stephen also gave the rather worthless but for David face-saving promise that if he ever chose to resurrect the defunct earldom of Northumberland, Henry would be given first consideration. Importantly, the issue of Matilda was not mentioned. However, the first Durham treaty quickly broke down after David took insult at the treatment of his son Henry at Stephen's court.[62]


Renewal of war and Clitheroe
When the winter of 1136-37 was over, David again invaded England. The King of the Scots confronted a northern English army waiting for him at Newcastle. Once more pitched battle was avoided, and instead a truce was agreed until November. When November fell, David demanded that Stephen hand over the whole of the old earldom of Northumberland. Stephen's refusal led to David's third invasion, this time in January 1138.[63]

The army which invaded England in the January and February 1138 shocked the English chroniclers. Richard of Hexham called it "an execrable army, savager than any race of heathen yielding honour to neither God nor man" and that it "harried the whole province and slaughtered everywhere folk of either sex, of every age and condition, destroying, pillaging and burning the vills, churches and houses".[64] Several doubtful stories of cannibalism were recorded by chroniclers, and these same chroniclers paint a picture of routine enslavings, as well as killings of churchmen, women and infants.[65]

By February King Stephen marched north to deal with David. The two armies avoided each other, and Stephen was soon on the road south. In the summer David split his army into two forces, sending William fitz Duncan to march into Lancashire , where he harried Furness and Craven . On 10 June, William fitz Duncan met a force of knights and men-at-arms. A pitched battle took place, the battle of Clitheroe , and the English army was routed.[66]


Battle of the Standard and Second Treaty of Durham
By later July, 1138, the two Scottish armies had reunited in "St Cuthbert's land", that is, in the lands controlled by the Bishop of Durham , on the far side of the river Tyne . Another English army had mustered to meet the Scots, this time led by William, Earl of Aumale . The victory at Clitheroe was probably what inspired David to risk battle. David's force, apparently 26,000 strong and several times larger than the English army, met the English on 22 August at Cowdon Moor near Northallerton , North Yorkshire .[67]

The Battle of the Standard , as the encounter came to be called, was unsuccessful for the Scots. Afterwards, David and his surviving notables retired to Carlisle. Although the result was a defeat, it was not by any means decisive. David retained the bulk of his army and thus the power to go on the offensive again. The siege of Wark, for instance, which had been going on since January, continued until it was captured in November. David continued to occupy Cumberland as well as much of Northumberland .[68]

On 26 September Cardinal Alberic , Bishop of Ostia , arrived at Carlisle where David had called together his kingdom's nobles, abbots and bishops. Alberic was there to investigate the controversy over the issue of the Bishop of Glasgow's allegiance or non-allegiance to the Archbishop of York. Alberic played the role of peace-broker, and David agreed to a six week truce which excluded the siege of Wark. On 9 April David and Stephen's wife Matilda of Boulogne met each other at Durham and agreed a settlement. David's son Henry was given the earldom of Northumberland and was restored to the earldom of Huntingdon and lordship of Doncaster ; David himself was allowed to keep Carlisle and Cumberland. King Stephen was to retain possession of the strategically vital castles of Bamburgh and Newcastle. This effectively fulfilled all of David's war aims.[68]

Arrival of Matilda and the renewal of conflict
The settlement with Stephen was not set to last long. The arrival in England of the Empress Matilda gave David an opportunity to renew the conflict with Stephen. In either May or June, David travelled to the south of England and entered Matilda's company; he was present for her expected coronation at Westminster Abbey , though this never took place. David was there until September, when the Empress found herself surrounded at Winchester .[69]

This civil war, or "the Anarchy " as it was later called, enabled David to strengthen his own position in northern England. While David consolidated his hold on his own and his son's newly acquired lands, he also sought to expand his influence. The castles at Newcastle and Bamburgh were again brought under his control, and he attained dominion over all of England north-west of the river Ribble and Pennines , while holding the north-east as far south as the river Tyne, on the borders of the core territory of the bishopric of Durham. While his son brought all the senior barons of Northumberland into his entourage, David rebuilt the fortress of Carlisle. Carlisle quickly replaced Roxburgh as his favoured residence. David's acquisition of the mines at Alston on the South Tyne enabled him to begin minting the Kingdom of Scotland 's first silver coinage. David, meanwhile, issued charters to Shrewsbury Abbey in respect to their lands in Lancashire .[70]


Bishopric of Durham and the Archbishopric of York
However, David's successes were in many ways balanced by his failures. David's greatest disappointment during this time was his inability to ensure control of the bishopric of Durham and the archbishopric of York. David had attempted to appoint his chancellor, William Comyn, to the bishopric of Durham, which had been vacant since the death of Bishop Geoffrey Rufus in 1140. Between 1141 and 1143, Comyn was the de facto bishop, and had control of the bishop's castle; but he was resented by the chapter . Despite controlling the town of Durham, David's only hope of ensuring his election and consecration was gaining the support of the Papal legate, Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester and brother of King Stephen. Despite obtaining the support of the Empress Matilda, David was unsuccessful and had given up by the time William de St Barbara was elected to the see in 1143.[71]

David also attempted to interfere in the succession to the archbishopric of York. William FitzHerbert , nephew of King Stephen, found his position undermined by the collapsing political fortune of Stephen in the north of England, and was deposed by the Pope. David used his Cistercian connections to build a bond with Henry Murdac , the new archbishop. Despite the support of Pope Eugenius III , supporters of King Stephen and William FitzHerbert managed to prevent Henry taking up his post at York. In 1149, Henry had sought the support of David. David seized on the opportunity to bring the archdiocese under his control, and marched on the city. However, Stephen's supporters became aware of David's intentions, and informed King Stephen. Stephen therefore marched to the city and installed a new garrison. David decided not to risk such an engagement and withdrew.[72] Richard Oram has conjectured that David's ultimate aim was to bring the whole of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria into his dominion. For Oram, this event was the turning point, "the chance to radically redraw the political map of the British Isles lost forever".[73]

Scottish Church

Historical treatment of David I and the Scottish church usually emphasises David's pioneering role as the instrument of diocesan reorganisation and Norman penetration, beginning with the bishopric of Glasgow while David was Prince of the Cumbrians, and continuing further north after David acceded to the throne of Scotland. Focus too is usually given to his role as the defender of the Scottish church's independence from claims of overlordship by the Archbishop of York and the Archbishop of Canterbury .

Ecclesiastical disputes
One of the first problems David had to deal with as king was an ecclesiastical dispute with the English church. The problem with the English church concerned the subordination of Scottish sees to the archbishops of York and/or Canterbury, an issue which since his election in 1124 had prevented Robert of Scone from being consecrated to the see of St Andrews (Cell Ríghmonaidh). It is likely that since the 11th century the bishopric of St Andrews functioned as a de facto archbishopric. The title of "Archbishop" is accorded in Scottish and Irish sources to Bishop Giric [82] and Bishop Fothad II .[83]

The problem was that this archiepiscopal status had not been cleared with the papacy, opening the way for English archbishops to claim overlordship of the whole Scottish church. The man responsible was the new aggressively assertive Archbishop of York, Thurstan . His easiest target was the bishopric of Glasgow, which being south of the river Forth was not regarded as part of Scotland nor the jurisdiction of St Andrews. In 1125, Pope Honorius II wrote to John, Bishop of Glasgow ordering him to submit to the archbishopric of York.[84] David ordered Bishop John of Glasgow to travel to the Apostolic See in order to secure a pallium which would elevate the bishopric of St Andrews to an archbishopric with jurisdiction over Glasgow.[85]

Thurstan travelled to Rome, as did the Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil , and both presumably opposed David's request. David however gained the support of King Henry, and the Archbishop of York agreed to a year's postponement of the issue and to consecrate Robert of Scone without making an issue of subordination.[86] York's claim over bishops north of the Forth were in practice abandoned for the rest of David's reign, although York maintained her more credible claims over Glasgow.[87]

In 1151, David again requested a pallium for the Archbishop of St Andrews. Cardinal John Paparo met David at his residence of Carlisle in September 1151. Tantalisingly for David, the Cardinal was on his way to Ireland with four pallia to create four new Irish archbishoprics. When the Cardinal returned to Carlisle, David made the request. In David's plan, the new archdiocese would include all the bishoprics in David's Scottish territory, as well as bishopric of Orkney and the bishopric of the Isles . Unfortunately for David, the Cardinal does not appear to have brought the issue up with the papacy. In the following year the papacy dealt David another blow by creating the archbishopric of Trondheim, a new Norwegian archbishopric embracing the bishoprics of the Isles and Orkney.[88]

Succession and death

Perhaps the greatest blow to David's plans came on 12 July 1152 when Henry, Earl of Northumberland, David's only son and successor, died. He had probably been suffering from some kind of illness for a long time. David had under a year to live, and he may have known that he was not going to be alive much longer. David quickly arranged for his grandson Máel Coluim to be made his successor, and for his younger grandson William to be made Earl of Northumberland. Donnchad I, Mormaer of Fife , the senior magnate in Scotland-proper, was appointed as rector, or regent , and took the 11 year-old Máel Coluim around Scotland-proper on a tour to meet and gain the homage of his future Gaelic subjects. David's health began to fail seriously in the Spring of 1153, and on 24 May 1153, David died.[89] In his obituary in the Annals of Tigernach , he is called Dabíd mac Mail Colaim, rí Alban & Saxan, "David, son of Máel Coluim, King of Scotland and England", a title which acknowledged the importance of the new English part of David's realm.[90]

Monastic patronage
David was one of medieval Scotland's greatest monastic patrons. In 1113, in perhaps David's first act as Prince of the Cumbrians, he founded Selkirk Abbey for the Tironensians .[118] David founded more than a dozen new monasteries in his reign, patronising various new monastic orders.[119]

Not only were such monasteries an expression of David's undoubted piety, but they also functioned to transform Scottish society. Monasteries became centres of foreign influence,, and provided sources of literate men, able to serve the crown's growing administrative needs.[120] These new monasteries, and the Cistercian ones in particular, introduced new agricultural practices.[121] Cistercian labour, for instance, transformed southern Scotland into one of northern Europe's most important sources of sheep wool.[122]

Noted events in his life were:

• Prince of the Cumbrians: 1113-1124.

• Crowned: King of Scots, 23 Apr 1124, Scone, (Perth and Kinross), Scotland. King of Scots 23 Apr. 1124-1153.

David married Maud, of Huntingdon,33 34 35 daughter of Waltheof II, Earl of Northumberland and Judith, of Lens, 1113 or 1114. Maud was born about 1074 and died in 1131 about age 57. Other names for Maud were Matilda of Huntingdon and Maude of Huntingdon.

Research Notes: Widow of Simon de St. Liz.

From Wikipedia - Maud, Countess of Huntingdon :

Maud of Northumbria (1074-1130), countess for the Honour of Huntingdon , was the daughter of Waltheof II, Earl of Northumbria and Judith of Lens , the last of the major Anglo-Saxon earls to remain powerful after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. She inherited her father's earldom of Huntingdon and married twice.

Her mother, Judith, refused to marry Simon I of St Liz, 1st Earl of Northampton . This refusal angered her uncle, King William I of England , who confiscated Judith's estates after she fled the country. Instead her daughter Maud was married to Simon of St Liz in 1090. She had a number of children with St Liz including:
Matilda of St Liz (Maud), married Robert FitzRichard and then Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester ..
Simon II de St Liz, 4th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton .
Saint Walteof de St Liz (1100 - bt 1159 - 1160).

Her first husband died in 1109 and Maud next married King David I of Scotland in 1113. From this marriage she had one son, Henry .

The Scottish House of Dunkeld produced the remaining Earls of Huntingdon of the first creation of the title. She was succeeded to the Earldom of Huntingdon by her son Henry.

According to John of Fordun , she died in 1130 and was buried at Scone, but she appears in a charter dated 1147.

Noted events in her life were:

• Countess of Huntingdon and Northumberland:

The child from this marriage was:

+ 26 M    i. Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon 34 36 was born in 1114 and died on 12 Jun 1152 at age 38.

14. Mary, of Scotland 23 (Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died on 18 Apr 1118. Another name for Mary was Marie of Scotland.

Mary married Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and Lens,37 38 son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne and Ida, of Lorraine, in 1102. Eustace died after 1125.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eustace III, Count of Boulogne :

Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne , successor to his father Count Eustace II of Boulogne . His mother was Ida of Lorraine .

Eustace appeared at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 as an ally of William the Conqueror , and is listed as a possible killer of Harold II ; he is also believed to have given William his own horse after the duke's was killed under him by Gyrth , brother of Harold.

He succeeded to Count of Boulogne in 1087.[1]

He went on the First Crusade in 1096 with his brothers Godfrey of Bouillon (duke of Lower Lotharingia ) and Baldwin of Boulogne . He soon returned to Europe to administer his domains. He married Mary of Scotland , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland , and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Eustace and Mary had one daughter, Matilda of Boulogne .

When his youngest brother king Baldwin I of Jerusalem died in 1118, the elderly Eustace was offered the throne. Eustace was at first uninterested, but was convinced to accept it; he travelled all the way to Apulia before learning that a distant relative, Baldwin of Bourcq , had been crowned in the meantime. Eustace returned to Boulogne and died about 1125.

On his death the county of Boulogne was inherited by his daughter, Matilda, and her husband Stephen de Blois , count of Mortain , afterwards king of England , and at the death of Matilda in 1151 it was inherited by their son, Eustace IV of Boulogne , later their second son William and ultimately by their daughter Marie of Boulogne , since both sons died without children.

Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader:

• Count of Boulogne: 1087-1125.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 27 F    i. Matilda, of Boulogne 39 40 was born about 1105 in Boulogne, France, died on 3 Jul 1151 in Hedingham Castle about age 46, and was buried in Faversham Abbey.

15. Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester 24 27 (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1081 in <Valois, Île-de-France, France>, died on 13 Feb 1131 in England about age 50, and was buried in Lewes, Sussex, England. Other names for Isabel were Elizabeth de Vermandois, Isabella de Vermandois, and Isabel de Vermandois.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1085 in Valois, France

Research Notes: From: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Elizabeth de Vermandois, or Elisabeth or Isabel de Vermandois (c. 1081 -13 February 1131 ), is a fascinating figure about whose descendants and ancestry much is known and about whose character and life relatively little is known. She was twice married to influential Anglo-Norman magnates, and had several children (among whose descendants are numbered many kings and some queens of England and Scotland). Her Capetian and Carolingian ancestry was a source of much pride for some of these descendants (who included these arms as quarterings in their coats-of-arms[1] ). However, the lady herself led a somewhat controversial life.

Family
Elizabeth de Vermandois was the third daughter of Hugh Magnus and Adele of Vermandois. Her paternal grandparents were Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev . Her maternal grandparents were Herbert IV of Vermandois and Adele of Vexin .
Her mother was the heiress of the county of Vermandois, and descendant of a junior patrilineal line of descent from Charlemagne . The first Count of Vermandois was Pepin of Vermandois . He was a son of Bernard of Italy , grandson of Pippin of Italy and great-grandson of Charlemagne and Hildegard .

As such, Elizabeth had distinguished ancestry and connections. Her father was a younger brother of Philip I of France and her mother was among the last Carolingians . She was also distantly related to the Kings of England , the Dukes of Normandy , the Counts of Flanders and through her Carolingian ancestors to practically every major nobleman in Western Europe .

Countess of Leicester
In 1096, while under age (and probably aged 9 or 11), Elizabeth married Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester . Meulan was over 35 years her senior, which was an unusual age difference even for this time period. He was a nobleman of some significance in France, having inherited lands from his maternal uncle Henry, Count of Meulan, and had fought bravely and with distinction at his first battle, the Battle of Hastings in 1066 then aged only 16. His parents Roger de Beaumont , Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemar and Adeline of Meulan , heiress of Meulan had died long before; Roger had been a kinsman and close associate of William the Conqueror . Meulan had inherited lands in Normandy after his father died circa 1089, and had also been given lands in the Kingdom of England after his participation in the Norman conquest of England . However, at the time of the marriage, he held no earldom in England while his younger brother was already styled Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick .

Planche states that the bride (Elizabeth) agreed willingly to the marriage, although this means little in the context. Despite the immense age difference, this was a good marriage for its times. Meulan was a respected advisor to three reigning monarchs: William II of England ), Robert Curthose of Normandy and Philip I of France .

According to Middle Ages custom, brides were often betrothed young - 8 being the legal age for betrothal and 12 for marriage (for women). The young betrothed wife would often go to her husband's castle to be raised by his parents or other relatives and to learn the customs and ways of her husband's family. The actual wedding would not take place until much later. Some genealogists speculate that the usual age at which a noble bride could expect the marriage to be consummated would be 14. This is consistent with the date of birth of Elizabeth's first child Emma in 1102 when she would be about 15 to 17.

The marriage produced several children, including most notably two sons who were twins (born 1104 ), and thus remarkable in both surviving and both becoming important noblemen. They are better known to historians of this period as the Beaumont twins, or as Waleran de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and his younger twin Robert Bossu (the Humpback) or Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . (Readers of Ellis Peters' Cadfael historical mystery series will find both twins mentioned frequently).

Another notable child of this marriage was Elisabeth or Isabel de Beaumont, one of the youngest mistresses of Henry I of England and later mother (by her first marriage) of Richard Strongbow .

Some contemporaries were surprised that the aging Count of Meulan (b circa 1049/1050) was able to father so many children, given how busy he was with turmoil in England and Normandy from 1102 to 1110 (or later) and acting as Henry I's unofficial minister. One explanation is offered below; another might simply be an indication of his good health and energy (expended mostly in dashing from one troublespot in Normandy to England back to Normandy).

William II of England died suddenly in a purported hunting accident, and was hastily succeeded not by the expected heir but by the youngest brother Henry . This seizure of the throne led to an abortive invasion by the older brother Duke Robert of Normandy, followed by an uneasy truce between the brothers, followed by trouble in both England and Normandy for some time (stirred up by Duke Robert, and by an exiled nobleman Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury ). Finally, Henry invaded Normandy and in the Battle of Tinchebray (September 28 , 1106 ) destroyed organized opposition to his takeover of Normandy and imprisoned his ineffectual older brother for his lifetime. Meulan and his brother Warwick were apparently supporters of Henry during this entire period, and Meulan was rewarded with the earldom of Leicester in 1103 . By 1107, Meulan was in possession of substantial lands in three domains. In 1111, he was able to revenge himself on the attack on his seat Meulan by Louis VI of France . He avenged himself by harrying Paris .

Countess of Surrey
Elizabeth, Countess of Meulan apparently tired of her aging husband at some point during the marriage. The historian Planche says (1874) that the Countess was seduced by or fell in love with a younger nobleman, William de Warenne (c. 1071 -11 May 1138 ) himself the thwarted suitor of Edith of Scotland , Queen consort of Henry I of England. Warenne, whose mother Gundred has been alleged (in modern times) to be the Conqueror's daughter and stepdaughter by some genealogists, was said to want a royal bride, and Elizabeth fitted his requirements, even though she was also another man's wife.

In 1115, the Countess was apparently carried off or abducted by Warenne, which abduction apparently concealed a long-standing affair. There was some kind of separation or divorce between Meulan and his wife, which however did not permit her to marry her lover. The elderly Count of Meulan died, supposedly of chagrin and mortification in being thus publicly humiliated, in the Abbey of Preaux, Normandy on 5 June 1118 , leaving his properties to his two elder sons whom he had carefully educated.

Elizabeth married, secondly, William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , sometime after the death of her first husband. By him, it is alleged, she already had several children (all born during her marriage to Meulan). She also had at least one daughter born while she was living out of wedlock with Warenne (1115-1118). It is unclear whether this daughter was Ada de Warenne, wife of Henry of Scotland or Gundrede de Warenne, wife of Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick (her half-brothers' first cousin).

The later life of Elizabeth de Vermandois is not known. Her sons by her first marriage appear to have a good relationship with their half-brother William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey although on opposing sides for much of the wars between Stephen and Matilda . Her eldest son Waleran, Count of Meulan was active in supporting the disinherited heir William Clito , son of Robert Curthose until captured by King Henry. He was not released until Clito's death without issue in 1128. Her second son Robert inherited his father's English estates and the earldom of Leicester and married the heiress of the Fitzosbern counts of Breteuil. Her daughter Isabel however became a king's concubine or mistress at a young age; it is unclear whether her mother's own life or her eldest brother's political and personal travails in this period played any part in this decision. Before her mother died, Isabel had become wife of Gilbert de Clare , later (1147) Earl of Pembroke, so had adopted a more conventional life like her mother.

There are no known biographies of Elizabeth de Vermandois, nor any known fictional treatments of her life.

Children and descendants
During her first marriage (1096-1115) to Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (d 5 June 1118), Elizabeth had 3 sons (including twin elder sons) and 6 daughters:
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 ) whose fate is unknown. She was betrothed as an infant to Aumari, nephew of William, Count of Evreux, but the marriage never took place. She probably died young, or entered a convent.[2]
Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (born 1104 ) married and left issue.
Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (born 1104 ) married and left issue (his granddaughter Hawisa or Isabella of Gloucester was the unfortunate first wife of King John .
Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (born c. 1106 ) lost his earldom, left issue
Adeline de Beaumont (b ca 1107), married two times:
Hugh IV, 4th Lord of Montfort-sur-Risle to whom she was married firstly by her brother Waleran;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)
Aubree (or Alberee) de Beaumont (b ca 1109), married by her brother Waleran to Hugh II of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais (possibly son of Hugh I of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais and his wife Mabille de Montgomerie, 2nd daughter of Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury )
Maud de Beaumont (b ca 1111), married by her brother Waleran to William Lovel, or Louvel or Lupel, son of Ascelin Goel, Lord of Ivri.
Isabel de Beaumont (b Aft. 1102), a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke by whom she was mother of Richard Strongbow , who invaded Ireland 1170 ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland (this marriage is not conclusively proven)
In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.
Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;
Ralph de Warenne (dsp)
Gundrada de Warenne , (Gundred) who married first
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and had issue; second (as his 2nd wife)
William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Warenne and Surrey and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle; and they had issue.

Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.

The second earl had married Isabella, daughter of Hugh, Count of Vermandois, widow of Robert de Beaumont, earl of Leicester. The arms of Warenne "checky or and azure" were adopted from the Vermandois coat after this marriage.

The original Vermandois arms were "checky or and sable" but there was no black tincture in early medieval heraldry until sable was discovered, being the crushed fur of this animal. A very deep indigo was used instead which faded into blue so the Vermandois arms becams "checky argent and or".
The Vermandois arms were inherited by the earls of Warenne and Surrey, the Newburgh earls of Warwick, the Beauchamp earls of Warwick and Worcester and the Clifford earls of Cumberland.

Isabel married Sir Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan,41 42 43 son of Roger de Beaumont, Lord of Beaumont-le-Roger and Pont-Audemer and Adeline, of Meulan, between 1096 and 1101. The marriage ended in divorce. Robert was born about 1049 in Pont-Audemer, Beaumont, Normandy, France, died on 5 Jun 1118 in Leicestershire, England about age 69, and was buried in Preaux, Normandy, France. Another name for Robert was Robert de Meulan.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 53-24 has m. 1096. Wikipedia has m. abt. 1101.

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Betrothal: to Robert de Meulan, 1096.

Research Notes: First husband of Isabel de Vermandois.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 50-24 (Isabel de Vermandois) has "b. abt 1049, d. 5 Jun 1118, Lord of Beaumont, Pont-Audemer and Brionne, Count of Meulan, cr. 1st Earl of Leicester, Companion of William the Conqueror at Hastings 1066, son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline (or Adelise), dau. of Waleran, Count of Meulan..."

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester

Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Count of Meulan (1049 - June 5 , 1118 ) was a powerful English and French nobleman, revered as one of the wisest men of his age. Chroniclers speak highly of his eloquence, his learning, and three kings of England valued his counsel.
He accompanied William the Conqueror to England in 1066 , where his service earned him more than 91 lordships and manors. When his mother died in 1081 , Robert inherited the title of Count of Meulan in Normandy , also the title of Viscount Ivry and Lord of Norton. He did homage to Philip I of France for these estates and sat as French Peer in the Parliament held at Poissy .

At the Battle of Hastings Robert was appointed leader of the infantry on the right wing of the army.

He and his brother Henry were members of the Royal hunting party in the New Forest , when William Rufus received his mysterious death wound, 2 August 1100 . He then pledged alligience to William Rufus' brother, Henry I of England , who created him Earl of Leicester in 1107.

On the death of William Rufus, William, Count of Evreux and Ralph de Conches made an incursion into Robert's Norman estates, on the pretence that they had suffered injury through some advice that Robert had given to the King; their raid was very successful for they collected a vast booty.
According to Henry of Huntingdon , Robert died of shame after "a certain earl carried off the lady he had espoused, either by some intrigue or by force and stratagem." His wife Isabella remarried in 1118 to William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey .


Family and children
He was the eldest son of Roger de Beaumont and Adeline of Meulan , daughter of Waleran III, Count de Meulan , and an older brother of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick .

In 1096 he married (Isabel) Elizabeth de Vermandois , daughter of Hugh Magnus and a scion of the French royal family. Their children were:
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 )
Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (born 1104 )
Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan (born 1104 )
Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (born c. 1106 )
Adeline de Beaumont, married two times:
Hugh IV of Montfort-sur-Risle ;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)
Aubree de Beaumont, married Hugh II of Château-neuf-Thimerais.
Maud de Beaumont, married William Lovel. (b. c. 1102)
Isabel de Beaumont, a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland

Sources
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 50-24, 50-25, 53-24, 53-25, 66-25, 114-29, 140-24, 184-4, 215-24, 215-25
Edward T. Beaumont, J.P. The Beaumonts in History. A.D. 850-1850. Oxford.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 28 F    i. Isabel de Beaumont 44 was born between 1100 and 1107 and died after 1172.

+ 29 F    ii. Emma de Beaumont was born in 1102.

+ 30 M    iii. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 43 45 46 was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. (Relationship to Father: Biological, Relationship to Mother: Biological)

+ 31 M    iv. Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 47 48 was born in 1104 in <Meulan, Île-de-France>, France, died on 10 Apr 1166 in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France at age 62, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France.

+ 32 M    v. Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford was born about 1106.

+ 33 M    vi. Adeline de Beaumont 24 was born about 1107.

+ 34 F    vii. Aubree de Beaumont 24 was born about 1109.

+ 35 F    viii. Maud de Beaumont was born about 1111.

Isabel next married William II de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey,26 34 49 son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and Gundred, Countess of Surrey, after 1118. William was born about 1065 in <Sussex, England>, died on 11 May 1138 in <England> about age 73, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England. Other names for William were William Earl of Warren and Surrey, William Earl Warenne, and William Earl of Warenne.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey
William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey (died 1138 ), was the son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and his first wife Gundred . He is more often referred to as Earl Warenne or Earl of Warenne than as Earl of Surrey.

Sometime around 1093 he tried to marry Matilda (or Edith) , daughter of king Malcolm III of Scotland . She instead married Henry I of England , and this may be the cause of William's great dislike of Henry I, which was to be his apparent motivator in the following years.
He accompanied Robert Curthose in his 1101 invasion of England , and afterwards lost his English lands and titles and was exiled to Normandy . There he complained to Curthose that he expended great effort on the duke's behalf and had in return lost most of his possessions. Curthose's return to England in 1103 was apparently made to convince his brother to restore William's earldom. This was successful, though Curthose had to give up all he had received after the 1101 invasion, and subsequently
William was loyal to king Henry.

To further insure William's loyalty Henry considered marrying him to one of his many illegitimate daughters. He was however dissuaded by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, for any of the daughters would have been within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity . The precise nature of the consanguinous relationship Anselm had in mind has been much debated, but it is most likely he was referring to common descent from the father of duchess Gunnor.

William was one of the commanders on Henry's side (against Robert Curthose) at the Battle of Tinchebray in 1106. Afterwards, with his loyalty thus proven, he became more prominent in Henry's court.

In 1110, Curthose's son William Clito escaped along with Helias of Saint-Saens , and afterwards Warenne received the forfeited Saint-Saens lands, which were very near his own in upper Normandy. By this maneuver king Henry further assured his loyalty, for the successful return of Clito would mean at the very least Warenne's loss of this new territory.
He fought at the Battle of Bremule in 1119, and was at Henry's deathbed in 1135.

Family
In 1118 William acquired the royal-blooded bride he desired when married Elizabeth de Vermandois . She was a daughter of count Hugh of Vermandois , a son of Henry I of France , and was the widow of Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester .
By Elizabeth he had three sons and two daughters:
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey ;
Reginald de Warenne , who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh ;
Ralph de Warenne
Gundrada de Warenne , who married first Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , and second William, lord of Kendal , and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen 's garrison from Warwick Castle ;
Ada de Warenne , who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon

References
C. Warren Hollister, "[The Taming of a Turbulent Earl: Henry I and William of Warenne ]", Historical Reflections 3 (1976) 83-91
C. Warren Hollister, Henry I (2001)
The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, ed. M. Chibnall, vol. 2, p. 264 (Oxford, 1990).

**********
From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.
Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;
Ralph de Warenne (dsp)
Gundrada de Warenne , (Gundred) who married first
Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and had issue; second (as his 2nd wife)
William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Warenne and Surrey and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen's garrison from Warwick Castle; and they had issue.
Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 36 M    i. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 43 45 46 was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. (Relationship to Father: Step, Relationship to Mother: Biological)

+ 37 F    ii. Gundred de Warenne 50 51 was born about 1117 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England, died after 1166 in Warwickshire, England, and was buried in Kelso, Roxburgh, Scotland.

+ 38 M    iii. William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne 52 was born in 1118 and died in 1148 at age 30.

+ 39 F    iv. Ada de Warenne 24 34 53 died about 1178.

+ 40 M    v. Reginald de Warenne .

+ 41 M    vi. Ralph de Warenne .

16. Raoul I, Count of Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1). Another name for Raoul was Count Raoul of Vermandois.

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

17. Henry, of Chaumont-en-Vexin (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died in 1130.

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

18. Simon, Bishop of Noyon (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

19. Matilde de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois
Married Raoul I of Beaugency

20. Constance de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

Married Godefroy de la Ferte-Gaoucher

21. Agnes de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

Married Margrave Boniface del Vasto. ;Mother of Adelaide del Vasto

22. Beatrix de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois

Married Hugh III of Gournay-en-Bray

23. Emma de Vermandois (Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Hugh of Vermandois


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24. EmpressMatilda, Countess of Anjou 30 31 (Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 7 Feb 1102 and died on 10 Sep 1167 about age 65. Other names for Matilda were Mathilda of England, Empress Maud Countess of Anjou, and Maude of England.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots Line 1-23 has b. abt. 1102-1104; Line 118-25 has b. 1104.
Some other source has b. Feb 1101

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Empress Matilda :

Empress Matilda, also known as Matilda of England or Maude (c. 7 February 1102 - 10 September 1167) was the daughter and heir of King Henry I of England . Matilda and her younger brother, William Adelin , were the only legitimate children of King Henry. Her brother died young in the White ship disaster , leaving Matilda as the last heir from the paternal line of her grandfather William the Conqueror .

As a child, Matilda was betrothed and later married to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . From her marriage to Henry, she acquired the title Empress. The couple had no known children. When widowed, she was married to the much younger Geoffrey of Anjou , by whom she became the mother of three sons, the eldest of whom became King Henry II of England .

Matilda was the first female ruler of the Kingdom of England . However the length of her effective rule was quite brief - a few months in 1141 - and she was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically). Because of this she is normally excluded from lists of English monarchs, and her rival (and cousin) Stephen of Blois is routinely listed as monarch for the period 1135-1154. Their warring rivalry for the throne led to years of unrest and civil war in England that have been called The Anarchy . She did secure her inheritance of the Duchy of Normandy - through the military feats of her husband Geoffrey - and she campaigned unstintingly for her oldest son's inheritance, living to see him ascend the throne in 1154.

(In Latin texts Matilda was sometimes called Maude . This is a modernised spelling of the Norman-French form of her name, Mahaut.)

Early life
Matilda was the firstborn of two children to Henry I of England and his wife Matilda of Scotland (also known as Edith). Her maternal grandparents were Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Margaret was daughter of Edward the Exile and granddaughter of Edmund II of England . (Most historians believe Matilda was born at Winchester , but one, John Fletcher (1990), argues for the possibility of the royal palace at Sutton Courtenay in Oxfordshire .)

First marriage: Holy Roman Empress
When she was seven years old, Matilda was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor ; at nine, she was sent to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) to begin training for the life of Empress consort . The royal couple were married at Worms on January 7, 1114, and Matilda accompanied her husband on tours to Rome and Tuscany . After time, the young wife of the Emperor acted as regent , mainly in Italy, in his absence[1]. Emperor Henry died in 1125. The imperial couple had no surviving offspring, but Herman of Tournai states that Matilda bore a son who lived only a short while.

Despite being popularly known by the title "Empress " from her first marriage, Matilda's right to the title was dubious. She was never crowned Holy Roman Empress by a legitimate Pope - which ceremony was normally required to achieve the title; indeed, in later years she encouraged chroniclers to believe she had been crowned by the Pope. Contemporary, she was called German Queen by her husband's bishops, while her formal title was recorded as "Queen of the Romans". Still, "Empress" was arguably an appropriate courtesy title for the wife of an Emperor who had been crowned by the Pope.

In 1120 her brother William Adelin was drowned in the disastrous wreck of the White Ship , which left Matilda as the only legitimate child of her father King Henry . Like Matilda, her cousin Stephen of Blois was a grandchild of William (the Conqueror) of Normandy ; but her paternal line made her senior in right of succession to his maternal line.

Second marriage: Countess of Anjou
Matilda returned to England a young widow, age 23, and dowager "Empress" - a status of considerable pride to her. There Henry named her his heir to both the English throne and his Duchy of Normandy . Henry saw to it that the Anglo-Norman barons (including Stephen of Blois ) were sworn (several times) to accept Matilda as ruler if Henry died without a male heir.

Henry then arranged a second marriage for Matilda; as he aimed to achieve peace between the fractious barons of Normandy and Anjou. On 17 June 1128, Matilda, aged 26, was married to Geoffrey of Anjou , aged 15, who also was Count of Maine and heir apparent to (his father) the Count of Anjou - which title he soon acquired, and by which Matilda became Countess of Anjou. It was a title she rarely used. Geoffrey called himself "Plantagenet " from the broom flower (planta genista) he adopted as his personal emblem. So Plantagenet became the dynastic name of that powerful line of English kings who descended from Matilda and Geoffrey.

Matilda's marriage with Geoffrey was troubled; there were frequent long separations, but they had three sons and she survived him. The eldest son, Henry , was born on 5 March 1133. In 1134, she nearly died in childbirth, following the birth of her second son, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes . A third son, William X, Count of Poitou , was born in 1136.

When her father died in Normandy, on 1 December 1135, Matilda was with her husband, in Anjou ; and, crucially, too far away from events rapidly unfolding in England and Normandy. Stephen of Blois rushed to England upon learning of Henry's death; in London he moved quickly to grasp the crown of England from its appointed heir.

But Matilda was game to contest Stephen in both realms; she and her husband Geoffrey entered Normandy and began military campaigns to claim her inheritance. Progress was uneven at first, but she persevered; even so, it was not until 1139 that Matilda felt secure enough in Normandy to turn her attentions to invading England and fighting Stephen directly.
In Normandy, Geoffrey secured all fiefdoms west and south of the Seine by 1143; in January 1144, he crossed the Seine and took Rouen without resistance. He assumed the title Duke of Normandy , and Matilda became Duchess of Normandy. Geoffrey and Matilda held the duchy conjointly until 1149, then ceded it to their son, Henry, which event was soon ratified by King Louis VII of France .

Struggle for throne of England
On the death of her father, Henry I, in 1135, Matilda expected to succeed to the throne of England , but her cousin, Stephen of Blois , a nephew of Henry I, usurped the throne with the support of most of the barons, breaking the oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Matilda could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife, the Countess of Boulogne who was also named Matilda , was the Empress's maternal cousin. During the war, Matilda's most loyal and capable supporter was her illegitimate half-brother, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester .

Matilda's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln . He was made a prisoner and effectively deposed.

Her advantage lasted only a few months. When she marched on London , the city was ready to welcome her and support her coronation . She used the title of Lady of the English and planned to assume the title of queen upon coronation (the custom which was followed by her grandsons, Richard and John ).[2] However, she refused the citizens' request to have their taxes halved and, because of her own arrogance [2], she found the gates of London shut and the civil war reignited on 24 June 1141. By November, Stephen was free, having been exchanged for the captured Robert of Gloucester, and a year later, the tables were turned when Matilda was besieged at Oxford but escaped to Wallingford , supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disguising herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1148, Matilda and Henry returned to Normandy , following the death of Robert of Gloucester, and the reconquest of that county by her husband. Upon their arrival, Geoffrey turned Normandy over to his son, and retired to his own county of Anjou .

Later life
Matilda's first son, Henry , was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford .

Matilda retired to Rouen in Normandy during her last years, where she maintained her own court and presided over the government of the duchy in the absence of Henry. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William X, Count of Poitou , were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the Countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Matilda's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favourite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Becket, but was unsuccessful.

Although she gave up hope of being crowned in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Matilda died at Notre Dame du Pré near Rouen and was buried in the Abbey church of Bec-Hellouin, Normandy. Her body was transferred to the Rouen Cathedral in 1847; her epitaph reads: "Great by Birth, Greater by Marriage, Greatest in her Offspring: Here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry."

Matilda married Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, son of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Bertha, of Savoy, on 7 Jan 1114 in Worms, (Rhine-Palatinate, Germany). Henry was born on 8 Jan 1086 and died on 23 May 1125 at age 39.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Bertha of Savoy

Matilda next married Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy,54 55 56 son of Fulk V "the Young", Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem and Erembourg, Countess of Maine, on 22 May 1128 in Le Mans, France. Geoffrey was born on 24 Aug 1113 in Anjou, France, died on 7 Sep 1151 at age 38, and was buried in Le Mans, France. Other names for Geoffrey were Geoffrey V Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and Geoffrey 'the Fair' Plantagenet Count of Anjou.

Marriage Notes: Marriage date may have been 3 April 1127 (Ancestral Roots Line 1-23). Line 118-25 (Geoffrey V) has m. 22 May 1127.

Research Notes: Second husband of Matilda.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871913 :
'The Fair' Count of Anjou (1129-1151); founder of the Plantagenet dynasty. Geoffey's nickname derived from his physical appearance - he was said to be tall, handsome, graceful and strong. He was also known as Geoffrey Plantagenet, appearantly from the sprig of broom (genet) he wore in his hat. In 1127, aged 14, he was married to Matilda, daughter and heiress of Henry I of England and the widow of the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. They disliked each other, but maintained an uneasy political alliance and produces three sons, Henry (the future Henry II of England), Geoffrey and William. An illegitimate son, Hamelin became the Duke of Salisbury. Geoffrey spent much of his youth imposing order on his unruly vassals, including his own brother Helias II, Count of Maine, who rebelled against him in 1131; Geoffrey captured Helias and held him prisoner in Tours, Helias died soon after his release from a disease contracted in prison. In 1135 Henry I of England died, and Matilda's cousin Stephen of Blois (RIN # 1643) seized the English throne, together with Normandy, traditionally coveted by the counts of Anjou. Geoffrey laid claim to the duchy in his wife's right. Between 1135-1138 Geoffrey launched four expeditions into Normandy, none of which achieved great success. The expedition in 1137 was striken by dysentery, and forced to return swiftly to Anjou. In 1139 Matilda invaded England, seeking to press her claim to the English throne, and Geoffrey remained in Anjou to continue the war against Normandy. The Morman barons opposed Geoffrey, not through loyalty to Stephen, who had only visited Normandy once, but out of hatred of their traditional enemy, Anjou. However, Norman morale was weakened when Matilda captured Stephen at Lincoln in 1141, and many castles surrendered to Geoffrey, leaving him in control of most of the lands between Bayeux and the Seine. In 1142 he took the Avranchin and Mortain, and in 1143 moved east of the Seine, overunning the Cotentin. He was invested as Duke of Normandy in 144 after the fall of Rouen, and Arques, the last castle opposing him, capitulated in 1145, leaving him unchallenged master of Normandy. After the conquest of Normandy, Geoffrey joined Louis VII of France in the abortive Second Crusade (1147-9), returning in 1149. In 1150 he ceded Normandy to his son Henry, who also inhereted the family claim to the English throne. Geoffrey died in 1151, and was buried in Le Mans Cathedral; founder of a great dynasty of kings through his son, Henry II of England. For more on the Second Crusade, see RIN # 1618.
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 38-63,80,102,140,154

----

From Wikipedia - Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou :

Geoffrey (24 August 1113 - 7 September 1151), called the Handsome (French : le Bel) and Plantagenet, was the Count of Anjou , Touraine , and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144. By his marriage to the Empress Matilda , daughter and heiress of Henry I of England , Geoffrey had a son, Henry Curtmantle , who succeeded to the English throne and founded the Plantagenet dynasty to which Geoffrey gave his nickname.

Biography
Geoffrey was the elder son of Fulk V of Anjou and Eremburga of La Flèche , heiress of Elias I of Maine . Geoffrey received his nickname for the yellow sprig of broom blossom (genêt is the French name for the genista, or broom shrub) he wore in his hat as a badge. King Henry I of England, having heard good reports on Geoffrey's talents and prowess, sent his royal legates to Anjou to negotiate a marriage between Geoffrey and his own daughter, Matilda. Consent was obtained from both parties, and on 10 June 1128 the fifteen-year-old Geoffrey was knighted in Rouen by King Henry in preparation for the wedding. Interestingly, there was no opposition to the marriage from the Church, despite the fact that Geoffrey's sister was the widow of Matilda's brother (only son of King Henry) which fact had been used to annul the marriage of another of Geoffrey's sisters to the Norman pretender William Clito .

On 17 June 1128 Geoffrey married Empress Matilda, the daughter and heiress of King Henry I of England by his first wife Edith of Scotland , and widow of Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . The marriage was meant to seal a peace between England/Normandy and Anjou. She was eleven years older than Geoffrey, very proud of her status as an Empress (as opposed to being a mere Countess). Their marriage was a stormy one with frequent long separations, but she bore him three sons and survived him.

The year after the marriage Geoffrey's father left for Jerusalem (where he was to become king ), leaving Geoffrey behind as count of Anjou. John of Marmoutier describes Geoffrey as handsome, red-headed, jovial, and a great warrior; however, Ralph of Diceto alleges that his charm concealed his cold and selfish character.

When King Henry I died in 1135, Matilda at once entered Normandy to claim her inheritance. The border districts submitted to her, but England chose her cousin Stephen of Blois for its king, and Normandy soon followed suit. The following year, Geoffrey gave Ambrieres, Gorron, and Chatilon-sur-Colmont to Juhel de Mayenne, on condition that he help obtain the inheritance of Geoffrey's wife. In 1139 Matilda landed in England with 140 knights, where she was besieged at Arundel Castle by King Stephen. In the "Anarchy" which ensued, Stephen was captured at Lincoln in February, 1141, and imprisoned at Bristol. A legatine council of the English church held at Winchester in April 1141 declared Stephen deposed and proclaimed Matilda "Lady of the English". Stephen was subsequently released from prison and had himself recrowned on the anniversary of his first coronation.

During 1142 and 1143, Geoffrey secured all of Normandy west and south of the Seine, and, on 14 January 1144, he crossed the Seine and entered Rouen. He assumed the title of Duke of Normandy in the summer of 1144. In 1144, he founded an Augustine priory at Chateau-l'Ermitage in Anjou. Geoffrey held the duchy until 1149, when he and Matilda conjointly ceded it to their son, Henry, which cession was formally ratified by King Louis VII of France the following year.

Geoffrey also put down three baronial rebellions in Anjou, in 1129, 1135, and 1145-1151. He was often at odds with his younger brother, Elias , whom he had imprisoned until 1151. The threat of rebellion slowed his progress in Normandy, and is one reason he could not intervene in England. In 1153, the Treaty of Westminster allowed Stephen should remain King of England for life and that Henry, the son of Geoffrey and Matilda should succeed him.

Geoffrey died suddenly on September 7, 1151. According to John of Marmoutier, Geoffrey was returning from a royal council when he was stricken with fever. He arrived at Château-du-Loir , collapsed on a couch, made bequests of gifts and charities, and died. He was buried at St. Julien's Cathedral in Le Mans France. Geoffrey and Matilda's children were:
Henry II of England (1133-1189)
Geoffrey, Count of Nantes (1 June 1134 Rouen - 26 July 1158 Nantes ) died unmarried and was buried in Nantes
William X, Count of Poitou (1136-1164) died unmarried

Geoffrey also had illegitimate children by an unknown mistress (or mistresses): Hamelin ; Emme, who married Dafydd Ab Owain Gwynedd , Prince of North Wales ; and Mary, who became a nun and Abbess of Shaftesbury and who may be the poetess Marie de France . Adelaide of Angers is sometimes sourced as being the mother of Hamelin.

The first reference to Norman heraldry was in 1128, when Henry I of England knighted his son-in-law Geoffrey and granted him a badge of gold lions (or leopards ) on a blue background. (A gold lion may already have been Henry's own badge.) Henry II used two gold lions and two lions on a red background are still part of the arms of Normandy. Henry's son, Richard I , added a third lion to distinguish the arms of England.

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Anjou, Touraine and Maine: 1129-1151.

• Duke of Normandy: 1144-1151.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 42 M    i. Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England was born on 5 Mar 1132 in Le Mans, France, died on 6 Jul 1189 at age 57, and was buried in Fontévrault Abbey, France.

25. William Adelin, Duke of Normandy 32 (Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1103 and died on 25 Nov 1120 at age 17. Other names for William were William Ætheling Duke of Normandy and William III Duke of Normandy.

Death Notes: Died in the White Ship tragedy.

26. Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon 34 36 (David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1114 and died on 12 Jun 1152 at age 38. Another name for Henry was Henry Prince of Scotland.

Research Notes: Eldest son of David I, King of Scots.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 170-23

Henry married Ada de Warenne,24 34 53 daughter of William II de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester, in 1139. Ada died about 1178. Another name for Ada was Adeline de Warren.

Research Notes: Widow of Conale Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond. Sister of William the Lion, King of Scots.

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 43 F    i. Margaret, of Huntingdon 57 died in 1201.

27. Matilda, of Boulogne 39 40 (Mary, of Scotland14, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1105 in Boulogne, France, died on 3 Jul 1151 in Hedingham Castle about age 46, and was buried in Faversham Abbey. Other names for Matilda were Matilda I of Boulogne and Maud of Boulogne.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. 3 May 1152.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Matilda of Boulogne :

Matilda I or Maud (1105? - 3 May, 1152), was suo jure Countess of Boulogne . She was also wife of King Stephen of England and Queen of England .

History
She was born in Boulogne , France , the daughter of Eustace III, Count of Boulogne and his wife Mary of Scotland, daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Matilda was first cousin of her husband's rival, Empress Matilda . Through her maternal grandmother, Matilda was descended from the pre-Conquest English kings.

In 1125, Matilda married Stephen of Blois , Count of Mortain, who possessed a large honour in England. When Matilda's father abdicated and retired to a monastery the same year, this was joined with Boulogne and the similarly large English honour Matilda inherited. On Eustace III's death, Matilda and her husband became joint rulers of Boulogne. Two children, a son and a daughter, were born to the Countess and Count of Boulogne during the reign of King Henry I , who had granted Stephen and Matilda a residence in London. [1] The son was named Baldwin, after Matilda's uncle, King Baldwin I of Jerusalem . [2] The daughter was named Matilda. Baldwin died in early childhood and the young Matilda is thought to have died during childhood too, although some scholars state that she lived long enough to be espoused to the count of Milan. [3]

On the death of Henry I of England in 1135, Stephen rushed to England, taking advantage of Boulogne's control of the closest seaports, and was crowned king, beating his rival, the Empress Matilda . Matilda was heavily pregnant at that time and crossed the Channel after gaving birth to a son, Eustace , who would one day succeed her as Count of Boulogne. Matilda was crowned queen at Easter - March 22, 1136. [4]

In the civil war that followed, known as the Anarchy , Matilda proved to be her husband's strongest supporter. After he was captured at the Battle of Lincoln she rallied the king's partisans, and raised an army with the help of William of Ypres . Empress Matilda was besieging Stephen's brother Henry of Blois , but she, in turn, besieged the Empress, driving her away and capturing the Empress's brother, Robert of Gloucester .

Around 1125, her father died and she succeeded as Countess of Boulogne. She ruled this area jointly with her husband until 1150, when she reigned alone until 1151, when the County was given to her eldest son Eustace, then her surviving son William inherited it, and then her daughter Marie.

Matilda died of a fever at Hedingham Castle , Essex , England and is buried at Faversham Abbey , which was founded by her and her husband. [5]

Issue
Stephen and Matilda had three sons:
Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne
Baldwin of Boulogne (d. before 1135)
William of Blois , Count of Mortain and Boulogne and Earl of Surrey
They also had two daughters:
Matilda of Boulogne
Marie of Boulogne

Matilda married Stephen, of Blois, King of England,58 59 son of Stephen, of Blois, Count of Blois and Adela, of Normandy, about 1119. Stephen was born about 1096 in Blois, Loire-et-Cher, France, died on 25 Oct 1154 in Dover Priory, Dover, England about age 58, and was buried in Faversham Abbey. Another name for Stephen was Stephen of England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Stephen of England :

Stephen often known as Stephen of Blois (c. 1096 - 25 October 1154) was a grandson of William the Conqueror . He was the last Norman King of England , from 1135 to his death, and also the Count of Boulogne jure uxoris . His reign was marked by civil war with his rival the Empress Matilda and general chaos, known as The Anarchy . He was succeeded by Matilda's son, Henry II , the first of the Angevin or Plantagenet kings.

Early life
Stephen was born at Blois in France, son of Stephen , Count of Blois , and Adela of England, (daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders ). One of ten children, his surviving brothers were Count Theobald II of Champagne , Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester , and William of Sully . He also had four sisters, including Eléonore of Blois .

Stephen was sent to be raised at the English court of his uncle, King Henry I , in 1106. He became Count of Mortain in about 1115, and married Matilda , daughter of the Count of Boulogne , in about 1125, who became Countess of Boulogne. Their marriage was a happy one and his wife was an important supporter during the struggle for the English crown. Stephen became joint ruler of Boulogne in 1128.

Reign

King of England
There were several principal contenders for the succession to Henry I . The least popular was the Empress Matilda , Henry I's only legitimate surviving child, not simply because she was a woman, but because her husband Geoffrey, Count of Anjou was an enemy of the Normans . The other contenders were Robert, Earl of Gloucester , illegitimate son of Henry I, Stephen, and Stephen's older brother, Theobald, Count of Blois . However, Theobald did not want the kingdom, at least not enough to fight for it.[1] Before his death in 1135, Henry I named his daughter Matilda his heir and made the barons of England swear allegiance to her. Stephen was the first baron to do so. However, upon King Henry's death, Stephen claimed the throne, saying Henry had changed his mind on his deathbed and named Stephen as his heir. Once crowned, Stephen gained the support of the majority of the barons as well as Pope Innocent II and the first few years of his reign were peaceful, notwithstanding insurgences by the Welsh, King David I of Scotland , and Baldwin de Redvers.

The Anarchy: War with Matilda
By 1139, Stephen had lost much support and the country sank into a civil war , commonly called The Anarchy . Stephen faced the forces of Empress Matilda at several locations including the Battle of Beverston Castle and the Battle of Lincoln . Bad omens haunted him before the Battle of Lincoln where Stephen faced Matilda's illegitimate brother Robert and Ranulph, Earl of Chester . According to chroniclers, Stephen fought bravely but was captured by a knight named William de Cahaignes (a relative of Ranulph, ancestor of the Keynes family ). Stephen was defeated and brought before his cousin Matilda. He was imprisoned at Bristol .

Stephen's wife rallied support amongst the people from London and the barons. Matilda was, in turn, forced out of London. With the capture of her most able lieutenant, her half-brother the Earl of Gloucester, she was obliged to trade Stephen for him, and Stephen was restored to the throne in November the same year.

In December 1142, the Empress was besieged at Oxford , but managed to escape, dressed in white, across the snow to Wallingford Castle , held by her supporter Brien FitzCount .

In 1147, Empress Matilda's teenage son, the future King Henry II of England , decided to assist in the war effort by raising a small army of mercenaries and invading England. Rumours of this army's size terrified Stephen's retainers, although in truth the force was very small. Having been defeated twice in battle, and with no money to pay his mercenaries, young Henry appealed to his uncle Robert for aid but was turned away. Desperately, and in secret, the boy asked Stephen for help. According to the Gesta Stephani , "On receiving the message, the king...hearkened to the young man..." and bestowed upon him money and other support.

Reconciliation and death
Stephen maintained his precarious hold on the throne for the remainder of his lifetime. However, after a military standoff at Wallingford with Henry, and following the death of his son and heir, Eustace , in 1153, he was persuaded to reach a compromise with Matilda (known as the Treaty of Wallingford or Winchester), whereby Stephen's son William of Blois would be passed over for the English throne, and instead Matilda's son Henry would succeed Stephen.

Stephen died in Dover , at Dover Priory , and was buried in Faversham Abbey , which he had founded with Countess Matilda in 1148.

Besides Eustace, Stephen and Queen Matilda had two other sons, Baldwin (d. before 1135), and William of Blois (Count of Mortain and Boulogne, and Earl of Surrey or Warenne). They also had two daughters, Matilda and Marie of Boulogne . In addition to these children, Stephen fathered at least three illegitimate children , one of whom, Gervase, became Abbot of Westminster .

English royal descendants
Philippa of Hainault , the wife of Edward III , was a descendant of Stephen, and he was thus ancestor of all subsequent kings of England.[3]

Noted events in his life were:

• Count of Mortain: 1115-1154.

• King of England: 1135-1154.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 44 F    i. Marie, of Blois, Countess of Boulogne 60 was born in 1136 and died in 1182 at age 46.

28. Isabel de Beaumont 44 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born between 1100 and 1107 and died after 1172. Another name for Isabel was Isabella of Meulan.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Isabella of Meulan was born between 1102 and 1107.1 She was the daughter of Robert de Meulan, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois.2 She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, son of Gilbert fitz Richard and Adeliza de Clermont . She died after 1172.2
As a result of her marriage, Isabella of Meulan was styled as Countess of Pembroke.
-----------

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Isabel de Beaumont (b Aft. 1102), a mistress of King Henry I of England . Married two times:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke by whom she was mother of Richard Strongbow , who invaded Ireland 1170 ;
Hervé de Montmorency, Constable of Ireland (this marriage is not conclusively proven)

Isabel married Gilbert FitzGilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke,61 62 63 son of Gilbert FitzRichard, de Clare and Adelaide de Clermont-en-Beauvaisis,. Gilbert was born about 1100 and died on 6 Jan 1148 about age 48. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert de Clare 1st Earl of Pembroke.

Research Notes: From thepeerage.com:
Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke also went by the nick-name of Gilbert 'Strongbow'. He was also known as Gilbert FitzGilbert.2 He was created 1st Earl of Pembroke [England] circa 1138.

29. Emma de Beaumont (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1102.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :
Emma de Beaumont (born 1102 ) whose fate is unknown. She was betrothed as an infant to Aumari, nephew of William, Count of Evreux, but the marriage never took place. She probably died young, or entered a convent.[2]

30. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 43 45 46 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. Another name for Robert was Robert "Bossu" de Beaumont 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois -
Younger twin of Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan. Nicknamed Robert Bossu (the Humpback).

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester :

Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 - 5 April 1168 ) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.
The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French ).

Early Life and Education
Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois . He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont . There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical.

The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey . They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy , to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119 , when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals . Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.

Career at the Norman Court
In 1120 Robert was declared of age and inherited most of his father's lands in England, while his twin brother took the French lands. However in 1121 , royal favour brought Robert the great Norman honors of Breteuil and Pacy-sur-Eure , with his marriage to Amice de Montfort , daughter of a Breton intruder the king had forced on the honor after the forfeiture of the Breteuil family in 1119 . Robert spent a good deal of his time and resources over the next decade integrating the troublesome and independent barons of Breteuil into the greater complex of his estates. He did not join in his brother's great Norman rebellion against King Henry I in 1123 -. He appears fitfully at the royal court despite his brother's imprisonment until 1129 . Thereafter the twins were frequently to be found together at Henry I's court.

Robert held lands throughout the country. In the 1120s and 1130s he tried to rationalise his estates in Leicestershire. Leicestershire estates of the See of Lincoln and the Earl of Chester were seized by force. This enhanced the integrity of Robert's block of estates in the central midlands, bounded by Nuneaton , Loughborough , Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough .

In 1135 , the twins were present at King Henry's deathbed. Robert's actions in the succession period are unknown, but he clearly supported his brother's decision to join the court of the new king Stephen before Easter 1136 . During the first two years of the reign Robert is found in Normandy fighting rival claimants for his honor of Breteuil. Military action allowed him to add the castle of Pont St-Pierre to his Norman estates in June 1136 at the expense of one of his rivals. From the end of 1137 Robert and his brother were increasingly caught up in the politics of the court of King Stephen in England, where Waleran secured an ascendancy which lasted till the beginning of 1141. Robert participated in his brother's political coup against the king's justiciar, Roger of Salisbury (the Bishop of Salisbury ).

...
Family and children
He married after 1120 Amice de Montfort , daughter of Ralph, senior of Gael or Montfort . They had four children:
Hawise, who married William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester ;
Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester ;
Isabel, who married with:
Simon II of St Liz, 4th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton ;
Gervase Paynel of Dudley.
Margaret, who married Ralph V de Toeni

Literary references
He is a minor character in The Holy Thief, one of the Brother Cadfael series by Ellis Peters .

Notes
^ a b c Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 69

References
D. Crouch, The Beaumont Twins: the Roots and Branches of Power in the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1986).
D. Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135-1154 (London, 2000).
E. King, "Mountsorrel and its region in King Stephen's Reign", Huntington Library Quarterly, 44 (1980), 1-10.
Leicester Abbey, ed. J. Storey, J. Bourne and R. Buckley (Leicester, 2006).
Powicke, F. Maurice and E. B. Fryde Handbook of British Chronology 2nd. ed. London:Royal Historical Society 1961
British Library ms Royal E xxv.

Noted events in his life were:

• Knighted: 1122.

• Justiciar of England: 1155-1168.

Robert married Amice de Gael de Montfort,43 46 64 daughter of Ralph de Gael de Montfort and Unknown, after 1120. Amice was born about 1108 and died 31 Aug 1168 or 1169 about age 60. Other names for Amice were Amice de Gael, Amicia, and Amice de Montfort.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 45 M    i. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester 43 65 66 was born about 1121 in Beaumont, France and died on 31 Aug 1190 in Durazzo, West Albania about age 69.

+ 46 F    ii. Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester died on 24 Apr 1197.

+ 47 F    iii. Isabel de Beaumont .

+ 48 F    iv. Margaret de Beaumont .

31. Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 47 48 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1104 in <Meulan, Île-de-France>, France, died on 10 Apr 1166 in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France at age 62, and was buried in Preaux Abbey, Preaux, Normandy, France.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois
Younger twin. Twin brother was Robert de Beaumont (aka Robert Bossu).

Waleran married Agnes de Montfort,47 daughter of Amaury de Montfort and Agnes de Garlende, about 1141 in Normandy, France. Agnes was born about 1123 in <Montfort-de-Risle, Eure>, France and died on 15 Dec 1181 about age 58. Another name for Agnes was Elizabeth de Montfort.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 49 M    i. Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 47 was born about 1140 in Meulan, Normandy, France and died in Oct 1207 in Palestine about age 67.

32. Hugh de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Bedford (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1106.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois

33. Adeline de Beaumont 24 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1107.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Adeline de Beaumont (b ca 1107), married two times:
Hugh IV, 4th Lord of Montfort-sur-Risle to whom she was married firstly by her brother Waleran;
Richard de Granville of Bideford (d. 1147)

34. Aubree de Beaumont 24 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1109.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Aubree (or Alberee) de Beaumont (b ca 1109), married by her brother Waleran to Hugh II of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais (possibly son of Hugh I of Châteauneuf-en-Thimerais and his wife Mabille de Montgomerie, 2nd daughter of Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury )

35. Maud de Beaumont (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1111.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Maud de Beaumont (b ca 1111), married by her brother Waleran to William Lovel, or Louvel or Lupel, son of Ascelin Goel, Lord of Ivri.

36. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester 43 45 46 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1104 in <Leicester>, Leicestershire, England, died on 5 Apr 1168 in England at age 64, and was buried in Leicester Abbey, Leicester, Leicestershire, England. Another name for Robert was Robert "Bossu" de Beaumont 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois -
Younger twin of Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan. Nicknamed Robert Bossu (the Humpback).

From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester :

Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 - 5 April 1168 ) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.
The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French ).

Early Life and Education
Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois . He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont . There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical.

The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey . They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy , to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119 , when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals . Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.

Career at the Norman Court
In 1120 Robert was declared of age and inherited most of his father's lands in England, while his twin brother took the French lands. However in 1121 , royal favour brought Robert the great Norman honors of Breteuil and Pacy-sur-Eure , with his marriage to Amice de Montfort , daughter of a Breton intruder the king had forced on the honor after the forfeiture of the Breteuil family in 1119 . Robert spent a good deal of his time and resources over the next decade integrating the troublesome and independent barons of Breteuil into the greater complex of his estates. He did not join in his brother's great Norman rebellion against King Henry I in 1123 -. He appears fitfully at the royal court despite his brother's imprisonment until 1129 . Thereafter the twins were frequently to be found together at Henry I's court.

Robert held lands throughout the country. In the 1120s and 1130s he tried to rationalise his estates in Leicestershire. Leicestershire estates of the See of Lincoln and the Earl of Chester were seized by force. This enhanced the integrity of Robert's block of estates in the central midlands, bounded by Nuneaton , Loughborough , Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough .

In 1135 , the twins were present at King Henry's deathbed. Robert's actions in the succession period are unknown, but he clearly supported his brother's decision to join the court of the new king Stephen before Easter 1136 . During the first two years of the reign Robert is found in Normandy fighting rival claimants for his honor of Breteuil. Military action allowed him to add the castle of Pont St-Pierre to his Norman estates in June 1136 at the expense of one of his rivals. From the end of 1137 Robert and his brother were increasingly caught up in the politics of the court of King Stephen in England, where Waleran secured an ascendancy which lasted till the beginning of 1141. Robert participated in his brother's political coup against the king's justiciar, Roger of Salisbury (the Bishop of Salisbury ).

...
Family and children
He married after 1120 Amice de Montfort , daughter of Ralph, senior of Gael or Montfort . They had four children:
Hawise, who married William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester ;
Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester ;
Isabel, who married with:
Simon II of St Liz, 4th Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton ;
Gervase Paynel of Dudley.
Margaret, who married Ralph V de Toeni

Literary references
He is a minor character in The Holy Thief, one of the Brother Cadfael series by Ellis Peters .

Notes
^ a b c Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 69

References
D. Crouch, The Beaumont Twins: the Roots and Branches of Power in the Twelfth Century (Cambridge, 1986).
D. Crouch, The Reign of King Stephen, 1135-1154 (London, 2000).
E. King, "Mountsorrel and its region in King Stephen's Reign", Huntington Library Quarterly, 44 (1980), 1-10.
Leicester Abbey, ed. J. Storey, J. Bourne and R. Buckley (Leicester, 2006).
Powicke, F. Maurice and E. B. Fryde Handbook of British Chronology 2nd. ed. London:Royal Historical Society 1961
British Library ms Royal E xxv.

Noted events in his life were:

• Knighted: 1122.

• Justiciar of England: 1155-1168.

Robert married Amice de Gael de Montfort,43 46 64 daughter of Ralph de Gael de Montfort and Unknown, after 1120. Amice was born about 1108 and died 31 Aug 1168 or 1169 about age 60. Other names for Amice were Amice de Gael, Amicia, and Amice de Montfort.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 30)

37. Gundred de Warenne 50 51 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1117 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England, died after 1166 in Warwickshire, England, and was buried in Kelso, Roxburgh, Scotland. Another name for Gundred was Gundrada de Warenne.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey:

Gundrada de Warenne , who married first Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick , and second William, lord of Kendal , and is most remembered for expelling king Stephen 's garrison from Warwick Castle ;

Noted events in her life were:

• Living: 1166.

Gundred married Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick,67 68 son of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick and Margaret de Perche, before 1130. Roger was born about 1102 and died on 12 Jun 1153 about age 51.

Research Notes: Elder son of Henry de Beaumont.

From Wikipedia - Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick :

Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick (1102 - 12 June 1153 ), was the elder son of Henry de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Warwick and Marguerite, daughter of Geoffrey II of Perche and Beatrix of Montdidier . He was also known as Roger de Newburg.

He was generally considered to have been a devout and pious man; a chronicle of the period, the Gesta Regis Stephani , speaks of him as a "man of gentle disposition". The borough of Warwick remembers him as the founder of the Hospital of S. Michael for lepers which he endowed with the tithes of Wedgnock , and other property; he also endowed the House of the Templars beyond the bridge. In the reign of Stephen he founded a priory dedicated to S. Kenned at Llangennilth, Co. Glamorgan and he attached it as a cell to the Abbey of S. Taurinus at Evreux in Normandy .


Family and children
He married 1130 Gundred de Warenne, daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Elizabeth de Vermandois and had children:
William de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Warwick .
Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick (1153 - 12 December 1204).
Henry de Beaumont, was Dean of Salisbury in 1205.
Agnes de Beaumont, married Geoffrey de Clinton, Chamberlain to the King and son of Geoffrey de Clinton , the founder of Kenilworth Castle and Priory.
Margaret de Beaumont.
Gundred de Beaumont (c.1135-1200), married:
Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk ;
Roger de Glanville.

Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader:

The child from this marriage was:

+ 50 M    i. Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick 69 70 was born before 1153 and died on 24 Dec 1204.

Gundred next married William I de Lancaster, 5th Baron of Kendal of Workington,51 71 son of Gilbert de Lancaster and Godith, after 1153. William was born about 1100 in <Kendal, Westmoreland, England> and died in 1170 about age 70. Another name for William was William de Lancaster.

Research Notes: Name of his first wife is unknown. His second wife was Gundred de Warenne, widow of Roger de Beaumont.

Noted events in his life were:

• Castellan: of William Fitz Duncan's castle of Egremont, 1138.

• Governor: of Castle of Lancaster.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 51 F    i. Avice de Lancaster 51 72 was born about 1155 in Cumberland, England and died on 1 Jan 1191 about age 36.

38. William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne 52 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1118 and died in 1148 at age 30.

Research Notes: First husband of Ela (Talvas).

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :
In her second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.

William married Ela Talvas, of Alençon and Ponthieu,73 74 75 daughter of William III Talvas, Count of Alençon & Ponthieu and Hélie, of Burgundy,. Ela was born about 1124 in <Alençon, Normandy>, France, died on 10 Oct 1174 in Bradenstoke Priory, Bradenstoke, Wiltshire, England about age 50, and was buried on 4 Dec 1174. Other names for Ela were Adela Talvaise and Ida Talvaise.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 52 F    i. Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey 76 died on 13 Jul 1199.

39. Ada de Warenne 24 34 53 (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died about 1178. Another name for Ada was Adeline de Warren.

Research Notes: Widow of Conale Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond. Sister of William the Lion, King of Scots.

From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Ada de Warenne (d. ca. 1178 ), who married Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon , younger son of King David I of Scotland , Earl of Huntingdon by his marriage to the heiress Matilda or Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon (herself great-niece of William I of England ) and had issue. They were parents to Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I of Scotland and their youngest son became David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon . All Kings of Scotland since 1292 were the descendants of Huntingdon.

Ada married Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon,34 36 son of David I "The Saint", King of Scots and Maud, of Huntingdon, in 1139. Henry was born in 1114 and died on 12 Jun 1152 at age 38. Another name for Henry was Henry Prince of Scotland.

Research Notes: Eldest son of David I, King of Scots.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 170-23

(Duplicate Line. See Person 26)

40. Reginald de Warenne (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

Reginald de Warenne, who inherited his father's property in upper Normandy. He married Adeline, daughter of William, lord of Wormgay in Norfolk, by whom he had a son William, whose daughter and sole heir Beatrice married first Dodo, lord Bardolf, and secondly Hubert de Burgh;

41. Ralph de Warenne (Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois


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42. Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England (Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 5 Mar 1132 in Le Mans, France, died on 6 Jul 1189 at age 57, and was buried in Fontévrault Abbey, France. Another name for Henry was King Henry II of England.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-24

Henry married Eleanor, of Aquitaine on 18 May 1152 in Bordeaux, France. Eleanor was born about 1124, died on 31 Mar 1204 in Fontevrault about age 80, and was buried in Fontévrault Abbey, France.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 110-26


Children from this marriage were:

+ 53 F    i. Eleanor, of England 77 78 was born on 13 Oct 1162 in Domfront, Normandy and died on 31 Oct 1214 at age 52.

+ 54 M    ii. KingJohn "Lackland", of England 79 80 was born on 24 Dec 1167 in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England, died on 19 Oct 1216 in Newark Castle, Lincolnshire, England at age 48, and was buried in Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Worcestershire, England.

Henry had a relationship with Ida de Tosny.81 82 This couple did not marry. Another name for Ida was Ida de Toesny.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk :

Ida de Tosny was a royal ward and mistress of King Henry II, by whom she was mother of a young son William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury ) (b c. 1176 -March 7 , 1226 ). Ida was not the first English royal ward to be taken as mistress by a King who was her guardian; that honour probably belongs to Isabel de Beaumont (Elizabeth de Beaumont), daughter of Robert de Beaumont, who fought at the Battle of Hastings with the Conqueror. That king's youngest son made Beaumont's daughter his mistress. Ida's ancestry was unknown for many years, but a charter by her eldest (illegitimate) son refers to his mother as the "Countess Ida" which pins her down to the wife of Roger Bigod. For Ida's ancestry, see "Some corrections and additions to the Complete Peerage: Volume 9: Summary" and Marc Morris's The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century


Their child was:

+ 55 M    i. William Longspée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury 83 84 was born about 1176 in England, died on 7 Mar 1226 in Salisbury Castle, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England about age 50, and was buried in Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.

43. Margaret, of Huntingdon 57 (Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died in 1201.

Research Notes: Second wife of Alan, Lord of Galloway.

Margaret married Humphrey IV de Bohun, Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford,85 86 son of Humphrey III de Bohun, Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford and Margaret, of Hereford, in 1175. Humphrey died about 1182.

Research Notes: Second husband of Margaret of Huntingdon.

From Magna Charta Barons, p. 81:

Humphrey de Bohun, who was Earl of Hereford and lord high constable of England, in right of is mother. He m. Margaret, daughter of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland, d. v. p. 1152 (and widow of Conale Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond, and sister of William the Lion, king of Scots), eldes son of David I., King of Scots, by his wife Matilda, widow of Simon de St. Liz, and daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland and Northampton, beheaded in 1075, and his wife, a niece of William the conqueror. Lady Margaret's mother, m. 1139, d. 1178, was Ada de Warren, daughter of William, second Earl of Surrey (by his wife, Isabel, or Elizabeth, d. 1131, widow of Robert, Earl of Mellent, and daughter of Hugh the Great, Count de Vermandois, son of Henry I., King of France), the son of William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, by his wife, Gundreda, the reputed daughter of William the Conqueror, or the daughter of his consort, Queen Maud, or Matilda, of Flanders, by Gherbod, advocate of the Abbey of St. Bestin, at St. Omer, before her marriage to William of Normandy. Humphrey de Bohun and Lady Margaret had: Henry de Bohun, eldest son and heir...

Noted events in his life were:

• Hereditary Constable of England:

The child from this marriage was:

+ 56 M    i. Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford 87 88 was born in 1176 and died on 1 Jun 1220 at age 44.

Margaret next married Alan, Lord of Galloway,89 son of Roland, Lord of Galloway and Elena de Morville, in 1209. Alan was born about 1186 in <Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland>, died in 1234 about age 48, and was buried in Abbey of Dundrennan, Kirkcudbright, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Another name for Alan was Alan de Galloway.

Research Notes: Per Ancestral Roots, "A descendant of the English and Scottish Kings."

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of Scotland: 1215-1234.

• Named: in the Magna Charta.

44. Marie, of Blois, Countess of Boulogne 60 (Matilda, of Boulogne27, Mary, of Scotland14, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1136 and died in 1182 at age 46. Another name for Marie was Mary of Blois.

Research Notes: Countess of Boulogne in her own right.

Marie married Matthew, of Alsace, Count of Boulogne,90 son of Thierry I, of Lorraine, Count of Flanders and Sybil, of Anjou,.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 57 F    i. Mathilde, of Flanders 91 died between 1210 and 1211.

45. Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester 43 65 66 (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1121 in Beaumont, France and died on 31 Aug 1190 in Durazzo, West Albania about age 69. Another name for Robert was Robert "Blanchemains" de Harcourt 3rd Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester

Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester (died 1190 ) was an English nobleman, one of the principal followers of Henry the Young King in the Revolt of 1173-1174 against his father Henry II . He is also called Robert Blanchemains (meaning "White Hands" in French ).

He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester , a staunch supporter of Henry II, and he inherited from his father large estates in England and Normandy .

When the revolt of the younger Henry broke out in April 1173 , Robert went to his castle at Breteuil in Normandy . The rebels' aim was to take control of the duchy, but Henry II himself led an army to besiege the castle; Robert fled, and the Breteuil was taken on September 25 or 26.

Robert apparently went to Flanders , where he raised a large force of mercenaries, and landed at Walton, Suffolk , on September 29 , 1173. He joined forces with Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk , and the two marched west, aiming to cut England in two across the Midlands and to relieve the king's siege of Robert's castle at Leicester . However, they were intercepted by the king's supporters and defeated in battle at Fornham , near Bury St Edmunds , on October 17 . Robert, along with his wife and many others, was taken prisoner. Henry II took away the earl's lands and titles as well.

He remained in captivity until January 1177 , well after most of the other prisoners had been released. The king was in a strong position and could afford to be merciful; not long after his release Robert's lands and titles were restored, but not his castles. All but two of his castles had been destroyed, and those two (Montsorrel in Leicestershire and Pacy in Normandy) remained in the king's hands.

Robert had little influence in the remaining years of Henry II's reign, but was restored to favor by Richard I . He carried one of the swords of state at Richard's coronation in 1189 . In 1190 Robert went on pilgrimage to Palestine , but he died in Greece on his return journey.

Family
Robert married Pernelle[1], who was either a granddaughter or great-granddaughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil . They had five children:
Robert , who succeeded his father as Earl of Leicester ;
Roger , who became Bishop of St Andrews in 1189;
William, who was a leper;
Amicia, who married Simon III de Montfort , and whose son Simon subsequently became Earl of Leicester;
Margaret, who married Saer de Quincy , later 1st Earl of Winchester .

Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader: 1179.

Robert married Petronilla de Grandmesnil,66 92 93 daughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil and Alice Beaumont, about 1155. Petronilla was born about 1134 in <Leicestershire>, England and died on 1 Apr 1212 in Leicester, Leicestershire, England about age 78. Other names for Petronilla were Pernelle de Grandmesnil, Petronella de Grentemaisnil, and Petronille de Grentmesnil.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester


Children from this marriage were:

+ 58 F    i. Margaret de Beaumont 43 94 95 was born about 1156 in <Hampshire>, England and died about 12 Jan 1235 about age 79.

+ 59 M    ii. Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester 96 died about 21 Oct 1204.

+ 60 M    iii. Roger de Beaumont, Bishop of St Andrews .

+ 61 M    iv. William de Beaumont .

+ 62 F    v. Amicia de Beaumont .

46. Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died on 24 Apr 1197.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

Also Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 63-26

Hawise married William FitzRobert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, son of Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester and Mabel FitzHamon, of Gloucester, about 1150. William was born about 1128 and died on 23 Nov 1183 about age 55.

Research Notes: 2nd Earl of Gloucester, Lord of Tewkesbury and Glamorgan
2nd Earl of Gloucester, Lord of the manor of Glamorgan and of Cardiff Castle

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 123-27.
Also line 63-26 (Hawise de Beaumont)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 63 F    i. Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester 97 98 was born about 1160 and died on 1 Jan 1225 about age 65.

47. Isabel de Beaumont (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

48. Margaret de Beaumont (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester

49. Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan 47 (Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan31, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1140 in Meulan, Normandy, France and died in Oct 1207 in Palestine about age 67.

Robert married Maud de Dunstanville,47 daughter of Rainald de Dunstanville and Beatrice FitzWilliam, in 1165 in Cornwall, England. Maud was born about 1143 in Dunstanville, Kent, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 64 F    i. Mabel de Beaumont 47 was born about 1168 in <Meulan, Normandy>, France and died after 1 May 1204.

50. Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick 69 70 (Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born before 1153 and died on 24 Dec 1204. Another name for Waleran was Walerian de Newburg.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots, Line 84-26, has: "d. 24 Dec. 1203 or bef. 13 Oct. 1204"

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick :

Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick (1153 - 12 December 1204 ) was the younger son of Roger de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Warwick and Gundred de Warrenne , daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey and Elizabeth de Vermandois . He was also known as Walerian de Newburg.

After his brother 's death an impostor arose, claiming to be the deceased Earl; he gave Waleran a great deal of trouble in maintaining his claim. He does not appear to have been a great soldier, for he paid scutage money to escape military service in Wales . His position in the Court is attested by his bearing the right hand Sword of State at the Coronation of King John , 27 May 1199 .

He liberally supported the hospital of St. Michael's Hospital, Warwick and gave to the nuns of Pinley land at Claverdon , and land at Brailes to the nuns at Wroxall, Warwickshire .


Family and children
He married first to Margery, daughter of Henry d'Oily and Maud de Bohun and had children:
Henry de Beaumont, 5th Earl of Warwick , his heir.
Waleran de Beaumont of Gretham and Cotismore .
Gundred de Beaumont. She and her cousin Mabel became nuns at the Abbey of Pinley .

His second wife was Alice de Harcourt, widow of John de Limesy, Lord of Cavendish, daughter of Robert de Harcourt and had one child:
Alice de Beaumont (died before 1263), married William de Maudit , Baron of Hanslape , Chamberlain to the King. They children were:
William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick ;
Isabel de Maudit , married William de Beauchamp , Baron Emley. Their son was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick .

Waleran married Margery d'Oilly.99

Research Notes: First wife of Waleran de Beaumont

Waleran next married Alice de Harcourt,100 daughter of Robert de Harcourt, of Stanton-Harcourt, Oxfordshire and Isabel Camville, about 1196. Alice died after 1212.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of Waleran de Beaumont; Waleran de Beaumont was her 2nd husband.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 65 F    i. Alice de Beaumont 101 died between 1246 and 1263.

51. Avice de Lancaster 51 72 (Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1155 in Cumberland, England and died on 1 Jan 1191 about age 36. Another name for Avice was Avicia de Lancaster.

Avice married Richard de Morville, of Lauder in Lauderdale,72 102 son of Hugh de Morville and Beatrice de Beauchamp,. Richard was born about 1143 in <Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland, England> and died in 1189 about age 46.

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of Scotland:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 66 F    i. Elena de Morville 72 102 was born about 1172 in <Kirkoswald, Cumberland, England>, died on 11 Jun 1217 about age 45, and was buried in Abbey of Dundrennan, Kirkcudbright, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland.

+ 67 M    ii. William de Morville 72 died in 1196.

52. Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey 76 (William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died on 13 Jul 1199. Another name for Isabelle was Isabel de Warenne Countess of Surrey.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois :

In [Elizabeth's] second marriage, to William de Warenne, Elizabeth had three sons and two daughters (for a total of fourteen children - nine during her first marriage, and five during her second):
William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne (b. 1119 dspm 1147) whose daughter Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.

Isabelle married William, of Blois, Count of Boulogne. William died in 1159.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois

Also Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 83-26 (Isabel de Warenne)

Isabelle next married Hamelin Plantagenet, 5th Earl of Surrey,103 104 105 son of Geoffrey V Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and < >, in Apr 1164. Hamelin was born about 1129, died on 7 May 1202 about age 73, and was buried in Chapter House, Lewes Priory, Surrey, England. Other names for Hamelin were Hamelin Earl of Surrey and Hamelin de Warenne 5th Earl of Surrey.

Research Notes: Natural son of Geoffrey V (Plantagenet). Second husband of Isabel de Warenne.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872178 :

Earl of Surrey, Count of Anjou and Maine, Viscount of Touraine and [illegitimate] half-brother of Henry II, King of England. Hamelin supported Henry II against the rebellion by his sons in 1173. In 1176, he escorted Henry's daughter Joan for her marriage to the King of Sicily. Hamelin was present at the Coronation of Richard I and was opposed to the rule of John while Richard was on crusade and later, imprisoned. In 1193, Hamelin was one of the Treasurers for the ransom of the King. Hamelin also attended the Coronation of King John in 1199. Hamelin was the benefactor of quite a number of Abbeys, Priorys and other religious communities in both England and France.
------------
From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Vermandois:

Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey married 1stly
William, Count of Boulogne (dsp), yr son of King Stephen, and married 2ndly
Hamelin Plantagenet , an illegitimate half-brother of King Henry II of England by whom she had issue, later earls of Surrey and Warenne.

From Wikipedia - Hamelin de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey :
Hamelin de Warenne[citation needed ] (Plantagenet) 1129 - May 7 , 1202 ) was an English nobleman who was prominent at the courts of the Angevin kings of England , Henry II , Richard I , and John .

He was an illegitimate son of Geoffrey of Anjou , and thus a half-brother of King Henry II , and an uncle of Richard the Lionheart and King John . His half-brother Henry gave him one of the wealthiest heiresses in England, Isabella de Warenne , in her own right Countess of Surrey. She was the widow of William of Blois . Hamelin and Isabella married in April 1164, and after the marriage he was recognized as Comte de Warenne, that being the customary designation for what more technically should be Earl of Surrey . In consequence of the marriage Hamelin took the de Warenne toponymic, as did his descendants. He and Isabella would have four children.

Warenne land in England centered around Conisbrough in Yorkshire , a location in which Hamelin built a powerful castle. He also possessed the third penny (entitlement to one third of the fines levied in the county courts) of County Surrey and held the castles of Mortemer and Bellencombre in Normandy .

Hamelin joined in the denunciations of Thomas Becket in 1164, although after Becket's death he became a great believer in Becket's sainthood, having, the story goes, been cured of blindness by the saint's help. In 1176, he escorted his niece Joan of England to Sicily for her marriage.

He remained loyal to Henry through all the problems of the later part of the king's reign when many nobles deserted him, and continued as a close supporter of his nephew Richard I. During Richard's absence on the Third Crusade , he took the side of the regent William Longchamp . Hamelin appeared in the 2nd coronation of King Richard in 1194 and at King John's coronation in 1199.

He died in 1202 and was buried at the Chapter House at Lewes Priory , in Sussex . He was succeeded by his son William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey . A daughter, named Adela, was the mistress of her cousin King John of England, and by him the mother of Richard Fitz Roy .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 68 F    i. Maud de Warenne 106 107 was born about 1162 and died before 13 Dec 1228.

+ 69 M    ii. William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey was born about 1174 in Surrey, England, died on 27 May 1240 in London, England about age 66, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England.

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53. Eleanor, of England 77 78 (Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 13 Oct 1162 in Domfront, Normandy and died on 31 Oct 1214 at age 52. Another name for Eleanor was Leonora of England and Aquitaine.

Birth Notes: Ancestral Roots has b. 1162 and b. 1161

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1162-1214) :

Eleanor of England (known in Castilian as Leonora; 13 October 1162 - 31 October 1214) was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile .

She was born in the castle at Domfront , Normandy , and was baptised by Henry of Marcy . She was the sixth child and second daughter of King Henry II of England and his wife Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine . Her godfather was the chronicler Robert of Torigny , who had a special interest in her and recorded her life as best he could. She received her first name as a namesake of her mother, whose name "Eleanor" (or Alienor) had previously been unrecorded though may have been related to the Greek Helen or the Italian Elena . Another view holds that in the Occitan language , Eleanor simply meant "the other Aenor," since Eleanor of Aquitaine was named for her mother, called Aenor .

Eleanor was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France . She was a younger sister of William IX, Count of Poitiers , Henry the Young King , Matilda, Duchess of Saxony , Richard I of England and Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany . She was also an older sister of Joan of Sicily and John of England .

When she was eighteen years old, in September 1180, she was married to Alfonso VIII . The marriage was arranged to secure the Pyrennean border, with Gascony offered as her dowry.

Of all Eleanor of Aquitaine's daughters, her namesake Eleanor best inherited her mother's political influence. She was almost as powerful as her husband, who specified in his will that she was to rule alongside their son in the event of his death. It was she who persuaded him to marry their daughter Berenguela to the king of Leon in the interest of peace.

When Alfonso died, his queen was reportedly so devastated with grief that she was unable to preside over the burial. Their daughter Berenguela instead performed these honors. Leonora then took sick and died only twenty-eight days after her husband, and was buried at Las Huelgas abbey in Burgos.

Children
Berenguela, Queen of Castile (August 1180 - 8 November 1246 ), married King Alfonso IX of Leon
Sancho of Castile (born & died 1181)
Sancha of Castile (1182 - 3 February 1184 )
Henry of Castile (born & died 1184)
Urraca of Castile (1186-1220), married King Alfonso II of Portugal
Blanca of Castile (4 March 1188 - 26 November 1252 ), married King Louis VIII of France
Fernando of Castile (29 September 1189 - 1211)
Mafalda of Castile (1191-1204)
Constance of Castile (1195-1198)
Constanza, nun at Las Huelgas (1201-1243)
Eleanor of Castile , married King James I of Aragon
Henry I, King of Castile (14 April 1204 - 1217)

Eleanor married Alfonso VIII "the Noble", King of Castile,108 109 son of Sancho III, of Castile and Blanca Garcés, of Navarre, in Sep 1180. Alfonso was born on 11 Nov 1155 and died on 5 Oct 1214 at age 58. Other names for Alfonso were Alfonso VIII "the Good" King of Castile and El de las Navas.

Marriage Notes: Ancestral Roots has m. 1177.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Alfonso VIII of Castile :
Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155 - 5 October 1214 ), called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo [1]. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate . After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula .
His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.


Regency and civil war
Alfonso was born to Sancho III of Castile and Blanca , daughter of García Ramírez of Navarre , in Soria on 11 November 1155. He was named after his grandfather Alfonso VII . His early life resembled that of other medieval kings. His father died in 1158 when his mother was also dead. Though proclaimed king when only three years of age, he was regarded as a mere name by the unruly nobles to whom a minority was convenient. Immediately, Castile was plunged into conflicts between the various noble houses vying for ascendancy in the inevitable regency. The devotion of a squire of his household, who carried him on the pommel of his saddle to the stronghold of San Esteban de Gormaz , saved him from falling into the hands of the contending factions. The noble houses of Lara and Castro both claimed the regency, as did the boy's uncle, Ferdinand II of León . In March 1160 the former two families met at the Battle of Lobregal and the Castro were victorious.
Alfonso was put in the custody of the loyal village Ávila . At barely fifteen, he came forth to do a man's work by restoring his kingdom to order. It was only by a surprise that he recovered his capital Toledo from the hands of the Laras.

[edit ] Reconquista
In 1174, he ceded Uclés to the Order of Santiago and afterwards this became the order's principal seat. From Uclés, he began a campaign which culminated in the reconquest of Cuenca in 1177. The city surrendered on 21 September , the feast of Saint Matthew , ever afterwards celebrated by the citizens of the town.
Alfonso took the initiative to ally all the major Christian kingdoms of the peninsula - Navarre , León , Portugal , and Aragon - against the Almohads . By the Treaty of Cazola of 1179, the zones of expansion of each kingdom were defined.
After founding Plasencia (Cáceres ) in 1186, he embarked on a major initiative to unite the Castilian nobility around the Reconquista. In that year, he recuperated part of La Rioja from the Kingdom of Navarre .
In 1195, after the treaty with the Almohads was broken, he came to the defence of Alarcos on the river Guadiana , then the principal Castilian town in the region. At the subsequent Battle of Alarcos , he was roundly defeated by the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur . The reoccupation of the surrounding territory by the Almohads was quickly commenced with Calatrava falling first. For the next seventeen years, the frontier between Moor and Castilian was fixed in the hill country just outside Toledo.
Finally, in 1212, through the mediation of Pope Innocent III , a crusade was called against the Almohads. Castilians under Alfonso, Aragonese and Catalans under Peter II , Navarrese under Sancho VII , and Franks under the archbishop Arnold of Narbonne all flocked to the effort. The military orders also lent their support. Calatrava first, then Alarcos, and finally Benavente were captured before a final battle was fought at Las Navas de Tolosa near Santa Elena on 16 July . The caliph Muhammad an-Nasir was routed and Almohad power broken.

[edit ] Cultural legacy

Tombs of Alfonso and Eleanor
Alfonso was the founder of the first Spanish university, a studium generale at Palencia , which, however, did not survive him. His court also served as an important instrument for Spanish cultural achievement. His marriage (Burgos , September 1180) with Eleanor (Leonora), daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine , brought him under the influence of the greatest governing intellect of his time. Troubadours and sages were always present, largely due to the influence of Eleanor.
Alfonso died at Gutierre-Muñoz and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Henry I , named after his maternal grandfather.


[edit ] Children
With Eleanor, (Leonora of England ) he had 11 children:
Berenguela , or Berengaria, (August 1180 - 8 November 1246 ), married Alfonso IX of Leon
Sancho (1181)
Sancha (1182 - 3 February 1184 )
Henry (1184)
Urraca (1186 - 1220), married Alfonso II of Portugal
Blanch (4 March 1188 - 26 November 1252 ), married Louis VIII of France
Ferdinand (29 September 1189 - 1211), on whose behalf Diego of Acebo and the future Saint Dominic travelled to Denmark in 1203 to secure a bride[2]
Mafalda (1191 - 1204)
Constance (1195 - 1243), abbess of Santa María la Real of Las Huelgas
Eleanor (1200 - 1244), married James I of Aragon
Henry I (14 April 1204 - 1217), successor

Noted events in his life were:

• King of Castile: 1158-1214.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 70 F    i. Blanche, of Castile 110 111 was born on 4 Mar 1188 in Palencia, (Palencia, Castile-Léon), Spain and died on 26 Nov 1252 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France at age 64.


54. KingJohn "Lackland", of England 79 80 (Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 24 Dec 1167 in Beaumont Palace, Oxford, England, died on 19 Oct 1216 in Newark Castle, Lincolnshire, England at age 48, and was buried in Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Worcestershire, England. Other names for John were John King of England and John "Lackland" King of England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - John of England :

John (24 December 1166 - 19 October 1216 [1]) reigned as King of England from 6 April 1199 , until his death. He succeeded to the throne as the younger brother of King Richard I (known in later times as "Richard the Lionheart"). John acquired the nicknames of "Lackland" (French : Sans Terre) for his lack of an inheritance as the youngest son and for his loss of territory to France , and of "Soft-sword" for his alleged military ineptitude.[2] He was a Plantagenet or Angevin king.

Apart from entering popular legend as the enemy of the fictional Robin Hood , he is also known for acquiescing to the nobility and signing Magna Carta , a document that limited his power and that is popularly regarded as an early first step in the evolution of modern democracy .

Born at Beaumont Palace , Oxford , John was the fifth son and last of eight children born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine . He was almost certainly born in 1166 instead of 1167, as is sometimes claimed.[3]
He was a younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France , his mother's children by her first marriage to Louis VII of France , which was later annulled. He was a younger brother of William, Count of Poitiers ; Henry the Young King ; Matilda, Duchess of Saxony ; Richard I of England ; Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany ; Leonora, Queen of Castile ; and Joan, Queen of Sicily


Early life
While John was his father's favourite son, as the youngest he could expect no inheritance . His family life was tumultuous, as his older brothers all became involved in repeated rebellions against Henry . Eleanor was imprisoned by Henry in 1173, when John was a small boy.

As a child, John was betrothed to Alys (pronounced 'Alice'), daughter and heiress of Humbert III of Savoy . It was hoped that by this marriage the Angevin dynasty would extend its influence beyond the Alps , because John was promised the inheritance of Savoy , the Piemonte , Maurienne , and the other possessions of Count Humbert. King Henry promised his young son castles in Normandy which had been previously promised to his brother Geoffrey, which was for some time a bone of contention between King Henry and his son Geoffrey. Alys made the trip over the Alps and joined Henry's court, but she died before being married.

Gerald of Wales relates that King Henry had a curious painting in a chamber of Winchester Castle , depicting an eagle being attacked by three of its chicks, while a fourth chick crouched, waiting for its chance to strike. When asked the meaning of this picture, King Henry said:

The four young ones of the eagle are my four sons, who will not cease persecuting me even unto death. And the youngest, whom I now embrace with such tender affection, will someday afflict me more grievously and perilously than all the others.

Before his accession, John had already acquired a reputation for treachery, having conspired sometimes with and sometimes against his elder brothers, Henry, Richard and Geoffrey. In 1184, John and Richard both claimed that they were the rightful heir to Aquitaine, one of many unfriendly encounters between the two. In 1185, John became the ruler of Ireland , whose people grew to despise him, causing John to leave after only eight months...

Death

Retreating from the French invasion, John took a safe route around the marshy area of the Wash to avoid the rebel held area of East Anglia . His slow baggage train (including the Crown Jewels ), however, took a direct route across it and was lost to the unexpected incoming tide. This dealt John a terrible blow, which affected his health and state of mind. Succumbing to dysentery and moving from place to place, he stayed one night at Sleaford Castle before dying on 18 October (or possibly 19 October ) 1216 , at Newark Castle (then in Lincolnshire , now on Nottinghamshire 's border with that county). Numerous, possibly fictitious, accounts circulated soon after his death that he had been killed by poisoned ale, poisoned plums or a "surfeit of peaches".

He was buried in Worcester Cathedral in the city of Worcester .
His nine-year-old son succeeded him and became King Henry III of England (1216-72), and although Louis continued to claim the English throne, the barons switched their allegiance to the new king, forcing Louis to give up his claim and sign the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217.

Legacy

King John's reign has been traditionally characterised as one of the most disastrous in English history: it began with defeats-he lost Normandy to Philip Augustus of France in his first five years on the throne-and ended with England torn by civil war and himself on the verge of being forced out of power. In 1213, he made England a papal fief to resolve a conflict with the Roman Catholic Church , and his rebellious barons forced him to sign Magna Carta in 1215, the act for which he is best remembered...


Marriage and issue
In 1189, John was married to Isabel of Gloucester , daughter and heiress of William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (she is given several alternative names by history, including Avisa, Hawise, Joan, and Eleanor). They had no children, and John had their marriage annulled on the grounds of consanguinity , some time before or shortly after his accession to the throne, which took place on 6 April 1199 , and she was never acknowledged as queen. (She then married Geoffrey FitzGeoffrey de Mandeville, 2nd Earl of Essex as her second husband and Hubert de Burgh as her third).
John remarried, on 24 August 1200 , Isabella of Angoulême , who was twenty years his junior. She was the daughter of Aymer Taillefer , Count of Angouleme. John had kidnapped her from her fiancé, Hugh X of Lusignan .
Isabella bore five children:
Henry III (1207-1272), King of England.
Richard (1209-1272), 1st Earl of Cornwall.
Joan (1210-1238), Queen Consort of Alexander II of Scotland .
Isabella (1214-1241), Consort of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor .
Eleanor (1215-1275), who married William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke , and later married Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester .

John is given a great taste for lechery by the chroniclers of his age, and even allowing some embellishment, he did have many illegitimate children. Matthew Paris accuses him of being envious of many of his barons and kinsfolk, and seducing their more attractive daughters and sisters. Roger of Wendover describes an incident that occurred when John became enamoured of Margaret, the wife of Eustace de Vesci and an illegitimate daughter of King William I of Scotland . Eustace substituted a prostitute in her place when the king came to Margaret's bed in the dark of night; the next morning, when John boasted to Vesci of how good his wife was in bed, Vesci confessed and fled.
John had the following illegitimate children:
Joan, Lady of Wales , the wife of Prince Llywelyn Fawr of Wales , (by a woman named Clemence)
Richard Fitz Roy , (by his cousin, Adela, daughter of his uncle Hamelin de Warenne )
Oliver FitzRoy, (by a mistress named Hawise) who accompanied the papal legate Pelayo to Damietta in 1218, and never returned.
By an unknown mistress (or mistresses) John fathered:
Geoffrey FitzRoy, who went on expedition to Poitou in 1205 and died there.
John FitzRoy, a clerk in 1201.
Henry FitzRoy, who died in 1245.
Osbert Gifford, who was given lands in Oxfordshire, Norfolk, Suffolk , and Sussex , and is last seen alive in 1216.
Eudes FitzRoy, who accompanied his half-brother Richard on Crusade and died in the Holy Land in 1241.
Bartholomew FitzRoy, a member of the order of Friars Preachers .
Maud FitzRoy, Abbess of Barking , who died in 1252.
Isabel FitzRoy, wife of Richard Fitz Ives .
Philip FitzRoy, found living in 1263.
(The surname of FitzRoy is Norman-French for son of the king.)



Noted events in his life were:

• Crowned: King of England, 1199. King of England 1199-1216

John married Isabella, of Angoulême, daughter of Aymer Taillifer, de Valence, Count of Angoulême and Alix de Courtenay, on 10 May 1200. Isabella was born about 1186, died on 31 May 1246 in Fontévrault Abbey, France about age 60, and was buried in Fontévrault Abbey, France. Another name for Isabella was Isabella Taillefer of Angoulême.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-28 has m. John 10 May 1200, but line 117-27 has m. 24 Aug 1200.

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Marriage: possibly, 24 Aug 1200, Bordeaux, France.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 117-27 has b. abt. 1189, d. 3 or 4 June 1246, but line 153A-28 (new to 8th edition) has b. 1187, d. 31 May 1246.

From Wikipedia - Isabella of Angoulême :

Isabella of Angoulême (Fr. Isabelle d'Angoulême ; c. 1187 - May 31 , 1246 ) was countess of Angoulême and queen consort of England .
She was the only daughter and heir of Aymer Taillifer, Count of Angoulême , by Alix de Courtenay ; her maternal great-grandfather was King Louis VI of France . She became Countess of Angoulême in her own right in 1202 , by which time she was already queen of England. Her marriage to King John took place on August 24 , 1200 , at Bordeaux , a year after he annulled his first marriage. At the time of this marriage Isabella was aged about thirteen, and her beauty was renowned; she is sometimes called the "Helen " of the Middle Ages by historians.
It could not be said to have been a successful marriage, as Isabella was much younger than her husband and had a fiery character to match his. Before their marriage, she had been betrothed to Hugh X of Lusignan [1], son of the then Count of La Marche . As a result of John's temerity in taking her as his second wife, King Philip II of France confiscated all his French lands, and armed conflict ensued.
When John died in 1216 , Isabella was still in her twenties. She returned to France and in 1220 proceeded to marry Hugh X of Lusignan, now Count of La Marche, her former fiancé.
Isabella was accused of plotting against the French king in 1244 ; she fled to Fontevrault Abbey , where she died on May 31 , 1246 , and was buried there. Afterwards most of her many children, having few prospects in France, set sail for England and the court of their half-brother King Henry III.


Issue
With King John of England: 5 children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:
King Henry III of England (b. 1207 - d. 1272 )
Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans (b. 1209 - d. 1272 )
Joan (b. 1210 - d. 1238 ), the wife of King Alexander II of Scotland
Isabella (b. 1214 - d. 1241 ), the wife of Emperor Frederick II
Eleanor (b. 1215 - d. 1275 ), who would marry William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
With Hugh X of Lusignan , the Count of La Marche : 9 children, all of whom survived into adulthood, including:
Hugh XI of Lusignan (b. 1221 - d.1250 ), Count of La Marche and Count of Angoulême
Aymer de Valence (b. 1222 - d. 1260 ), Bishop of Winchester
Agnès de Lusignan (b. 1223 - d. 1269 ), married William II de Chauvigny
Alice de Lusignan (b. 1224 - d. February 9 , 1256 ), married John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey
Guy de Lusignan (b. 1225 ? - d. 1264 ), killed at the Battle of Lewes . (Tufton Beamish maintains that he escaped to France after the Battle of Lewes and died there in 1269)
Geoffrey de Lusignan (b. 1226 ? - d. 1274 ), married in 1259 Jeanne, Viscountess of Châtellerault and had issue
William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (b. 1228 ? - d. 1296 )
Marguerite de Lusignan (b. 1229 ? - d. 1288 ), married 1243 Raymond VII of Toulouse , married c. 1246 Aimery IX de Thouars, Viscount of Thouars
Isabelle de Lusignan (1234 - January 14 , 1299 ), married Geoffrey de Rancon

References
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 1-25, 80-29, 117-27, 153A-28, 154-28, 258-27, 260-29, 275-27
Isabelle d'Angoulême, Reine d'Angleterre, by Sophie Fougère
Isabella: Queen Without a Conscience, by Rachel Bard (historical novel)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 71 M    i. KingHenry III, of England 112 113 was born on 1 Oct 1207 in Winchester Castle, Winchester, (Hampshire), England, died on 16 Nov 1272 in Westminster Palace, London, England at age 65, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England.

+ 72 M    ii. Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, King of the Romans was born on 5 Jan 1209 and died on 2 Apr 1272 at age 63.

+ 73 F    iii. Joan, Queen Consort of Scotland 114 was born in 1210 and died in 1238 at age 28.

+ 74 F    iv. Isabella was born in 1214 and died in 1241 at age 27.

+ 75 F    v. Eleanor was born in 1215 and died on 13 Apr 1275 at age 60.

John had a relationship with Clemence. This couple did not marry.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - John of England


Their child was:

+ 76 F    i. Joan, Princess of Gwynedd 115 116 117 was born before 1200 and died between 30 Mar 1236 and Feb 1237.

55. William Longspée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury 83 84 (Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1176 in England, died on 7 Mar 1226 in Salisbury Castle, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England about age 50, and was buried in Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. Another name for William was wILLIAM Longespée 3rd Earl of Salisbury.

Research Notes: Illegitimate son of Henry II, probably through Countess Ida.

From Wikipedia - William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury :

William Longespée, jure uxoris 3rd Earl of Salisbury (c. 1176 - 7 March 1226 ) was an English noble, primarily remembered for his command of the English forces at the Battle of Damme and for remaining loyal to King John .

He was an illegitimate son of Henry II of England . His mother was unknown for many years, until the discovery of a charter of William mentioning "Comitissa Ida, mater mea" (engl. "Countess Ida, my mother")[2] [3]


This Ida, a member of the prominent Tosny or Toesny family, later (1181) married Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk [4].

King Henry acknowledged William as his son and gave him the Honour of Appleby, Lincolnshire in 1188. Eight years later, his half-brother, King Richard I , married him to a great heiress, Ela, Countess of Salisbury in her own right, and daughter of William of Salisbury, 2nd Earl of Salisbury .

During the reign of King John, Salisbury was at court on several important ceremonial occasions, and held various offices: sheriff of Wiltshire , lieutenant of Gascony , constable of Dover and warden of the Cinque Ports , and later warden of the Welsh Marches . He was a commander in the king's Welsh and Irish expeditions of 1210-1212. The king also granted him the honour of Eye .

In 1213, Salisbury led a large fleet to Flanders , where he seized or destroyed a good part of a French invasion fleet anchored at or near Damme . This ended the invasion threat but not the conflicts between England and France . In 1214, Salisbury was sent to help Otto IV of Germany , an English ally, who was invading France. Salisbury commanded the right wing of the army at their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Bouvines , where he was captured.

By the time he returned to England, revolt was brewing amongst the barons. Salisbury was one of the few who remained loyal to John. In the civil war that took place the year after the signing of the Magna Carta , Salisbury was one of the leaders of the king's army in the south. However, after the French prince Louis (later Louis VIII ) landed as an ally of the rebels, Salisbury went over to his side. Presumably, he thought John's cause was lost.

After John's death and the departure of Louis, Salisbury, along with many other barons, joined the cause of John's young son, now Henry III of England . He held an influential place in the government during the king's minority and fought in Gascony to help secure the remaining part of the English continental possessions. Salisbury's ship was nearly lost in a storm while returning to England in 1225, and he spent some months in refuge at a monastery on the French island of Ré . He died not long after his return to England at Salisbury Castle . Roger of Wendover alleged that he was poisoned by Hubert de Burgh . He was buried at Salisbury Cathedral in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.

William Longespee's tomb was opened in 1791. Bizarrely, the well-preserved corpse of a rat which carried traces of arsenic [5], was found inside his skull. The rat is now on display in a case at the Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum.

Family
By his wife Ela, Countess of Salisbury , he had four sons and four daughters [6]:
William II Longespée (1212?-1250), who was sometimes called Earl of Salisbury but never legally bore the title because he died before his mother, Countess Ela, who held the earldom until her death in 1161;
Richard, a canon of Salisbury ;
Stephen (d. 1260), who was seneschal of Gascony;
Nicholas (d. 1297), bishop of Salisbury
Isabella, who married William de Vesey
Ella, married William d'Odingsels
Ela Longespée , who first married Thomas de Beaumont, 6th Earl of Warwick , and then married Philip Basset
Ida, who first married Ralph de Somery, and then William de Beauchamp

William married Ela, Countess of Salisbury,84 118 daughter of William FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Salisbury and Eléonore de Vitré, in 1196. Ela was born in 1187 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England, died on 24 Aug 1261 in Lacock Abbey, Lacock, Wiltshire, England at age 74, and was buried in Lacock Abbey, Lacock, Wiltshire, England.

Burial Notes: The incription on her tombstone, originally written in Latin, reads:
Below lie buried the bones of the venerable Ela, who gave this sacred house as a home for the nuns. She also had lived here as holy abbess and Countess of Salisbury, full of good works

Research Notes: Only daughter and heiress of William FitzPatrick, who had no son.

From Wikipedia - Ela, Countess of Salisbury :

Ela, 3rd Countess of Salisbury (1187- 24 August 1261), was a wealthy English heiress and the suo jure Countess of Salisbury, having succeeded to the title in 1196 upon the death of her father, William FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Salisbury .[1] Her husband William Longespee , an illegitimate half-brother of kings Richard I of England and John of England assumed the title of 3rd Earl of Salisbury by right of his marriage to Ela, which took place in 1196 when she was nine years old.

Ela became a nun after William's death, then Abbess of Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire which she had founded in 1229. Mary, Queen of Scots , English kings Edward IV and Richard III , and three of the queens consort of King Henry VIII , Anne Boleyn , Jane Seymour , and Catherine Howard were among her many descendants.

Family
Ela was born in Amesbury , Wiltshire in 1187, the only child and heiress of William FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, Sheriff of Wiltshire and Eléonore de Vitré (c.1164- 1232/1233).[2] Her paternal grandparents were Patrick of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Ela Talvas. Her maternal grandparents were Robert III de Vitré and Emma de Dinan, daughter of Alan de Dinan and Eléonore de Penthievre. In 1196, she succeeded her father as 3rd Countess of Salisbury suo jure. There is a story that immediately following her father's death she was imprisoned in a castle in Normandy by one of her paternal uncles who wished to take her title and enormous wealth for himself.

According to the legend, Ela was eventually rescued by William Talbot, a knight who had gone to France where he sang ballads under windows in all the castles of Normandy until he received a response from Ela.[3]


In 1198, Ela's mother married her fourth husband, Gilbert de Malesmains.

Marriage and children
In 1196, the same year she became countess and inherited her father's numerous estates, Ela married William Longespee, an illegitimate son of King Henry II of England , by his mistress Ida de Tosny, who later married Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk . Longespee became 3rd Earl of Salisbury by right of his wife. The Continuator of Florence recorded that their marriage had been arranged by King Richard I of England , who was William's legitimate half-brother.[1]


Together William and Ela had at least eight or possibly nine children:
William II Longespee , titular Earl of Salisbury (c.1209- 7 February 1250), married in 1216 Idoine de Camville, daughter of Richard de Camville and Eustache Basset, by whom he had four children. William was killed while on crusade at the Battle of Mansurah .

Richard Longespee, clerk and canon of Salisbury.
Stephen Longespee , Seneschal of Gascony and Justiciar of Ireland (1216- 1260), married as her second husband 1243/1244 Emmeline de Ridelsford, daughter of Walter de Ridelsford and Annora Vitré, by whom he had two daughters: Ela, wife of Sir Roger La Zouche, and Emmeline, the second wife of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly .

Nicholas Longespee, Bishop of Salisbury (died 28 May 1297)
Isabella Longespee (died before 1244), married as his first wife shortly after 16 May 1226, William de Vescy, Lord of Alnwick, by whom she had issue.
Petronilla Longespee, died unmarried
Ela Longespee (died 9 Februry 1298), married firstly Thomas de Warwick, Earl of Warwick; married secondly Sir Philip Basset
Ida Longespee , married firstly Ralph de Somery, Baron of Dudley; she married secondly William de Beauchamp, Baron of Bedford , by whom she had six children, including Maud de Beauchamp, wife of Roger de Mowbray.[4]
Ida de Longespee (she is alternatively listed as William and Ela's granddaughter: see notes below), married Sir Walter FitzRobert of Woodham Walter, Essex , by whom she had issue including Ela FitzWalter FitzRobert, wife of William de Odyngsells.

Later life
In 1225, Ela's husband William was shipwrecked off the coast of Brittany , upon returning from Gascony. He spent months recovering at a monastery on the Island of Ré in France. He died at Salisbury Castle on 7 March 1226 just several days after arriving in England. Ela held the post of Sheriff of Wiltshire for two years following her husband's death.

Three years later in 1229, Ela founded Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire as a nunnery of the Augustinian order. In 1238, she entered the abbey as a nun ; she was made Abbess of Lacock in 1240, and held the post until 1257. The Book of Lacock recorded that Ela founded the monasteries at Lacock and Henton.[1] During her tenure as abbess, Ela obtained many rights for the abbey and village of Lacock.

Ela, Countess of Salisbury died on 24 August 1261 and was buried in Lacock Abbey. The incription on her tombstone, originally written in Latin, reads:
Below lie buried the bones of the venerable Ela, who gave this sacred house as a home for the nuns. She also had lived here as holy abbess and Countess of Salisbury, full of good works[5]


Her numerous descendants included English kings Edward IV and Richard III, Mary, Queen of Scots, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex , Sir Winston Churchill , Diana, Princess of Wales , the Dukes of Norfolk , Mary Boleyn , and queens consort Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, and Catherine Howard.

References
^ a b c Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, England, Earls of Salisbury 1196-1310 (Longespee)
^ The Earls of Salisbury are sometimes mistakenly assigned the surname "d'Evreux", but it is spurious, arising from confusion over the nickname of a fictitious ancestor, Walter le Ewrus (Walter the Fortunate). The family of the Earls of Salisbury never used the name "d'Evreux", they do not descend from the Norman Counts of Evreux, nor do the later Devereux derive from them. See Cokayne, George (1982). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant. XI. Gloucester England: A. Sutton. p. 373, note (b). ISBN 0904387828 .

^ Thomas B. Costain, The Conquering Family, pp.291-92, published by Doubleday and Company, Inc., New York, 1949.
^ This Ida is sometimes confused with another Ida Longespee, who married Sir Walter FitzRobert of Woodham Walter, Essex , by whom she had issue including Ela FitzWalter FitzRobert, wife of William de Odyngsells. This latter Ida Longespee has been given different parents by different genealogists; G. Andrews Moriarty suggested the two Idas were sisters; Gerald Paget suggests the Ida who married Walter FitzRobert may have been the daughter of William Longespee II, Earl of Salisbury, by his wife, Idoine de Camville.

^ History of Chitterne: Ela, Countess of Salibury

Noted events in her life were:

• Founded: Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire, 1229.

• Sheriff of Wiltshire: 1226-1228. Following her husband's death 7 March 1226.

• Entered: Lacock Abbey as a nun, 1238.

• Abbess: of Lacock Abbey, 1240-1257.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 77 M    i. William II Longspée 84 119 was born about 1212 in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, died on 8 Feb 1250 in Al-Mansura, Egypt about age 38, and was buried in Acre, Palestine.

56. Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford 87 88 (Margaret, of Huntingdon43, Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1176 and died on 1 Jun 1220 at age 44.

Death Notes: Died on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land

Research Notes: From Magna Charta Barons, pp. 81-82:
Henry de Bohun, eldest son and heir, who in reality was the first Earl of Hereford of this family, being so created by charter of King John, dated April 28, 1199; but the office of lord high constable he inherited. As he took prominent part with the Barons against the king, his lands were sequestered, but he received them again at the sealing of the Magna Charta. He was elected one of the celebrated twenty-five Sureties for the observance of the Magna Charta, and having been excommunicated by the Pope, with the other Barons, he did not return to his allegiance on the decease of King John, but was one of the commanders in the army of Louis, the Dauphin, at the battle of Lincoln, and was taken prisoner. After this defeat he joined Saher de Quincey, and others, in a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and c. on the passage, June 1, 1220, 4 Henry III. His body was brought home and buried in the chapter-house of Llanthony Abbey, in Gloucestershire.

He m. Maud, daughter of Geoffrey Fitz-Piers, Baron de Mandeville, created, in 1199, Earl of Essex, Justiciary of England, d. 1212, and eventually heiress of her brother William de Mandeville, last Earl of Essex of that family, by whom he acquired the honor of Essex and many extensive lordships, and sister of Geoffrey de Mandeville, one of the celebrated twenty-five Magna Charta Sureties, and had:
Humphrey de Bohun, second Earl of Hereford and Essex.
Margaret, wife of Waleran de Newburgh, fourth Earl of Warwick.
Ralph de Bohun.

Noted events in his life were:

• Hereditary Constable of England:

• Sheriff of Kent: 1200.

• Magna Charta Surety: 1215.

Henry married Maud FitzGeoffrey, de Mandeville,120 daughter of Geoffrey FitzPeter, 1st Earl of Essex and Beatrice de Say,. Maud died on 27 Aug 1236.

Research Notes: After Henry's death (1220), Countess of Essex


The child from this marriage was:

+ 78 M    i. Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex 121 122 was born by 1208, died on 24 Sep 1275 in Warwickshire, England at age 67, and was buried in Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

57. Mathilde, of Flanders 91 (Marie, of Blois, Countess of Boulogne44, Matilda, of Boulogne27, Mary, of Scotland14, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died between 1210 and 1211. Other names for Mathilde were Maud of Flanders and Maud of Boulogne and Alsace.

Mathilde married Henry I, Duke of Lorraine, Louvain and Brabant,123 124 son of Godfrey III, Count of Louvain, Duke of Lorraine and Margaret, of Limbourg, in 1179. Henry was born about 1165 in Leuven, Brabant, Flanders, Belgium and died on 5 Sep 1235 in Cologne, Germany about age 70.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry I, Duke of Brabant :

Henry I of Brabant (French: Henri I de Brabant, Dutch: Hendrik I van Brabant), named "The Courageous", was (probably) born in 1165 in Leuven and died in the German city of Cologne on September 5 , 1235 . He became Duke of Brabant in 1183/1184 and succeeded his father as Duke of Lower Lotharingia in 1190. He was the son of Godfrey III of Leuven , Duke of Lower Lotharingia and landgrave of Brabant , and Margaret of Limburg .
He married Mathilde of Boulogne (Mathilde of Flanders), daughter of Marie of Boulogne and Matthew of Alsace 1179.

He had six children by his first marriage:
Marie (c. 1190 - May 1260), married in Maastricht after May 19 , 1214 Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor , married July 1220 Count William I of Holland
Adelaide (b. c. 1190), married 1206 Arnulf, Count of Loos , married February 3 , 1225 William X of Auvergne (c. 1195-1247), married before April 21 , 1251 Arnold van Wesemaele (d. aft. 1288)
Margaret (1192-1231), married January 1206 Gerhard III, Count of Guelders (d. October 22 , 1229 )
Mathilde (c. 1200 - December 22 , 1267 ), married in Aachen in 1212 Henry II, Count Palatine of the Rhine (d. 1214), married on December 6 , 1214 Floris IV, Count of Holland
Henry II of Brabant (1207-1248)
Godfrey (1209 - January 21 , 1254 ), Lord of Gaesbeek, married Marie van Oudenaarde

His second marriage was at April 22 , 1213 in Soissons to Marie, princess of France , daughter of King Philip II of France . They had two children:
Elizabeth (d. October 23 , 1272 ), married in Leuven March 19 , 1233 Count Dietrich of Cleves , Lord of Dinslaken (c. 1214-1244), married 1246 Gerhard II, Count of Wassenberg (d. 1255)
Marie, died young

Under Henry I, there was a town policy and town planning. Henry's attention went out to those regions that lent themselves to the extension of his sovereignty and in some locations he used the creation of a new town as an instrument in the political organisation of the area. Among the towns to which the Duke gave city rights and trade privileges was 's-Hertogenbosch .
He was buried in St. Peter's chapter church at Leuven where you can still see his late romanesque effigy.

Noted events in his life were:

• Duke of Brabant: 1184.

• Duke of Lower Lotharingia: 1190.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 79 M    i. Henry II, Duke of Brabant 125 was born in 1207 and died on 1 Feb 1248 in Leuven, Brabant, Flanders, Belgium at age 41.

58. Margaret de Beaumont 43 94 95 (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1156 in <Hampshire>, England and died about 12 Jan 1235 about age 79. Another name for Margaret was Margaret de Harcourt.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots, line 53-27 has "d. prob. on 12 Jan. 1234/5 but sh. bef. 12 Feb. 1234/5"

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford
and
Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester

Margaret married Saher IV de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester,126 127 son of Robert de Quincy, Lord of Buckley and of Fawside and Orabilis, of Leuchars, before 1173 in England. Saher was born in 1155 and died on 3 Nov 1219 in Palestine at age 64. Other names for Saher were Seer de Quincy, Saher de Quincey Earl of Winchester, Saher de Quincey Earl of Winchester, and Saer de Quincy 1st Earl of Winchester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester

Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester (1155 - 1219 -11-03 ) was one of the leaders of the baronial rebellion against King John of England , and a major figure in both Scotland and England in the decades around the turn of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

Saer de Quincy's immediate background was in the Scottish kingdom: his father was a knight in the service of king William the Lion , and his mother was the heiress of the lordship of Leuchars in Fife (see below ). His rise to prominence in England came through his marriage to Margaret, the younger sister of Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester : but it is probably no coincidence that her other brother was the de Quincys' powerful Fife neighbour, Roger de Beaumont , Bishop of St Andrews . In 1204, Earl Robert died, leaving Margaret as co-heiress of the vast earldom along with her elder sister. The estate was split in half, and after the final division was ratified in 1207, de Quincy was made Earl of Winchester .

Following his marriage, de Quincy became a prominent military and diplomatic figure in England. There is no evidence of any close alliance with King John , however, and his rise to importance was probably due to his newly-acquired magnate status and the family connections that underpinned it.

Family
The family of de Quincy had arrived in England after the Norman Conquest , and took their name from Cuinchy in the Arrondissement of Béthune ; the personal name "Saer" was used by them over several generations. Both names are variously spelled in primary sources and older modern works, the first name being sometimes rendered Saher or Seer, and the surname as Quency or Quenci.

The first recorded Saer de Quincy (known to historians as "Saer I") was lord of the manor of Long Buckby in Northamptonshire in the earlier twelfth century, and second husband of Matilda of St Liz , stepdaughter of King David I of Scotland . This marriage produced two sons, Saer II and Robert de Quincy . It was Robert, the younger son, who was the father of the Saer de Quincy who eventually became Earl of Winchester. By her first husband Robert Fitz Richard , Matilda was also the paternal grandmother of Earl Saer's close ally, Robert Fitzwalter.

Robert de Quincy seems to have inherited no English lands from his father, and pursued a knightly career in Scotland, where he is recorded from around 1160 as a close companion of his cousin, King William the Lion . By 1170 he had married Orabilis , heiress of the Scottish lordship of Leuchars and, through her, he became lord of an extensive complex of estates north of the border which included lands in Fife , Strathearn and Lothian .

Saer de Quincy, the son of Robert de Quincy and Orabilis of Leuchars, was raised largely in Scotland. His absence from English records for the first decades of his life has led some modern historians and genealogists to confuse him with his uncle, Saer II, who took part in the rebellion of Henry the Young King in 1173, when the future Earl of Winchester can have been no more than a toddler. Saer II's line ended without direct heirs, and his nephew and namesake would eventually inherit his estate, uniting his primary Scottish holdings with the family's Northamptonshire patrimony, and possibly some lands in France.

By his wife Margaret de Beaumont, Saer de Quincy had three sons and three daughters:

Lorette who married Sir William de Valognes
Arabella who married Sir Richard Harcourt
Robert (d. 1217). Some sources say he married Hawise, sister and co-heiress of Ranulf de Blundeville, earl of Chester . However, it is more likely Hawise married Saer's brother Robert II;
Roger , who succeeded his father as earl of Winchester (though he did not take formal possession of the earldom until after his mother's death);
Robert de Quincy (second son of that name; d. 1257) who married Helen , daughter of the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great ;
Hawise, who married Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford .
His arms were: Or, a fess gules, in chief a label of seven points azure.

Noted events in his life were:

• Governor of Castle of Ruil: in Normandy, 1203.

• Created: Earl of Winchester, Bef 1210.

• Magna Charta Surety: 1215.

• Crusader: 1218-1219.

• Siege of Damietta: 1219.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 80 F    i. Lorette de Quincy .

+ 81 M    ii. Robert de Quincy 127 128 died in 1217.

+ 82 M    iii. Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester 43 129 130 131 was born about 1174 in <Winchester>, Hampshire, England, died on 25 Apr 1264 in England about age 90, and was buried in Brackley, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

+ 83 M    iv. Robert II de Quincy 132 133 died in 1257 in <Palestine>.

+ 84 F    v. Hawise de Quincy .134 135

59. Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester 96 (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died about 21 Oct 1204. Another name for Robert was Robert FitzPernel.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester :

Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester (died circa 21 October 1204 ) was an English nobleman, the last of the Beaumont earls of Leicester. He is sometimes known as Robert FitzPernel.
Robert was the son of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Petronilla, who was either a granddaughter or great-granddaughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil . As a young man, he accompanied King Richard I on the Third Crusade , and it was while the crusading forces rested at Messina , Sicily that Robert was invested with the Earldom of Leicester in early 1191 .

Robert's newly-gained estates included a large part of central Normandy . He held castles at Pacy, Pont-Saint-Pierre and Grandmesnil. Earl Robert also was lord of the vast honor of Breteuil, but the family castle there had been dismantled after the 1173-1174 War . On his return from the crusade, he turned his attentions to the defense of Normandy from the French . After defending Rouen from the advances of Philip II of France , he attempted to retake his castle of Pacy. He was captured by forces of the French king and remained imprisoned for 3 years. Later, King John would bestow the new fortress and lordship of Radepont (the land of Radepont was traded to King John by the seigneur du Neubourg for lands and revenues in the pays de Caux) upon the earl.

Sometime after his release in 1196 he married Loretta, daughter of William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber . They had no children, and Robert's death in 1204 brought the end of the Beaumont male line.

In the year of his death Normandy was lost to the French; Earl Robert attempted to come to an independent arrangement with King Philip of France, in which he would hold his land in Normandy as a liege-vassal of the Kings of France, and his lands in England as a liege-vassal of the Kings of England. In any event, Robert died that year, but his great English estates were divided between the heirs of his two sisters. The eldest sister, Amicia, had married the French baron Simon de Montfort , and their son, also named Simon de Montfort , inherited half the estate as well as the title of Earl of Leicester. The younger sister, Margaret, had married Saer de Quincy , and they inherited the other half. Three years later Saer was created Earl of Winchester .

Robert married Loretta de Braose after 1196.

Research Notes: Source: Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester

60. Roger de Beaumont, Bishop of St Andrews (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester

Noted events in his life were:

• Became: Bishop of St Andrews, 1189.

61. William de Beaumont (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester - a leper

62. Amicia de Beaumont (Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester - Married Simon III de Montfort. Their son Simon subsequently became Earl of Leicester.

63. Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester 97 98 (Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1160 and died on 1 Jan 1225 about age 65. Other names for Amice were Amica FitzRobert and Amice FitzRobert Countess of Gloucester.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has. d. 1 Jan 1224/1225. Wikipedia has d. 1220.

Research Notes: Second daughter and co-heiress of William FitzRobert.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 63-27

Amice married Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Clare,97 136 137 son of Roger de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford and Maud de St. Hilary, about 1180. Richard was born about 1153 in Tonbridge Castle, Tonbridge, Kent, England, died on 30 Dec 1218 in Oxfordshire, England about age 65, and was buried in Clare or Tunbridge Priory.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has. d. 28 Nov 1217. Magna Charta Barons & Wikipedia have 30 Dec 1218.

Research Notes: 4th Earl of Hertford, 6th Earl of Clare, Earl of Gloucester.

Sources are fairly certain that this is the Richard de Clare who was a Magna Charta Surety.

----------
From Wikipedia - Richard de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford :

Richard de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford (c.1153[1] - December 30 , 1218 ) was the son of Roger de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford and Maud de St. Hilary. More commonly known as the Earl of Clare, he had the moiety of the Giffard estates from his ancestor Rohese. He was present at the coronation of King Richard I at Westminster , 3 September 1189 , and King John on 27 May 1199 . He was also present at the homeage of King William of Scotland at Lincoln.
He married (c. 1172) Amice FitzRobert, Countess of Gloucester (c. 1160-1220), second daughter, and co-heiress, of William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester , and Hawise de Beaumont.

He sided with the Barons against King John , even though he had previously sworn peace with the King at Northampton , and his castle of Tonbridge was taken. He played a leading part in the negotiations for Magna Carta , being one of the twenty five Barons appointed as guardians. On 9 November 1215 , he was one of the commissioners on the part of the Barons to negotiate the peace with the King. In 1215, his lands in counties Cambridge , Norfolk , Suffolk and Essex were granted to Robert de Betun . He and his son were among the Barons rxcommunicated by the Pope in 1215. Sometime before 1198 Earl Richard and his wife Amice were ordered to separate by the Pope on grounds of consanguinity . They separated for a time because of this order but apparently they reconciled their marriage with the Pope later on.

His own arms were: Or, three chevronels gules.

Noted events in his life were:

• Magna Charta Surety: 1215.

• 4th Earl of Hertford: 1173-1218.

• x:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 85 F    i. Isabel de Clare 97 was born in 1178.

+ 86 M    ii. Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester 138 139 140 was born about 1180 in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England, died on 25 Oct 1230 in Penros, Brittany, France about age 50, and was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

+ 87 F    iii. Maud de Clare 141 was born in 1184 in Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England and died in 1213 at age 29.

+ 88 M    iv. Richard de Clare 97 was born in 1184 in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England and died on 4 Mar 1228 in London, England at age 44.

+ 89 F    v. Joan de Clare 97 142 was born in 1184 in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England.

64. Mabel de Beaumont 47 (Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan49, Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan31, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1168 in <Meulan, Normandy>, France and died after 1 May 1204. Another name for Mabel was Mabirie de Beaumont.

Mabel married William de Reviers,47 son of Baldwin de Reviers and Adeliza Lucia DeBaalum, about 1189 in France. William was born about 1128 in <Devonshire>, England, died on 10 Sep 1217 about age 89, and was buried in Christ Church, Twynham, Dorset, England. Another name for William was William de Vernon.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has abt 1128 and abt 1155.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 90 F    i. Mary de Reviers 47 was born about 1183 in <Okehampton>, Devonshire, England.

65. Alice de Beaumont 101 (Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died between 1246 and 1263.

Alice married William Mauduit, Lord of Hanslope & Hartley Mauduit, Bucks.,143 son of Robert Mauduit, Lord of Hanslope, Bucks. and Isabel Basset,. William died in Apr 1257.

Noted events in his life were:

• Chamberlain of the Exchequer:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 91 F    i. Isabel Mauduit 144 145 146 was born about 1214, died before 1268, and was buried in Nunnery of Cokehill, Worcestershire, England.

+ 92 M    ii. William Mauduit, 8th Earl of Warwick 146 was born about 1220 and died on 8 Jan 1267 about age 47.

66. Elena de Morville 72 102 (Avice de Lancaster51, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1172 in <Kirkoswald, Cumberland, England>, died on 11 Jun 1217 about age 45, and was buried in Abbey of Dundrennan, Kirkcudbright, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Another name for Elena was Helena de Morville.

Elena married Roland, Lord of Galloway,89 147 son of Uchtred, Lord of Galloway and Gunnild, of Dunbar,. Roland was born about 1164 in <Galloway, Perthshire, Scotland>, died on 19 Dec 1200 in Northamptonshire, England about age 36, and was buried in Abbey of Saint Andrew, Northamptonshire, England. Another name for Roland was Roland of Galloway.

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of Scotland: 1189-1200.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 93 M    i. Alan, Lord of Galloway 89 was born about 1186 in <Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland>, died in 1234 about age 48, and was buried in Abbey of Dundrennan, Kirkcudbright, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland.

67. William de Morville 72 (Avice de Lancaster51, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died in 1196.

68. Maud de Warenne 106 107 (Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1162 and died before 13 Dec 1228. Another name for Maud was Mathilde de Warenne.

Death Notes: May have died in 1212.

Maud married Henry, Count of Eu, Lord of Hastings.148 Henry died on 11 Mar 1183. Another name for Henry was Henry d'Eu 7th Comte d'Eu, 3rd Lord of Hastings.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. 16 or 17 Mar. 1183 and d. 11 Mar. 1183

Wikipedia has d. 11 Mar 1183 or 1191.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 94 F    i. Alice d'Eu, Countess of Eu, Lady of Hastings 107 149 was born about 1191 and died on 15 May 1246 in La Mothe-Saint-Heray, Poitou about age 55.

69. William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1174 in Surrey, England, died on 27 May 1240 in London, England about age 66, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England.

Research Notes: Second husband of Maud Marshal.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872177 :

5th Earl of Surrey (1202-1240); warden of the Cinque Ports (1216); named in the Magna Carta. William's estates in Normandy were confiscated in 1204, when Philip II of France (RIN # 4649) seized the duchy. He supported King John of England against the barons and in 1215 acted as one of the king's guarantors for the keeping of the Magna Carta. However, the following year he supported Prince Louis, son of Philip II of France, when he tried to wrest England from John; even so, after the King's death later that year he declared himself a loyal vassal of his infant son and successor, Henry III. His lands were restored in 1221. During the 1220's and 1230's William took an active part in politics, and in 1238 he was appointed a treasurer of royal taxes.

!Chronicles of the Age of Chivalry: 52
To compensate for the loss of his lands in Normandy, King John granted William Grantham and Stamford in Lincolnshire. In 1212, he was committed to the custody of 4 castles, Bamburgh and Newcastle-on-Tyne being two of them. In 1237, William was reprimanded by the Bishop of Lincoln for having mass at his home at Grantham, because it had not been consecrated.

William married Maud Marshal,150 151 152 daughter of Sir William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, on 13 Oct 1225. Maud was born about 1192 in <Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales>, was christened in Sep 1201, died on 27 Mar 1248 about age 56, and was buried in Tintern Abbey, Chapel Hill, Monmouthshire, Wales. Another name for Maud was Matilda Marshall.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots also has d. Apr 1248.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of William de Warenne. Widow of Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 95 M    i. John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey 153 154 155 156 was born in 1231 in Surrey, England, died on 27 Dec 1304 in Kennington, Middlesex, England at age 73, and was buried in Lewes, Surrey, England.

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70. Blanche, of Castile 110 111 (Eleanor, of England53, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 4 Mar 1188 in Palencia, (Palencia, Castile-Léon), Spain and died on 26 Nov 1252 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France at age 64. Another name for Blanche was Blanca de Castilla.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots 113-28 has d. 27 Nov. 1252

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Blanche of Castile :

Blanche of Castile (Blanca de Castilla in Spanish ; 4 March 1188 - 26 November 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France . She was born in Palencia , Spain , the third daughter of Alfonso VIII , king of Castile , and of Eleanor of England . Eleanor was a daughter of Henry II of England and his Queen consort Eleanor of Aquitaine .

Biography
In consequence of a treaty between Philip Augustus and John of England , Blanche's sister Urraca was betrothed to the former's son, Louis. Their grandmother Eleanor, upon getting acquainted with the two sisters, judged that Blanche's personality was more fit for a queen of France. In the spring of 1200 she brought her to France instead. On 22 May 1200 the treaty was finally signed, John ceding with his niece the fiefs of Issoudun and Gracay , together with those that André de Chauvigny , lord of Châteauroux, held in Berry , of the English crown. The marriage was celebrated the next day, at Portmort on the right bank of the Seine , in John's domains, as those of Philip lay under an interdict.
Blanche first displayed her great qualities in 1216, when Louis, who on the death of John claimed the English crown in her right, invaded England, only to find a united nation against him. Philip Augustus refused to help his son, and Blanche was his sole support. The queen established herself at Calais and organized two fleets, one of which was commanded by Eustace the Monk , and an army under Robert of Courtenay ; but all her resolution and energy were in vain. Although it would seem that her masterful temper exercised a sensible influence upon her husband's gentler character, her role during his reign (1223-1226) is not well known.
Upon his death he left Blanche regent and guardian of his children. Of her twelve or thirteen children, six had died, and Louis, the heir - afterwards the sainted Louis IX - was but twelve years old.
The situation was critical, for the hard-won domains of the house of Capet seemed likely to fall to pieces during a minority. Blanche had to bear the whole burden of affairs alone, to break up a league of the barons (1226), and to repel the attack of the king of England (1230). But her energy and firmness overcame all dangers.
There was an end to the calumnies circulated against her, based on the poetical homage rendered her by Count Theobald IV of Champagne , a.k.a. KingTheobald I of Navarre since 1234, and the prolonged stay in Paris of the papal legate, Romano Bonaventura , cardinal of Sant' Angelo. The nobles were awed by her warlike preparations or won over by adroit diplomacy, and their league was broken up. St Louis owed his realm to his mother, but he himself always remained somewhat under the spell of her imperious personality.
After he came of age, in 1234, aged 20, her influence upon him may still be traced. The same year, he was married, and Blanche became Queen mother . Louis IX married Marguerite of Provence, who was the eldest of four daughters of Ramon, count of Provence, and Beatrice of Savoy. In 1248 Blanche again became Queen regent, during Louis IX's absence on the crusade, a project which she had strongly opposed. In the disasters which followed she maintained peace, while draining the land of men and money to aid her son in the East. At last her strength failed her. She fell ill into a bale of hay at Melun in November 1252, and was taken to Paris , but lived only a few days. She was buried at Maubuisson .

[edit ] Issue
Blanche (1205-1206).
Agnes (b. and d. 1207).
Philippe (9 September 1209 - July 1218), married (or only betrothed) in 1217 to Agnes of Donzy.
Alphonse (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213).
John (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213), twin of Alphonse.
Louis IX (Poissy, 25 April 1214 - 25 August 1270, Tunis), King of France as successor to his father.
Robert (25 September 1216 - 9 February 1250, killed in battle, Manssurah, Egypt)
Philippe (2 January 1218-1220).
John Tristan (21 July 1219-1232), Count of Anjou and Maine.
Alphonse (Poissy, 11 November 1220 - 21 August 1271, Corneto), Count of Poitou and Auvergne, and by marriage, of Toulouse.
Philippe Dagobert (20 February 1222-1232).
Isabel (14 April 1225 - 23 February 1269).
Charles Etienne (21 March 1226 - 7 January 1285), Count of Anjou and Maine, by marriage Count of Provence and Folcalquier, and King of Sicily.

Blanche married Louis VIII, King of France 157 158 on 23 May 1200. Louis was born on 3 Sep 1187 and died on 8 Nov 1226 in Montpensier, Auvergne, (France) at age 39. Another name for Louis was Louis VIII "the Lion" King of France.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Louis VIII of France :

Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 - 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet . Louis VIII was born in Paris , France , the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut . He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

As Prince Louis
On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile , following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England (as represented in William Shakespeare 's historical play King John ).

In 1216, the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199-1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis and an army landed in England; he was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral , Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214-49), gathered to give homage. On 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom.[1]

After a year and a half of war, King John's death, and his replacement by a regency on behalf of the boy king Henry III (John's son), many of the rebellious barons deserted Louis. When his army was beaten at Lincoln , and his naval forces (led by Eustace the Monk ) were defeated off the coast of Sandwich , he was forced to make peace under English terms.

The principal provisions of the Treaty of Lambeth were an amnesty for English rebels, land possession to return to the status quo ante, the Channel Islands to be returned to the English crown, Louis to undertake not to attack England again, and to attempt to give Normandy back to the English crown, and 10,000 marks to be given to Louis. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

As King Louis VIII
Louis VIII succeeded his father on 14 July 1223; his coronation took place on 6 August of the same year in the cathedral at Reims . As King, he continued to seek revenge on the Angevins and seized Poitou and Saintonge from them in 1229. There followed the seizure of Avignon and Languedoc .

On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II Augustus. Usury (lending money with interest) was illegal for Christians to practice, according to Church law it was seen as a vice in which people profited from others' misfortune (like gambling), and was punishable by excommunication , a severe punishment. However since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated, and thus fell in to a legal gray area which secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing (or requesting) Jews to provide usury services, often for personal gain to the secular ruler, and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem which was a constant source of friction in Church and State courts.

Twenty-six barons accepted, but Theobald IV (1201-53), the powerful Count of Champagne , did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation. Theobald IV would become a major opposition force to Capetian dominance, and his hostility was manifest during the reign of Louis VIII. For example, during the siege of Avignon, he performed only the minimum service of 40 days, and left home amid charges of treachery.

In 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated the Count of Toulouse , Raymond VII , and declared a crusade against the southern barons. Louis happily renewed the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights. Roger Bernard the Great , count of Foix , tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms against him. The king was largely successful, but he did not complete the work before his death.

While returning to Paris, King Louis VIII became ill with dysentery , and died on 8 November 1226 in the chateau at Montpensier , Auvergne .
The Saint Denis Basilica houses the tomb of Louis VIII. His son, Louis IX (1226-70), succeeded him on the throne.

Ancestry

Marriage and Issue
On 23 May 1200, at the age of twelve, Louis married Blanche of Castile (4 March 1188 - 26 November 1252).
Blanche (1205-1206).
Agnes (b. and d. 1207).
Philippe (9 September 1209 - July 1218), married (or only betrothed) in 1217 to Agnes of Donzy.
Alphonse (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213).
John (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213), twin of Alphonse.
Louis IX (Poissy, 25 April 1214 - 25 August 1270, Tunis), King of France as successor to his father.
Robert (25 September 1216 - 9 February 1250, killed in Battle of Al Mansurah , Egypt)
Philippe (2 January 1218-1220).
John Tristan (21 July 1219-1232), Count of Anjou and Maine.
Alphonse (Poissy, 11 November 1220 - 21 August 1271, Corneto), Count of Poitou and Auvergne, and by marriage, of Toulouse.
Philippe Dagobert (20 February 1222-1232).
Isabel (14 April 1225 - 23 February 1269).
Charles Etienne (21 March 1226 - 7 January 1285), Count of Anjou and Maine, by marriage Count of Provence and Folcalquier, and King of Sicily.

Noted events in his life were:

• King of France: 1223-1226.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 96 M    i. Robert I "the Good", Count of Artois 159 was born in 1216 and died on 8 Feb 1250 at age 34.


71. KingHenry III, of England 112 113 (King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 1 Oct 1207 in Winchester Castle, Winchester, (Hampshire), England, died on 16 Nov 1272 in Westminster Palace, London, England at age 65, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry III of England :

Henry III (1 October 1207 - 16 November 1272 ) was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England , reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. Mediaeval English monarchs did not use numbers after their names, and his contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the reign of Ethelred the Unready . Despite his long reign, his personal accomplishments were slim and he was a political and military failure. England, however, prospered during his century and his greatest monument is Westminster , which he made the seat of his government and where he expanded the abbey as a shrine to Edward the Confessor .

He assumed the crown under the regency of the popular William Marshal , but the England he inherited had undergone several drastic changes in the reign of his father. He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta [citation needed ] and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first "parliament " in 1264. He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy , Anjou , and Aquitaine .

Coronation
Henry III was born in 1207 at Winchester Castle . He was the son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême . After his father's death in 1216, Henry, who was nine at the time, was hastily crowned in Gloucester Cathedral ; he was the first child monarch since the Norman invasion of England in 1066. The coronation was a simple affair, attended by only a handful of noblemen and three bishops. None of his father's executors was present, and in the absence of a crown a simple golden band was placed on the young boy's head, not by the Archbishop of Canterbury (who was at this time supporting Prince Louis of France , the newly-proclaimed king of England) but rather by the Bishop of Gloucester . In 1220, a second coronation was ordered by Pope Honorius III who did not consider that the first had been carried out in accordance with church rites. This occurred on 17 May 1220 in Westminster Abbey .[1]

Under John's rule, the barons had supported an invasion by Prince Louis because they disliked the way that John had ruled the country. However, they quickly saw that the young prince was a safer option. Henry's regents immediately declared their intention to rule by Magna Carta , which they proceeded to do during Henry's minority. Magna Carta was reissued in 1217 as a sign of goodwill to the barons and the country was ruled by regents until 1227...

Death
Henry's reign ended when he died in 1272, after which he was succeeded by his son, Edward I . His body was laid, temporarily, in the tomb of Edward the Confessor while his own sarcophagus was constructed in Westminster Abbey ...


Marriage and children
Married on 14 January 1236 , Canterbury Cathedral , Canterbury , Kent , to Eleanor of Provence , with at least five children born:
Edward I (b. 17 January 1239 - d. 8 July 1307 )
Margaret (b. 29 September 1240 - d. 26 February 1275 ), married King Alexander III of Scotland
Beatrice (b. 25 June 1242 - d. 24 March 1275 ), married to John II, Duke of Brittany
Edmund (16 January 1245 - d. 5 June 1296 )
Katharine (b. 25 November 1253 - d. 3 May 1257 ), deafness was discovered at age 2. [1]

There is reason to doubt the existence of several attributed children of Henry and Eleanor.
Richard (b. after 1247 - d. before 1256 ),
John (b. after 1250 - d. before 1256 ), and
Henry (b. after 1253 - d. young)

Are known only from a 14th century addition made to a manuscript of Flores historiarum , and are nowhere contemporaneously recorded.
William (b. and d. ca. 1258 ) is an error for the nephew of Henry's half-brother, William de Valence .
Another daughter, Matilda, is found only in the Hayles abbey chronicle, alongside such other fictitious children as a son named William for King John , and a bastard son named John for King Edward I . Matilda's existence is doubtful, at best. For further details, see Margaret Howell, The Children of King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence (1992).

Personal details
His Royal Motto was qui non dat quod habet non accipit ille quod optat (He who does not give what he has, does not receive what he wants).
His favorite wine was made with the Loire Valley red wine grape Pineau d'Aunis which Henry first introduced to England in the thirteenth century. [2]
His favourite oath was "By the face of Lucca", referring to the Volto Santo di Lucca .
He built a Royal Palace in the town of Cippenham , Slough , Berkshire named "Cippenham Moat ".

In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, which contributed to the emergence of the Hanseatic League .

Noted events in his life were:

• King of England: 1216-1272.

Henry married Eleanor, of Provence,160 161 daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Forcalquier and Beatrice, of Savoy, on 14 Jan 1237 in Canterbury, Kent, England. Eleanor was born about 1223 and died on 25 Jun 1291 in Amesbury, Wiltshire, England about age 68.

Marriage Notes: Ancestral Roots has m. 14 Jan 1237 and m. 14 Jan 1236

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 111-30.

From Wikipedia - Eleanor of Provence (different dates from above):

Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 - 26 June 1291 ) was Queen Consort of King Henry III of England .

Born in Aix-en-Provence , she was the daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1198-1245) and Beatrice of Savoy (1206-1266), the daughter of Tomasso, Count of Savoy and his second wife Marguerite of Geneva . All four of their daughters became queens. Like her mother, grandmother, and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty.[citation needed ] Eleanor was probably born in 1223; Matthew Paris describes her as being "jamque duodennem" (already twelve) when she arrived in the Kingdom of England for her marriage.

Eleanor was married to Henry III, King of England (1207-1272) on January 14 , 1236 . She had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his impoverished kingdom.[citation needed ] Edmund Rich , Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated.

Eleanor and Henry had five children:
Edward I (1239-1307)
Margaret of England (1240-1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland
Beatrice of England (1242 - 1275), married John II, Duke of Brittany
Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245-1296)
Katharine (25 November 1253 - 3 May 1257 )

Eleanor seems to have been especially devoted to her eldest son, Edward; when he was deathly ill in 1246, she stayed with him at the abbey at Beaulieu for three weeks, long past the time allowed by monastic rules.[citation needed ] It was because of her influence that King Henry granted the duchy of Gascony to Edward in 1249.[citation needed ] Her youngest child, Katharine, seems to have had a degenerative disease that rendered her deaf. When she died aged four, both her royal parents suffered overwhelming grief.[citation needed ]


She was a confident consort to Henry, but she brought in her retinue a large number of cousins, "the Savoyards," and her influence with the King and her unpopularity with the English barons created friction during Henry's reign.[citation needed ] Eleanor was devoted to her husband's cause, stoutly contested Simon de Montfort , raising troops in France for Henry's cause. On July 13 , 1263 , she was sailing down the Thames on a barge when her barge was attacked by citizens of London. In fear for her life, Eleanor was rescued by Thomas FitzThomas , the mayor of London, and took refuge at the bishop of London's home.

In 1272 Henry died, and her son Edward, 33 years old, became Edward I, King of England . She stayed on in England as Dowager Queen , and raised several of her grandchildren -- Edward's son Henry and daughter Eleanor, and Beatrice's son John . When her grandson Henry died in her care in 1274, Eleanor mourned him and his heart was buried at the priory at Guildford she founded in his memory. Eleanor retired to a convent but remained in touch with her son and her sister, Marguerite.
Eleanor died in 1291 in Amesbury , England .

References
Margaret Howell, Eleanor of Provence: Queenship in Thirteenth-century England, 1997


Children from this marriage were:

+ 97 M    i. KingEdward I, of England 162 163 was born on 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster Palace, London, England, died on 7 Jul 1307 in Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland, England at age 68, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England.

+ 98 F    ii. Margaret, of England 164 was born on 29 Sep 1240 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, died on 26 Feb 1275 in Cupar Castle at age 34, and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.

+ 99 F    iii. Beatrice, of England 165 was born on 25 Jun 1242 in Bordeaux, France and died on 24 Mar 1275 in London, Middlesex, England at age 32.

+ 100 M    iv. Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester 166 was born on 16 Jan 1245 in London, England, died on 5 Jun 1296 in Bayonne, France at age 51, and was buried on 15 Jul 1296 in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England.

+ 101 F    v. Katharine was born in 1253 and died in 1257 at age 4.

72. Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, King of the Romans (King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 5 Jan 1209 and died on 2 Apr 1272 at age 63.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 258-27

Source also: Wikipedia - John of England

Richard had a relationship with Joan de Valletort. This couple did not marry.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 258-27 (Richard)

73. Joan, Queen Consort of Scotland 114 (King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1210 and died in 1238 at age 28.

Research Notes: Queen Consort of Alexander II of Scotland
Source: Wikipedia - John of England

74. Isabella (King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1214 and died in 1241 at age 27.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - John of England

75. Eleanor (King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1215 and died on 13 Apr 1275 at age 60. Other names for Eleanor were Eleanor Plantagenet and Elinor Plantagenet.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 260-30

Source also: Wikipedia - John of England

Eleanor married William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke on 23 Apr 1224. William died on 15 Apr 1231.

Research Notes: d.s.p.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 260-30 (Eleanor)

Eleanor next married Simon, de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, son of Simon IV de Montfort l'Aumary and Unknown, 7 Jan 1238 or 1239. Simon was born about 1208 in Normandy, France and died on 4 Aug 1265 in Evesham, Worcestershire, England about age 57. Another name for Simon was Simon III de Montfort Earl of Leicester.

Research Notes: Second husband of Eleanor.

Source: Welsh Settlement of Pennsylvania by Charles H. Browning, Philadelphia, 1912.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 260-30 (Eleanor)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 102 F    i. Elinor de Montfort was born about 1252 and died in 1282 about age 30.

76. Joan, Princess of Gwynedd 115 116 117 (King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born before 1200 and died between 30 Mar 1236 and Feb 1237. Other names for Joan were Joan Princess of North Wales, Joanna Lady of Wales, Siwan, and Joan Plantagenet Princess of Gwynedd.

Research Notes: Natural daughter of John, king of England. John had another, legitimate, daughter named Joan, who was Queen Consort of Alexander II of Scotland.
-----
From Ancestral Roots, Line 29A-27:
"JOAN, (nat. dau. by unknown mistress [of John "Lackland"]), Princess of North Wales, b. well bef. 1200, d. 30 Mar. 1236 or Feb. 1237..."
-----------
Source - Wikipedia - John of England and Llywelyn the Great.

From Wikipedia - Llywelyn the Great:

"During Llywelyn's boyhood Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who had agreed to split the kingdom between them following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd , in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200, and made a treaty with King John of England the same year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's illegitimate daughter Joan , also known as Joanna, in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208 Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210 relations deteriorated and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all his lands east of the River Conwy, but was able to recover these lands the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216 he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes...

Children
The identity of the mother of some of Llywelyn's children is uncertain. He was survived by nine children, two legitimate, one probably legitimate and six illegitimate. Elen ferch Llywelyn (c.1207-1253), his only certainly legitimate daughter, first married John de Scotia, Earl of Chester. This marriage was childless, and after John's death Elen married Sir Robert de Quincy , the brother of Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester . Llywelyn's only legitimate son, Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c.1208-1246), married Isabella de Braose, daughter of William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny , Lord of Abergavenny. William was the son of Reginald de Braose , who married another of Llywelyn's daughters. Dafydd and Isabella may have had one child together, Helen of Wales (1246-1295), but the marriage failed to produce a male heir.

Another daughter, Gwladus Ddu (c.1206-1251), was probably legitimate. Adam of Usk states that she was a legitimate daughter by Joan, although some sources claim that her mother was Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch.[64] She first married Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny, but had no children by him. After Reginald's death she married Ralph de Mortimer of Wigmore and had several sons.

The mother of most of Llywelyn's illegitimate children is known or assumed to have been Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch (c.1168-1198). Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c.1196-1244) was Llywelyn's eldest son and is known to be the son of Tangwystl. He married Senena, daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas of Anglesey . Their four sons included Llywelyn ap Gruffydd , who for a period occupied a position in Wales comparable to that of his grandfather, and Dafydd ap Gruffydd who ruled Gwynedd briefly after his brother's death. Llywelyn had another son, Tegwared ap Llywelyn, by a woman known only as Crysten.

Marared ferch Llywelyn (c.1198-after 1263) married John de Braose of Gower, a nephew of Reginald de Braose, and after his death married Walter Clifford of Bronllys and Clifford. Other illegitimate daughters were Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, who married William de Lacey, and Angharad ferch Llywelyn, who married Maelgwn Fychan. Susanna ferch Llywelyn was sent to England as a hostage in 1228, but no further details are known."



Joan married Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd, son of Iorwerth Drwyndwn ap Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales and Marared ferch Madog ap Maredudd, in 1205. Llywelyn was born about 1173 in <Dolwyddelan>, Wales, died on 11 Apr 1240 in Cistercian Abbey of Aberconwy, Wales about age 67, and was buried in Llanrwst Parish Church, Wales. Other names for Llywelyn were Llewellyn the Great Prince of Gwynedd, Llywelyn Fawr Prince of Gwynedd, Llywelyn I of Wales, and Llywelyn ap Iorwerth.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 29A-27 has m. 1206. Wikipedia has m. 1205.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 176B-27. "He had a number of mistresses, one of whom, Tangwystl, was the mother of [28. Gladys Dhu.]"

Source: A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, p.80

From Wikipedia - Llywelyn the Great :

Llywelyn the Great (Welsh Llywelyn Fawr...), full name Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, (c. 1173 - April 11 , 1240 ) was a Prince of Gwynedd in North Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales. He is occasionally called Llywelyn I of Wales.[1] By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for forty years, and was one of only two Welsh rulers to be called 'the Great'. Llywelyn's main home and court throughout his reign was at Garth Celyn on the north coast of Gwynedd, between Bangor and Conwy, overlooking the port of Llanfaes. Throughout the thirteenth century, up to the Edwardian conquest, Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn , was in effect the capital of Wales. (Garth Celyn is now known as Pen y Bryn , Bryn Llywelyn, Abergwyngregyn and parts of the medieval buildings still remain).

During Llywelyn's boyhood Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who had agreed to split the kingdom between them following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd , in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200, and made a treaty with King John of England the same year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's illegitimate daughter Joan , also known as Joanna, in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208 Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210 relations deteriorated and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all his lands east of the River Conwy, but was able to recover these lands the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216 he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes.

Following King John's death, Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor Henry III in 1218. During the next fifteen years Llywelyn was frequently involved in fighting with Marcher lords and sometimes with the king, but also made alliances with several of the major powers in the Marches. The Peace of Middle in 1234 marked the end of Llywelyn's military career as the agreed truce of two years was extended year by year for the remainder of his reign. He maintained his position in Wales until his death in 1240, and was succeeded by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn .

Genealogy and early life
Llywelyn was born about 1173, the son of Iorwerth ap Owain and the grandson of Owain Gwynedd , who had been ruler of Gwynedd until his death in 1170. Llywelyn was a descendant of the senior line of Rhodri Mawr and therefore a member of the princely house of Aberffraw.[2] He was probably born at Dolwyddelan though he could not have been born in the present Dolwyddelan castle, which was built by Llywelyn himself. He may have been born in the old castle which occupied a rocky knoll on the valley floor.[3] Little is known about his father, Iorwerth Drwyndwn, who may have died when Llywelyn was an infant. There is no record of Iorwerth having taken part in the power struggle between some of Owain Gwynedd's other sons following Owain's death, although he was the eldest surviving son. There is a tradition that he was disabled or disfigured in some way that excluded him from power.[4]

By 1175 Gwynedd had been divided between two of Llywelyn's uncles. Dafydd ab Owain held the area east of the River Conwy and Rhodri ab Owain held the west. Dafydd and Rhodri were the sons of Owain by his second marriage to Cristin ferch Goronwy. This marriage was not considered valid by the church as Cristin was Owain's first cousin, a degree of relationship which according to Canon law prohibited marriage. Giraldus Cambrensis refers to Iorwerth Drwyndwn as the only legitimate son of Owain Gwynedd.[5] Following Iorwerth's death, Llywelyn was, at least in the eyes of the church, the legitimate claimant to the throne of Gwynedd.[6]
Llywelyn's mother was Marared, sometimes anglicized to Margaret, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd , prince of Powys . There is evidence that after Iorwerth's death Marared married into the Corbet family of Caux in Shropshire , and Llywelyn may have spent part of his boyhood there.[7]...

Marital problems 1230
Following his capture, William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny decided to ally himself to Llywelyn, and a marriage was arranged between his daughter Isabella and Llywelyn's heir, Dafydd ap Llywelyn. At Easter 1230 William visited Llywelyn's court Garth Celyn , Aber Garth Celyn now known as Pen y Bryn , Abergwyngregyn . During this visit he was found in Llywelyn's chamber together with Llywelyn's wife Joan. On 2 May , De Braose was hanged in the marshland under Garth Celyn , the place now remembered as Gwern y Grog, Hanging Marsh, a deliberately humiliating execution for a nobleman, and Joan was placed under house arrest for a year. The Brut y Tywysogion chronicler commented:

" ... that year William de Breos the Younger, lord of Brycheiniog, was hanged by the lord Llywelyn in Gwynedd, after he had been caught in Llywelyn's chamber with the king of England's daughter, Llywelyn's wife.[42] " A letter from Llywelyn to William's wife, Eva de Braose, written shortly after the execution enquires whether she still wishes the marriage between Dafydd and Isabella to take place.[43] The marriage did go ahead, and the following year Joan was forgiven and restored to her position as princess.

Until 1230 Llywelyn had used the title princeps Norwalliæ 'Prince of North Wales', but from that year he changed his title to 'Prince of Aberffraw and Lord of Snowdon', possibly to underline his supremacy over the other Welsh princes.[44] He did not formally style himself 'Prince of Wales ' although as J.E. Lloyd comments "he had much of the power which such a title might imply".[45]...

Arrangements for the succession
In his later years Llywelyn devoted much effort to ensuring that his only legitimate son Dafydd would follow him as ruler of Gwynedd. Dafydd's older but illegitimate brother, Gruffydd , was excluded from the succession. This was a departure from Welsh custom, not as is often stated because the kingdom was not divided between Dafydd and Gruffydd but because Gruffydd was excluded from consideration as a potential heir owing to his illegitimacy. This was contrary to Welsh law which stipulated that illegitimate sons had equal rights with legitimate sons, provided they had been acknowledged by the father.[50]

In 1220 Llywelyn induced the minority government of King Henry to acknowledge Dafydd as his heir.[51] In 1222 he petitioned Pope Honorius III to have Dafydd's succession confirmed. The original petition has not been preserved but the Pope's reply refers to the "destestable custom ... in his land whereby the son of the handmaiden was equally heir with the son of the free woman and illegitimate sons obtained an inheritance as if they were legitimate". The Pope welcomed the fact that Llywelyn was abolishing this custom.[52] In 1226 Llywelyn persuaded the Pope to declare his wife Joan, Dafydd's mother, to be a legitimate daughter of King John, again in order to strengthen Dafydd's position, and in 1229 the English crown accepted Dafydd's homage for the lands he would inherit from his father.[53] In 1238 Llywelyn held a council at Strata Florida Abbey where the other Welsh princes swore fealty to Dafydd.[54] Llywelyn's original intention had been that they should do homage to Dafydd, but the king wrote to the other rulers forbidding them to do homage.[55]

Gruffydd was given an appanage in Meirionnydd and Ardudwy but his rule was said to be oppressive, and in 1221 Llywelyn stripped him of these territories.[56] In 1228 Llywelyn imprisoned him, and he was not released until 1234. On his release he was given part of Ll to rule. His performance this time was apparently more satisfactory and by 1238 he had been given the remainder of Ll and a substantial part of Powys.[57]

Death and the transfer of power
Joan died in 1237 and Llywelyn appears to have suffered a paralytic stroke the same year.[58] From this time on, his heir Dafydd took an increasing part in the rule of the principality. Dafydd deprived his brother Gruffydd of the lands given him by Llywelyn, and later seized him and his eldest son Owain and held them in Criccieth Castle . In 1240 the chronicler of Brut y Tywysogion records:

" ... the lord Llywelyn ap Iorwerth son of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of Wales, a second Achilles , died having taken on the habit of religion at Aberconwy, and was buried honourably.[59] "

Llywelyn died at the Cistercian abbey of Aberconwy , which he had founded, and was buried there. This abbey was later moved to Maenan near Llanrwst , and Llywelyn's stone coffin can now be seen in Llanrwst parish church. Among the poets who lamented his passing was Einion Wan:

"True lord of the land - how strange that today
He rules not o'er Gwynedd;
Lord of nought but the piled up stones of his tomb,
Of the seven-foot grave in which he lies."[60]

Dafydd succeeded Llywelyn as prince of Gwynedd, but King Henry was not prepared to allow him to inherit his father's position in the remainder of Wales. Dafydd was forced to agree to a treaty greatly restricting his power and was also obliged to hand his brother Gruffydd over to the king, who now had the option of using him against Dafydd. Gruffydd was killed attempting to escape from the Tower of London in 1244. This left the field clear for Dafydd, but Dafydd himself died without an heir in 1246 and was eventually succeeded by his nephew, Gruffydd's son, Llywelyn the Last ...

Children
The identity of the mother of some of Llywelyn's children is uncertain. He was survived by nine children, two legitimate, one probably legitimate and six illegitimate. Elen ferch Llywelyn (c.1207-1253), his only certainly legitimate daughter, first married John de Scotia, Earl of Chester. This marriage was childless, and after John's death Elen married Sir Robert de Quincy , the brother of Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester . Llywelyn's only legitimate son, Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c.1208-1246), married Isabella de Braose, daughter of William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny , Lord of Abergavenny. William was the son of Reginald de Braose , who married another of Llywelyn's daughters. Dafydd and Isabella may have had one child together, Helen of Wales (1246-1295), but the marriage failed to produce a male heir.

Another daughter, Gwladus Ddu (c.1206-1251), was probably legitimate. Adam of Usk states that she was a legitimate daughter by Joan, although some sources claim that her mother was Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch.[64] She first married Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny, but had no children by him. After Reginald's death she married Ralph de Mortimer of Wigmore and had several sons.

The mother of most of Llywelyn's illegitimate children is known or assumed to have been Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch (c.1168-1198). Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c.1196-1244) was Llywelyn's eldest son and is known to be the son of Tangwystl. He married Senena, daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas of Anglesey . Their four sons included Llywelyn ap Gruffydd , who for a period occupied a position in Wales comparable to that of his grandfather, and Dafydd ap Gruffydd who ruled Gwynedd briefly after his brother's death. Llywelyn had another son, Tegwared ap Llywelyn, by a woman known only as Crysten.
Marared ferch Llywelyn (c.1198-after 1263) married John de Braose of Gower, a nephew of Reginald de Braose, and after his death married Walter Clifford of Bronllys and Clifford. Other illegitimate daughters were Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, who married William de Lacey, and Angharad ferch Llywelyn, who married Maelgwn Fychan. Susanna ferch Llywelyn was sent to England as a hostage in 1228, but no further details are known...

References

[edit ] Primary sources
Hoare, R.C., ed. 1908. Giraldus Cambrensis: The Itinerary through Wales; Description of Wales. Translated by R.C. Hoare. Everyman's Library. ISBN 0-460-00272-4
Jones, T., ed. 1941. Brut y Tywysogion: Peniarth MS. 20. University of Wales Press.
Pryce, H., ed. 2005. The Acts of Welsh rulers 1120-1283. University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1897-5

[edit ] Secondary sources
Bartrum, P.C. 1966. Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts. University of Wales Press.
Carr, A. D. 1995. Medieval Wales. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-54773-X
Davies, R. R. 1987. Conquest, Coexistence and Change: Wales 1063-1415 Clarendon Press, University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-19-821732-3
Lloyd, J. E. 1911. A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest. Longmans, Green & Co..
Lynch, F. 1995. Gwynedd (A Guide to Ancient and Historic Wales series). HMSO. ISBN 0-11-701574-1
Maund, K. 2006. The Welsh Kings: Warriors, Warlords and Princes. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2973-6
Moore, D. 2005. The Welsh wars of independence: c.410-c.1415. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-3321-0
Powicke, M. 1953. The Thirteenth Century 1216-1307 (The Oxford History of England). Clarendon Press.
Stephenson, D. 1984. The Governance of Gwynedd. University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-0850-3
Williams, G. A. 1964. "The Succession to Gwynedd, 1238-1247" Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies XX (1962-64) 393-413
Weis, Frederick Lewis. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700, lines: 27-27, 29A-27, 29A-28, 132C-29, 176B-27, 177-7, 184A-9, 236-7, 246-30, 254-28, 254-29, 260-31




Children from this marriage were:

+ 103 F    i. Gwladys "Ddu" verch Llewellyn 167 168 was born about 1206 in Caernarvonshire, Wales and died in 1251 in Windsor, Berkshire, England about age 45.

+ 104 F    ii. Elen ferch Llywelyn Fawr 127 169 was born about 1207 and died in 1253 about age 46.

+ 105 M    iii. Dafydd ap Llywelyn was born about 1208 and died in 1246 about age 38.

77. William II Longspée 84 119 (William Longspée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury55, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1212 in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, died on 8 Feb 1250 in Al-Mansura, Egypt about age 38, and was buried in Acre, Palestine. Another name for William was William II Longespée.

Death Notes: On the Nile

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William II Longespée :

Sir William II Longespée (c. 1212 - 8 February, 1250) was the son of William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury , an English noble. His death became of significant importance to the English psyche, having died as a martyr due to the purported mistakes, and arrogance, of the French at the Battle of Mansurah , near Al-Mansurah in Egypt .

Longespee made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1240, and again in 1247. The second time, he proceeded to Rome and made a plea to Pope Innocent IV for support:

"Sir, you see that I am signed with the cross and am on my journey with the King of France to fight in this pilgrimage. My name is great and of note, viz., William Longespee, but my estate is slender, for the King of England , my kinsman and liege lord, hath bereft me of the title of earl and of that estate, but this he did judiciously, and not in displeasure, and by the impulse of his will; therefore I do not blame him for it. Howbeit, I am necessitated to have recourse to your holiness for favour, desiring your assistance in this distress. We see here (quoth he) that Earl Richard (of Cornwall) who, though he is not signed with the cross, yet, through the especial grace of your holiness, he hath got very much money from those who are signed, and therefore, I, who am signed and in want, do intreat the like favour."[1]

Having succeeded in gaining the favour of the Pope, Longespee raised a company of 200 English horse to join with Louis IX on his crusade. To raise funds for his expedition, he sold a charter of liberties to the burgesses of the town of Poole in 1248 for 70 marks .[2] During the Seventh Crusade , Longespee commanded the English forces. He became widely known for his feats of chivalry and his subsequent martyrdom. The circumstances of his death served to fuel growing English animosity toward the French; it is reported that the French Count d'Artois lured Longespee into attacking the Mameluks before the forces of King Louis IX arrived in support. Robert d'Artois, William II Longespee and his men, along with 280 Knights Templar , were killed at this time.

It is said that his mother, Abbess Ela Longespee, had a vision of the martyr being received into heaven by angels just one day prior to his death. In 1252, the Sultan delivered Longespee's remains to a messenger who conveyed them to Acre (Akko ) for burial at the church of St. Cross. However, his effigy is found amongst family members at Salisbury Cathedral , in England.

Marriage and issue
William married Idoine de Camville, daughter of Richard de Camville & Eustacia Basset. They had two sons and two daughters:
Ida Longespee , who married Walter FitzRobert Lord of Dunmow
Ela Longespee , married James De Audley (1220-1272), son of Henry De Audley & Bertred Mainwaring
William III Longespee
Richard Longespee

William married Idoine de Camville,73 170 daughter of Richard de Camville, of Stratton Audley and Eustacia Basset, in Jun 1226. Idoine was born about 1209 in <Brattleby, Lincolnshire>, England and died on 1 Jan 1251 about age 42.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 106 F    i. Ela Longspee 84 171 was born about 1226 in England and died on 22 Nov 1299 about age 73.

78. Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex 121 122 (Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford56, Margaret, of Huntingdon43, Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born by 1208, died on 24 Sep 1275 in Warwickshire, England at age 67, and was buried in Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 97-28, "2nd Earl of Hereford and after div. of his mother 1236, 7th Earl of Essex, Constable of England, sheriff of Kent."

From A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, p.136:

"In the wake of the dismemberment of the de Breos empire [after the hanging of William de Breos in 1230], the Bohun and Cantelupe families joined the ranks of the leading Marcher Lords..."
--------
From Wikipedia - Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford :

Humphrey de Bohun (1208 or bef. 1208 - Warwickshire , 24 September 1275 ) was 2nd Earl of Hereford and 1st Earl of Essex , as well as Constable of England . He was the son of Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford and Maud of Essex.

Career
He was one of the nine godfathers of Prince Edward , later to be Edward I of England .
After returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land , he was one of the writers of the Provisions of Oxford in 1258.

Marriage and children
He married c. 1236 Mahaut or Maud de Lusignan (c. 1210 - 14 August 1241 , buried at Llanthony, Gloucester ), daughter of Raoul I of Lusignan , Comte d'Eu by marriage, and second wife Alix d'Eu, 8th Comtesse d'Eu and 4th Lady of Hastings, and had issue. Their children were:
Humphrey de Bohun, predeceased his father in 1265.
Alice de Bohun , married Roger V de Toeni
Maud de Bohun , married (1) Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke ; (2) Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester

Death & burial
He died in 1275 and was buried at Llanthony Secunda , Gloucester .

Noted events in his life were:

• 7th Earl of Essex: 1236. After div. of his mother

• Constable of England:

• Sheriff of Kent:

Humphrey married Mahaut de Lusignan,122 172 daughter of Raoul I de Lusignan and Alice d'Eu, Countess of Eu, Lady of Hastings, about 1236. Mahaut was born about 1210, died on 14 Aug 1241 about age 31, and was buried in Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England. Other names for Mahaut were Maud d'Eu and Maud de Lusignan.

Research Notes: First wife of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 97-28 (Humphrey V de Bohun).


Children from this marriage were:

+ 107 M    i. Humphrey VI de Bohun 173 174 died about 4 Aug 1265 in Battle of Evesham, Evesham, Worcestershire, England.

+ 108 F    ii. Alice de Bohun .122

+ 109 F    iii. Maud de Bohun .122

79. Henry II, Duke of Brabant 125 (Mathilde, of Flanders57, Marie, of Blois, Countess of Boulogne44, Matilda, of Boulogne27, Mary, of Scotland14, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1207 and died on 1 Feb 1248 in Leuven, Brabant, Flanders, Belgium at age 41. Other names for Henry were Hendrik II van Brabant and Henri II de Brabant.

Research Notes: Duke of Brabant and Lothier.

From Wikipedia - Henry II, Duke of Brabant :

Henry II of Brabant (French: Henri II de Brabant, Dutch: Hendrik II van Brabant, 1207 - February 1 , 1248 in Leuven ) was Duke of Brabant and Lothier after the death of his father Henry I in 1235. His mother was Mathilde of Flanders
Henry II supported his sister Mathilde's son, William II, Count of Holland , in the latter's bid for election as German King.

Family and children
His first marriage was to Marie of Hohenstaufen (April 3 , 1201 -1235, Leuven), daughter of Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina . They had six children:
Henry III, Duke of Brabant (d. 1261)
Philip, died young
Matilda of Brabant (1224 - September 29 , 1288 ), married:
in Compiègne June 14 , 1237 to Robert I of Artois ;
before May 31 , 1254 to Guy II of Châtillon , Count of Saint Pol .
Beatrix (1225 - November 11 , 1288 ), married:
at Kreuzburg March 10 , 1241 Heinrich Raspe Landgrave of Thuringia ;
in Leuven November 1247 to William III of Dampierre, Count of Flanders (1224 - June 6 , 1251 ).
Marie of Brabant (c. 1226 - January 18 , 1256 , Donauwörth ), married Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria . She was beheaded by her husband on suspicion of infidelity.
Margaret (d. March 14 , 1277 ), Abbess of Herzogenthal .
His second marriage was to Sophie of Thuringia (March 20 , 1224 - May 29 , 1275 ), daughter of Ludwig IV of Thuringia and Elisabeth of Hungary by whom he had two children:
Henry (1244-1308, created Landgrave of Hesse in 1263.
Elizabeth (1243 - October 9 , 1261 ), married in Braunschweig July 13 , 1254 to Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Henry married Marie, of Hohenstaufen,175 176 daughter of Philip II, of Swabia, King of Germany and Irene Angelina, before 22 Aug 1215. Marie was born on 3 Apr 1201 in Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy and died on 29 Mar 1235 in Leuven, Brabant, Flanders, Belgium at age 33. Other names for Marie were Marie of Swabia and Mary of Hohenstaufen.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. 29 March 1235. Ancestral Roots has d. abt 1240.

Research Notes: First wife of Henry II.

From Wikipedia - Marie of Hohenstaufen :

Marie of Hohenstaufen, Duchess of Brabant (3 April 1201 - 29 March 1235 ) was a member of the powerful Hohenstaufen dynasty. She is also known as Maria of Swabia. She was the third daughter of Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina of Byzantium . Her husband was Henry II, Duke of Brabant .


Family
Marie of Hohenstaufen was born in Arezzo ,Tuscany , Italy on 3 April 1201. Her paternal grandparents were Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy . Her maternal grandparents were Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos and his first wife Herina Tornikaina[1].
Emperor Frederick II was her first cousin.
In 1208, at the age of seven, Marie was left an orphan by the unexpected deaths of her parents. On 21 June , her father was murdered by Otto of Wittelsbach , and two months later her mother died after giving birth to a daughter, who did not live beyond early infancy. Marie had three surviving sisters.


Siblings
Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (1198-1212, married Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor . The marriage was childless.
Cunigunde of Hohenstaufen (1200-1248), married in 1228 King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia , by whom she had issue.
Elizabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203- 5 November 1235), married in 1219 King Ferdinand III of Castile , by whom she had issue, including King Alfonso X of Castile . She was his first wife. Ferdinand married his second wife Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu before August 1237, by whom he had issue, including Eleanor of Castile , Queen consort of King Edward I of England .


Marriage and children
Sometime before 22 August 1215 , she married Henry II, Duke of Brabant in Brabant (present-day Belgium ). Marie was his first wife. They had six children, and through them, Marie is the ancestress of every royal house in Europe :
Matilda of Brabant (1224 - 29 September 1288 ), married firstly, Robert I of Artois , by whom she had two children, Robert II of Artois and Blanche of Artois ; she married secondly Guy III, Count of Saint-Pol , by whom she had six children.
Beatrix of Brabant (1225 - 11 November 1288 ), married firstly Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia , and secondly William III of Dampierre . She died childless.
Marie of Brabant (c. 1226 - 18 January 1256 ), married Louis II, Duke of Bavaria . She was beheaded by her husband on suspicion of infidelity.
Margaret of Brabant (d. 14 March 1277 ), Abbess of Herzogenthal.
Henry III, Duke of Brabant (c. 1230 - 28 February 1261 ), married Adelaide of Burgundy (c. 1233- 23 October 1273 , daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy , by whom he had issue, including Henry IV, Duke of Brabant , John I, Duke of Brabant , and Maria of Brabant , Queen consort of King Philip III of France .
Philip of Brabant, died young.

Death
Marie of Hohenstaufen died on 29 March 1235 in Leuven , Brabant, five days before her thirty-fourth birthday.
In 1240, Henry married his second wife, Sophie of Thuringia , the daughter of Ludwig IV of Thuringia and Elisabeth of Hungary . They had two children: Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse and Elizabeth of Brabant, who married Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg .



The child from this marriage was:

+ 110 F    i. Matilda, of Brabant 177 178 was born in 1224 and died on 29 Sep 1288 at age 64.

80. Lorette de Quincy (Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester :
Lorette who married Sir William de Valognes

81. Robert de Quincy 127 128 (Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died in 1217.

Research Notes: Eldest son, first son named Robert. (There were two.)

From Wikipedia - Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester :

"Robert (d. 1217). Some sources say he married Hawise, sister and co-heiress of Ranulf de Blundeville, earl of Chester . However, it is more likely Hawise married Saer's brother Robert II;"
----------
Ancestral Roots, Line 54-28 (Robert II de Quincy), has "d.v.p. bef. 1232,... m. Hawise of Chester (125-29), b. 1180, d. 1241/3, Countess of Lincoln." The "d.v.p. bef. 1232 makes this one appear to be the first Robert.
----------
From Magna Charta Barons, pp. 121-122 (this could be in error):
Robert de Quincey, who d. in the Holy Land, having issue by his wife Hawyse, daughter of Hugh de Keveliock (or Bohun), Powys, Wales, fifth Earl Palatine of Chester, d. 1181, and his wife Bertred, daughter of Simon, Earl of Evereux, in Normandy, an only daughter, Margaret, wife of John de Lacie, Earl of Lincoln, one of the celebrated twenty-five Magna Charta Sureties.

Robert married someone.

82. Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester 43 129 130 131 (Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1174 in <Winchester>, Hampshire, England, died on 25 Apr 1264 in England about age 90, and was buried in Brackley, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Another name for Roger was Roger de Quincey 2nd Earl of Winchester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester :

Roger , who succeeded his father as earl of Winchester (though he did not take formal possession of the earldom until after his mother's death);
----------
From Magna Charta Barons, p. 122:
Roger de Quincey, second son, who had livery of his father's lands, although his elder brother [Robert] was alive in the Holy Land, and succeeded to the earldom of Winchester, and in right of his first wife, daughter of Alan, lord of Galloway, became lord high constable of Scotland. By this lady he had only three daughters,--Margaret, wife of William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby; Elizabeth, wife of Alexander Comyn, Scotch Earl of Buchan; and Ela, wife of Alan, Baron le Zouche, of Ashby. Earl Roger m. secondly, Maud, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and widow of Anselme le Mareschall, Earl of Pembroke, and m. thirdly, Alianore, daughter of William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, and widow of William, Baron de Vaux, who survived him, and m. Roger de Leybourne. Dugdale states that Earl Roger had a fourth daughter, but by which wife it is unknown, named Isabella, with whom a contract of marriage was made by John, son of Hugh de Nevill, for his son Hugh. His lordship d. 1264, when the earldom became extinct, and his great landed possessions devolved upon his daughters, as coheiresses.
-----------
From Wikipedia - Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester :

Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester (1195? - 25 April 1265 ) was a medieval nobleman who was prominent on both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border , as Earl of Winchester and Constable of Scotland .

He was the second son of Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester , and Margaret de Beaumont .

He probably joined his father on the Fifth Crusade in 1219, where the elder de Quincy fell sick and died. His elder brother having died a few years earlier, Roger thus inherited his father's titles and properties. However, he did not take possession of his father's lands until February 1221, probably because he did not return to England from the crusade until then. He did not formally become earl until after the death of his mother in 1235.

Roger married Helen , eldest daughter and co-heiress of Alan, Lord of Galloway . Without legitimate sons to succeed him, Alan's lands and dignities were divided between the husbands of his three daughters, so Roger acquired Alan's position as Constable of Scotland , and one-third of the lordship of Galloway (although the actual title of Lord of Galloway went through Helen's half-sister Devorguilla to her husband John I de Balliol ).

The Galwegians rebelled under Gille Ruadh , not wanting their land divided, but the rebellion was suppressed by Alexander II of Scotland . Roger ruled his portion of Galloway strictly, and the Galwegians revolted again in 1247, forcing Roger to take refuge in a castle. Faced with a siege and little chance of relief, Roger and a few men fought their way out and rode off to seek help from Alexander, who raised forces to again suppress the rebellion.

In the following years Roger was one of the leaders of the baronial opposition to Henry III of England , although he fought for Henry against the Welsh in the 1250s and 1260s.

Following Helen's death in 1245, Roger married Maud de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford , around 1250. Maud died only two years later, and Roger married his third wife, Eleanor Ferrers, daughter of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby the same year.

Roger had three daughters by his first wife, but no sons. His subsequent marriages produced no issue. After his death his estates were divided between the daughters, and the earldom of Winchester lapsed. The three daughters of Roger and Helen of Galloway were:
Helen (also known as Ela or Elena), who married Alan Baron Zouche of Ashby;
Elizabeth (also known as Isabella), who married Alexander Comyn, 2nd Earl of Buchan ;
Margaret, who married William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (and was thus stepmother to her own stepmother).

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of Scotland:

Roger married Helen, of Galloway,89 179 daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway and Helen de L'Isle,. Helen was born about 1208 in <Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland> and died on 21 Nov 1245 in England about age 37. Another name for Helen was Elena of Galloway.

Research Notes: First wife of Roger de Quincy.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 111 F    i. Margaret de Quincy 43 180 181 was born in 1218 in <Winchester>, Hampshire, England and died on 12 Mar 1280 at age 62.

+ 112 F    ii. Elizabeth de Quincey .130

+ 113 F    iii. Helen de Quincy, of Brackley 182 183 was born about 1222 in <Winchester, Hampshire>, England and died Sh. Bef. 20 Aug 1296 in England about age 74.

83. Robert II de Quincy 132 133 (Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died in 1257 in <Palestine>. Other names for Robert were Robert de Quincey and Robert the Younger de Quincey.

Research Notes: Second son named Robert.

From Wikipedia - Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester :

Robert de Quincy (second son of that name; d. 1257) who married Helen , daughter of the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great ;

"Robert (d. 1217). Some sources say he married Hawise, sister and co-heiress of Ranulf de Blundeville, earl of Chester . However, it is more likely Hawise married Saer's brother Robert II;"
---------
Ancestral Roots, Line 54-28 (Robert II de Quincy), has "d.v.p. bef. 1232,... m. Hawise of Chester (125-29), b. 1180, d. 1241/3, Countess of Lincoln." The "d.v.p. bef. 1232 makes him appear to be the first Robert.


Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader:

Robert married Elen ferch Llywelyn Fawr,127 169 daughter of Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd and Joan, Princess of Gwynedd, after 1237. Elen was born about 1207 and died in 1253 about age 46. Other names for Elen were Helene, Elen verch Llywelyn, and Helen verch Llywelyn.

Research Notes: If Robert II de Quincy was the husband of Hawise of Chester, Elen was his second wife. Magna Charta Barons lists only Elen and has her as the mother of his 3 daughters. Magna Charta Barons is not a reliable source.

From Wikipedia - Elen ferch Llywelyn :

Elen ferch Llywelyn (c. 1206 - 1253) was the daughter of Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd in north Wales .

The records of Llywelyn's family are confusing, and it is not certain which of his children were illegitimate, but Elen appears to have been his legitimate daughter by Joan , illegitimate daughter of King John of England .

Elen married John de Scotia, Earl of Chester , in about 1222. He died aged thirty in 1237, and she re-married, her second husband being Sir Robert de Quincy . Their daughter, Hawise , was married to Baldwin Wake , Lord Wake of Lidel. Hawise and Baldwin's granddaughter, Margaret Wake , was the mother of Joan of Kent , later Princess of Wales. Thus the blood of Llywelyn Fawr passed into the English royal family through King Richard II .

There is also a record of a "Helen" daughter of "Llywelyn of Wales" who married Mormaer Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife and later married Domhnall I, Earl of Mar . The dates appear to rule out this being Elen, since Maol Chaluim II did not die until 1266 while Elen's death is recorded in 1253. Some genealogists propose the existence of another Elen, an illegitimate daughter born towards the end of Llywelyn's life, but there is no clear evidence for this. Another possibility is that this Helen might have been an illegitimate daughter of Llywelyn the Last born when he was a young man, but there is also no evidence of the theory being true. More likely this lady was Susannah ferch Llywelyn ab Iorwerth , who was sent to England in 1228 and married the earl of Fife in the summer of 1237.[1]

Robert next married Hawise, of Chester, Countess of Lincoln,184 185 daughter of Hugh, of Kevelioc, 5th Earl of Chester and Bertrade de Montfort, of Evreux,. Hawise was born in 1180 and died between 1241 and 1243. Another name for Hawise was Hawyse of Chester.

Research Notes: Sister and coheiress of Ranulph de Meschines, fourth Earl of Chester and Lincoln.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 114 F    i. Margaret de Quincy 133 186 was born about 1209 and died in Mar 1266 in Hempstead Marshall, England about age 57.

84. Hawise de Quincy 134 135 (Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1). Another name for Hawise was Hawyse de Quincey.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford

Hawise married Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford,135 187 188 son of Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford and Isabella de Bolebec, after 11 Feb 1223. Hugh was born about 1210 in Oxfordshire, England and died before 23 Dec 1263.

Research Notes: 6th Earl of Oxford and Great Chamberlain of England.

From Wikipedia - Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford

Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford (c. 1210 - December , 1263 ) was the only child and heir of Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford . Hugh was born c. 1210. His father died in 1221, and Hugh made homage for his earldom in 1231. He was knighted around the same time. He supposedly also took part in the Seventh Crusade , in 1248-1254. In 1223, Hugh married Hawise Quincy, daughter of Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester , and his wife, Margaret Beaumont. When he died in 1263, he was succeeded by his son Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford .

Noted events in his life were:

• Hereditary Master Chamberlain of England:

The child from this marriage was:

+ 115 M    i. Robert III de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford 189 190 was born in 1240 in Oxfordshire, England and died on 2 Sep 1296 at age 56.

85. Isabel de Clare 97 (Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1178.

86. Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester 138 139 140 (Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1180 in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England, died on 25 Oct 1230 in Penros, Brittany, France about age 50, and was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

Research Notes: 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester.

From Wikipedia - Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford :

Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford (1180 - October 25 , 1230 ) was the son of Richard de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford , from whom he inherited the Clare estates, from his mother, Amice Fitz William, the estates of Gloucester and the honour of St. Hilary, and from Rohese, an ancestor, the moiety of the Giffard estates. In June 1202, he was entrusted with the lands of Harfleur and Montrevillers .

In 1215 Gilbert and his father were two of the barons made Magna Carta sureties and championed Louis "le Dauphin" of France in the First Barons' War , fighting at Lincoln under the baronial banner. He was taken prisoner in 1217 by William Marshal , whose daughter Isabel he later married.

In 1223 he accompanied his brother-in-law, Earl Marshal , in an expedition into Wales. In 1225 he was present at the confirmation of the Magna Carta by Henry III . In 1228 he led an army against the Welsh, capturing Morgan Gam , who was released the next year. He then joined in an expedition to Brittany , but died on his way back to Penrose in that duchy. His body was conveyed home by way of Plymouth and Cranborne to Tewkesbury . His widow Isabel later married Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cornwall & King of the Romans . His own arms were: Or, three chevronels gules.

Hertford had six children by his wife Isabel , née Marshal:[1]
Agnes de Clare (b. 1218)
Amice de Clare (1220-1287), who married the 6th Earl of Devon
Richard de Clare (1222-1262)
Isabel de Clare (1226-1264), who married the 5th Lord of Annandale
William de Clare (1228-1258)
Gilbert de Clare (b. 1229)

Noted events in his life were:

• Magna Charta Surety: 1215.

• 5th Earl of Hertford: 1217-1230.

• Earl of Gloucester: 1217-1230.

Gilbert married Isabel Marshal,191 192 daughter of Sir William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, on 9 Oct 1217. Isabel died on 17 Jan 1240 in Berkhampstead, England. Another name for Isabel was Isabel Marshall.

Research Notes: Co-heiress of Sir William Marshal.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 116 F    i. Agnes de Clare 140 was born in 1218.

+ 117 F    ii. Amice de Clare 140 was born in 1220 and died in 1287 at age 67.

+ 118 M    iii. Sir Richard de Clare, 8th Earl of Clare 139 193 194 was born on 4 Aug 1222, died on 15 Jul 1262 in Asbenfield, Waltham near Canterbury, England at age 39, and was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

+ 119 F    iv. Isabel de Clare 140 was born on 2 Nov 1226 and died on 10 Jul 1264 at age 37.

+ 120 M    v. William de Clare 140 was born in 1228 and died in 1258 at age 30.

87. Maud de Clare 141 (Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1184 in Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England and died in 1213 at age 29. Another name for Maud was Matilda de Clare.

88. Richard de Clare 97 (Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1184 in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England and died on 4 Mar 1228 in London, England at age 44.

89. Joan de Clare 97 142 (Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1184 in Hertford, Hertfordshire, England.

Joan married Rhys Gwyg ap Rhys, Lord of Yestradtywy, son of Rhys ap Gruffudd ap Rhys Tewdwr, Justice of South Wales and Unknown,. Another name for Rhys was Rhys-Gryd Lord of Yestradtywy.

Research Notes: Source: A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007

Source: Welsh Settlement of Pennsylvania by Charles H. Browning, Philadelphia, 1912. From that book, p. 281:
"RHY-GRYD, feudal lord of Yestradywy. He m. Lady Joan, daughter of Richard de Clare*, fourth Earl of Hertford, &c., one of the celebrated twenty-five Sureties for the Magna Charta, 1215,..."

From: A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, pp. 130-131:
"In Deheubarth [about 1194], Rhys ap Gruffudd was troubled by the waywardness of his sons, and the agreement between Rhys and the king of England came to an end when Henry II was succeeded by his son, Richard I, in 1189. Rhys died in 1197. His heir was his eldest son, Gruffudd, whom Chronica de Wallia referred to in 1200 as prince, the last of the rulers of Deheubarth to be given that title. Gruffudd was challenged by his brothers, Maelgwn and Rhys Gryg in particular, and following his death in 1201 the authority of his son, Rhys Ieuanc, was restricted to Cantref Mawr, the region between the rivers Tywi and Teifi. In the struggles in Deheubarth, Maelgwn received the support of John who became king of England on the death of his brother, Richard, in 1199. John had direct interests in Wals, for, through his marriage with the heiress of Glamorgan, he was lord of the greatest of the Marcher Lordships. In 1199, John bestowed Ceredigion and Emlyn on Maelgwn through royal grant.."


The child from this marriage was:

+ 121 M    i. Rhys-Mechyllt, of Llandovery Castle .

90. Mary de Reviers 47 (Mabel de Beaumont64, Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan49, Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan31, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1183 in <Okehampton>, Devonshire, England.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has both abt. 1196 and abt. 1183. Both say Devonshire.

Mary married Robert de Courtenay,47 son of Renaud de Courtenay and Hawise de Courcy, in 1213. Robert was born in 1170 in <Okehampton, Devonshire>, England, died on 26 Jul 1242 in Iwerne, Dorset, England at age 72, and was buried on 28 Jul 1242 in Ford Abbey, Devonshire, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 122 M    i. John de Courtenay 47 was born on 26 Jul 1224 in Okehampton, Devonshire, England, died on 3 May 1274 at age 49, and was buried on 5 May 1274 in Ford Abbey, Devonshire, England.

91. Isabel Mauduit 144 145 146 (Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1214, died before 1268, and was buried in Nunnery of Cokehill, Worcestershire, England.

Research Notes: From William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick :
His father was William de Beauchamp of Elmley Castle , his mother, Isabel Mauduit, sister and heiress of William Mauduit, 8th Earl of Warwick .
-----
From William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick :
He was the son of Alice de Beaumont (daughter of the 4th Earl) and William de Maudit, and so was the grandson of Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick . His father was the lord of Hanslape and hereditary chamberlain of the exchequer, a title that went back to another William Maudit who held that office for Henry I .
He died without issue and the estates then passed to his sister Isabel de Maudit who had married William de Beauchamp. She died shortly after Warwick's death and the title passed to their son William .

Isabel married William de Beauchamp, 5th Baron Beauchamp,145 195 196 son of Walter de Beauchamp, of Elmley, Worcestershire and Isabella de Mortimer,. William was born about 1210 and died in 1269 about age 59. Another name for William was William de Beauchamp of Elmley Castle, Worcestershire.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick :
His father was William de Beauchamp of Elmley Castle , his mother, Isabel Mauduit, sister and heiress of William Mauduit, 8th Earl of Warwick .

Noted events in his life were:

• 5th Baron Beauchamp:

• Will: 7 Jan 1269.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 123 M    i. William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick 145 197 was born about 1237 in Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England, died on 9 Jun 1298 in Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England about age 61, and was buried in Grey Friars, Worcestershire, England.

92. William Mauduit, 8th Earl of Warwick 146 (Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1220 and died on 8 Jan 1267 about age 47.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William Maudit, 8th Earl of Warwick :

William Maudit (or Mauduit), 8th Earl of Warwick (abt 1220 - 8 January 1267 ), was an English nobleman and participant in the Barons' War .

He was the son of Alice de Beaumont (daughter of the 4th Earl) and William de Maudit, and so was the grandson of Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick . His father was the lord of Hanslape and hereditary chamberlain of the exchequer, a title that went back to another William Maudit who held that office for Henry I .

He adhered to Henry III in the wars with the barons . He was surprised in his own castle, Warwick Castle by John Giffard , the governor of Kenilworth Castle . The walls of the castle were destroyed and the countess taken prisoner to Kenilworth, and only released on payment of a ransom nineteen hundred marks.

William Mauduit made the castle in the corner of Portchester Castle (Portus Adurni) for an unknown reason. This was made in 1090 and is a Norman Castle and had palisades on each side of the castle.

He died without issue and the estates then passed to his sister Isabel de Maudit who had married William de Beauchamp. She died shortly after Warwick's death and the title passed to their son William .

93. Alan, Lord of Galloway 89 (Elena de Morville66, Avice de Lancaster51, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1186 in <Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland>, died in 1234 about age 48, and was buried in Abbey of Dundrennan, Kirkcudbright, Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Another name for Alan was Alan de Galloway.

Research Notes: Per Ancestral Roots, "A descendant of the English and Scottish Kings."

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of Scotland: 1215-1234.

• Named: in the Magna Charta.

Alan married Helen de L'Isle,198 199 daughter of Reginald, Lord of the Isles and Fonia, of Moray, about 1205 in Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland. Helen was born about 1174 in <Galloway, Wigtownshire, Scotland> and died about 1212 about age 38. Another name for Helen was Helen de l'Isle.

Research Notes: Said to be a daughter of Reginald, Lord of the Isles


The child from this marriage was:

+ 124 F    i. Helen, of Galloway 89 179 was born about 1208 in <Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland> and died on 21 Nov 1245 in England about age 37.

Alan next married Margaret, of Huntingdon,57 daughter of Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon and Ada de Warenne, in 1209. Margaret died in 1201.

Research Notes: Second wife of Alan, Lord of Galloway.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 43)

Alan next married < >,200 daughter of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster and Unknown, in 1228.

Research Notes: A daughter of Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Ulster.

94. Alice d'Eu, Countess of Eu, Lady of Hastings 107 149 (Maud de Warenne68, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1191 and died on 15 May 1246 in La Mothe-Saint-Heray, Poitou about age 55. Other names for Alice were Alice d'Eu Countess of Eu, Lady of Hastings and Alix d'Eu 8th Comtesse d'Eu & 4th Lady of Hastings.

Alice married Raoul I de Lusignan,201 202 son of Hugh VIII "le Vieux" de Lusignan and Bourgogne de Rancon, in Sep 1213. Raoul was born between 1160 and 1165 in <Lusignan> and died on 1 May 1219 in Melle.

Research Notes: 2nd son of Hugues de Lusignan.

From Wikipedia - Raoul I of Lusignan :

Raoul I of Lusignan or Raoul I de Lusignan (1160 or 1164/1165 - Acre, Palestine , 1217 or Melle , May 1 , 1219 ), was the second son of Hugues de Lusignan, Co-Seigneur de Lusignan in 1164 (c. 1141 - 1169), and wife, married before 1162, Orengarde N, who died in 1169, and grandson of Hugh VIII . He became Seigneur d'Issoudun before 1200, Count of Eu by marriage, Seigneur de Melle, de Chize, de Civray and de La Mothe. He was buried at the Priory of Fontblanche, in Exoudun .
He married firstly c. 1210 (annulled before 1213) Marguerite de Courtenay (1194 - Marienthal , July 17 , 1270 and buried there), Dame de Chateauneuf-sur-Cher and Margravine of Namur (1229-1237), daughter of Peter II of Courtenay and second wife Yolande of Namur, Margravine of Namur , without issue. He later married secondly in September, 1213 Alix d'Eu, 8th Countess of Eu and 4th Lady of Hastings (c. 1191 - La Mothe-Saint-Heray, Poitou , May 14 or 15, 1246), daughter of Henri d'Eu (d. by March 17 , 1183 or 1190/1191), 7th Comte d'Eu and 3rd Lord of Hastings and wife as her first husband Mathilde or Maud de Warenne (c. 1162 - c. 1212 or by December 13 , 1228 ), and had two children:
Mahaut or Maud de Lusignan (c. 1210 - August 14 , 1241 , buried at Llanthony, Gloucester ), married c. 1236 as his first wife Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford and 1st Earl of Essex on April 28 , 1228 and Constable of England (bef. 1208 - Warwickshire , September 24 , 1275 , buried at Llanthony, Gloucester ), and had issue.
Raoul II de Lusignan

Noted events in his life were:

• Comte d'Eu: by marriage

The child from this marriage was:

+ 125 F    i. Mahaut de Lusignan 122 172 was born about 1210, died on 14 Aug 1241 about age 31, and was buried in Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

95. John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey 153 154 155 156 (William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey69, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1231 in Surrey, England, died on 27 Dec 1304 in Kennington, Middlesex, England at age 73, and was buried in Lewes, Surrey, England.

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872173 :

Name Suffix: Earl of Surrey
REFN: 1019
6th Earl of Surrey (1240-1304); styled Earl of Sussex (1282); warden of Scotland (1296-1297). A ward of Henry III of England after his father's death in 1240, John supported the King against his rebellious barons in 1258. He aided the barons from about 1260 to 1263, but rejoined Henry and fought for him at Lewes in 1264 (see RIN # 669). The King was captured during the battle and John fled to France. He returned to England with the future Edward I in 1265, and freed Henry at the battle of Evesham (see RIN # 3867). In 1282 he assumed the title of Earl of Sussex but his claim was uncertain. He joined Edward I's invasion of Scotland in 1296, took Dunbar castle in April that year and became warden of Scotland in August. On 11 September 1297 his troops were routed by William Wallace at Stirling Bridge, but the following year he helped Edward defeat Wallace at Falkirk.

!Chronciles of the Age of Chivalry: 142, 144
-------
From http://www.wrexham.gov.uk/english/heritage/holt_castle.htm (Holt Castle) :
Following the defeat of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, the last independent Prince of Wales in 1282, Edward I gave John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey, the lordship of Bromfield and Yale. To secure his newly gained lands, John built Holt Castle, also known as Lion's Castle, to control a nearby strategic ford across the River Dee. John de Warenne's successor, also John, was leader of the English forces in Scotland. In 1296 he defeated the Red Comyn and the Scottish forces at the Battle of Dunbar and deposed the Scottish King John Balliol. Edward I made de Warenne Regent of Scotland. It was a job that only brought him trouble. William Wallace led a revolt and defeated de Warenne and the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge on September 11th 1296. De Warenne was forced to flee the field of battle and make his excuses to Edward I "Longshanks".
--------
From History of the Princes, the Lords Marcher, and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fadog, 1881, Vol. I, p. 389:
"John, Earl of Warren and Surrey, acquired the lordships of Maelor Gymraeg (Bromfield), Chirk, and Iâl, by assassinating the two infant Princes of Powys, Madog and Llywelyn, in 1281."

Noted events in his life were:

• Lord of Bromfield (Wrexham): 7 Oct 1282. Granted by Edward I after the defeat of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd. Bromfield was also known as Maelor Gymraeg at that time.

• Lord of Yale: 1282. Yale was also known as Iâl at that time.

• Granted: Castle of Dinas Bran, 7 Oct 1282. by Edward I.

• Constructed: Castle Leonis (Holt Castle), Betw 1282 and 1304, Villa Leonis (Holt), (Wrexham), Wales. in conjunction with Edward I. It is possible, however, that construction began after this John's death.

John married someone in Aug 1247.

John married Alice de Lusignan,203 daughter of Hugh X de Lusignan, Count of la Marche and of Angoulême and Isabella, of Angoulême, in Aug 1247. Alice died on 9 Feb 1256. Another name for Alice was Alfais de Lusignan.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 126 F    i. Eleanor de Warenne was born in 1251.

+ 127 M    ii. Sir William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey 204 205 was born in Feb 1256 in Surrey, England and died on 15 Dec 1286 in Croyden, Middlesex, England at age 30.

+ 128 M    iii. John de Warenne .155

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96. Robert I "the Good", Count of Artois 159 (Blanche, of Castile70, Eleanor, of England53, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1216 and died on 8 Feb 1250 at age 34.

Research Notes: First husband of Matilda of Brabant.

Wikipedia (Robert I of Artois):

Robert I "the Good" (1216 - February 8 , 1250 ) was Count of Artois . He was the third (and second surviving) son of King Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile .
On June 14 , 1237 , Robert married Matilda of Brabant, daughter of Henry II, Duke of Brabant , and they had two children:
Blanche of Artois (1248 -1302 )
Robert II of Artois (1250 -1302), Count of Artois
He was killed in Egypt during the Seventh Crusade of his brother Louis IX of France , while leading a reckless attack on Al Mansurah . He and the Templars accompanying the expedition charged into the town and became trapped in the narrow streets. According to Jean de Joinville , he defended himself for some time in a house there, but was at last overpowered and killed.


Robert married Matilda, of Brabant,177 178 daughter of Henry II, Duke of Brabant and Marie, of Hohenstaufen, on 14 Jun 1237. Matilda was born in 1224 and died on 29 Sep 1288 at age 64.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia (Marie of Hohenstaufen) has b. 1224. Ancestral Roots has b. 1196.

Research Notes: Wikipedia (Henry II, Duke of Brabant)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 129 F    i. Blanche, of Artois 206 was born between 1245 and 1250 and died on 2 May 1302 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France.

+ 130 M    ii. Robert II, of Artois, Count of Artois .


97. KingEdward I, of England 162 163 (King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster Palace, London, England, died on 7 Jul 1307 in Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland, England at age 68, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England. Other names for Edward were Edward I "Hammer of the Scots and" Edward I "Longshanks" King of England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Edward I of England :

Edward I (17 June 1239 - 7 July 1307 ), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as "Edward the Lawgiver" or "the English Justinian" because of his legal reforms, and as "Hammer of the Scots",[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried (but failed) to do the same to Scotland . He reigned from 1272 to 1307, ascending the throne of England on 20 November 1272 after the death of his father, King Henry III . His mother was queen consort Eleanor of Provence .
As regnal post-nominal numbers were a Norman (as opposed to English) custom, Edward Longshanks is known as Edward I, even though he is the fourth King Edward, following Edward the Elder , Edward the Martyr , and Edward the Confessor ....

Childhood and marriage to Eleanor
Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the evening of 17 June 1239 .[3] He was an older brother of Beatrice of England , Margaret of England and Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster . He was named after Edward the Confessor . [4] From 1239 to 1246 Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard (the son of Godfrey Giffard ) and his wife, Sybil, who had been one of the midwives at Edward's birth. On Giffard's death in 1246, Bartholomew Pecche took over. Early grants of land to Edward included Gascony , but Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester had been appointed by Henry to seven years as royal lieutenant in Gascony in 1248, a year before the grant to Edward, so in practice Edward derived neither authority nor revenue from the province.
Edward's first marriage (age 15) was arranged in 1254 by his father and Alfonso X of Castile . Alfonso had insisted that Edward receive grants of land worth 15,000 marks a year and also asked to knight him; Henry had already planned a knighthood ceremony for Edward but conceded. Edward crossed the Channel in June, and was knighted by Alfonso and married to Eleanor of Castile (age 13) on 1 November 1254 in the monastery of Las Huelgas .
Eleanor and Edward would go on to have sixteen children, and her death in 1290 affected Edward deeply. He displayed his grief by erecting the Eleanor crosses , one at each place where her funeral cortège stopped for the night. His second marriage, (age 60) at Canterbury on September 10 , 1299 , to Marguerite of France , (age 17) (known as the "Pearl of France" by her English subjects), the daughter of King Philip III of France (Phillip the Bold) and Maria of Brabant , produced three children...

Welsh Wars

Edward I depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902 )
One of King Edward's early moves was the conquest of Wales . Under the 1267 Treaty of Montgomery , Llywelyn ap Gruffydd had extended Welsh territories southwards into what had been the lands of the English Marcher Lords , and gained the title of Prince of Wales although he still owed homage to the English monarch as overlord. King Edward refused to recognize this Treaty - which had been concluded by his father - and in 1275, pirates in King Edward's pay intercepted a ship carrying Eleanor de Montfort , Simon de Montfort's only daughter, from France to Wales , where she expected to marry Llywelyn. Edward then imprisoned her at Windsor . After Llywelyn repeatedly refused to pay homage to Edward in 1274-1275, Edward raised an army and launched his first campaign against the Welsh prince in 1276-1277. After this campaign, Llywelyn was forced to pay homage to Edward and was stripped of all but a rump of territory in Gwynedd . But Edward allowed Llywelyn to retain the title of Prince of Wales , and the marriage with Eleanor de Montfort went ahead.
Llywelyn's younger brother, Dafydd (who had briefly been an ally of the English) started another rebellion in 1282. But Edward quickly destroyed the remnants of resistance, capturing, brutally torturing, and executing Dafydd in the following year. To consolidate his conquest, he commenced the construction of a string of massive stone castles encircling the principality, of which Caernarfon Castle provides a notable surviving example.
Wales became incorporated into England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301, Edward dubbed his eldest son Edward first Prince of Wales , since which time the eldest son of most English monarchs have borne the same title, the only exception being Edward III .

Scottish Wars

Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As Duke of Aquitaine , Edward was a vassal to the French king.
Edward then turned his attentions to Scotland. He had planned to marry off his son and heir Edward , to the heiress Margaret, the Maid of Norway , but when Margaret died with no clear successor, the Scottish Guardians invited Edward's arbitration, to prevent the country from descending into dynastic war. Before the process got underway Edward insisted that he be recognized as Lord Paramount of Scotland, the feudal superior of the realm and, after some initial resistance, this precondition was finally accepted.
Edward presided over a feudal court held at the castle of Berwick-upon-Tweed in November 1292, where judgment was given in favour of John Balliol over other candidates . Balliol was chosen as the candidate with the strongest claim in feudal law, but Edward subsequently used the concessions he had gained to undermine the authority of the new king even summoning Balliol to do homage to him in Westminster in 1293. Edward also made it clear he expected John's military and financial support against France. This was too much for Balliol, who concluded a pact with France and prepared an army to invade England.
In response Edward gathered his largest army yet (25,000) and razed Berwick , massacring almost the whole population of 11,000 inhabitants. During the Scottish campaign, he made extensive use of a large trebuchet called the Warwolf .
After Berwick, he proceeded to Dunbar and Edinburgh , also removing the Stone of Destiny from Perth to Westminster Abbey. Balliol renounced the crown and was imprisoned in the Tower of London for three years before withdrawing to his estates in France. All freeholders in Scotland were required to swear an oath of homage to Edward, and he ruled Scotland like a province through English viceroys .
Opposition sprang up (see Wars of Scottish Independence ), and Edward executed the focus of discontent, William Wallace , on 23 August 1305 , having earlier defeated him at the Battle of Falkirk (1298) .
Edward was known to be fond of falconry and horse riding . The names of his horses have survived: Lyard, his war horse; Ferrault his hunting horse; and his favourite, Bayard. At the Siege of Berwick, Edward is said to have led the assault personally, using Bayard to leap over the earthen defences of the city.

Later career and death
Edward's later life was fraught with difficulty, as he lost his beloved first wife Eleanor and his heir failed to develop the expected kingly character.
Edward's plan to conquer Scotland never came to fruition during his lifetime, however, as he died in 1307 at Burgh-by-Sands , Cumberland on the Scottish border, while on his way to wage another campaign against the Scots under the leadership of Robert the Bruce . According to chroniclers, Edward desired to have his bones carried on Scottish military campaigns, and that his heart be taken to the Holy Land. Against his wishes, Edward was buried in Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb, which in later years was painted with the words Scottorum malleus, Latin for Hammer of the Scots.[7] He was buried in a lead casket wishing to be moved to the usual regal gold casket only when Scotland was fully conquered and part of the Kingdom of England.
On 2 January 1774 , the Society of Antiquaries opened the coffin and discovered that his body had been perfectly preserved for 467 years. His body was measured to be 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm).[8]
To this day he still lies in the lead casket - although the thrones of Scotland and England were united in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I and the accession of James VI of Scotland to the English throne, and the Kingdom of Great Britain was created in 1707 by the Acts of Union 1707 , uniting Scotland and England in an incorporating union, the conquest Edward envisaged was never completed. His son, King Edward II of England , succeeded him...

Issue
Children of Edward and Eleanor:
Eleanor , born ca. 17 June 1264 (or possibly as late as 1269, although the issue rolls of 1302 describe her as Edward's eldest daughter) and died 12 October 1298 . She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon , who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and on 20 September 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar .
Joan, born Summer 1265, either in Paris, or perhaps at Abbeville, Ponthieu. She died in France but was buried at Westminster Abbey before September 7 , 1265 .
John, born at either Windsor or Kenilworth Castle June or July 10 , 1266 , died August 1 or 1271 at Wallingford , in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall . Buried at Westminster Abbey .
Henry , born on July 13 1267/8 at Windsor Castle, died October 14 , 1274 either at Merton, Surrey, or at Guildford Castle.
Alice, born at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, but the date of her birth is unknown. May have died at the age of twelve. Sometimes identified with the child, Isabella, born in March 1279 , but this cannot be correct, as that infant's funeral took place during the same year.
Juliana (also known as Katherine) born at Acre, Palestine, in 1271, and died there on 28 May or 5 September 1271
Joan of Acre . Born at Acre in Spring 1272 and died at her manor of Clare, Suffolk on April 23 , 1307 and was buried in the priory church of the Austin friars, Clare, Suffolk. She married (1) Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , (2) Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer .
Alphonso, Earl of Chester , born either at Bayonne, at Bordeaux, Gascony or at Maine 24 November 1273 , died 14 or 19 August 1284 , at Windsor Castle, buried in Westminster Abbey .
Margaret , born September 11 , 1275 at Windsor Castle and died in 1318, being buried in the Collegiate Church of St. Gudule, Brussels. She married John II of Brabant .
Berengaria (also known as Berenice), born 1 May 1276 at Kempton Palace, Surrey and died on June 27 , 1278 , buried in Westminster Abbey .
Mary, born 11 March or 22 April 1278 at Windsor Castle and died 8 July 1332 , a nun in Amesbury , Wiltshire , England.
Isabella, born on 12 March 1279 , either at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, at Windsor Castle or at Marlbourgh Castle Wiltshire, she died in 1279, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan , born August 1282 at Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire, Wales, died c.5 May 1316 at Quendon, Essex, in childbirth, and was buried in Walden Abbey, Essex. She married (1) John I, Count of Holland , (2) Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex .
Edward II of England , also known as Edward of Caernarvon , born 25 April 1284 at Caernarvon Castle, Wales, murdered 21 September 1327 at Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, buried in Gloucester Cathedral. He married Isabella of France .
Beatrice born after 12 August 1286 either in Gascony or in Aquitaine. She died young.
Blanche born in 1289/90 and died young.
Children of Edward and Marguerite:
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk born 1 June 1300 at Brotherton, Yorkshire, died between the 4 August and 20 September 1338, was buried in the abbey of Bury-St.-Edmunds, married (1) Alice Hayles, with issue; (2) Mary Brewes, with issue.
Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent , 5 August 1301 at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, married Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell with issue. Executed by Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer on the 19 March 1330 following the overthrow of Edward II.
Eleanor, born 4 May 1306 at Winchester, died in 1311 at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, buried in Beaulieu Abbey, Hants.

References
Michael Prestwich , Edward I (London: Methuen, 1988, updated edition Yale University Press , 1997 ISBN 0-300-07209-0 )
Thomas B. Costain, The Three Edwards (Popular Library, 1958, 1962, ISBN 0-445-08513-4 )
The Times Kings & Queens of The British Isles, by Thomas Cussans (page 84, 86, 87) ISBN 0-0071-4195-5
GWS Barrow, Robert Bruce and the community of the realm of scotland



Noted events in his life were:

• King of England: 1272-1307.

Edward married Eleanor, of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu,207 208 daughter of Fernando III of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne, de Dammartin, on 18 Oct 1254 in Monastery of Las Huelgas. Eleanor was born in 1241 in Castile, Spain, died on 28 Nov 1290 in Harby, Nottinghamshire, England at age 49, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England. Other names for Eleanor were Alianor, Alienor, and Leonor.

Marriage Notes: Wikipedia has m. 1 Nov 1254. Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-27 has m. 18 Oct 1254.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eleanor of Castile :

Eleanor of Castile (1241 - 28 November 1290 ) was the first Queen consort of Edward I of England .

Birth
Eleanor was born in Castile , Spain , daughter of Fernando III , King of Castile and Leon and his second wife, Jeanne, Countess of Ponthieu . Her Castilian name, Leonor, became Alienor or Alianor in England, and Eleanor in modern English. She was the second of five children born to Fernando and Jeanne. Her elder brother Fernando was born in 1239/40, her younger brother Louis in 1242/43; two sons born after Louis died young. For the ceremonies in 1291 marking the first anniversary of Eleanor's death, 49 candlebearers were paid to walk in the public procession to commemorate each year of her life. This would date her birth to the year 1241. Since her parents were apart from each other for thirteen months while King Ferdinand conducted a military campaign in Andalusia from which he returned to the north of Spain only in February 1241, Eleanor was probably born toward the end of that year.

Prospective bride to Theobald II of Navarre
Eleanor's marriage in 1254 to the future Edward I of England was not the first marriage her family planned for her. The kings of Castile had long claimed to be paramount lords of the Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees , and from 1250 Ferdinand III and his heir, Eleanor's half-brother Alfonso X of Castile , hoped she would marry Theobald II of Navarre . To avoid Castilian control, Margaret of Bourbon (mother to Theobald II) in 1252 allied with James I of Aragon instead, and as part of that treaty solemnly promised that Theobald would never marry Eleanor.

Marriage
Then, in 1252, Alfonso X resurrected flimsy ancestral claims to the duchy of Gascony , in the south of Aquitaine , last possession of the Kings of England in France. Henry III of England swiftly countered Alfonso's claims with both diplomatic and military moves. Early in 1254 the two kings began to negotiate; after haggling over the financial provision for Eleanor, Henry and Alfonso agreed she would marry Henry's son Edward, and Alfonso would transfer his Gascon claims to Edward. Henry was so anxious for the marriage to take place that he willingly abandoned elaborate preparations already made for Edward's knighting in England, and agreed that Alfonso would knight Edward before the wedding took place.

The young couple married at the monastery of Las Huelgas , Burgos on 1 November 1254. Henry III took pride in resolving the Gascon crisis so decisively, but his English subjects feared that the marriage would bring Eleanor's kinfolk and countrymen to live off Henry's ruinous generosity. Several of her relatives did come to England soon after her marriage. She was too young to stop them or prevent Henry III paying for them, but she was blamed anyway and her marriage was unpopular...

Queen consort of England
Arranged royal marriages in the Middle Ages were not always happy, but available evidence indicates that Eleanor and Edward were devoted to each other. Edward is among the few medieval English kings not known to have conducted extramarital affairs or fathered children out of wedlock. The couple were rarely apart; she accompanied him on military campaigns in Wales , famously giving birth to their son Edward on 25 April 1284 in a temporary dwelling erected for her amid the construction of Caernarfon Castle .

Their household records witness incidents that imply a comfortable, even humorous, relationship. Each year on Easter Monday, Edward let Eleanor's ladies trap him in his bed and paid them a token ransom so he could go to her bedroom on the first day after Lent ; so important was this custom to him that in 1291, on the first Easter Monday after Eleanor's death, he gave her ladies the money he would have given them had she been alive. Edward disliked ceremonies and in 1290 refused to attend the marriage of Earl Marshal Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk ; Eleanor thoughtfully (or resignedly) paid minstrels to play for him while he sat alone during the wedding.

That Edward remained single until he wed Marguerite of France in 1299 is often cited to prove he cherished Eleanor's memory. In fact he considered a second marriage as early as 1293, but this does not mean he did not mourn Eleanor. Eloquent testimony is found in his letter to the abbot of Cluny in France (January 1291), seeking prayers for the soul of the wife "whom living we dearly cherished, and whom dead we cannot cease to love." In her memory, Edward ordered the construction of twelve elaborate stone crosses (of which three survive) between 1291 and 1294, marking the route of her funeral procession between Lincoln and London. (The story that the name "Charing" is from the French chère reine or "dear Queen" is mere legend, as is the name's supposed derivation from "char ring," allegedly referring to a circular roadway in which the nobles' carriages (chars) waited while their owners attended court. The name Charing is found for that part of London in the 1250s and probably existed long before that.)

However, only one of Eleanor's five sons survived childhood and, even before she died, Edward worried over the succession: if that son died, their daughters' husbands might cause a succession war. Despite personal grief, Edward faced his duty and married again. He delighted in the sons his new wife bore, but attended memorial services for Eleanor to the end of his life, Marguerite at his side on at least one occasion...

Death
Further information: Eleanor cross
In the autumn of 1290, news reached Edward that Margaret, the Maid of Norway , heiress of Scotland, had died. He had just held a parliament at Clipstone in Nottinghamshire , and continued to linger in those parts, presumably to await news of further developments in Scotland. Eleanor followed him at a leisurely pace as she was unwell with a feverish illness, probably a quartan fever first reported in 1287. After the couple left Clipstone they travelled slowly toward the city of Lincoln, a destination Eleanor would never reach.

Her condition worsened when they reached the village of Harby, Nottinghamshire , less than 10 miles (16 km) from Lincoln [citation needed ]). The journey was abandoned, and the queen was lodged in the house of Richard de Weston, the foundations of which can still be seen near Harby's parish church. After piously receiving the Church's last rites, she died there on the evening of the 28th of November 1290, aged 49 and after 36 years of marriage. Edward was at her bedside to hear her final requests...

Legacy
Eleanor of Castile's queenship is significant in English history for the evolution of a stable financial system for the king's wife, and for the honing this process gave the queen-consort's prerogatives. The estates Eleanor assembled became the nucleus for dower assignments made to later queens of England into the 15th century , and her involvement in this process solidly established a queen-consort's freedom to engage in such transactions. Few later queens exerted themselves in economic activity to the extent Eleanor did, but their ability to do so rested on the precedents settled in her lifetime...

Children of Queen Eleanor and King Edward I

The Northampton Cross
Daughter, stillborn in May 1255 in Bordeaux, France .
Katherine, (before June 17 , 1264 - September 5 , 1264 ) and buried at Westminster Abbey .
Joan, born January 1265, buried at Westminster Abbey before September 7 , 1265 .
John, (13 July 1266 - August 3 , 1271 ) at Wallingford , in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall . Buried at Westminster Abbey .
Henry of England , (before 6 May 1268 - October 16 , 1274 ).
Eleanor , (18 June 1269 - 29 August 1298 ). Buried 12 October 1298 . She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon , who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and in 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar , by whom she had one son and one daughter.
Daughter, (28 May 1271 Palestine - 5 September 1271 ). Some sources call her Juliana, but there is no contemporary evidence for her name.
Joan of Acre . (April 1272 - April 7 , 1307 ). She married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph Morthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer . She had four children by each marriage.
Alphonso, Earl of Chester , born 24 November 1273 , died 19 August 1284 , buried in Westminster Abbey .
Margaret Plantagenet , (15 March 1275 - after 1333). In 1290 she married John II of Brabant , who died in 1318. They had one son.
Berengaria, (1 May 1276 - before 27 June 1278 ), buried in Westminster Abbey .
Daughter, died shortly after birth at Westminster, on or about3 January 1278 . There is no contemporary evidence for her name.
Mary, (11 March 1279 - 29 May 1332 ), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury , Wiltshire (England), where she was probably buried.
A son, born in 1280 or 1281 who died very shortly after birth. There is no contemporary evidence for his name.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan , (7 August 1282 - 5 May 1316 ). She married (1)in 1297 John I, Count of Holland , (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex . The first marriage was childless; by Bohun, Elizabeth had ten children.
Edward II of England , also known as Edward of Caernarvon , (25 April 1284 - 21 September 1327 ). In 1308 he married Isabella of France .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 131 F    i. Eleanor, of England was born on 18 Jun 1269, died on 29 Aug 1298 at age 29, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England.

+ 132 F    ii. Joan, of Acre 209 210 was born in 1272 in Acre, Syria and died on 23 Apr 1307 at age 35.

+ 133 F    iii. Margaret Plantagenet was born on 15 Mar 1275 and died in 1318 at age 43.

+ 134 F    iv. Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England 211 212 213 was born on 7 Aug 1282 in Rhuddlan Castle, Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales, died on 5 May 1316 in Quendon, Essex, England at age 33, and was buried in Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.

+ 135 M    v. KingEdward II, of England 214 215 was born on 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarfon Castle, Caernarfonshire, Gwynedd, Wales, died on 21 Sep 1327 in <Berkeley Castle, > near Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England at age 43, and was buried in Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

Edward next married Marguerite, of France,216 daughter of Philip III "the Bold", King of France and Marie, of Brabant, on 8 Sep 1299 in Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England. Marguerite was born about 1275 and died from 14 Feb 1317 to 1318 in Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England about age 42.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 155-30.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 136 M    i. Thomas, of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk was born on 1 Jun 1300 and died in 1338 at age 38.

98. Margaret, of England 164 (King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 29 Sep 1240 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England, died on 26 Feb 1275 in Cupar Castle at age 34, and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Margaret of England :

Margaret of England (29 September 1240 - 26 February 1275) was a medieval English princess who became Queen of Scots . A daughter of the Plantagenet king Henry III of England and his queen, Eleanor of Provence , she was Queen consort to Alexander III "the Glorious" , King of the Scots .

She was the second child of Henry III of England and his wife, Eleanor of Provence , and was born at Windsor Castle .

Margaret was married on 26 December 1251, at York Minster , to King Alexander III of Scotland , with whom she had three children:

Children
Margaret , Princess of Scotland (1260/61-1283), who married Eirik II of Norway
Alexander, Prince of Scotland (21 January 1263 Jedburgh - 28 January 1283 Lindores Abbey ); buried in Dunfermline Abbey
David of Scotland (20 March 1272 - June 1281 Stirling Castle ); buried in Dunfermline Abbey

Death & Burial
She died 26 February 1275, at Cupar Castle, and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey , Fife .

99. Beatrice, of England 165 (King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 25 Jun 1242 in Bordeaux, France and died on 24 Mar 1275 in London, Middlesex, England at age 32.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Beatrice of England :

"Beatrice of England", also known as "Beatrice de Dreux" (born 25 June 1242-1275) Born in Bordeaux, France. She was the second daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence , and sister of Edward I of England , Margaret, Queen of Scotland , Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster , Richard of England, John of England, Katherine of England, William of England, and Henry of England. She and her family were members of the Royal house of Plantagenet , which first ruled in the 12th century and was founded by Henry II of England .

Tragedy plagued Beatrice's childhood. Her oldest brother Edward became deathly ill when she was very young. Though he recovered, Beatrice's younger siblings Richard, Henry, William, Katharine, and John died at very young ages, leaving Beatrice's parents grief-stricken. Eleanor was especially upset about the death of her youngest daughter Katharine, who possibly had a degenerative disease that had caused her to become deaf and eventually die at the age of three.

Beatrice's childhood was also marred by the stresses of her father's reign. The English were unhappy with King Henry III owing to the influence that Eleanor and her Savoyard kinsmen exercised on the monarchy, and the Barons demanded more power. In 1263, Eleanor was sailing on a barge that was attacked by London citizens. This harsh, bitter, dislike created several problems for Henry III and his family. On the other hand, Eleanor and Henry enjoyed a happy marriage, and Beatrice grew up in a loving environment, close to her siblings.

Adult life
At one point, Henry conducted negotiations for Beatrice to marry the king of France and also rejected a proposal that she should wed the son of the King of Norway. When she was eighteen she married John II, Duke of Brittany . Beatrice later changed her name to Beatrice de Dreux, and she and John II had seven children:
Arthur II, Duke of Brittany
John de Bretagne, 1st Earl of Richmond
Marie de Dreux , wife of Guy III of Châtillon (1268-1339)
Pierre, Viscount de Leon (1269-1312)
Blanche de Dreux , wife of Philip of Artois (1271-1327)
Eleonore, Abbess of Fontevrault (1274-1329)

Death
Beatrice died on 24 March 1275 in London , England . Her death was once said to have occurred in childbirth, but the dates do not bear out this theory, which has been disproved in several articles. John II honored his wife with a chantry , an institutional chapel on private land or within a greater church, which was to be finished when he died, so that he and Beatrice would be together again. Beatrice was buried at Grey Friars Church in Greenwich , London.



100. Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester 166 (King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 16 Jan 1245 in London, England, died on 5 Jun 1296 in Bayonne, France at age 51, and was buried on 15 Jul 1296 in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 17-28

Wikipedia:
"...soon after the forfeiture of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester in 1265, Edmund received the Earldom of Leicester and of Lancaster and also the honour of the Stewardship of England and the lands of Nicolas de Segrave.
"In 1271 he accompanied his elder brother Edward [I Longshanks] on the Ninth Crusade to Palestine. It was because of this he received the nickname Crouchback (or cross back) indicating that he was entitled to wear a cross on his back."

Much more info in Wikipedia & other sources.

Noted events in his life were:

• Created: Earl of Leicester, 1265.

• Created: Earl of Lancaster, 1267.

Edmund married Blanche, of Artois,206 daughter of Robert I "the Good", Count of Artois and Matilda, of Brabant, on 29 Oct 1276 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Blanche was born between 1245 and 1250 and died on 2 May 1302 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Another name for Blanche was Blanche de Navarre.

Marriage Notes: Wikipedia has m. 3 Feb 1276.
Ancestral Roots, line 17-28, has m. bet. 18 Dec. 1275 and 19 Jan 1275/1276

Research Notes: Widow of Henry I of Navarre. Second wife of Henry III. Second wife of Edmund "Crouchback."

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 45-30

Wikipedia


Children from this marriage were:

+ 137 M    i. Thomas Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Lancaster was born in 1278.

+ 138 M    ii. Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester 217 218 was born about 1281 in Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire, England, died on 25 Mar 1345 in Canons Monastery, England about age 64, and was buried in Newark Abbey, Leicestershire, England.

+ 139 M    iii. John Plantagenet, Lord of Beaufort was born before 1286.

+ 140 F    iv. Mary Plantagenet .

101. Katharine (King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1253 and died in 1257 at age 4.

102. Elinor de Montfort (Eleanor75, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1252 and died in 1282 about age 30. Another name for Elinor was Eleanor de Montfort.

Research Notes: Source: Welsh Settlement of Pennsylvania by Charles H. Browning, Philadelphia, 1912.

Source: Collections Historical & Archaeological Relating to Montgomeryshire, and its Borders, Vol. XIII, Issued by the Powys-Land Club for the Use of Its Members, London, 1880, p. 122 has "Eleanor, dau. to Simon Mountford, Earl of Leicester."

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 260-31, has "b. abt. Michaelmas 1252, d. 1282; m. 13 Oct. 1278, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, son of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, d. 1 Mar. 1244, the son of LLYWELYN AP IORWERTH (176B-27), by Senena, perh. of Man."

Elinor married Llywelyn II, Prince of North Wales, son of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn and Senena verch Caradoc, on 13 Oct 1278 in Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Worcestershire, England. Llywelyn was born about 29 Sep 1252 and died on 11 Dec 1282 in Brecon, (Breconshire), Powys, (Wales) about age 30. Other names for Llywelyn were Llewelin ap Griffith Prince of North Wales and Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Mawr.

Marriage Notes: From: A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, p. 153: "[By] 1280, Edward [I] was firmly in control of his Welsh territories, which were far more extensive than those of any previous occupant of the throne of England. Llywelyn's behaviour toward the king was punctiliously correct; he made homage to Edward in December 1277; he married Elinor in the king's presence at Worcester Cathedral in October 1278; he propmptly paid the sums due from him under the Treaty of Aberconwy and in his letters he fully acknowledged Edward's suzerainty."

Noted events in their marriage were:

• Marriage by Proxy: to Llywelyn II, 1275. From: A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, pp. 130-150: "After Dafydd's defection [in 1274], and possibly as a reaction to it, a plan, perhaps originally aired in 1265, was resurrected--marriage between Llywelyn and Elinor, a daughter of Simon de Montfort. Elinor's lineage was highly distinguished; among her uncles were a king of England, a king of France and a Holy Roman Emperor. Nevertheless, by 1275, when a proxy marriage took place, there was no political advantage to the union, for the opposition movement which her father had led was moribund. The king of England took the view that the marriage was a plot to rekindle dissension within his kingdom, and such a notion may also have been present in Llywelyn's mind. Elinor sailed from France to Wales in 1275, but the seizure of her ship led to her imprisonment at Windsor [where she was to remain until her release after Llywelyn paid homage to Edward I in December 1277]."

Death Notes: Slain by Adam Fauclon

Research Notes: Last soverign prince of all Wales.

Source: Wikipedia - Llywelyn the Great

See also A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007

From Welsh Settlement of Pennsylvania by Charles H. Browning, Philadelphia, 1912, pp. 289-290: "LADY ELEANOR DE MONTFORT, who m. Llewellyn Gryffyth, Prince of North Wales, and the last sovereign Prince of all Wales, killed on 11 Dec. 1232, son of Llewellyn the Great"

Source: Collections Historical & Archaeological Relating to Montgomeryshire, and its Borders, Vol. XIII, Issued by the Powys-Land Club for the Use of Its Members, London, 1880, p. 122 has "Llewelin ap Griffith was slain by Adam Frauclon, 12 King Ed. I. He was Prince of North Wales."

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 260-31 (Eleanor de Montfort), has "b. abt. Michaelmas 1252, d. 1282; m. 13 Oct. 1278, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, son of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, d. 1 Mar. 1244, the son of LLYWELYN AP IORWERTH (176B-27), by Senena, perh. of Man."
------
From "Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry" by Darrell Wolcott (http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id51.html):
"The intentions of King Edward I in 1283 seem clear enough; he was intent on total extermination of the Gwynedd princely family which had long resisted his authority over Wales. When Llewelyn ap Gruffudd was finally killed in Brecon, his brother Dafydd had taken up the fallen crown... [Dafydd's] youngest son, Owain, was taken in his father [in late June 1283]. About a week later, his eldest son Llewelyn was found and both boys were taken to the prison in Bristol. Not finished yet, the king sent the young unmarried daughters of both Llewelyn the Last and Dafydd ap Gruffudd to involuntary seclusion for training as nuns. Gwenllian ferch Llewelyn ap Gruffudd was sent to the Gilbertine nunnery at Sempringham, while the unnamed daughter or daughters of Dafydd ap Grufudd were sent to the priory at Sixhills. This insured they would never bear sons to become a future problem for the crown of England; the family had thus been made extinct."



Noted events in his life were:

• Marriage by Proxy: to Eleanor de Montfort.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 141 F    i. Catherine verch Llewellyn Gryffyth .

+ 142 F    ii. Gwenllian ferch Llewelyn ap Gruffudd .

103. Gwladys "Ddu" verch Llewellyn 167 168 (Joan, Princess of Gwynedd76, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1206 in Caernarvonshire, Wales and died in 1251 in Windsor, Berkshire, England about age 45. Other names for Gwladys were Gladys Dhu and Gwladus Ddu.

Research Notes: Widow of Reynold de Braose

From Wikipedia - Llywelyn the Great :

Another daughter, Gwladus Ddu (c.1206-1251), was probably legitimate. Adam of Usk states that she was a legitimate daughter by Joan, although some sources claim that her mother was Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch.[64] She first married Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny, but had no children by him. After Reginald's death she married Ralph de Mortimer of Wigmore and had several sons.

Gwladys married Reynold de Braose,183 219 son of William de Braose, 5th Lord de Braose and Maud de St. Valerie, of Haie, before 1221 in Wales. Reynold was born about 1178 in <Bramber, Sussex>, England, died on 9 Jun 1228 in Brecon, Breconshire, Wales about age 50, and was buried in Priory Church, Brecon, Breconshire, Wales. Another name for Reynold was Reginald de Braose.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 176B-28 (Gladys Dhu)

Gwladys next married Ralph de Mortimer, Lord Mortimer of Wigmore,167 220 son of Roger de Mortimer, of Wigmore and Isabel de Ferrieres, in 1230. Ralph was born about 1190 in <Wigmore, Herefordshire>, England, died on 6 Aug 1246 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England about age 56, and was buried in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 132C-29 and 176B-28 (Gladys Dhu)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 143 M    i. Roger de Mortimer, of Wigmore, 1st Baron Mortimer 167 221 222 was born about 1231 in Cwmaron Castle, Radnorshire, Wales and died on 27 Oct 1282 in Kingsland, Herefordshire, England about age 51.

104. Elen ferch Llywelyn Fawr 127 169 (Joan, Princess of Gwynedd76, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1207 and died in 1253 about age 46. Other names for Elen were Helene, Elen verch Llywelyn, and Helen verch Llywelyn.

Research Notes: If Robert II de Quincy was the husband of Hawise of Chester, Elen was his second wife. Magna Charta Barons lists only Elen and has her as the mother of his 3 daughters. Magna Charta Barons is not a reliable source.

From Wikipedia - Elen ferch Llywelyn :

Elen ferch Llywelyn (c. 1206 - 1253) was the daughter of Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd in north Wales .

The records of Llywelyn's family are confusing, and it is not certain which of his children were illegitimate, but Elen appears to have been his legitimate daughter by Joan , illegitimate daughter of King John of England .

Elen married John de Scotia, Earl of Chester , in about 1222. He died aged thirty in 1237, and she re-married, her second husband being Sir Robert de Quincy . Their daughter, Hawise , was married to Baldwin Wake , Lord Wake of Lidel. Hawise and Baldwin's granddaughter, Margaret Wake , was the mother of Joan of Kent , later Princess of Wales. Thus the blood of Llywelyn Fawr passed into the English royal family through King Richard II .

There is also a record of a "Helen" daughter of "Llywelyn of Wales" who married Mormaer Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife and later married Domhnall I, Earl of Mar . The dates appear to rule out this being Elen, since Maol Chaluim II did not die until 1266 while Elen's death is recorded in 1253. Some genealogists propose the existence of another Elen, an illegitimate daughter born towards the end of Llywelyn's life, but there is no clear evidence for this. Another possibility is that this Helen might have been an illegitimate daughter of Llywelyn the Last born when he was a young man, but there is also no evidence of the theory being true. More likely this lady was Susannah ferch Llywelyn ab Iorwerth , who was sent to England in 1228 and married the earl of Fife in the summer of 1237.[1]

Elen married Robert II de Quincy,132 133 son of Saher IV de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester and Margaret de Beaumont, after 1237. Robert died in 1257 in <Palestine>. Other names for Robert were Robert de Quincey and Robert the Younger de Quincey.

Research Notes: Second son named Robert.

From Wikipedia - Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester :

Robert de Quincy (second son of that name; d. 1257) who married Helen , daughter of the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great ;

"Robert (d. 1217). Some sources say he married Hawise, sister and co-heiress of Ranulf de Blundeville, earl of Chester . However, it is more likely Hawise married Saer's brother Robert II;"
---------
Ancestral Roots, Line 54-28 (Robert II de Quincy), has "d.v.p. bef. 1232,... m. Hawise of Chester (125-29), b. 1180, d. 1241/3, Countess of Lincoln." The "d.v.p. bef. 1232 makes him appear to be the first Robert.


Noted events in his life were:

• Crusader:

(Duplicate Line. See Person 83)

105. Dafydd ap Llywelyn (Joan, Princess of Gwynedd76, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1208 and died in 1246 about age 38.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Llywelyn the Great

106. Ela Longspee 84 171 (William II Longspée77, William Longspée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury55, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1226 in England and died on 22 Nov 1299 about age 73.

Research Notes: Great-great granddaughter of Henry II.

Ela married James de Aldithley 171 in 1244 in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. James was born about 1225 in Audley, Staffordshire, England. Other names for James were James of Audley and James of Aldithley.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 144 M    i. Hugh I de Audley 84 171 was born about 1250 in Audley, Staffordshire, England and died about 1336 about age 86.

107. Humphrey VI de Bohun 173 174 (Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex78, Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford56, Margaret, of Huntingdon43, Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died about 4 Aug 1265 in Battle of Evesham, Evesham, Worcestershire, England.

Death Notes: Predeceased his father. Ancestral Roots Line 68-29 and 97-29 give d.v.p. 27 Aug. 1267. Wikipedia has 1265.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 97-29 has d.v.p. 27 Oct. 1265
-----------
From A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, p.136:

"In the wake of the dismemberment of the de Breos empire [after the hanging of William de Breos in 1230], the Bohun and Cantelupe families joined the ranks of the leading Marcher Lords..."

Humphrey married Eleanor de Braose,223 daughter of William de Braose, , 6th Lord de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny and Eve Marshal, after Aug 1241 in Brecknock, Breconshire, Wales. Eleanor was born about 1228 in Brecknock, Breconshire, Wales, died in 1251 about age 23, and was buried in Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales.

Research Notes: First wife of Humphrey (VI) de Bohun. Co-heiress of William de Braose.

From Wikipedia - Eleanor de Braose :

Eleanor de Braose (c.1228- 1251) was a Cambro-Norman noblewoman and a wealthy co-heiress of her father, who was the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny , and her mother, Eva Marshal , a granddaughter of Strongbow . Her husband was Humphrey de Bohun, by whom she had three children, including Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford .

Family
Eleanor was born in Brecknock , Breconshire , Wales in about 1228, the youngest daughter and co-heiress of the powerful Marcher lord William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny, and Eva Marshal, both of whom owned considerable lordships and domains in the Welsh Marches and Ireland. She had three older sisters, Isabella de Braose , Maud de Braose, Baroness Wigmore , and Eve de Braose, wife of William de Cantelou. A manuscript which narrates the descent of the founders of Llanthony Abbey names Isabella, Matildis, Eve et Alianore as the four daughters of Willielmis de Brews quartus and his wife Evam filiam domini Willielmis Mareschalli.[1] The document clearly shows that Eleanor was the youngest of the four girls.

Her paternal grandparents were Reginald de Braose, 9th Baron Abergavenny and Grecia de Briwere. Her maternal grandparents were William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke , daughter of Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster .
When Eleanor was about two years old her father, known to the Welsh as Gwilym Ddu (Black William), was hanged by the orders of Llewelyn the Great , Prince of Wales for alleged adultery with the latter's wife, Joan, Lady of Wales . Following the execution, her mother held de Braose lands and castles in her own right.

Marriage and children
On an unknown date after August 1241, at Brecknock, Breconshire, Eleanor married as his first wife,[2] Humphrey de Bohun, the son of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Lusignan. The marriage took place after the death of Humphrey's mother, Maud.
Together Humphrey and Eleanor had three children:
Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford (c.1249- 31 December 1298), married Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Ingelram de Fiennes and Isabel de Conde, by whom he had issue, including Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford .

Gilbert de Bohun, married Margaret whose surname is not known and by whom he had issue. His brother granted him all of Eleanor's lands in Ireland.[3]

Alianore de Bohun (died 20 February 1314, buried Walden Abbey), on 26 June 1269 married Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby , by whom she had two children.

Eleanor died in 1251 and was buried at Llanthony Priory . A manuscript names Elinor of Brewis, Ladi and heire of the land of Bricon among those buried at the priory of Llanthony.[4] Her husband married secondly Joan de Quincy, by whom he had a son, John de Bohun of Haresfield. He died on 37 October 1265.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 145 M    i. Humphrey VII de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford & 2nd Earl of Essex 224 225 was born about 1249 and died on 31 Dec 1298 in Pleshey Castle, Essex, England about age 49.

+ 146 F    ii. Alianore de Bohun 226 died on 20 Feb 1314.

108. Alice de Bohun 122 (Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex78, Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford56, Margaret, of Huntingdon43, Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

109. Maud de Bohun 122 (Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex78, Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford56, Margaret, of Huntingdon43, Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

110. Matilda, of Brabant 177 178 (Henry II, Duke of Brabant79, Mathilde, of Flanders57, Marie, of Blois, Countess of Boulogne44, Matilda, of Boulogne27, Mary, of Scotland14, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1224 and died on 29 Sep 1288 at age 64.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia (Marie of Hohenstaufen) has b. 1224. Ancestral Roots has b. 1196.

Research Notes: Wikipedia (Henry II, Duke of Brabant)

Matilda married Robert I "the Good", Count of Artois,159 son of Louis VIII, King of France and Blanche, of Castile, on 14 Jun 1237. Robert was born in 1216 and died on 8 Feb 1250 at age 34.

Research Notes: First husband of Matilda of Brabant.

Wikipedia (Robert I of Artois):

Robert I "the Good" (1216 - February 8 , 1250 ) was Count of Artois . He was the third (and second surviving) son of King Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile .
On June 14 , 1237 , Robert married Matilda of Brabant, daughter of Henry II, Duke of Brabant , and they had two children:
Blanche of Artois (1248 -1302 )
Robert II of Artois (1250 -1302), Count of Artois
He was killed in Egypt during the Seventh Crusade of his brother Louis IX of France , while leading a reckless attack on Al Mansurah . He and the Templars accompanying the expedition charged into the town and became trapped in the narrow streets. According to Jean de Joinville , he defended himself for some time in a house there, but was at last overpowered and killed.


(Duplicate Line. See Person 96)

111. Margaret de Quincy 43 180 181 (Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1218 in <Winchester>, Hampshire, England and died on 12 Mar 1280 at age 62.

Research Notes: 2nd wife of William de Ferrers.

Margaret married Sir William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby,47 181 227 son of William de Ferrers, 4th Earl of Derby and Agnes, of Chester, Lady of Chartley, about 1238. William was born about 1193 in <Derbyshire>, England, died on 28 Mar 1254 in Evington, Leicestershire, England about age 61, and was buried on 31 Mar 1254 in Merevale Abbey, Merevale, Warwickshire, England.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1200

Death Notes: FamilySearch has d. 24 Mar 1254

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby :

William III de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (1193 - 28 March 1254), was an English nobleman and head of a family which controlled a large part of Derbyshire including an area known as Duffield Frith .
He was born in Derbyshire , England, the son of William de Ferrers, 4th Earl of Derby and Agnes of Chester , a daughter of Hugh of Kevelioc , Earl of Chester and Bertrada de Montfort. He succeeded to the title in 1247, on the death of his father and, after doing homage to King Henry III , he had livery of Chartley Castle and other lands of his mother's inheritance. He had accompanied King Henry to France in 1230 and sat in parliament in London in the same year.
He had many favours granted to him by the king, among them the right of free warren in Beaurepair (Belper ), Makeney , Winleigh (Windley ), Holbrooke , Siward (Southwood near Coxbench), Heyhegh (Heage ) Cortelegh (Corkley, in the parish of Muggington ), Ravensdale , Holland (Hulland ), and many other places,[1]
Like his father, he suffered from gout from youth, and always traveled in a litter. He was accidentally thrown from his litter into water, while crossing a bridge, at St Neots , in Huntingdon and although he escaped immediate death, yet he never recovered from the effects of the accident. He died on 28 March 1254, after only seven years, and was succeeded by his son Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby .

Earl William Ferrers' effigy in Merevale Abbey
William de Ferrers is buried at Merevere Abbey , Warwickshire , England. His widow died on 12 March 1280.
Family and Children

William Ferrers married Sibyl Marshal , one of the daughters and co-heirs of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke . They had seven daughters:
Agnes Ferrers (died 11 May 1290), married William de Vesci.
Isabel Ferrers (died before 26 November 1260), married (1) Gilbert Basset, of Wycombe, and (2) Reginald de Mohun
Maud Ferrers (died 12 March 1298), married (1) Simon de Kyme, and (2) William de Vivonia, and (3) Amaury IX of Rochechouart.
Sibyl Ferrers, married Sir Francis or Franco de Bohun, an ancestor of Daniel Boone. (it is her aunt Sibyl, sister of William, who married John de Vipont , Lord of Appleby)
Joan Ferrers (died 1267), married to:
John de Mohun;
Robert Aguillon
Agatha Ferrers (died May 1306), married Hugh Mortimer, of Chelmarsh .
Eleanor Ferrers (died 16 October 1274), married to:
William de Vaux;
Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester ;
Roger de Leybourne, but had no issue
In 1238, he married Margaret de Quincy (born 1218), daughter of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester and Helen of Galloway . Bizarrely, Margaret was both the stepmother and stepdaughter of William's daughter, Eleanor. The earl and Margaret had the following children:
Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby , his successor. He married:
Mary de Lusignan, daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan , Count of Angoulême , and niece of King Henry III , by whom he had no issue;
Alianore de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey VI de Bohun , per Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines 57-30 & 68-29.
William Ferrers obtained, by gift of Margaret, his mother, the manor of Groby in Leicestershire , assuming the arms of the family of De Quincy. He married:
Anne Durward , daughter of Alan Durward [2]; their son was William de Ferrers, 1st Baron Ferrers of Groby .
Eleanor, daughter of Matthew Lovaine.
Joan Ferrers (died 19 March 1309) married Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley .
Agnes Ferrers married Sir Robert de Muscegros (aka Robert de Musgrove ), Lord of Kemerton , Boddington & Deerhurst .
Elizabeth Ferrers , married to:
William Marshal , 2nd Baron Marshal;
Prince Dafydd ap Gruffydd


Children from this marriage were:

+ 147 F    i. Agnes de Ferrers 228 died after 9 May 1281.

+ 148 M    ii. Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby 229 was born in 1239 and died in 1279 at age 40.

+ 149 F    iii. Joan de Ferrers 43 181 was born about 1248 in Derbyshire, England, died on 19 Mar 1309 in Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England about age 61, and was buried in St. Augustine's, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.

112. Elizabeth de Quincey 130 (Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1). Another name for Elizabeth was Elisabeth de Quincy.

Research Notes: 2nd daughter, and coheiress, of Roger de Quincy.

Elizabeth married Alexander Comyn, 2nd Earl of Buchan.230 Alexander died in 1289.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan :

Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan (died 1289) was a Scoto-Norman magnate who was one of the most important figures in the 13th century Kingdom of Scotland . He was the son of William Comyn, jure uxoris Earl of Buchan , and Marjory, Countess of Buchan , the heiress of the last native Scottish Mormaer of Buchan , Fergus . During his long career, Alexander was Justiciar of Scotia (1258-89), Constable of Scotland (1275-89), Sheriff of Wigtown (1263-66), Sheriff of Dingwall (1264-66), Ballie of Inverie (in Knoydart ) and finally, Guardian of Scotland (1286-89) during the first interregnum following the death of King Alexander III . He died sometime after July 10 , 1289 .

Alexander had at least nine children with his wife, Elisabeth, daughter of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester :
John , Alexander's successor as Earl of Buchan
Roger
Lord Alexander Comyn, a sheriff of Aberdeen, married Joan, sister of William le Latimer, and had issue. Henry de Beaumont would claim the Earldom of Buchan through marriage to their daughter, Alice .
Lord William Comyn, Provost of St. Mary's Church, St. Andrews
Lady Marjorie Comyn, m. Patrick Dunbar, 8th Earl of Dunbar
Lady Emma Comyn, m. Maol Íosa III, Earl of Strathearn
Lady Elisabetha Comyn, m. Gilbert de Umfraville, 1st Earl of Angus
Lady Elena Comyn
Lady Annora Comyn, m. Nicholas de Soules

Noted events in his life were:

• Justiciar and Constable of Scotland:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 150 M    i. John Comyn, Earl of Buchan 230 died in Dec 1308 in England.

+ 151 M    ii. Roger Comyn .230

+ 152 M    iii. Alexander Comyn .230

113. Helen de Quincy, of Brackley 182 183 (Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1222 in <Winchester, Hampshire>, England and died Sh. Bef. 20 Aug 1296 in England about age 74. Other names for Helen were Ela de Quincey, Elena de Quincy of Brackley, and Ellen de Quincy.

Research Notes: 3rd daughter, and coheiress, of Roger de Quincy.

Helen married Sir Alan La Zouche,183 231 232 son of Roger La Zouche and Margaret, before 1242. Alan was born about 1203 in <Ashby-de-la-Zouche, Leicestershire>, England and died on 10 Aug 1270 in England about age 67. Another name for Alan was Alan II de La Zouche.

Death Notes: According to Wikipedia: "As the result of a quarrel over some lands with John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey , he was seriously injured in Westminster Hall by the earl and his retainers, and died on August 10 , 1270 ."

Research Notes: Eldest son and heir of Roger la Zouche.

From Wikipedia - Baron Zouche :

Roger La Zouche became the father of Alan la Zouche (1205-1270) and Eudo La Zouche. [1] Alan was justice of Chester and justice of Ireland under Henry III of England . He was loyal to the king during the struggle with the barons, fought at the Battle of Lewes and helped to arrange the peace of Kenilworth . As the result of a quarrel over some lands with John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey , he was seriously injured in Westminster Hall by the earl and his retainers, and died on August 10 , 1270 .

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of the Tower of London:

• Justice: of Chester. under Henry III

• Justice: of Ireland. under Henry III

Children from this marriage were:

+ 153 M    i. Eudo La Zouche 183 was born about 1244 in <Ashby, Leicestershire, England> and died before 25 Jun 1279.

+ 154 F    ii. Margery La Zouche 84 was born about 1251 in <Clavering, Essex>, England.

114. Margaret de Quincy 133 186 (Robert II de Quincy83, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1209 and died in Mar 1266 in Hempstead Marshall, England about age 57. Another name for Margaret was Margaret de Quincey.

Research Notes: Second wife of John de Lacie.

Ancestral Roots
, line 54-29 states, "(sole surv. dau. of Hawise, yngst sis. and eventual coh. of Ranulf III, Earl of Cheater and Lincoln)... It is doubtful that she ever m. (3) Richard of Wiltshire, attributed to her in some sources.)

From Magna Charta Barons, p. 102:
"John de Lacie, Earl of Lincoln... m. secondly, after his marked gallantry at the siege of Damietta, Margaret, the only daughter and heiress of Robert de Quincey, a fellow-crusader, who died in the Holy Land, eldest son of Saier de Quincey, Earl of Winchester, one of the twenty-five Sureties for the Magna Charta. Her mother was Hawqyse, a sister and coheiress of Ranulph de Meschines, fourth Earl of Chester and Lincoln, and daughter of Hugh, third Earl of Chester. Earl Ranulph, by a formal charter, granted the earldom of Lincoln to said Hawyse, so that she could be a countess and that her heirs might enjoy the earldom, which grant was confirmed by the king, and at the especial request of the Countess of Lincoln, John de Lacie, her son-in-law, was created Earl of Lincoln, in 1232. John, Earl of Lincoln, had by Lady Margaret, who survived him, and m. secondly, William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke: Edmund de Lacie..."

Margaret married John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln,233 234 235 son of Roger de Lacy, 7th Baron of Halton and Maud de Clere, before 21 Jun 1221. John was born in 1192 in Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England, died on 22 Jul 1240 at age 48, and was buried in Stanlaw Abbey, Chester, England. Another name for John was John de Lacie 1st Earl of Lincoln.

Research Notes: Eldest son and heir of Roger de Lacy and Maud de Clere.

From Wikipedia - John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln [needs additional citations for verification] :

John de Lacy (c. 1192 - 1240) was the 1st Earl of Lincoln , of the fifth creation. He was the eldest son and heir of Roger de Lacy and his wife, Maud or Matilda de Clere (not of the de Clare family).[1] In 1221 he married Margaret de Lacy, daughter of Robert de Quincy and niece of Ranulph de Blondeville through her mother Hawise. Through this marriage John was in 1232 allowed to succeeded de Blondeville as earl of Lincoln .[1] He was one of twenty-five barons charged with overseeing the observance of Magna Carta in 1215.[2]

He was hereditary constable of Chester and,in the 15th year of King John, undertook the payment of 7,000 marks to the crown, in the space of four years, for livery of the lands of his inheritance, and to be discharged of all his father's debts due to the exchequer, further obligating himself by oath, that in case he should ever swerve from his allegiance, and adhere to the king's enemies, all of his possessions should devolve upon the crown, promising also, that he would not marry without the king's license. By this agreement it was arranged that the king should retain the castles of Pontefract and Dunnington, still in his own hands; and that he, the said John, should allow 40 pounds per year, for the custody of those fortresses. But the next year he had Dunnington restored to him, upon hostages. About this period he joined the baronial standard, and was one of the celebrated twenty-five barons, one of the Sureties, appointed to enforce the observance of the Magna Charta. But the next year, he obtained letters of safe conduct to come to the king to make his peace, and he had similar letters, upon the accession of Henry III., in the second year of which monarch's reign, he went with divers other noblemen into the Holy Land.
John de Lacy (Lacie), 7th Baron of Halton Castle, and hereditary constable of Chester, was one of the earliest who took up arms at the time of the Magna Charta, and was appointed to see that the new statutes were properly carried into effect and observed in the counties of York and Nottingham. He was excommunicated by the Pope. Upon the accession of King Henry III. he joined a party of noblemen and made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and did good service at the siege of Damietta. In 1232 he was made Earl of Lincoln and in 1240, governor of Chester and Beeston Castles. He died July 22, 1240, and was buried at the Cisterian Abbey of Stanlaw, in co. Chester. The monk Matthew Paris, records: "On the 22nd day of July, in the year 1240, which was St. Magdalen's Day, John, Earl of Lincoln, after suffering from a long illness went the way of all flesh." He married (1) Alice, daughter of Gilbert de Aquila, but by her had no issue. She died in 1215 and, after his marked gallantry at the siege of Damietta, he married (2) Margaret Quincy only daughter and heir of Robert de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, by Hawyse, 4th sister and co-heir of Ranulph de Mechines, Earl of Chester and Lincoln , which Ranulph, by a formal charter under his seal, granted the Earldom of Lincoln, that is, so much as he could grant thereof, to the said Hawyse, "to the end that she might be countess, and that her heirs might also enjoy the earldom;" which grant was confirmed by the king, and at the especial request of the countess, this John de Lacy, constable of Chester, was created by charter, dated Northampton, November 23, 1232, Earl of Lincoln, with remainder to the heirs of his body, by his wife, the above-mentioned Margaret. In the contest which occurred during the same year, between the king and Richard Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, Earl Marshal, Matthew Paris states that the Earl of Lincoln was brought over to the king's party, with John le Scot, Earl of Chester, by Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, for a bribe of 1,000 marks. In 1237, his lordship was one of those appointed to prohibit Oto, the pope's prelate, from establishing anything derogatory to the king's crown and dignity, in the council of prelates then assembled; and the same year he had a grant of the sheriffalty of Cheshire, being likewise constituted Governor of the castle of Chester. The earl died in 1240, leaving Margaret, his wife, surviving, who remarried Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke.

Noted events in his life were:

• 7th Baron of Halton Castle:

• Hereditary Constable of Chester:

• Magna Charta Surety: 1215.

• Created: 1st Earl of Lincoln of the fifth creation, 23 Nov 1232. Succeeded Ranulph de Blondeville, who was the uncle of Margaret de Lacy through her mother Hawise.

• Governor of Chester and Beeston castles: 1240.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 155 F    i. Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln 236 237 238 was born on 25 Jan 1223 and died before 10 Mar 1289.

+ 156 M    ii. Edmund de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln died in 1257.

Margaret next married Walter Marshall, Earl of Pembroke. Walter died in 1245.

Research Notes: 2nd husband of Margaret de Quincy.

115. Robert III de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford 189 190 (Hawise de Quincy84, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1240 in Oxfordshire, England and died on 2 Sep 1296 at age 56. Another name for Robert was Robert de Vere.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots has d. bef 7 Sept. 1296

Research Notes: 6th Earl of Oxford and great Chamberlain of England.

Noted events in his life were:

• Member of Parliament: 1283, 1295-1296.

Robert married Alice de Sanford,239 daughter of Gilbert de Sanford and Loretta La Zouche, by 22 feb 1252. Alice died before 9 Sep 1312.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 157 F    i. Joan de Vere 240 241 was born about 1258 in Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, died on 23 Nov 1293 about age 35, and was buried in Lewes, Surrey, England.

116. Agnes de Clare 140 (Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1218.

117. Amice de Clare 140 (Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1220 and died in 1287 at age 67.

118. Sir Richard de Clare, 8th Earl of Clare 139 193 194 (Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 4 Aug 1222, died on 15 Jul 1262 in Asbenfield, Waltham near Canterbury, England at age 39, and was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

Research Notes: From Magna Charta Barons, pp. 83-84:
Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester [was] in his minority at the death of his father, and his wardship was granted to the celebrated Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, Justiciary of England, whose daughter Margaret, to the great displeasure of King Henry III., he afterwards clandestinely married, but from whom he was probably divorced, as the king married him the next year to Maud, daughter of John de Lacie, Earl of Lincoln, in consideration whereof the Earl of Lincoln paid to the crown five thousand marks and remitted a debt of two thousand more. This Richard de Clare was a very distinguished personage in the reign of Henry III., and was one of the noblemen present in Westminster Hall, 40 Henry III., when Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, pronounced a solemn curse from the altar against all those who should thenceforth violate the Magna Charta.

-----------

From Wikipedia - Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford :

Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford (August 4 , 1222 - July 15 , 1262 ) was son of Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford and Isabel Marshall , daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, the 17-year-old daughter of Strongbow .

A year after he became of age, he was in an expedition against the Welsh . Through his mother he inherited a fifth part of the Marshall estates, including Kilkenny and other lordships in Ireland . In 1232 Richard was secretly married to Margaret (Megotta) de Burgh, daughter of Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret of Scotland . Both bride and groom were aged about ten. Megotta died in November 1237. Before she had even died, the earl of Lincoln offered 5,000 marks to King Henry to secure Richard for his own daughter. This offer was accepted, and Richard was married secondly, on or before 25 January 1238, to Maud de Lacy , daughter of the Surety John de Lacy and Margaret Quincy .

He joined in the Barons' letter to the Pope in 1246 against the exactions of the Curia in England. He was among those in opposition to the King's half-brothers, who in 1247 visited England , where they were very unpopular, but afterwards he was reconciled to them.

On April 1248, he had letters of protection for going over seas on a pilgrimage . At Christmas 1248, he kept his Court with great splendor on the Welsh border. In the next year he went on a pilgrimage to St. Edmund at Pontigny , returning in June. In 1252 he observed Easter at Tewkesbury , and then went across the seas to restore the honor of his brother William, who had been badly worsted in a tournament and had lost all his arms and horses. The Earl is said to have succeeded in recovering all, and to have returned home with great credit, and in September he was present at the Round Table tournament at Walden.

In August 1252/3 the King crossed over to Gascony with his army, and to his great indignation the Earl refused to accompany him and went to Ireland instead. In August 1255 he and John Maunsel were sent to Edinburgh by the King to find out the truth regarding reports which had reached the King that his son-in-law, Alexander , King of Scotland , was being coerced by Robert de Roos and John Baliol . If possible, they were to bring the young King and Queen to him. The Earl and his companion, pretending to be the two of Roos's knights, obtained entry to Edinburgh Castle , and gradually introduced their attendants, so that they had a force sufficient for their defense. They gained access to the Scottish Queen, who made her complaints to them that she and her husband had been kept apart. They threatened Roos with dire punishments, so that he promised to go to the King.

Meanwhile the Scottish magnates, indignant at their castle of Edinburgh's being in English hands, proposed to besiege it, but they desisted when they found they would be besieging their King and Queen. The King of Scotland apparently traveled South with the Earl, for on 24 September they were with King Henry III at Newminster, Northumberland . In July 1258 he fell ill, being poisoned with his brother William, as it was supposed, by his steward, Walter de Scotenay. He recovered but his brother died.

Richard died at John de Griol's manor of Asbenfield in Waltham, near Canterbury , 15 July 1262 , it being rumored that he had been poisoned at the table of Piers of Savoy . On the following Monday he was carried to Canterbury where a mass for the dead was sung, after which his body was taken to the canon's church at Tonbridge and interred in the choir. Thence it was taken to Tewkesbury Abbey and buried 28 July 1262, with great solemnity in the presence of two bishops and eight abbots in the presbytery at his father's right hand. Richard's own arms were: Or, three chevronels gules.

Noted events in his life were:

• 6th Earl of Hertford:

• 2nd Earl of Gloucester:

Richard married Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln,236 237 238 daughter of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln and Margaret de Quincy, on 25 Jan 1238. Maud was born on 25 Jan 1223 and died before 10 Mar 1289.

Marriage Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f48/a0024834.htm has m. 2 Feb 1238

Research Notes: Eldest daughter of John de Lacy. "The most litigious woman of the 13th century."

From Wikipedia - Maud de Lacy :
Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, Countess of Hertford and Gloucester (25 January 1223- 1287/10 March 1289), was an English noblewoman, being the eldest child of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln , and the wife of Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford , 2nd Earl of Gloucester. Her son was Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , 3rd Earl of Gloucester, a powerful noble during the reigns of kings Henry III of England and Edward I .


Family
Maud was born on 25 January 1223 in Lincoln , Lincolnshire , England, the eldest child of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln, a Magna Carta Surety, and Margaret de Quincy (1206- 30 March 1266). Maud had a younger brother Edmund de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln who married in 1247 Alasia of Saluzzo, by whom he had three children.

Maud was styled as the Countess of Lincoln, however, she never held that title suo jure .

Her paternal grandparents were Roger de Lacy and Maud de Clare. Her maternal grandparents were Robert de Quincy and Hawise of Chester, Countess of Lincoln.[1]

Maud and her mother, Margaret were never close; in point of fact, relations between the two women were described as strained. Throughout Maud's marriage, the only interactions between Maud and her mother were on a financial level, pertaining to the substantial Marshal family property Margaret owned and controlled due to the latter's second marriage on 6 January 1242 to Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke (1196- 24 November 1245) almost two years after the death of Maud's father, John de Lacy in 1240.[2] Margaret married her third husband, Richard of Wiltshire before 7 June 1252.


Marriage and children
On 25 January 1238 which was her fifteenth birthday, Maud married Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, and 2nd Earl of Gloucester, son of Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford , 1st Earl of Gloucester, and Isabel Marshal . Maud was his second wife; his first marriage, which was made clandestinely, to Megotta de Burgh had been annulled. Maud's parents paid King Henry III the enormous sum of 5,000 pounds to obtain his agreement to the marriage. The King supplied her dowry which consisted of the castle of Usk , the manor of Clere, as well as other lands and manors.[2]

Together Richard and Maud had seven children:[3]
Isabel de Clare (1240- 1271), married as his second wife, William VII of Montferrat , by whom she had one daughter, Margherita.
Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , 3rd Earl of Gloucester (2 September 1243- 7 December 1295), married firstly Alice de Lusignan of Angouleme by whom he had two daughters; he married secondly Joan of Acre , by whom he had issue.
Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond (1245- 29 August 1287), married as her first husband Juliana FitzGerald , daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly and Maud de Prendergast, by whom he had issue including Richard de Clare, 1st Lord Clare and Margaret de Clare, Lady Badlesmere .
Bovo de Clare, Chancellor of Llandaff (21 July 1248- 1294)
Margaret de Clare (1250- 1312/1313), married Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall . Their marriage was childless.
Rohese de Clare (17 October 1252- after 1316), married Roger de Mowbray, 1st Baron Mowbray , by whom she had issue.
Eglantine de Clare (1257-1257)


Death of Richard de Clare
On 15 July 1262, her husband died near Canterbury . Maud designed and commissioned a magnificent tomb for him at Tewkesbury Abbey where he was buried. She also donated the manor of Sydinghowe to the priory of Legh, Devonshire for the soul of Richard, formerly her husband, earl of Gloucester and Hertford by charter dated to 1280.[3] Their eldest son Gilbert succeeded Richard as the 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester. Maud carefully arranged the marriages of her daughters; however, the King owned her sons' marriage rights.[2] She was involved in numerous lawsuits and litigations with her tenants and neighbours, as a result she was known as the most litigious woman in the 13th century.[2]

Maud herself died sometime between 1287 and 10 March 1289. Her numerous descendants included Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard , both Queens consort of Henry VIII ; and the Dukes of Norfolk .

***********
From Magna Charta Barons, p. 103:
"Maud, wife of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. John, Earl of Lincoln, was promised the marriage of his eldest daughter to Richard de Clare, in the event of the king not marrying him to a daughter of the Earl of March, and for this grant he engaged to pay five thousand marks. This agreement, having been made without the consent of the Barons, excited considerable dissatisfaction, especially in the elder de Clare."


Children from this marriage were:

+ 158 M    i. Sir Gilbert de Clare, 9th Earl of Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford 43 242 243 was born on 2 Sep 1243 in Christchurch, Hampshire (Dorset), England, died on 7 Dec 1295 in Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire, Wales at age 52, and was buried on 22 Dec 1295 in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

+ 159 M    ii. Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Yougal 244 245 was born about 1245 and died on 29 Aug 1287 about age 42.

119. Isabel de Clare 140 (Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 2 Nov 1226 and died on 10 Jul 1264 at age 37. Other names for Isabel were Isabella of Gloucester and Hertford and Isobel de Clare.

Research Notes: Mother of Robert the Bruce (Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale).

From Wikipedia - Isabella of Gloucester and Hertford :

Isabella of Gloucester and Hertford (2 November 1226- 10 July 1264), was the daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford and 1st Earl of Gloucester and Isabel Marshal . She is also known as Isabel de Clare...

Family
Isabella's maternal grandparents were William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and his wife Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke . Isabella's paternal grandparents were Richard de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford and Amice FitzRobert . [1]
Isabella was the four of six children, her brother was Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford . Her sister, Amice de Clare married Baldwin de Redvers, 6th Earl of Devon and was mother of Baldwin de Redvers, 7th Earl of Devon and Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Devon .

Marriage
Isabella married on 12 May 1240 [2] to Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale , Isabella brought to him, the village of Ripe, in Sussex . Her husband was a candidate to become King of Scotland , after the death of the young Margaret, Maid of Norway . Her husband did not however succeed, Robert's rival, John Balliol was elected King of Scotland in 1292. [3]
Robert and Isabella had at least three children:
1. Isabella Bruce (b. 1249 - c1284), married (as his first wife) Sir John FitzMarmaduke, Knt., of Horden, Eighton, Lamesley, Ravensholm, and Silksworth, county Durham, Sheriff of North Durham, and Joint Warden beyond the Scottish Sea between the Forth and Orkney . He fought on the English side at the Battle of Falkirk , July 22 , 1298 , and was present at the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle in 1300. In 1307 he was commanded to assist the Earl of Richmond in expelling Robert de Brus and the Scottish rebels from Galloway . In 1309 his armour and provisions in a vessel bound for Perth were arrested off Great Yarmouth . He was governor of St. John's Town (Perth) in 1310 until his death. Isabel was buried at Easington , county Durham.[4]
2. Robert VI the Bruce, Earl of Carrick (1253 - 1304)
3. Constance Bruce (b. 1251), married Sir William Scot de Calverley and had daughter, Clarissa Scott (m. Sir John Fairfax)

John Balliol's time as King of Scotland did not last long, he died in 1314. Isabella's grandson, Robert the Bruce became King of Scotland . Isabella did not however get to see this day, she died in 1264, aged thirty seven. Her husband married a second time, to Christina de Ireby , this marriage produced at least one daughter, Christina.


Isabel married Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale 246 247 on 12 May 1240. Robert was born about 1215, died on 31 Mar 1295 about age 80, and was buried in Gisborough Priory, Guisborough, North Yorkshire, England. Other names for Robert were Robert Bruce Earl of Annandale and Robert de Bruce 5th Lord of Annandale.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 160 M    i. Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale 248 was born in Jul 1243 and died in Mar 1304 at age 60.

120. William de Clare 140 (Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1228 and died in 1258 at age 30.

121. Rhys-Mechyllt, of Llandovery Castle (Joan de Clare89, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Welsh Settlement of Pensylvania by Charles H. Browning (Philadelphia, 1912), p. 281.

Rhys-Mechyllt married someone.

His child was:

+ 161 M    i. Rhys-Vaughn, Lord of Yestradtywy .

122. John de Courtenay 47 (Mary de Reviers90, Mabel de Beaumont64, Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan49, Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan31, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 26 Jul 1224 in Okehampton, Devonshire, England, died on 3 May 1274 at age 49, and was buried on 5 May 1274 in Ford Abbey, Devonshire, England.

John married Isabel de Vere 47 about 1249. Isabel was born about 1228 in <Totnes, Devonshire>, England, died on 11 Aug 1300 about age 72, and was buried in Church of Black Friars, Exeter, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 162 M    i. Hugh de Courtenay 47 was born on 25 Mar 1250 in Okehampton, Devonshire, England, died on 3 Mar 1291 in Cullicomb, Devonshire, England at age 40, and was buried in Cowick, Devonshire, England.

123. William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick 145 197 (Isabel Mauduit91, Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1237 in Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England, died on 9 Jun 1298 in Elmley Castle, Worcestershire, England about age 61, and was buried in Grey Friars, Worcestershire, England.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. abt 1227.

Research Notes: Second husband of Maud FitzJohn (Maud FitzGeoffrey).

From Wikipedia - William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick :

William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick (1237 -1298 ) was an English nobleman and soldier, described as a "vigorous and innovative military commander"[1]. He was active in the field against the Welsh for many years, and at the end of his life campaigned against the Scots.

Soldier
He was a close friend of Edward I of England , and was an important leader in Edward's invasion of Wales in 1277.[2][3] In 1294 he raised the siege of Conwy Castle , where the King had been penned in[4], crossing the estuary[5]. He was victorious on March 5, 1295 at the battle of Maes Madog , against Madog ap Llywelyn [6]. In a night attack on the Welsh infantry, he used cavalry to drive them into compact formations, which were then shot up by his archers, and charged[7].

Family
His father was William de Beauchamp of Elmley, his mother Isabel Mauduit, sister and heiress of William Mauduit, 8th Earl of Warwick .
He married Maud FitzGeoffrey. His children included:
Isabella[8], married Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester
Guy , who married Alice de Toeni , widow of Thomas de Leyburne
Sarah[9]

William married Maud FitzGeoffrey,249 250 251 daughter of John FitzGeoffrey, of Fambridge, Essex and Isabel Bigod, before 1270 in Worcestershire, England. Maud was born about 1237 in Shere, Surrey, England, died on 16 Apr 1301 in <Grey Friars>, Worcestershire, England about age 64, and was buried on 7 May 1301 in Grey Friars, Worcestershire, England. Another name for Maud was Maud FitzJohn.

Burial Notes: House of the Friars Minor, Worcester, Worcestershire, England.

Research Notes: Eldest daughter of John FitzGeoffrey

Wikipedia - John FitzGeoffrey has d. 16/18 Apr 1301. Married firstly to Gerard de Furnivalle, Lord of Hallamshire (?-1261). Married secondly to William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick, son of William de Beauchamp of Elmley, Worcestershire & his wife Isabel Mauduit.

From Wikipedia - Maud FitzJohn :

Maud FitzJohn, Countess of Warwick (died 16/18 April 1301), was an English noblewoman and the eldest daughter of John FitzGeoffrey , Lord of Shere. Her second husband was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick , a celebrated soldier. Through her daughter, Isabella , Maud was the maternal grandmother of Hugh the younger Despenser , the unpopular favourite of King Edward II of England , who was executed in 1326.

Family
Maud was born in Shere, Surrey, England on an unknown date, the eldest daughter of John FitzGeoffrey , Lord of Shere, Justiciar of Ireland , and Isabel Bigod , a descendant of Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster . Maud had two brothers, Richard FitzJohn of Shere and John FitzJohn of Shere, and three younger sisters, Aveline FitzJohn, Joan FitzJohn, and Isabel FitzJohn. She also had a half-brother, Walter de Lacy, and two half-sisters, Margery de Lacy, and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville , from her mother's first marriage to Gilbert de Lacy of Ewyas Lacy. The chronicle of Tintern Abbey in Monmouthshire names Matilda uxor Guidono comitis Warwici as the eldest daughter of Johanni Fitz-Geffrey and Isabella Bygod.[1] Her paternal grandparents were Geoffrey Fitzpeter, 1st Earl of Essex and Aveline de Clare. Her maternal grandparents were Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk and Maud Marshal .

Marriages and children
Maud married her first husband, Gerald de Furnivalle, Lord Hallamshire on an unknown date. Sometime after his death in 1261, Maud married her second husband, the celebrated soldier, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Upon their marriage, Maud was styled as Countess of Warwick.
Together William and Maud had at least two children:[2]
Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick (1270/1271- 28 July 1315), on 28 February 1310, he married as her second husband, heiress Alice de Toeni , by whom he had seven children.

Isabella de Beauchamp (died before 30 May 1306), married firstly in 1281 Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly, by whom she had a daughter, Maud Chaworth ; she married secondly in 1286, Hugh le Despenser, Lord Despenser by whom she had four children including Hugh Despenser the younger, the unpopular favourite of King Edward II, who was executed in 1326, shortly after his father.
Maud died between 16 and 18 April 1301. She was buried at the house of the Friars Minor in Worcester .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 163 F    i. Isabella de Beauchamp 197 252 253 was born about 1252 in <Warwick>, Warwickshire, England and died before 30 May 1306 in Elmley Castle, Worchestershire, England.

+ 164 F    ii. Sarah de Beauchamp .

+ 165 M    iii. Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick 254 255 256 was born in 1272 in <Elmley Castle, Elmley>, Worcestershire, England, died on 12 Aug 1315 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England at age 43, and was buried in Bordesley Abbey, Worcestershire, England.

124. Helen, of Galloway 89 179 (Alan, Lord of Galloway93, Elena de Morville66, Avice de Lancaster51, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1208 in <Carrick, Ayrshire, Scotland> and died on 21 Nov 1245 in England about age 37. Another name for Helen was Elena of Galloway.

Research Notes: First wife of Roger de Quincy.

Helen married Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester,43 129 130 131 son of Saher IV de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester and Margaret de Beaumont,. Roger was born about 1174 in <Winchester>, Hampshire, England, died on 25 Apr 1264 in England about age 90, and was buried in Brackley, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Another name for Roger was Roger de Quincey 2nd Earl of Winchester.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester :

Roger , who succeeded his father as earl of Winchester (though he did not take formal possession of the earldom until after his mother's death);
----------
From Magna Charta Barons, p. 122:
Roger de Quincey, second son, who had livery of his father's lands, although his elder brother [Robert] was alive in the Holy Land, and succeeded to the earldom of Winchester, and in right of his first wife, daughter of Alan, lord of Galloway, became lord high constable of Scotland. By this lady he had only three daughters,--Margaret, wife of William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby; Elizabeth, wife of Alexander Comyn, Scotch Earl of Buchan; and Ela, wife of Alan, Baron le Zouche, of Ashby. Earl Roger m. secondly, Maud, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, and widow of Anselme le Mareschall, Earl of Pembroke, and m. thirdly, Alianore, daughter of William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, and widow of William, Baron de Vaux, who survived him, and m. Roger de Leybourne. Dugdale states that Earl Roger had a fourth daughter, but by which wife it is unknown, named Isabella, with whom a contract of marriage was made by John, son of Hugh de Nevill, for his son Hugh. His lordship d. 1264, when the earldom became extinct, and his great landed possessions devolved upon his daughters, as coheiresses.
-----------
From Wikipedia - Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester :

Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester (1195? - 25 April 1265 ) was a medieval nobleman who was prominent on both sides of the Anglo-Scottish border , as Earl of Winchester and Constable of Scotland .

He was the second son of Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester , and Margaret de Beaumont .

He probably joined his father on the Fifth Crusade in 1219, where the elder de Quincy fell sick and died. His elder brother having died a few years earlier, Roger thus inherited his father's titles and properties. However, he did not take possession of his father's lands until February 1221, probably because he did not return to England from the crusade until then. He did not formally become earl until after the death of his mother in 1235.

Roger married Helen , eldest daughter and co-heiress of Alan, Lord of Galloway . Without legitimate sons to succeed him, Alan's lands and dignities were divided between the husbands of his three daughters, so Roger acquired Alan's position as Constable of Scotland , and one-third of the lordship of Galloway (although the actual title of Lord of Galloway went through Helen's half-sister Devorguilla to her husband John I de Balliol ).

The Galwegians rebelled under Gille Ruadh , not wanting their land divided, but the rebellion was suppressed by Alexander II of Scotland . Roger ruled his portion of Galloway strictly, and the Galwegians revolted again in 1247, forcing Roger to take refuge in a castle. Faced with a siege and little chance of relief, Roger and a few men fought their way out and rode off to seek help from Alexander, who raised forces to again suppress the rebellion.

In the following years Roger was one of the leaders of the baronial opposition to Henry III of England , although he fought for Henry against the Welsh in the 1250s and 1260s.

Following Helen's death in 1245, Roger married Maud de Bohun, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford , around 1250. Maud died only two years later, and Roger married his third wife, Eleanor Ferrers, daughter of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby the same year.

Roger had three daughters by his first wife, but no sons. His subsequent marriages produced no issue. After his death his estates were divided between the daughters, and the earldom of Winchester lapsed. The three daughters of Roger and Helen of Galloway were:
Helen (also known as Ela or Elena), who married Alan Baron Zouche of Ashby;
Elizabeth (also known as Isabella), who married Alexander Comyn, 2nd Earl of Buchan ;
Margaret, who married William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (and was thus stepmother to her own stepmother).

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of Scotland:

(Duplicate Line. See Person 82)

125. Mahaut de Lusignan 122 172 (Alice d'Eu, Countess of Eu, Lady of Hastings94, Maud de Warenne68, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1210, died on 14 Aug 1241 about age 31, and was buried in Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England. Other names for Mahaut were Maud d'Eu and Maud de Lusignan.

Research Notes: First wife of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 97-28 (Humphrey V de Bohun).

Mahaut married Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex,121 122 son of Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford and Maud FitzGeoffrey, de Mandeville, about 1236. Humphrey was born by 1208, died on 24 Sep 1275 in Warwickshire, England at age 67, and was buried in Llanthony Secunda, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 97-28, "2nd Earl of Hereford and after div. of his mother 1236, 7th Earl of Essex, Constable of England, sheriff of Kent."

From A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, p.136:

"In the wake of the dismemberment of the de Breos empire [after the hanging of William de Breos in 1230], the Bohun and Cantelupe families joined the ranks of the leading Marcher Lords..."
--------
From Wikipedia - Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford :

Humphrey de Bohun (1208 or bef. 1208 - Warwickshire , 24 September 1275 ) was 2nd Earl of Hereford and 1st Earl of Essex , as well as Constable of England . He was the son of Henry de Bohun, 1st Earl of Hereford and Maud of Essex.

Career
He was one of the nine godfathers of Prince Edward , later to be Edward I of England .
After returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land , he was one of the writers of the Provisions of Oxford in 1258.

Marriage and children
He married c. 1236 Mahaut or Maud de Lusignan (c. 1210 - 14 August 1241 , buried at Llanthony, Gloucester ), daughter of Raoul I of Lusignan , Comte d'Eu by marriage, and second wife Alix d'Eu, 8th Comtesse d'Eu and 4th Lady of Hastings, and had issue. Their children were:
Humphrey de Bohun, predeceased his father in 1265.
Alice de Bohun , married Roger V de Toeni
Maud de Bohun , married (1) Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke ; (2) Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester

Death & burial
He died in 1275 and was buried at Llanthony Secunda , Gloucester .

Noted events in his life were:

• 7th Earl of Essex: 1236. After div. of his mother

• Constable of England:

• Sheriff of Kent:

(Duplicate Line. See Person 78)

126. Eleanor de Warenne (John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey95, William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey69, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1251.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-30

Eleanor married Sir Henry de Percy on 8 Sep 1268 in York, Yorkshire, England. Henry was born about 1235 and died on 29 Aug 1272 about age 37.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 153A-30 (Eleanor de Warenne)

127. Sir William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey 204 205 (John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey95, William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey69, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in Feb 1256 in Surrey, England and died on 15 Dec 1286 in Croyden, Middlesex, England at age 30.

Death Notes: Killed in a tournament

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871749:
"William was the hier to the Earldom of Surrey, but died before his father; having been killed in a tournament at Croyden 'ambushed and cruelly slain by his rivals'. William was knighted at Winchester in 1285."

Noted events in his life were:

• Sub-granted for life: Bromfield and Yale, castle of Dinas Bran, 1284. by his father, John de Warenne. Castle Leonis (Holt Castle) was undoubtedly still under construction at that time.

• Knighted: 1285, Winchester Castle, Winchester, (Hampshire), England.

William married Joan de Vere,240 241 daughter of Robert III de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford and Alice de Sanford, about 1285. Joan was born about 1258 in Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, died on 23 Nov 1293 about age 35, and was buried in Lewes, Surrey, England. Another name for Joan was Joan De Vere.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 83-29 has m. abt. 1285

Children from this marriage were:

+ 166 F    i. Alice de Warenne 257 died before 23 May 1338.

+ 167 M    ii. John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey 258 259 was born about 30 Jun 1286 and died on 29 Jun 1347 about age 60.

+ 168 F    iii. Angharad de Warenne, of Warren Hall, Salop 260 261 was born about 1294.

128. John de Warenne 155 (John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey95, William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey69, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: From http://www.wrexham.gov.uk/english/heritage/holt_castle.htm :

John de Warenne's successor, also John, was leader of the English forces in Scotland. In 1296 he defeated the Red Comyn and the Scottish forces at the Battle of Dunbar and deposed the Scottish King John Balliol. Edward I made de Warenne Regent of Scotland. It was a job that only brought him trouble. William Wallace led a revolt and defeated de Warenne and the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge on September 11th 1296. De Warenne was forced to flee the field of battle and make his excuses to Edward I "Longshanks".

Noted events in his life were:

• Regent of Scotland: 1296. by Edward I

• Defeated: by William Wallace, 11 Sep 1296, Battle of Sterling Bridge.

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129. Blanche, of Artois 206 (Robert I "the Good", Count of Artois96, Blanche, of Castile70, Eleanor, of England53, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born between 1245 and 1250 and died on 2 May 1302 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Another name for Blanche was Blanche de Navarre.

Research Notes: Widow of Henry I of Navarre. Second wife of Henry III. Second wife of Edmund "Crouchback."

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 45-30

Wikipedia

Blanche married Henry III, Count of Champagne and Brie, King of Navarre 262 in 1259. Henry died on 22 Jul 1274.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 45-30 (Blanche of Artois)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 169 F    i. Jeanne, of Navarre 263 was born in Jan 1272 and died on 2 Apr 1305 at age 33.


Blanche next married Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester,166 son of King Henry III, of England and Eleanor, of Provence, on 29 Oct 1276 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Edmund was born on 16 Jan 1245 in London, England, died on 5 Jun 1296 in Bayonne, France at age 51, and was buried on 15 Jul 1296 in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England.

Marriage Notes: Wikipedia has m. 3 Feb 1276.
Ancestral Roots, line 17-28, has m. bet. 18 Dec. 1275 and 19 Jan 1275/1276

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 17-28

Wikipedia:
"...soon after the forfeiture of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester in 1265, Edmund received the Earldom of Leicester and of Lancaster and also the honour of the Stewardship of England and the lands of Nicolas de Segrave.
"In 1271 he accompanied his elder brother Edward [I Longshanks] on the Ninth Crusade to Palestine. It was because of this he received the nickname Crouchback (or cross back) indicating that he was entitled to wear a cross on his back."

Much more info in Wikipedia & other sources.

Noted events in his life were:

• Created: Earl of Leicester, 1265.

• Created: Earl of Lancaster, 1267.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 100)

130. Robert II, of Artois, Count of Artois (Robert I "the Good", Count of Artois96, Blanche, of Castile70, Eleanor, of England53, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

131. Eleanor, of England (King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 18 Jun 1269, died on 29 Aug 1298 at age 29, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England. Another name for Eleanor was Eleanor Plantagenet.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1269-1298) :

Eleanor of England (18 June 1269 - 29 August 1298 ), was the eldest surviving daughter of Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile .
For a long period she was betrothed to King Alphonso III of Aragon (d. 18 June 1291 ). However, Alphonso's death occurred before the marriage could take place.
Eleanor subsequently married the French nobleman, Henry III, Count of Bar in 1293, as a means of allying Bar and England against the Kings of France. Eleanor and Henry had three surviving children:
Edward I of Bar (1284-1336), comte de Bar
Eleanor (b. 1285), who married Llewelyn ap Owain
Jeanne (1295-1361), who married John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey . The marriage was annulled 1315. Jeanne became regent of Bar from 1354
Eleanor pre-deceased her husband and was buried 12 October 1298 in Westminster Abbey .

Eleanor married Henry III, Count of Bar on 20 Sep 1283 in Bristol, England. Henry was born in 1259 in Naples, Italy and died in Sep 1302 at age 43.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Henry III, Count of Bar :

Henry III of Bar (Henri III de Bar, 1259 -Naples , September 1302 ) was Count of Bar from 1291 to 1302. He was son of Thibault II of Bar and Jeanne de Toucy.

Life
His introduction to military life came as he was made a knight in a conflict between his father and the Bishop of Metz . He then served Ferry III of Lorraine . He was preparing to go on crusade when his father died.
In 1284 Jeanne de Navarre , countess of Champagne, had married the future Philip IV of France , making the county of Bar adjacent to the French royal domain. Henry's reaction was a marriage to Eleanor , daughter of Edward I of England . When war broke out in short order between France and England, Henry was drawn in. The fighting ceased after the 1301 Treaty of Bruges . Under its terms, Henry gave up some fortresses and paid homage to Philip for part of his lands, then called the Barrois mouvant . He also undertook to fight in Cyprus against the Muslim forces.
Henry therefore made his way to the Kingdom of Naples . In assisting Charles II of Naples against the invading forces of Frederick I of Sicily , he was wounded in fighting, and died soon afterwards.

Family
He married at Bristol on 20 September 1283 Eleanor of England (1269-1298) , daughter of Edward I of England , and Eleanor of Castile . Their children were :
Edward I of Bar (1284-1336), comte de Bar
Eleanor (b. 1285), who married Llewelyn ap Owain
Jeanne (1295-1361), who married John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey . The marriage was annulled 1315. Jeanne became regent of Bar from 1354.

Source
Georges Poull (1994), La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar


Children from this marriage were:

+ 170 M    i. Edward I, of Bar, Comte de Bar was born in 1284 and died in 1336 at age 52.

+ 171 F    ii. Eleanor was born in 1285.

+ 172 F    iii. Jeanne was born in 1295 and died in 1361 at age 66.

132. Joan, of Acre 209 210 (King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1272 in Acre, Syria and died on 23 Apr 1307 at age 35. Another name for Joan was Joanna of Acre.

Research Notes: Second wife of Sir Gilbert de Clare.

From Wikipedia - Joan of Acre :
Joan of Acre (April 1272 - April 23 , 1307 ) was the daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor . She is most notable for her marriage to Ralph de Monthermer and the claim that miracles have allegedly taken place at her grave. She is also notable for the multiple references of her in literature.

Birth and Childhood
Joan, or Joanna, of Acre as she is sometimes referred to, was born in the spring of 1272 in Syria, while her parents, King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castille, were on the crusade .[2] She was the only English princess to be born outside of her native land, in the city of Acre, where her name derives from.[3] Her parents departed from Acre shortly after her birth, traveling to Sicily and Spain[4] before leaving Joan with her grandmother in Ponthieu, France.[5] Joan lived for several years in France where she spent her time being educated by a bishop and "being thoroughly spoiled by an indulgent grandmother."[6] Joan was free to play among the "vine clad hills and sunny vales"[7] surrounding her grandmother's home, although she required "judicious surveillance."[8]

As Joan was growing up with her grandmother, her father was back in England, already arranging marriages for his daughter. He wanted to gain both political power and more wealth with his daughter, so he conducted the arrangement in a very "business like style".[9] He finally found a man suitable to marry Joan (aged 5 at the time), Hartman, son of King Rudoph I, of Germany. Edward then brought her home from France for the first time to meet him.[10] As she had spent her entire life away from Edward and Eleanor, when she returned she "stood in no awe of her parents"[11] and had a fairly distanced relationship with them.

Unfortunately for King Edward, his daughter's suitor died before he was able to meet or marry Joan. The news reported that Hartman had fallen through a patch of shallow ice while "amusing himself in skating" while a letter sent to the King himself stated that Hartman had set out on a boat to visit his father amidst a terrible fog and the boat had smashed into a rock, drowning him.[12]

First Marriage
Edward arranged a second marriage almost immediately after the death of Hartman.[13] Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, who was almost thirty years older than Joan and newly divorced was his first choice.[14] The earl resigned his lands to Edward upon agreeing to get them back when he married Joan, as well as agreed on a dower of two thousand silver marks.[15] By the time all of these negotiations were finished, Joan was twelve years old.[16] Gilbert de Clare became very enamored with Joan, and even though she had to marry him regardless of how she felt, he still tried to woo her.[17] He bought her expensive gifts and clothing to try to win favor with her.[18] The couple were married on April 30th, 1290 at Westminster Abbey, and had four children together.[19]

They were:
Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Hertford
Eleanor de Clare
Margaret de Clare
Elizabeth de Clare
Joan's first husband, Gilbert de Clare died on December 7th, 1295.[20]

Secret Second Marriage
Joan had been a widow for only a little over a year when she caught the eye of Ralph de Monthermer , a squire in Joan's father's household.[21] Joan fell in love and convinced her father to have Monthermer knighted. It was unheard of in European royalty for one in power to even converse with a man who had not won or acquired importance in the household. However, in January during the year of 1297, the couple was secretly married.[22] Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, and Joan of Acre blind-sided her father with this secret while he was already planning another marriage for his daughter to Amadeus V, Count of Savoy.[23] The arrangements for this marriage were quickly made through written letters. The date was to be March 16th, 1297. Joan of Acre was in dangerous predicament, as she was already a wedded wife, unbeknownst to her father. She sent her son and little daughters over to Edward I, their grandfather, in hopes that their sweetness would serve in her favor. However, her plan did not work.[24] He soon found out the intentions his daughter had, but did not realize she had already committed them.[25]
Upon finding out, he took all of Joan's lands into his own hands and continued on with his planning of the arranged marriage between Joan and Amadeus of Savoy.[26]
Soon after the seizure of her lands, Joan told her father of the official marriage between her and Monthermer. He was enraged and retaliated by immediately throwing Monthermer in prison at Bristol Castle .[27] The people of the land had differing opinions on the princess' matter, however, and has been argued that ones who were most upset were those who wanted Joan's hand in marriage.[28]

With regard to the matter, Joan famously said, "It is not considered ignominious, nor disgraceful for a great earl to take a poor and mean woman to wife; neither, on the other hand, is it worthy of blame, or too difficult a thing to promote to honor a gallant youth."[29] It is said that not only this claim, but the possibility of the appearance of a pregnant stomach seemed to soften Edward's attitude towards the situation.[30]
At last, her father relented for the sake of his daughter and released Monthermer from prison in August 1297.[31] Monthermer paid homage August 2nd and getting the title of Earl of Gloucester and Earl of Hertford , rose to favor with the King during Joan's lifetime. [32]. Monthermer and Joan had four children:

Mary de Monthermer, born October 1297. In 1306 her grandfather King Edward I arranged for her to wed Duncan Macduff, 8th Earl of Fife .
Joan de Monthermer, born 1299, became a nun at Amesbury .
Thomas de Monthermer , 2nd Baron Monthermer, born 1301.
Edward de Monthermer, born 1304 and died 1339.

Relationship With Family
Acre was the seventh child of Edward I and Eleanor's fourteen children. Most of her older siblings died before the age of seven, and many of her younger siblings died before adulthood.[33] Of the survivors, included were Joan, four of her sisters, and her younger brother, Edward (later Edward II , King of England). [34]

Acre, like her siblings, was raised outside her family's household. She lived with her grandmother while her parents were on the crusade.[35] Edward I did not have a close relationship with most of his children while they were growing up, yet "he seemed fonder of his daughters than his sons."[36] In fact, most of the children who made it to adulthood were Edward's daughters.[37]

However, Acre's independent nature caused numerous conflicts between her and her father. Her father disapproved of her leaving court after her marriage to the Earl of Gloucester, and in turn "seized seven robes that had been made for her."[38] He also strongly disapproved of her second marriage to Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household, even to the point of attempting to force her to marry someone else.[39][40] While Edward ultimately developed a cordial relationship with Monthermer, even giving him the title of Earl [41], there appears to have been a notable difference in the Edward's treatment of Joan as compared to the treatment of the rest of her siblings. For instance, her father famously paid messengers substantially when they brought news of the birth of grandchildren, but did not do this upon birth of Acre's daughter.[42]

In terms of her siblings, Acre kept a fairly tight bond. She and Monthermer both maintained a close relationship with her brother, Edward II, which was maintained through letters. After Edward II became estranged from his parents and lost his royal seal, "Joan offered to lend him her seal" instead.[43]

Death
Joan of Acre died on April 23, 1307.[44] The cause of her death remains unclear, though one popular theory is that she died during childbirth, a common cause of death at the time. However, historians have not confirmed this to be her cause of death.[45]

Less than four months after her death, Joan's father, Edward I died. Ralph de Monthermer was stripped of his title of Earl soon after the deaths of his wife and father in law, and the title was given to Joan's son from her first marriage, Gilbert.[46]
Joan's burial place has been the cause of some interest and debate. Allegedly, in 1357, Joan's daughter, Elizabeth De Burgh, claimed to have "inspected her mother's body and found the corpse to be intact,"[47]an indication of sanctity. Some sources claim that miracles have taken place at her tomb, from a cure of the toothache to the fever, which was often fatal at the time. [48]

Joan married Sir Gilbert de Clare, 9th Earl of Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford,43 242 243 son of Sir Richard de Clare, 8th Earl of Clare and Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, about 30 Apr 1290 in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England. Gilbert was born on 2 Sep 1243 in Christchurch, Hampshire (Dorset), England, died on 7 Dec 1295 in Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire, Wales at age 52, and was buried on 22 Dec 1295 in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert "the Red" de Clare 9th Earl of Clare.

Research Notes: First husband of Joan of Acre.

From Wikipedia - Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford :

Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester (2 September 1243 , at Christchurch , Hampshire - 7 December 1295 ) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare, probably because of his hair colour.

Lineage
Gilbert de Clare was the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and Maud de Lacy , Countess of Lincoln , daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy . Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan , from 1263.

Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford .

Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury
In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury [1], as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester .

Gilbert de Clare's castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III . However, the King allowed de Clare's Countess Alice de Lusignan , who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece; but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.

The Battle of Lewes
Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes , on 14 May , Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the second line of the battle and took the King prisoner, having hamstrung his horse. As Prince Edward had also been captured, Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.

Excommunication
On 20 October 1264 , de Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Guy Foulques , and his lands placed under an interdict .

In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol , the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester .

Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July , and in the Battle of Evesham , 4 August , in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.

On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.

Activities as a Marcher Lord
In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock .

At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last , his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence.

At the death of Henry III , 16 November 1272 , the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I , who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade . The next day, with the Archbishop of York , he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews , and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.

Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle .

The Welsh war in 1282
During Llywelyn the Last 's Welsh rebellion in 1282, de Clare insisted on leading an attack into southern Wales. King Edward thus made de Clare the commander of the southern army invading Wales. However de Clare's army faced disaster after being heavily defeated at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr . Following this defeat, de Clare was relieved of his position as the southern commander and was replaced by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (who's son had died during the battle).

Marriage and succession
Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan , also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that had now succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They were married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten-years-old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry , but the marriage floundered.

Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267; allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward . Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters:
Isabel de Clare (10 March 1262 -1333), married (1) Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick ; (2) Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley
Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife ; (2) Gervase Avenel
After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was finally annulled in 1285, Gilbert was to be married to Joan of Acre , a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile . King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.

On 3 July 1290 the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307 ). The delay was in getting the Pope to facilitate and agree the arrangement.

Thereafter Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land , but in September he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff .

Gilbert and Joan had one son - his successor Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester (1291-1314) who was killed at Bannockburn, and 3 daughters: Eleanor (1292-1337) who married firstly Hugh Despencer (The Younger, favourite of her uncle Edward II)-he was executed in 1326, and she married secondly William de la Zouche; Margaret (1293-1342) who married firstly Piers Gaveston (executed in 1312) and then Hugh Audeley; and the youngest Elizabeth de Clare (16 Sep 1295 -04 Nov 1360), who married John de Burgh , 30th Sept 1308, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England, then Theobald of Verdun in 1316, and finally Roger Damory in 1317. Each marriage was brief, produced one child (a son by the 1st, daughters by the 2nd and 3rd), and left her a widow.

Private Marcher War
In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford , Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford , grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock , where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester , as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.

They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

Death & Burial
He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295 , and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey , on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare .
His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Gilbert and Joan had a descendant named Ursula Hildyard of Yorkshire, who in 1596 married (Sir) Richard Jackson of Killingwoldgraves, near Beverley in the East Riding. Jackson died in 1610 and was interred at Bishop Burton. In 1613, James posthumously awarded a coat of arms and a knighthood to Richard for meretorious military service in the Lowlands of Scotland.

Noted events in his life were:

• 3rd Earl of Gloucester:

• 7th Earl of Hertford:

• Knighted: 14 May 1264.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 173 F    i. Eleanor de Clare 43 264 265 was born on 3 Oct 1292 in Caerphilly, Glamorgan, Wales, died on 30 Jun 1337 at age 44, and was buried in Tewkesbury, Wiltshire, England.

133. Margaret Plantagenet (King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 15 Mar 1275 and died in 1318 at age 43.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Edward I of England

134. Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England 211 212 213 (King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 7 Aug 1282 in Rhuddlan Castle, Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales, died on 5 May 1316 in Quendon, Essex, England at age 33, and was buried in Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. Other names for Elizabeth were Elizabeth Princess of England, Elizabeth of England, and Elizabeth Plantagenet of Rhuddlan.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia or some other source has b. 7 Aug 1282 or 1281. Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry, Edited by Thomas Allen Glenn at the request of Howard Reifsnyder, privately printed, Philadelphia, 1902, provided by http://books.google.com, p. 31 has b. 1284.

Death Notes: Per Wikipedia, died in childbirth

Research Notes: From Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry, p. 49:

"I. THE PRINCESS ELIZABETH PLANTAGENET, daughter of Edward I by his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, was born at Rudlan Castle, in Flintshire, 1284. She married, first, in London, John, Earl of Holland, who died without issue two years after his marriage; and secondly, Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Lord High Constable of England. By her second husband she had a son: William de Bohun.
---------
From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Rhuddlan :

Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet) (7 August 1282 Rhuddlan Castle - 5 May 1316 Quendon )

Born the eighth daughter of Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile . Of all her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother Edward II of England , as they were only two years apart in age.

In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth's betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland . The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 January 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich . In attendance at the marriage were Elizabeth's sister Margaret , her father, Edward I of England , her brother Edward , and Humphrey de Bohun . After the wedding Elizabeth was expected to go to Holland with her husband, but did not wish to go, leaving her husband to go alone.

After some time travelling England , it was decided Elizabeth should follow her husband. Her father accompanied her, travelling through Antwerp , Malines , Louvain and Brussels , before ending up in Ghent . There they remained for a few months, spending Christmas with her two sister's Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar and Margaret Plantagenet . On 10 November 1299 , John died of dysentery , though there were rumours of his being murdered. No children had been born from the marriage.

On her return trip to England , Elizabeth went through Brabant to see her sister Margaret. When she arrived in England , she met her step mother Margaret of France , whom Edward had married whilst she was in Holland . Reportedly, they became inseparable. On 14 November 1302 Elizabeth was married to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford , 3rd of Essex, also Constable of England , at Westminster Abbey .

During Christmas 1315 Elizabeth, who was pregnant with her 10th child, was visited by her sister-in-law Isabella of France . This was a great honour, but the stress of it may have caused unknown health problems that later contributed to Elizabeth's death in childbirth. On 5 May 1316 she went into labour, giving birth to her daughter Isabella. Both Elizabeth and Isabella died shortly after the birthing, and were buried together in Waltham Abbey .

The children of Elizabeth and Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford are:
Hugh de Bohun (September 1303 - 1305 )
Eleanor de Bohun (October 1304 - 1363 ), married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth , 1st Baron Dagworth.
Humphrey de Bohun (b&d 1305 )
John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (23 November 1306 - 1335 )
Agnes de Bohun, (November 1309 - ), married Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Chartley
Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (6 December about 1309 - 1361 )
Margaret de Bohun (3 April 1311 - 1391 ), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon
William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312 - 1360 ). Twin of Edward. Married Elizabeth de Badlesmere.
Edward de Bohun (1312 - 1334 ). Twin of William.
Eneas de Bohun, (1314 - after 1322 ), when he's mentioned in his father's will.
Isabel de Bohun (b&d 5 May 1316 )

Elizabeth married John, Count of Holland and Zealand.

Death Notes: Died two years after his marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, without issue.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 7-29 (Elizabeth)



Elizabeth next married Humphrey VIII de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex,266 267 son of Humphrey VII de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford & 2nd Earl of Essex and Maud de Fiennes, on 14 Nov 1302 in Westminster Palace, London, England. Humphrey was born about 1276 in Pleshey Castle, Essex, England and died on 16 Mar 1322 in Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England about age 46. Another name for Humphrey was Humphrey VIII de Bohun 4th Earl of Hereford.

Death Notes: At the Battle of Boroughbridge, murdered in an ambush by the Welsh.

Research Notes: Ancestral Roots, Line 97-31 has b. abt 1276, slain at Boroughbridge, 16 Mar 1321/2, 4th Earl of Hereford and Essex, Lord High Constable of England.
----------
From Wikipedia - Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford

Humphrey VIII de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276 - March 16 , 1321 /1322 ) was a member of an important Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II 's excesses.

Family Background
Humphrey de Bohun's birth year is uncertain although several contemporary sources indicate that it was 1276. His father was Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and his mother was Maud de Fiennes , daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes . He was born at Pleshey Castle located in Essex , England.

Humphrey de Bohun VIII succeeded his father as Earl of Hereford and Earl of Essex , and Constable of England (later called Lord High Constable ). Humphrey held the title of Bearer of the Swan Badge, a heraldic device passed down in the de Bohun family. This device did not appear on their coat of arms, (az, a bend ar cotised or, between 6 lioncels or) nor their crest (gu, doubled erm, a lion gardant crowned), but it does appear on his personal seal.

Scotland
Humphrey was one of several earls and barons under Edward I who laid siege to Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1300 and later took part in many campaigns in Scotland. He also loved tourneying and gained a reputation as an "elegant" fop. In one of the campaigns in Scotland Humphrey evidently grew bored and departed England for a tournament along with Piers Gaveston and other young barons and knights. On return all of them fell under Edward I's wrath for desertion, but were forgiven. It is probable that Gaveston's friend, Edward (the future Edward II) had given them permission to depart.

Later Humphrey became one of Gaveston's and Edward II's bitterest opponents. He would also have been associating with young Robert Bruce during the early campaigns in Scotland, since Bruce, like many other Scots and Border men, moved back and forth from English allegiance to Scottish. (NOTE: Robert Bruce, King Robert I of Scotland, is closely connected to de Bohun. Between the time that he swore his last fealty to Edward I in 1302 and his defection four years later, Bruce stayed for the most part in Annandale , rebuilding his castle of Lochmaben in stone, making use of its natural moat. Rebelling and taking the crown of Scotland in February, 1306, Bruce was forced to fight a war against England which went poorly for him at first, while Edward I still lived. After nearly all his family were killed or captured he had to flee to the isle of Rathlin , Ireland. His properties in England and Scotland were confiscated.)

Humphrey de Bohun received many of Robert Bruce's forfeited properties. It is unknown whether Humphrey was a long-time friend or enemy of Robert Bruce, but they were nearly the same age and the lands of the two families in Essex and Middlesex lay very close to each other. After Bruce's self-exile, de Bohun took Lochmaben and Edward I awarded him Annandale and the castle. During this period of chaos Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh , daughter of the Earl of Ulster, was captured by Edward I and taken prisoner, and Hereford and his wife Elizabeth later became her custodians. She was exchanged for Humphrey after Bannockburn in 1314. Lochmaben was from time to time retaken by the Scots but remained in the de Bohun family for many years, in the hands of Humphrey's son William, Earl of Northampton , who held and defended it until his death in 1360...

...Ordainer
Like his father, grandfather, and great-great-grandfather, this Humphrey de Bohun was careful to insist that the king obey Magna Carta , Habeas Corpus , and the other baronially-established safeguards against monarchic tyranny. He was a leader of the reform movements that promulgated the Ordinances of 1311 and fought to insure their execution.
The subsequent revival of royal authority and the ascendancy of the Despensers (Hugh the elder and younger ) led de Bohun and other barons to rebel against the king again in 1322. De Bohun had special reason for opposing the Despensers, for he had lost some of his estates in the Welsh Marches to their rapacity.

Death at Boroughbridge
The rebel forces were halted by loyalist troops at the wooden bridge at Boroughbridge , Yorkshire, where Humphrey de Bohun, leading an attempt to storm the bridge, met his death on March 16, 1322.

Although the details have been called into question by a few historians, his death may have been particularly gory. As recounted in The Greatest Traitor by Ian Mortimer, page 124:

"[The 4th Earl of] Hereford led the fight on the bridge, but he and his men were caught in the arrow fire. Then one of de Harclay's pikemen, concealed beneath the bridge, thrust upwards between the planks and skewered the Earl of Hereford through the anus, twisting the head of the iron pike into his intestines. His dying screams turned the advance into a panic."'

Humphrey de Bohun may have contributed to the failure of the reformers' aims. There is evidence that he suffered for some years, especially after his countess's death in 1316, from clinical depression. [1]

Marriage and children
His marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet), daughter of King Edward I of England and his first Queen consort Eleanor of Castile , on November 14 , 1302 , at Westminster gained him the lands of Berkshire.
Elizabeth had an unknown number of children, probably ten, by Humphrey de Bohun.

Until the earl's death the boys of the family, possibly the girls, were given a classical education under the tutelage of a Sicilian Greek, Master "Digines" (Diogenes), who may have been Humphrey de Bohun's boyhood tutor. He was evidently well-educated, a book collector and scholar, interests his son Humphrey and daughter Margaret (Courtenay) inherited.
Mary or Margaret (the first-born Margaret) and the first-born Humphrey were lost in infancy and are buried in the same sarcophagus in Westminster Abbey. Since fraternal twins were known in the Castilian royal family of Elizabeth Bohun, who gave birth to a pair who lived to manhood, Mary (Margaret?) and Humphrey, see next names, may have been twins, but that is uncertain. The name of a possible lost third child, if any, is unknown--and unlikely.

Hugh de Bohun? This name appears only in one Medieval source which gives Bohun names (see Flores Historiarum) and was a probably a copyist error for "Humphrey". It was never used by the main branch of the Bohuns in England. (Le Melletier, q.v., 16-17, 38-45, 138, in his comprehensive research into this family, cites no one named Hugh Bohun.) Date unknown, but after 1302 since she and Humphrey did not marry until late in 1302.
Humphrey de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Mary or Margaret) Infant.
Mary or Margaret de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Humphrey) Infant.

John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (About 1307 - 1336 )
Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (About 1309 to 1311 - 1361 ).
Margaret de Bohun (About 1308-1310 - 1391), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon Gave birth to about 16 to 18 children (including an Archbishop, a sea commander and pirate, and more than one Knight of the Garter) and died in her eighties.
William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (About 1310-1312 -1360 ). Twin of Edward.
Edward de Bohun (About 1310-1312 -1334 ). Twin of William. Married Margaret, daughter of William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros , but they had no children. He served in his ailing elder brother's stead as Constable of England. He was close friend of young Edward III, and died a heroic death attempting to rescue a drowning man-at-arms from a Scottish river while on campaign.
Eleanor de Bohun (birth date unknown, could have been as late as 1314 or 15 - 1363 ) [2], married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth , 1st Baron Dagworth.
Eneas de Bohun, (Birth date unknown, died after 1322, when he's mentioned in his father's will). Nothing known of him. Name may reflect his father's classical education or the Earl's Welsh connections; could be either.
Isabel de Bohun (b. May ? , 1316 ). Elizabeth died in childbirth, and this child died on that day or very soon after. Buried with her mother in Waltham Abbey, Essex.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 174 F    i. Eleanor de Bohun 268 was born in Oct 1304 and died on 7 Oct 1363 at age 59.

+ 175 M    ii. John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford was born on 23 Nov 1306 and died in 1335 at age 29.

+ 176 F    iii. Agnes de Bohun was born in Nov 1309.

+ 177 M    iv. Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford 269 was born on 6 Dec 1309, died on 15 Oct 1361 in Pleshey Castle, Essex, England at age 51, and was buried in Friars Augustine, London.

+ 178 F    v. Margaret de Bohun 47 270 was born on 3 Apr 1311 in Caldecote, Northamptonshire, England, died on 16 Dec 1391 in Exeter, Devonshire, England at age 80, and was buried in Exeter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.

+ 179 M    vi. Sir William de Bohun, K.G., 1st Earl of Northampton 271 272 was born about 1311 and died on 16 Sep 1360 about age 49.

+ 180 M    vii. Edward de Bohun 267 was born in 1312 and died in 1334 at age 22.

+ 181 M    viii. Eneas de Bohun was born about 1313 and died after 1322.


135. KingEdward II, of England 214 215 (King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarfon Castle, Caernarfonshire, Gwynedd, Wales, died on 21 Sep 1327 in <Berkeley Castle, > near Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England at age 43, and was buried in Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England. Another name for Edward was Edward of Caenarvon.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Edward II of England :

Edward II, (April 25 , 1284 - September 21 , 1327 ) of Caernarfon , was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January 1327. His tendency to ignore his nobility in favour of low-born favourites led to constant political unrest and his eventual deposition. Edward is perhaps best remembered for his murder and his alleged homosexuality .
Edward II was the first monarch to establish colleges in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge ; he founded Cambridge's King's Hall in 1317 and gave Oxford's Oriel College its royal charter in 1326. Both colleges received the favour of Edward's son, Edward III , who confirmed Oriel's charter in 1327 and refounded King's Hall in 1337.

Prince of Wales
The fourth son of Edward I of England by his first wife Eleanor of Castile , Edward II was born at Caernarfon Castle . He was the first English prince to hold the title of the Prince of Wales , which was formalized by the Lincoln Parliament of February 7 , 1301 .
The story that his father presented Edward II as a newborn to the Welsh as their future native prince is unfounded (the Welsh would have asked the King to give them a prince that spoke Welsh , and he would have answered he would give them a prince that spoke no English at all); the story first appeared in the work of 16th century Welsh "antiquary " David Powel [citation needed ].
Edward became heir at just a few months old, following the death of his elder brother Alphonso . His father, a notable military leader, trained his heir in warfare and statecraft starting in his childhood, yet the young Edward preferred boating and craftsman work - activities thought beneath kings at the time...

On January 25 , 1308 , Edward married Isabella of France , the daughter of King Philip IV of France , "Philip the Fair," and sister to three French kings. The marriage was doomed to failure almost from the beginning. Isabella was frequently neglected by her husband, who spent much of his time conspiring with his favourites regarding how to limit the powers of the Peerage in order to consolidate his father's legacy for himself. Nevertheless, their marriage produced two sons, Edward (1312-1377), who would succeed his father on the throne as Edward III, and John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall (1316-1336), and two daughters, Eleanor (1318-1355) and Joanna (1321-1362), wife of David II of Scotland . Edward had also fathered at least one illegitimate son, Adam FitzRoy , who accompanied his father in the Scottish campaigns of 1322 and died on 18 September 1322 .

[edit ] War with the Barons
When Edward travelled to the northern French city of Boulogne to marry Isabella, he left his friend and counsellor Gaveston to act as regent. Gaveston also received the earldom of Cornwall and the hand of the king's niece, Margaret of Gloucester; these proved to be costly honours.
Various barons grew resentful of Gaveston, and insisted on his banishment through the Ordinances of 1311 . Edward recalled his friend, but in 1312, Gaveston was executed by the Earl of Lancaster and his allies, who claimed that Gaveston led the king to folly. (Gaveston was run through and beheaded on Blacklow Hill, outside the small village of Leek Wootton , where a monument called Gaveston's Cross still stands today).
Immediately following, Edward focused on the destruction of those who had betrayed him, while the barons themselves lost impetus (with Gaveston dead, they saw little need to continue). By mid-July, Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was advising the king to make war on the barons who, unwilling to risk their lives, entered negotiations in September 1312. In October, the Earls of Lancaster, Warwick, Arundel and Hereford begged Edward's pardon.

[edit ] Conflict with Scotland
During this period, Robert the Bruce was steadily re-conquering Scotland . Each campaign begun by Edward, from 1307 to 1314, ended in Robert's clawing back more of the land that Edward I had taken during his long reign. Robert's military successes against Edward II were due to a number of factors, not the least of which was the Scottish King's strategy. He used small forces to trap an invading English army, he took castles by stealth to preserve his troops and he used the land itself as a weapon against Edward by attacking quickly and then disappearing into the hills before facing the superior numbers of the English. Castle by castle, Robert the Bruce rebuilt Scotland and united the country against its common enemy. Indeed, Robert is quoted as saying that he feared more the dead Edward I than the living Edward II. Thus, by June 1314, only Stirling Castle and Berwick remained under English control.
On 23 June 1314 , Edward and his army of 20,000 foot soldiers and 3000 cavalry faced Robert and his army of foot soldiers and farmers wielding 14 foot long pikes. Edward knew he had to keep the critical stronghold of Stirling Castle if there was to be any chance for English military success. The castle, however, was under a constant state of siege, and the English commander, Sir Phillip de Mowbray, had advised Edward that he would surrender the castle to the Scots unless Edward arrived by June 24 , 1314 , to relieve the siege. Edward could not afford to lose his last forward castle in Scotland. He decided therefore to gamble his entire army to break the siege and force the Scots to a final battle by putting its army into the field.
However, Edward had made a serious mistake in thinking that his vastly superior numbers alone would provide enough of a strategic advantage to defeat the Scots. Robert not only had the advantage of prior warning, as he knew the actual day that Edward would come north and fight, he also had the time to choose the field of battle most advantageous to the Scots and their style of combat. As Edward moved forward on the main road to Stirling, Robert placed his army on either side of the road north, one in the dense woods and the other placed on a bend on the river, a spot hard for the invading army to see. Robert also ordered his men to dig potholes and cover them with bracken in order to help break any cavalry charge.
By contrast, Edward did not issue his writs of service, calling upon 21,540 men, until May 27 , 1314 . Worse, his army was ill-disciplined and had seen little success in eight years of campaigns. On the eve of battle, he decided to move his entire army at night and placed it in a marshy area, with its cavalry laid out in nine squadrons in front of the foot soldiers. The following battle, the Battle of Bannockburn , is considered by contemporary scholars to be the worst defeat sustained by the English since the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Tactics similar to Robert's were employed by victorious English armies against the French in later centuries, partly as a direct result of the enduring decisiveness of the Scots' victory. A young Henry V of England would use this exact tactic against French cavalry in a key battle on the fields of Agincourt in 1415, winning the day and the war against France.[citation needed ]...

[edit ] End of the Despensers
Reprisals against Edward's allies began immediately thereafter. The Earl of Arundel, an old enemy of Roger Mortimer, was beheaded; this was followed by the trial and execution of Despenser.
Despenser was brutally executed and a huge crowd gathered in anticipation at seeing him die. They dragged him from his horse, stripped him, and scrawled Biblical verses against corruption and arrogance on his skin. They then led him into the city, presenting him in the market square to Roger, Isabella, and the Lancastrians. He was then condemned to hang as a thief, be castrated , and then be drawn and quartered as a traitor, his quarters to be dispersed through England.

[edit ] Abdication
With the King imprisoned, Mortimer and the Queen faced the problem of what to do with him. The simplest solution would be execution: his titles would then pass to Edward of Windsor, whom Isabella could control, while it would also prevent the possibility of his being restored. Execution would require the King to be tried and convicted of treason: and while most Lords agreed that Edward had failed to show due attention to his country, several Prelates argued that, appointed by God, the King could not be legally deposed or executed; if this happened, they said, God would punish the country. Thus, at first, it was decided to have Edward imprisoned for life instead.
However, the fact remained that the legality of power still lay with the King. Isabella had been given the Great Seal, and was using it to rule in the names of the King, herself, and their son as appropriate; nonetheless, these actions were illegal, and could at any moment be challenged.
In these circumstances, Parliament chose to act as an authority above the King. Representatives of the House of Commons were summoned, and debates began. The Archbishop of York and others declared themselves fearful of the London mob, loyal to Roger Mortimer. Others wanted the King to speak in Parliament and openly abdicate , rather than be deposed by the Queen and her General. Mortimer responded by commanding the Mayor of London , Richard de Bethune, to write to Parliament, asking them to go to the Guildhall to swear an oath to protect the Queen and Prince Edward, and to depose the King. Mortimer then called the great lords to a secret meeting that night, at which they gave their unanimous support to the deposition of the King.
Eventually Parliament agreed to remove the King. However, for all that Parliament had agreed that the King should no longer rule, they had not deposed him. Rather, their decision made, Edward was asked to accept it.
On January 20, Edward II was informed at Kenilworth Castle of the charges brought against him. The King was guilty of incompetence; allowing others to govern him to the detriment of the people and Church; not listening to good advice and pursuing occupations unbecoming to a monarch; having lost Scotland and lands in Gascony and Ireland through failure of effective governance; damaging the Church , and imprisoning its representatives; allowing nobles to be killed, disinherited, imprisoned and exiled; failing to ensure fair justice, instead governing for profit and allowing others to do likewise; and of fleeing in the company of a notorious enemy of the realm, leaving it without government, and thereby losing the faith and trust of his people. Edward, profoundly shocked by this judgement, wept while listening. He was then offered a choice: he might abdicate in favour of his son; or he might resist, and relinquish the throne to one not of royal blood, but experienced in government - this, presumably, being Roger Mortimer. The King, lamenting that his people had so hated his rule, agreed that if the people would accept his son, he would abdicate in his favour. The lords, through the person of Sir William Trussel, then renounced their homage to him, and the reign of Edward II ended.
The abdication was announced and recorded in London on January 24, and the following day was proclaimed the first of the reign of Edward III - who, at 14, was still controlled by Isabella and Mortimer. The former King Edward remained imprisoned.

Death

Edward II's tomb at Gloucester Cathedral
The government of Isabella and Mortimer was so precarious that they dared not leave the deposed king in the hands of their political enemies. On April 3, Edward II was removed from Kenilworth and entrusted to the custody of two dependents of Mortimer, then later imprisoned at Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire where, it is generally believed, he was murdered by an agent of Isabella and Mortimer...

Following the public announcement of the king's death, the rule of Isabella and Mortimer did not last long. Mortimer and Isabella made peace with the Scots in the Treaty of Northampton , but this move was highly unpopular. Consequently, when Edward III came of age in 1330, he executed Roger Mortimer on fourteen charges of treason, most significantly the murder of Edward II (thereby removing any public doubt about his father's survival). Edward III spared his mother and gave her a generous allowance, but ensured that she retired from public life for several years. She died at Hertford on August 23 , 1358 .

Noted events in his life were:

• King of England: 1307-1327.

Edward married Isabella, of France,273 274 daughter of Philip IV, King of France and Jeanne, of Navarre, on 25 Jan 1308 in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Isabella was born about 1295 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France and died on 22 Aug 1358 about age 63.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 101-31 has b. 1292, d. 27 Aug 1357, m. Boulogne, 28 Jan 1308. But see "Notes" from Wikipedia below.

From Wikipedia - Isabella of France :

Isabella of France (c.1295 - August 22 , 1358 ), Queen consort of England, known as the She-Wolf of France,[1] was the Queen consort of Edward II of England . She was a member of the House of Capet .


Biography

Isabella was born in Paris on an uncertain date - probably between May and November 1295 [2] - the daughter of King Philip IV of France and Queen Jeanne of Navarre , and the sister of three French kings. While still an infant, her father had promised her in marriage to Edward II to resolve the conflicts between France and England over the latter's continental possession of Gascony and claims to Anjou, Normandy and Aquitaine. Pope Boniface VIII had urged the marriage as early as 1298 but was delayed by wrangling over the terms of the marriage contract. The English king, Edward I had also attempted to break the engagement several times. Only after he died in 1307 did the wedding go forward.


Her groom, the new King Edward II , looked the part of a Plantagenet king to perfection. He was tall and athletic, and wildly popular at the beginning of his reign. She married Edward at Boulogne-sur-Mer on January 25 , 1308 . Since he had ascended the throne the previous year, Isabella never was titled Princess of Wales...

Edward and Isabella produced four children, and she suffered at least one miscarriage . The itineraries of Edward II and Queen Isabella also show that they were together 9 months prior to the births of all four surviving offspring. Their children were:
Edward of Windsor , born 1312
John of Eltham , born 1316
Eleanor of Woodstock , born 1318, married Reinoud II of Guelders
Joan of the Tower , born 1321, married David II of Scotland

... When her brother, King Charles IV of France , seized Edward's French possessions in 1325, she returned to France, initially as a delegate of the King charged with negotiating a peace treaty between the two countries. However, her presence in France became a focal point for the many nobles opposed to Edward's reign and she gathered an army to oppose Edward, in alliance with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March , who had become her lover. Enraged by this, Edward demanded that Isabella return to England. Her brother, King Charles, replied, "The queen has come of her own will and may freely return if she wishes. But if she prefers to remain here, she is my sister and I refuse to expel her."
Despite this public show of support by the King of France, Isabella and Mortimer left the French court in summer 1326 and went to William I, Count of Hainaut in Holland (his wife was Isabella's cousin). William provided them with eight men of war (ships) in return for a marriage contract between his daughter Philippa and Isabella's son, Edward . On September 21 , 1326 Isabella and Mortimer landed in Suffolk with an army (most of whom were mercenaries ). King Edward offered a reward for their deaths, and is rumoured to have even carried a knife in his hose with which to kill his wife. Isabella responded by offering twice as much money for the head of Hugh the younger Despenser (this reward was issued from Wallingford Castle ).

The invasion by Isabella and Mortimer was successful: King Edward's few allies deserted him without a battle; the Despensers were killed, and Edward himself was captured and forced to abdicate in favour of his eldest son, Edward III of England . Since the young king was only fourteen when he was crowned on 1 February 1327 , Isabella and Mortimer ruled as regents in his place.

... When Edward III attained his majority (at the age of 18) he, and a few trusted companions, staged a coup on October 19, 1330 and had both Isabella and Mortimer taken prisoner. Despite Isabella's cries of "Fair son, have pity on gentle Mortimer", Mortimer was executed for treason one month later in November of 1330.
Isabella's life was spared by her son and she was allowed to retire to Castle Rising in Norfolk . She did not, as legend would have it, go insane; she enjoyed a comfortable retirement and made many visits to her son's court, doting on her grandchildren. Isabella took the habit of the Poor Clares before she died on August 22 , 1358 , and her body was returned to London for burial at the Franciscan church at Newgate . She was buried in her wedding dress, with Edward's heart interred with her.

[edit ] Notes
^
A sobriquet appropriated from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3 , where it is used to refer to Henry 's Queen, Margaret of Anjou
^ She is referred to as born in 1292 in the Annals of Wigmore, and Piers Langtoft agrees, claiming that she was 7 years old in 1299. The French chronicler Guillaume de Nangis and Thomas Walsingham describe her as 12 years old at the time of her marriage in January 1308, placing her birth between the January of 1295 and of 1296. A Papal dispensation by Clement V in November 1305 permits her to marry by proxy immediately, despite not having reached age 12, and only being 10 years old - suggesting a birth-date between November 1294 and November 1295. Since she had to reach the canonical age of 7 before her betrothal in May 1303, and that of 12 before her marriage in January 1308, the above evidence suggests that she was born between May and November 1295. See Weir, Alison, Isabella

[edit ] Sources
Blackley, F.D. Isabella of France, Queen of England 1308-1358, and the Late Medieval Cult of the Dead. (Canadian Journal of History)
Doherty, P.C. Isabella and the Strange Death of Edward II, 2003
McKisack, May. The Fourteenth Century 1307-1399, 1959.
Woods, Charles T. Queens, Queans and Kingship, appears in Joan of Arc and Richard III: Sex, Saints and Government in the Middle Ages, 1988.
Weir, Alison. Queen Isabella:Treachery, Adultery, and Murder in Medieval England, Balantine Books, 2005.



Children from this marriage were:

+ 182 M    i. Edward III, King of England 275 276 277 was born on 13 Nov 1312 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England and died on 21 Jun 1377 in Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, England at age 64.

+ 183 M    ii. John, of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall was born in 1316.

+ 184 F    iii. Eleanor, Countess of Guelders was born in 1318.

+ 185 F    iv. Joan, Queen of Scots was born in 1321.

136. Thomas, of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk (King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 1 Jun 1300 and died in 1338 at age 38.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-29

Thomas married Alice Hales, daughter of Sir Roger Hales, of Harwich and Unknown, after 1316. Alice died after 8 May 1316.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-29 (Thomas of Brotherton)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 186 F    i. Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk died on 24 Mar 1399.

137. Thomas Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Lancaster (Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1278.

Research Notes: Wikipedia (Edmund Crouchback)

138. Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester 217 218 (Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1281 in Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire, England, died on 25 Mar 1345 in Canons Monastery, England about age 64, and was buried in Newark Abbey, Leicestershire, England. Other names for Henry were Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester, Henry Plantagenet Earl of Leicester, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, and Henry "Tortcol" Plantagenet.

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots, line 17-29, has d. 22 Sept. 1345, bur. Neward Abbey, co. Leics.
Wikipedia has d. 25 March 1345.

Research Notes: One of the principals behind the deposition of King Edward II.

Some data from Albert Doublass Hart, Jr ("Our Folk" - de Chaworth Family Genealogy). Albert has death date as 22 Sep 1345 in Cannons Monastery, England.
------
From Wikipedia - Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster :

Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (1281 - March 25 , 1345 ) was an English nobleman, one of the principals behind the deposition of Edward II.

Lineage
He was the younger son of Blanche of Artois and Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster , Earl of Leicester , who was a son of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence .

Henry's elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster succeeded their father in 1296 , but Henry was summoned to Parliament on February 6 , 1298 /99 by writ directed Henrico de Lancastre nepoti Regis, by which he is held to have become Lord Lancaster. He took part in the siege of Carlaverock in July 1300 .

Petition for succession and inheritance
Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and his lands and titles forfeited in 1322 . But Henry, who had not participated in his brother's rebellion, petitioned for his brother's lands and titles, and on March 29 , 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester , and a few years later the earldom of Lancaster was also restored to him.

Revenge
On the Queen's return to England with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March in September 1326 , Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the King's cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser .

He was sent in pursuit and captured the king at Neath in South Wales. He was appointed to take charge of the King, and was responsible for his custody at Kenilworth Castle .

Full restoration and reward
After Edward II's death Henry was appointed guardian of the new king Edward III of England , and was also appointed captain-general of all the King's forces in the Scottish Marches .

Loss of sight
In about the year 1330 , he became blind .

Succession
He was succeeded as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester by his eldest son, Henry of Grosmont , who subsequently became Duke of Lancaster.

Family

He married Maud Chaworth , before 2 March 1296 /1297 .
Henry and Maud had seven children:
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster , (about 1300 -1360 /61 )
Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1305 - 1380 ) married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell
Maud of Lancaster, (about 1310 -1377 ); married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster
Joan of Lancaster , (about 1312 -1345 ); married John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray
Isabel of Lancaster, Abbess of Ambresbury, (about 1317 -after 1347 )
Eleanor of Lancaster , (about 1318 -1371 /72 ) married (1) John De Beaumont and (2) 5 Feb. 1344/5, Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel ;
Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320 -1362 ), who married Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy , and was the mother of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland .

Henry married Maud de Chaworth, Countess of Lancaster & Countess of Leicester,278 279 280 daughter of Sir Patrick de Chaworth, 5th Baron of Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly and Isabella de Beauchamp, before 2 Mar 1297 in Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales. Maud was born on 2 Feb 1282 in <Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire>, Wales and died before 3 Dec 1322. Other names for Maud were Matilda de Chaworth and Maud Chaworth.

Marriage Notes: Marriage year could be 1296

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Maud Chaworth :

Maud de Chaworth (2 February 1282 - 1322), was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress. She was the only child of Patrick de Chaworth . Sometime before 2 March 1297, she married Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster , by whom she had seven children. Although the exact date of her death is unknown, it is estimated that she must have died sometime before 3 December 1322.

Parents
Maud was the daughter and only child of Sir Patrick de Chaworth ,Lord of Kidwelly, in Carmarthenshire, South Wales, and Isabella de Beauchamp . Her maternal grandfather was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick . Her father, Patrick de Chaworth died on 7 July 1283. He was thought to be 30 years old. Approximately, three years later, in 1286, Isabella de Beauchamp married Hugh Despenser the Elder and had two sons and four daughters by him. This made Maud the half-sister of Hugh the younger Despenser . Her mother, Isabella de Beauchamp, died in 1306.

Childhood
When her father died, Maud was only a year old and his death left her a wealthy heiress. However, because she was an infant, she became a ward of Eleanor of Castile , Queen consort of King Edward I of England . Upon Queen Eleanor's death in 1290, her husband, King Edward I, granted Maud's marriage to his brother Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster on 30 December 1292.
Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster , Earl of Leicester was the son of Eleanor of Provence and Henry III of England . He first married Aveline de Forz, Countess of Albemarle, in 1269. Later, in Paris on 3 February 1276, he married Blanche of Artois who is niece of Louis IX and Queen of Navarre by association with her first marriage. Blanche and Edmund had four children together, one of whom was Henry Plantagenet, who would later become 3rd Earl of Leicester and Maud Chaworth's husband.

[edit ] Marriage and Children
Although sources say that Edmund was married to Maud, it has been suggested that Maud was betrothed to Edmund and his son Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster [1] together, to ensure that she married into the family even if Edmund were to die. Therefore, when Edmund did pass away, Henry and Maud were bonded in holy matrimony sometime before 2 March 1297. Henry was supposedly born between the years 1280 and 1281, making him somewhat older than Maud, but not by much since they were either fourteen or fifteen-years-old.
Since Maud inherited her father's property, Henry also acquired this property through the rights of marriage. Some of that property was of the following: Hampshire, Glamorgan, Wiltshire, and Carmarthenshire. Henry was the nephew to the King of England, as well as being closely associated with the French royal family line. Henry's half-sister Jeanne (or Juana) was given the title Queen of Navarre in her own right, and married Philip IV of France. Not only that, but Henry was the uncle of King Edward II 's Queen Isabella and of three Kings of France. He was also the younger brother of Thomas (Earl of Lancaster) and first cousin of Edward II.
Maud is very often described as the "Countess of Leicester" or "Countess of Lancaster" but she never bore the titles as she died before her husband received them. Henry was only named "Earl of Leicester" in 1324 and "Earl of Lancaster" in 1327, both after her death. Henry never remarried and died on 22 September 1345 when he would have been in his mid-sixties. All but one of his seven children with Maud outlived him.
Maud and Henry had seven children:
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster , (about 1310-1361); Maud's only son Henry was usually called Henry of Grosmont to distinguish him from his father. He was one of the great, well known and respected men of the fourteenth century. He took after his father and was well educated, literate, pious, a soldier and a diplomat. Henry produced his own memoir "Le Livre de Seyntz Medicines" which was completed in 1354. At one point, Henry of Grosmont was considered to be the richest man in England aside from the Prince of Wales. He was emerging as a political figure in his own right within England: he was knighted and represented his father in parliament. It was in the same year that he married his wife, Isabella, daughter of Henry, Lord Beaumont. His daughter Blanche was betrothed and eventually married to the son of Edward III, John of Gaunt. In 1361, Henry was killed by a new outbreak of the Black Death, leaving John of Gaunt his inheritance and eventually his title through his daughter Blanche.[2]
Blanche of Lancaster , (about 1302/05-1380); Maud's eldest daughter was probably born between 1302 and 1305, and was named after her father's mother Blanche of Artois . Around 9 October 1316, she married Thomas Wake , the second baron of Liddell. Blanch was about forty-five when Thomas died and lived as a widow for more than thirty years. She was one of the executers of her brother Henry's will when he died in 1361. Blanche outlived all her siblings, dying shortly before 12 July 1380 in her mid to late seventies. Born in the reign of Edward I, she survived all the way into the reign of his great grandson Richard II.
Maud of Lancaster, (about 1310-1345)There is some discrepancy as to when Maud died. Another possible date of her death is 1377[3]
married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster in 1327. They bore one child, Elizabeth de Burgh who was born 6 July 1332. Eleven months after the birth of their child, Earl William was murdered at "Le Ford" in Belfast, apparently by some of his own men. The countess Maud fled to England with her baby and stayed with the royal family. In 1337, Maud of Lancaster managed to ensure that the Justiciar of Ireland was forbidden to pardon her husband's killers. She fought for her dower rights and exerted some influence there. She remarried in 1344 to Ralph Ufford and returned to Ireland where she had another daughter, Maud. After her second husband fell ill in 1346, she again returned to England. Maud of Lancaster died on May 5, 1345/77.
Joan of Lancaster , (about 1312-1345); married between February 28 and June 4, 1327 to John, Lord Mowbray . John's father was horribly executed for reasons unknown and young John was imprisoned in the Tower of London along with his mother Alice de Braose, until late 1326. A large part of his inheritance was granted to Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was his future wife's uncle; however he was set free in 1327 before the marriage. Joan of Lancaster probably died in her early thirties, sometime before August 1344.
Isabel of Lancaster, Prioress of Ambresbury, (about 1317-after 1347); often said to be born in 1317 as one of the youngest daughters of Maud and Henry. Her life is somewhat obscure, going on pilgrimages and spending a lot of time alone. She spent a great deal of time outside the cloister on non-spiritual matters. Her father had given her quite a bit of property which she administered herself. She owned hunting dogs and had personal servants. She used her family connections to secure privileges and concessions.[4]
Eleanor of Lancaster , (1318- Sept. 1372); married John Beaumont between September and November 1330. Eleanor bore John a son, Henry, who married Margaret de Vere, a sister of Elizabeth and Thomas de Vere, Earl of Oxford. John Beaumont was killed in a jousting tournament in Northampton on 14 April 1342. Eleanor then became mistress of the Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel , who happened to be married to her first cousin Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger. Richard obtained a divorce from the Pope and married Eleanor on 5 February 1345 in the presence of Edward III. They had five children together, three sons and two daughters. Eleanor died on 11 January 1372.
Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320-1362); married Henry, Lord Percy before September 4, 1334 who fought at the battle of Crecy in 1346, and served in Gascony under the command of his brother in law Henry of Grosmont. Their son was Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland . Mary of Lancaster died on 1 September 1362, the year after her brother Henry.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 187 F    i. Blanche, of Lancaster 281 was born about 1305 and died before 12 Jul 1380.

+ 188 M    ii. Henry of, Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster 282 was born about 1310 and died on 23 Mar 1361 about age 51.

+ 189 F    iii. Maud, of Lancaster 281 was born about 1310 and died about 1377 about age 67.

+ 190 F    iv. Joan, of Lancaster 283 was born about 1312 and died on 7 Jul 1345 in Yorkshire, England about age 33.

+ 191 F    v. Isabel, of Lancaster, Abess of Ambresbury was born about 1317 and died after 1347.

+ 192 F    vi. Eleanor, of Lancaster 284 285 was born about 1318 in England, died on 11 Jan 1372 in Arundel Castle, West Sussex, England about age 54, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England.

+ 193 F    vii. Mary, of Lancaster 281 was born about 1320 and died on 1 Sep 1362 about age 42.

Henry next married Alix de Geneville.286 Alix died on 19 Apr 1336.

Research Notes: Widow of Jean d'Arcis, d. 1307.

139. John Plantagenet, Lord of Beaufort (Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born before 1286.

Research Notes: Wikipedia (Edmund Crouchback)

140. Mary Plantagenet (Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Wikipedia (Edmund Crouchback)

141. Catherine verch Llewellyn Gryffyth (Elinor de Montfort102, Eleanor75, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Welsh Settlement of Pennsylvania by Charles H. Browning, Philadelphia, 1912, p. 290.

Catherine married Philip ap Ifor, Lord of Is Coed, son of Ifor and Unknown,. Another name for Philip was Philip ap Ivor Lord of Iscoed.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 254-33 (Thomas ap Llewellyn)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 194 F    i. Eleanor ferch Philip ap Ifor was born in 1318.

142. Gwenllian ferch Llewelyn ap Gruffudd (Elinor de Montfort102, Eleanor75, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: From "Dafydd Goch ap Dafydd - His Real Ancestry" by Darrell Wolcott (http://www.ancientwalesstudies.org/id51.html):
"The intentions of King Edward I in 1283 seem clear enough; he was intent on total extermination of the Gwynedd princely family which had long resisted his authority over Wales. When Llewelyn ap Gruffudd was finally killed in Brecon, his brother Dafydd had taken up the fallen crown... [Dafydd's] youngest son, Owain, was taken in his father [in late June 1283]. About a week later, his eldest son Llewelyn was found and both boys were taken to the prison in Bristol. Not finished yet, the king sent the young unmarried daughters of both Llewelyn the Last and Dafydd ap Gruffudd to involuntary seclusion for training as nuns. Gwenllian ferch Llewelyn ap Gruffudd was sent to the Gilbertine nunnery at Sempringham, while the unnamed daughter or daughters of Dafydd ap Grufudd were sent to the priory at Sixhills. This insured they would never bear sons to become a future problem for the crown of England; the family had thus been made extinct."



143. Roger de Mortimer, of Wigmore, 1st Baron Mortimer 167 221 222 (Gwladys "Ddu" verch Llewellyn103, Joan, Princess of Gwynedd76, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1231 in Cwmaron Castle, Radnorshire, Wales and died on 27 Oct 1282 in Kingsland, Herefordshire, England about age 51.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. 1221, Cwmaron Castle, Radnorshire, Wales

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 28-29 and 176B-29

From Wikipedia - Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer :

Roger Mortimer (1231- 30 October 1282), 1st Baron Mortimer , was a famous and honoured knight from Wigmore Castle in Herefordshire . He was a loyal ally of King Henry III of England . He was at times an enemy, at times an ally, of the Welsh prince, Llywelyn the Last .


Early career
Born in 1231, Roger was the son of Ralph de Mortimer and his Welsh wife, Princess Gwladys Ddu , daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth .

In 1256 Roger went to war with Llywelyn ap Gruffydd when the latter invaded his lordship of Gwrtheyrnion or Rhayader . This war would continue intermittently until the death of both Roger and Llywelyn in 1282. They were both grandsons of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth .

Mortimer fought for the King against the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester , and almost lost his life in 1264 at the Battle of Lewes fighting Montfort's men. In 1265 Mortimer's wife, Maud de Braose helped rescue Prince Edward ; and Mortimer and the Prince made an alliance against de Montfort.


Victor at Evesham
In August 1265, de Montfort's army was surrounded by the River Avon on three sides, and Prince Edward's army on the fourth. Mortimer had sent his men to block the only possible escape route, at the Bengeworth bridge. The Battle of Evesham began in earnest. A storm roared above the battle field. Montfort's Welsh soldiers broke and ran for the bridge, where they were slaughtered by Mortimer's men. Mortimer himself killed Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester in crushing Montfort's army. Mortimer was awarded Montfort's severed head and other parts of his anatomy, which he sent home to Wigmore Castle as a gift for his wife, Lady Mortimer.


Marriage and children
Lady Mortimer was Maud de Braose , daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny by Eva Marshal . Roger Mortimer had married her in 1247. She was, like him, a scion of a Welsh Marches family. Their children were:
Ralph Mortimer, died 1276.
Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer (1251-1304), married Margaret de Fiennes , the daughter of William II de Fiennes and Blanche de Brienne . Had issue, including Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March
Isabella Mortimer , died 1292. She married (1) John Fitzalan, 7th Earl of Arundel , (2) Robert de Hastings
Margaret Mortimer , died 1297. She married Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford
Roger Mortimer of Chirk , died 1326.
Geoffrey Mortimer , a knight
William Mortimer , a knight
Their eldest son, Ralph, was a famed knight but died in his youth. The second son, Edmund, was recalled from Oxford University and appointed his father's heir.

Epitaph
Roger Mortimer died on 30 October 1282, and was buried at Wigmore Abbey , where his tombstone read:
"Here lies buried, glittering with praise, Roger the pure, Roger Mortimer the second, called Lord of Wigmore by those who held him dear. While he lived all Wales feared his power, and given as a gift to him all Wales remained his. It knew his campaigns, he subjected it to torment."

Roger married Maud de Braose,167 287 288 daughter of William de Braose, , 6th Lord de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny and Eve Marshal, in 1247. Maud was born in 1224 in <Gower, Glamorganshire>, Wales, died before 23 Mar 1301 in Herefordshire, England, and was buried in Wigmore Abbey, Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

Research Notes: 2nd daughter and co-heiress of William de Braose and Eve Marshall.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 67-29
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From Wikipedia - Maud de Braose, Baroness Wigmore :

Maud de Braose, Baroness Wigmore (1224- 1300/23 March 1301)[1] was a noble heiress and a member of the powerful de Braose family which held many lordships and domains in the Welsh Marches . She was the wife of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore , a celebrated soldier and Marcher baron. A staunch Royalist during the Second Barons' War , it was she who devised the plan to rescue Prince Edward (the future King Edward I of England ) from the custody of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester .[2]

Family
Maud was born in Wales in 1224, the second eldest daughter and co-heiress of Marcher lord William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny and Eva Marshal .

Maud had three sisters, Isabella , wife of Prince Dafydd ap Llywelyn ; Eleanor , wife of Humphrey de Bohun; and Eve, wife of William de Cantelou.
Her paternal grandparents were Reginald de Braose, 9th Baron Abergavenny and Grecia de Briwere. Her maternal grandparents were William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke , daughter of Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster .
On 2 May 1230, when Maud was just six years old, her father was hanged by orders of Llewelyn the Great , Prince of Wales for alleged adultery with the latter's wife, Joan, Lady of Wales .

Marriage and children
In 1247[3] Maud married Roger Mortimer of Wigmore. As the eldest son of Ralph de Mortimer and his Welsh wife, Princess Gwladys Ddu , Roger was himself a scion of another important Marcher family, and had succeeded his father in 1246, upon the latter's death. He was created 1st Baron Wigmore on an unknown date. Maud was seven years his senior, and they had been betrothed since childhood. On the occasion of their marriage, the honour of Radnor passed from the de Braose to the Mortimer family.[4] Her marriage portion was some land at Tetbury which she inherited from her grandfather, Reginald de Braose.[5]She also had inherited the Manor of Charlton sometime before her marriage.[6] Roger and Maud's principal residence was the Mortimers' family seat, Wigmore Castle in Herefordshire .

Roger and Maud together had seven children:[7]
Ralph Mortimer (died before 10 August 1274), Sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire .
Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Wigmore (1251-17 July 1304), married Margaret de Fiennes , daughter of William II de Fiennes and Blanche de Brienne , by whom he had issue, including Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March .
Isabella Mortimer (died after 1300), married firstly, John Fitzalan, 7th Earl of Arundel , by whom she had issue; she married secondly, Ralph d'Arderne; she married thirdly, Robert de Hastang.[8]
Margaret Mortimer (died September 1297), married Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford , by whom she had one son.
Roger Mortimer of Chirk (died 3 August 1336 Tower of London ), married Lucy de Wafre, by whom he had one son. He was sentenced to life imprisonment for having participated in the rebellion of Thomas of Lancaster in 1321.
Geoffrey Mortimer (died before 1282), he was unmarried.
William Mortimer (died before June 1297), married as her first husband, Hawise de Muscegros.

Rescue of Prince Edward
Maud was described as beautiful and nimble-witted.[9]During the Second Barons' War , she also proved to be a staunch Royalist. It was Maud herself who devised a plan for the escape of Prince Edward after he had been taken hostage by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester following the Battle of Lewes . On 28 May 1265, when the Prince was held in custody at Hereford Castle , Maud sent a party of horsemen to spirit him away to Wigmore Castle while he was out in the open fields, some distance from the castle, taking exercise by racing horses with his unsuspecting guardians as she had instructed him to do in the messages she had smuggled to him previously. At a signal from one of the horsemen, Edward galloped off to join the party of his liberators, where they escorted him to Wigmore Castle, twenty miles away, where Maud was waiting. She gave the Prince refreshments before sending him on to Ludlow Castle [10]where he met up with the Earl of Gloucester who had defected to the side of the King .
At the Battle of Evesham on 4 August 1265, Maud's husband Roger fought on the side of Prince Edward, and personally killed Simon de Montfort. As a reward, Roger was given de Montfort's severed head and other parts of his anatomy. Roger sent these gruesome trophies home to Wigmore Castle as a gift to Maud.[11]She held a great feast that very night to celebrate the victory. De Montfort's head was raised in the Great Hall, still attached to the point of the lance.[12]

Descendants
In 1300, Maud is recorded as having presented to a vacant benefice in the Stoke Bliss parish church in Herefordshire , its advowson having originally belonged to the Mortimers, but was bequeathed to Limebrook Priory by Roger.[13] Maud died on an unknown date sometime between 1300 and 23 March 1301. She was buried in Wigmore Abbey . Her husband Roger had died on 30 October 1282.

All the monarchs of England from 1413, as well as Mary, Queen of Scots , were directly descended from Maud, as is the current British Royal Family . Queen consorts Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard were also notable descendants of Maud de Braose through the latter's daughter Isabella, Countess of Arundel.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 195 F    i. Isabella de Mortimer 43 289 died before 1 Apr 1292.

+ 196 M    ii. Sir Edmund de Mortimer, 7th Baron Mortimer of Wigmore 290 291 was born in 1261 in <Wigmore, Herefordshire>, England, died on 17 Jul 1304 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England at age 43, and was buried in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

144. Hugh I de Audley 84 171 (Ela Longspee106, William II Longspée77, William Longspée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury55, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1250 in Audley, Staffordshire, England and died about 1336 about age 86. Another name for Hugh was Hugh de Aldithley.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Hugh I de Audley :

Hugh de Audley (ca. 1250 - ca. 1336) was a member of the Audley-Stanley family and the father of Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester .

Lineage
He was born in Audley in the English County of Staffordshire , the son of James of Aldithley (born c. 1225 in Audley , Staffordshire ) and Ela Longspee (daughter of William II Longespee , and his great great grandfather was therefore Henry II , King of England.

Family
He married Isolda de Mortimer , the daughter of Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer , and had 3 children:
John de Aldithley (Audley) born circa 1293
Hugh de Audley, 1st Earl of Gloucester born 1289 who married Margaret de Clare
Alice de Audley born circa 1304 who married firstly Robert Fitzrobert de Greystoke and later, Ralph de Neville a member of the Neville family .

Hugh married Isolde de Mortimer,291 daughter of Sir Edmund de Mortimer, 7th Baron Mortimer of Wigmore and Margaret de Fiennes, in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England. Isolde was born about 1270 in <Wigmore, Herefordshire>, England and died in 1328 about age 58. Other names for Isolde were Iseulde de Mortimer and Iswolde de Mortimer.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 197 F    i. Alice Audley 84 was born about 1304 in Hadley, Staffordshire, England, died on 11 Jan 1374 in Greystoke, Northumberland, England about age 70, and was buried in Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durham, England.

145. Humphrey VII de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford & 2nd Earl of Essex 224 225 (Humphrey VI de Bohun107, Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex78, Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford56, Margaret, of Huntingdon43, Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1249 and died on 31 Dec 1298 in Pleshey Castle, Essex, England about age 49.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 97-30 has b. abt 1249, d. Pleshey, 31 Dec. 1298, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Essex, Constable of England.
-------------
From Wikipedia - Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford:

"Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and 2nd Earl of Essex (1249 - December 31 , 1297 ) was one of several noblemen of the same name to have held the earldom of Hereford, and a key figure in the Norman conquest of Wales .

"He was the son of Humphrey de Bohun, by Eleanor de Braose, a daughter of William de Braose, Lord of Abergavenny and Eve Marshall. His mother died in 1251 ; his father died in 1265 of wounds sustained at the Battle of Evesham . He succeeded his grandfather, Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford , in 1275 as Earl of Hereford and Essex and Lord High Constable .

"Humphrey de Bohun took part in Roger Mortimer 's war against the Welsh, and was present at the defeat at Cefnllys in November, 1262 , by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd . Around 1264 , he was made Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports .

"He also participated in the campaigns against the Gaules and Scots. He refused to pay tribute to Edward I of England and convened an army at Worcester on 24 Jun 1277. In the campaign he commanded the nobles of Marhces and recovered the land of Brecon. He was later imprisoned but freed by a ransom of 10,000 marcs.

"In 1294, Humprhey fought (again) against Edward at Gallois along with Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk and other barons. Ultimately, Humphrey regained the royal favor in Scotland on the side of Edward I, and won the victory at Falkirk on 22 July 1298. He died in Pleshley Castle, Essex on 31 December 1298 or 1 Jan 1299 and was buried with his wife at Walden Abbey in Essex, founded by Geoffrey de Mandeville "
-------------
From A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, p.150:

"From 1272 onwards, Bohun and Mortimer redoubled their efforts to repossess the Marcher Lordships granted to Llywelyn under the Treaty of Montgomery. In 1274, there was a dramatic addition to the ranks of the prince's enemies when his brother, Dafydd, and his chief vassal, Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn, fled to England, leaving behind them evidence of a plot to kill him."

Noted events in his life were:

• Constable of England:

Humphrey married Maud de Fiennes,225 292 daughter of Ingelram II de Fiennes and Isabel de Conde, on 17 Jul 1275. Maud was born between 1236 and 1259 and died before 31 Dec 1298. Another name for Maud was Mahaud de Fiennes.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 158C-29.

Also Wikipedia (Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 198 M    i. Humphrey VIII de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex 266 267 was born about 1276 in Pleshey Castle, Essex, England and died on 16 Mar 1322 in Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England about age 46.

146. Alianore de Bohun 226 (Humphrey VI de Bohun107, Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex78, Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford56, Margaret, of Huntingdon43, Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died on 20 Feb 1314.

Research Notes: Second wife of Robert de Ferrers.

Alianore married Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby,229 son of Sir William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby and Margaret de Quincy, on 26 Jun 1269. Robert was born in 1239 and died in 1279 at age 40.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 199 M    i. Sir John de Ferrers, of Southoe and Keyston 293 was born on 30 Jun 1271 in Cardiff and died in Aug 1312 in Gascony at age 41.

147. Agnes de Ferrers 228 (Margaret de Quincy111, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died after 9 May 1281.

Agnes married Sir Robert de Muscegros, of Charlton, Somerset,294 295 son of Sir John de Muscegros, of Charlton and Cecily Avenal,. Robert was born about 1252 and died on 27 Dec 1280 about age 28.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 200 F    i. Hawise de Muscegros, of Charlton 296 was born on 21 Dec 1276 and died After Jun 1340 By Dec 1350.

148. Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby 229 (Margaret de Quincy111, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1239 and died in 1279 at age 40.

Robert married Alianore de Bohun,226 daughter of Humphrey VI de Bohun and Eleanor de Braose, on 26 Jun 1269. Alianore died on 20 Feb 1314.

Research Notes: Second wife of Robert de Ferrers.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 146)

149. Joan de Ferrers 43 181 (Margaret de Quincy111, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1248 in Derbyshire, England, died on 19 Mar 1309 in Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England about age 61, and was buried in St. Augustine's, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.

Joan married Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley 297 in 1267. Thomas was born in 1245 and died on 23 Jul 1321 in Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England at age 76.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley :

Thomas de Berkeley aka The Wise (1245 - 23 July 1321 ), 1st Baron Berkeley, was an English baron , soldier and diplomat .
Thomas was born in 1245 at Berkeley Castle in the English county of Gloucestershire , the son of Sir Maurice de Berkeley and Isabel FitzRoy . In 1267, he married Joan de Ferrers, the daughter of William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby and Margaret de Quinci, and was succeeded by his son Maurice de Berkeley II .
Berkeley fought in the Battle of Evesham . He inherited the title of Baron de Berkeley [feudal baron] in 1281 and was created 1st Baron Berkeley [England by writ] on 28 June 1283 . He was a commissioner to examine the claims to the crown of Scotland in June 1292.
He was on an embassy to France in January 1296 and held the office of Vice-Constable of England in 1297. He fought in the Battle of Falkirk on 22 July 1298 and fought in the siege of Caerlaverock in July 1300. He was on an embassy to Pope Clement V in July 1307. He fought in the Battle of Bannockburn on 24 June 1314 , where he was taken prisoner, and paid a large sum for his ransom. He died at Berkeley on 23 July 1321 .


The child from this marriage was:

+ 201 M    i. Maurice de Berkeley 43 was born in Apr 1271 in <Berkeley Castle, > near Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England, died on 31 May 1326 in Wallingford Castle, Wallingford, Berkshire (Oxfordshire), England at age 55, and was buried in St. Augustine's, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England.

150. John Comyn, Earl of Buchan 230 (Elizabeth de Quincey112, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died in Dec 1308 in England.

Research Notes: Died childless.

John married Isabelle MacDuff.298

151. Roger Comyn 230 (Elizabeth de Quincey112, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

152. Alexander Comyn 230 (Elizabeth de Quincey112, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Noted events in his life were:

• Sheriff of Aberdeen:

Alexander married Joan le Latimer,230 daughter of William le Latimer and Alicia Ledet,.

Research Notes: Sister of William le Latimer


Children from this marriage were:

+ 202 F    i. Alice Comyn 298 was born in 1289 in Aberdeenshire, Scotland and died on 3 Jul 1349 at age 60.

+ 203 F    ii. Margaret Comyn .298

153. Eudo La Zouche 183 (Helen de Quincy, of Brackley113, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1244 in <Ashby, Leicestershire, England> and died before 25 Jun 1279. Another name for Eudo was Eon La Zouche.

Eudo married Millicent de Cantelou,183 daughter of William de Cantelou, Baron Abergavenny and Eve de Braose, of Abergavenny, before 1273 in Abergavenny, Monmouthshire, England. Millicent was born about 1250 in <Calne, Wiltshire>, England and died before 7 Jan 1299 in Harringworth, Northamptonshire, England. Other names for Millicent were Millicent de Cantilou, Millicent de Cantilupe, and Millicent de Cauntelo.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 204 F    i. Eve La Zouche 183 was born about 1281 in <Harringworth, Northamptonshire>, England, died on 5 Dec 1314 about age 33, and was buried in Church, Portbury, Somersetshire, England.

154. Margery La Zouche 84 (Helen de Quincy, of Brackley113, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1251 in <Clavering, Essex>, England. Another name for Margery was Mary La Zouche.

Margery married Robert FitzRoger Clavering,299 son of Roger FitzJohn Clavering, de Baliol and Isabel, about 1265. Robert was born about 1247 in <Clavering, Essex>, England and died on 29 Apr 1310 about age 63.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 205 F    i. Eupheme FitzRoger Clavering 299 was born about 1267 in <Warkworth, Northumberland>, England, was christened in Clavering, Essex, England, died in 1329 in Warkworth, Northumberland, England about age 62, and was buried in Staindrop, Durham, England.

155. Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln 236 237 238 (Margaret de Quincy114, Robert II de Quincy83, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 25 Jan 1223 and died before 10 Mar 1289.

Research Notes: Eldest daughter of John de Lacy. "The most litigious woman of the 13th century."

From Wikipedia - Maud de Lacy :
Maud de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, Countess of Hertford and Gloucester (25 January 1223- 1287/10 March 1289), was an English noblewoman, being the eldest child of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln , and the wife of Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford , 2nd Earl of Gloucester. Her son was Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , 3rd Earl of Gloucester, a powerful noble during the reigns of kings Henry III of England and Edward I .


Family
Maud was born on 25 January 1223 in Lincoln , Lincolnshire , England, the eldest child of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln, a Magna Carta Surety, and Margaret de Quincy (1206- 30 March 1266). Maud had a younger brother Edmund de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln who married in 1247 Alasia of Saluzzo, by whom he had three children.

Maud was styled as the Countess of Lincoln, however, she never held that title suo jure .

Her paternal grandparents were Roger de Lacy and Maud de Clare. Her maternal grandparents were Robert de Quincy and Hawise of Chester, Countess of Lincoln.[1]

Maud and her mother, Margaret were never close; in point of fact, relations between the two women were described as strained. Throughout Maud's marriage, the only interactions between Maud and her mother were on a financial level, pertaining to the substantial Marshal family property Margaret owned and controlled due to the latter's second marriage on 6 January 1242 to Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke (1196- 24 November 1245) almost two years after the death of Maud's father, John de Lacy in 1240.[2] Margaret married her third husband, Richard of Wiltshire before 7 June 1252.


Marriage and children
On 25 January 1238 which was her fifteenth birthday, Maud married Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, and 2nd Earl of Gloucester, son of Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford , 1st Earl of Gloucester, and Isabel Marshal . Maud was his second wife; his first marriage, which was made clandestinely, to Megotta de Burgh had been annulled. Maud's parents paid King Henry III the enormous sum of 5,000 pounds to obtain his agreement to the marriage. The King supplied her dowry which consisted of the castle of Usk , the manor of Clere, as well as other lands and manors.[2]

Together Richard and Maud had seven children:[3]
Isabel de Clare (1240- 1271), married as his second wife, William VII of Montferrat , by whom she had one daughter, Margherita.
Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , 3rd Earl of Gloucester (2 September 1243- 7 December 1295), married firstly Alice de Lusignan of Angouleme by whom he had two daughters; he married secondly Joan of Acre , by whom he had issue.
Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond (1245- 29 August 1287), married as her first husband Juliana FitzGerald , daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly and Maud de Prendergast, by whom he had issue including Richard de Clare, 1st Lord Clare and Margaret de Clare, Lady Badlesmere .
Bovo de Clare, Chancellor of Llandaff (21 July 1248- 1294)
Margaret de Clare (1250- 1312/1313), married Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall . Their marriage was childless.
Rohese de Clare (17 October 1252- after 1316), married Roger de Mowbray, 1st Baron Mowbray , by whom she had issue.
Eglantine de Clare (1257-1257)


Death of Richard de Clare
On 15 July 1262, her husband died near Canterbury . Maud designed and commissioned a magnificent tomb for him at Tewkesbury Abbey where he was buried. She also donated the manor of Sydinghowe to the priory of Legh, Devonshire for the soul of Richard, formerly her husband, earl of Gloucester and Hertford by charter dated to 1280.[3] Their eldest son Gilbert succeeded Richard as the 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester. Maud carefully arranged the marriages of her daughters; however, the King owned her sons' marriage rights.[2] She was involved in numerous lawsuits and litigations with her tenants and neighbours, as a result she was known as the most litigious woman in the 13th century.[2]

Maud herself died sometime between 1287 and 10 March 1289. Her numerous descendants included Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard , both Queens consort of Henry VIII ; and the Dukes of Norfolk .

***********
From Magna Charta Barons, p. 103:
"Maud, wife of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. John, Earl of Lincoln, was promised the marriage of his eldest daughter to Richard de Clare, in the event of the king not marrying him to a daughter of the Earl of March, and for this grant he engaged to pay five thousand marks. This agreement, having been made without the consent of the Barons, excited considerable dissatisfaction, especially in the elder de Clare."

Maud married Sir Richard de Clare, 8th Earl of Clare,139 193 194 son of Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester and Isabel Marshal, on 25 Jan 1238. Richard was born on 4 Aug 1222, died on 15 Jul 1262 in Asbenfield, Waltham near Canterbury, England at age 39, and was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

Marriage Notes: http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f48/a0024834.htm has m. 2 Feb 1238

Research Notes: From Magna Charta Barons, pp. 83-84:
Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester [was] in his minority at the death of his father, and his wardship was granted to the celebrated Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, Justiciary of England, whose daughter Margaret, to the great displeasure of King Henry III., he afterwards clandestinely married, but from whom he was probably divorced, as the king married him the next year to Maud, daughter of John de Lacie, Earl of Lincoln, in consideration whereof the Earl of Lincoln paid to the crown five thousand marks and remitted a debt of two thousand more. This Richard de Clare was a very distinguished personage in the reign of Henry III., and was one of the noblemen present in Westminster Hall, 40 Henry III., when Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, pronounced a solemn curse from the altar against all those who should thenceforth violate the Magna Charta.

-----------

From Wikipedia - Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford :

Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford (August 4 , 1222 - July 15 , 1262 ) was son of Gilbert de Clare, 5th Earl of Hertford and Isabel Marshall , daughter of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, the 17-year-old daughter of Strongbow .

A year after he became of age, he was in an expedition against the Welsh . Through his mother he inherited a fifth part of the Marshall estates, including Kilkenny and other lordships in Ireland . In 1232 Richard was secretly married to Margaret (Megotta) de Burgh, daughter of Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Margaret of Scotland . Both bride and groom were aged about ten. Megotta died in November 1237. Before she had even died, the earl of Lincoln offered 5,000 marks to King Henry to secure Richard for his own daughter. This offer was accepted, and Richard was married secondly, on or before 25 January 1238, to Maud de Lacy , daughter of the Surety John de Lacy and Margaret Quincy .

He joined in the Barons' letter to the Pope in 1246 against the exactions of the Curia in England. He was among those in opposition to the King's half-brothers, who in 1247 visited England , where they were very unpopular, but afterwards he was reconciled to them.

On April 1248, he had letters of protection for going over seas on a pilgrimage . At Christmas 1248, he kept his Court with great splendor on the Welsh border. In the next year he went on a pilgrimage to St. Edmund at Pontigny , returning in June. In 1252 he observed Easter at Tewkesbury , and then went across the seas to restore the honor of his brother William, who had been badly worsted in a tournament and had lost all his arms and horses. The Earl is said to have succeeded in recovering all, and to have returned home with great credit, and in September he was present at the Round Table tournament at Walden.

In August 1252/3 the King crossed over to Gascony with his army, and to his great indignation the Earl refused to accompany him and went to Ireland instead. In August 1255 he and John Maunsel were sent to Edinburgh by the King to find out the truth regarding reports which had reached the King that his son-in-law, Alexander , King of Scotland , was being coerced by Robert de Roos and John Baliol . If possible, they were to bring the young King and Queen to him. The Earl and his companion, pretending to be the two of Roos's knights, obtained entry to Edinburgh Castle , and gradually introduced their attendants, so that they had a force sufficient for their defense. They gained access to the Scottish Queen, who made her complaints to them that she and her husband had been kept apart. They threatened Roos with dire punishments, so that he promised to go to the King.

Meanwhile the Scottish magnates, indignant at their castle of Edinburgh's being in English hands, proposed to besiege it, but they desisted when they found they would be besieging their King and Queen. The King of Scotland apparently traveled South with the Earl, for on 24 September they were with King Henry III at Newminster, Northumberland . In July 1258 he fell ill, being poisoned with his brother William, as it was supposed, by his steward, Walter de Scotenay. He recovered but his brother died.

Richard died at John de Griol's manor of Asbenfield in Waltham, near Canterbury , 15 July 1262 , it being rumored that he had been poisoned at the table of Piers of Savoy . On the following Monday he was carried to Canterbury where a mass for the dead was sung, after which his body was taken to the canon's church at Tonbridge and interred in the choir. Thence it was taken to Tewkesbury Abbey and buried 28 July 1262, with great solemnity in the presence of two bishops and eight abbots in the presbytery at his father's right hand. Richard's own arms were: Or, three chevronels gules.

Noted events in his life were:

• 6th Earl of Hertford:

• 2nd Earl of Gloucester:

(Duplicate Line. See Person 118)

156. Edmund de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln (Margaret de Quincy114, Robert II de Quincy83, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died in 1257. Another name for Edmund was Edmund de Lacie 2nd Earl of Lincoln.

Research Notes: Commonly called the "second Earl of Lincoln," although he died before his mother and therefore did not actually inherit the title.

From Magna Charta Barons, pp. 102-103:
Edmund de Lacie, second Earl of Lincoln, d. 1257. He is called the second Earl, although the title was never attributed to him in any charter, by reason that he died before his mother, through whom the dignity came. Dugdale states that he married, in 1247, 'an outlandish lady from the parts of Savoy, brought over purposely for him by Peter de Savoy, uncle to the queen, which occasioned much discontent amongst the nobles of England.' This lady was Alice, daughter of the Marquess of Saluces, in Italy, and a cousin of the queen."

157. Joan de Vere 240 241 (Robert III de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford115, Hawise de Quincy84, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1258 in Oxford, Oxfordshire, England, died on 23 Nov 1293 about age 35, and was buried in Lewes, Surrey, England. Another name for Joan was Joan De Vere.

Joan married Sir William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey,204 205 son of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey and Alice de Lusignan, about 1285. William was born in Feb 1256 in Surrey, England and died on 15 Dec 1286 in Croyden, Middlesex, England at age 30.

Marriage Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 83-29 has m. abt. 1285

Death Notes: Killed in a tournament

Research Notes: From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871749:
"William was the hier to the Earldom of Surrey, but died before his father; having been killed in a tournament at Croyden 'ambushed and cruelly slain by his rivals'. William was knighted at Winchester in 1285."

Noted events in his life were:

• Sub-granted for life: Bromfield and Yale, castle of Dinas Bran, 1284. by his father, John de Warenne. Castle Leonis (Holt Castle) was undoubtedly still under construction at that time.

• Knighted: 1285, Winchester Castle, Winchester, (Hampshire), England.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 127)

158. Sir Gilbert de Clare, 9th Earl of Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford 43 242 243 (Sir Richard de Clare, 8th Earl of Clare118, Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 2 Sep 1243 in Christchurch, Hampshire (Dorset), England, died on 7 Dec 1295 in Monmouth Castle, Monmouthshire, Wales at age 52, and was buried on 22 Dec 1295 in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England. Another name for Gilbert was Gilbert "the Red" de Clare 9th Earl of Clare.

Research Notes: First husband of Joan of Acre.

From Wikipedia - Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford :

Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester (2 September 1243 , at Christchurch , Hampshire - 7 December 1295 ) was a powerful English noble. Also known as "Red" Gilbert de Clare, probably because of his hair colour.

Lineage
Gilbert de Clare was the son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and Maud de Lacy , Countess of Lincoln , daughter of John de Lacy and Margaret de Quincy . Gilbert inherited his father's estates in 1262. He took on the titles, including Lord of Glamorgan , from 1263.

Being under age at his father's death, he was made a ward of Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford .

Massacre of the Jews at Canterbury
In April 1264, Gilbert de Clare led the massacre of the Jews at Canterbury [1], as Simon de Montfort had done in Leicester .

Gilbert de Clare's castles of Kingston and Tonbridge were taken by the King, Henry III . However, the King allowed de Clare's Countess Alice de Lusignan , who was in the latter, to go free because she was his niece; but on 12 May de Clare and de Montfort were denounced as traitors.

The Battle of Lewes
Two days later, just before the Battle of Lewes , on 14 May , Simon de Montfort knighted the Earl and his brother Thomas. The Earl commanded the second line of the battle and took the King prisoner, having hamstrung his horse. As Prince Edward had also been captured, Montfort and the Earl were now supreme and de Montfort in effect de facto King of England.

Excommunication
On 20 October 1264 , de Gilbert and his associates were excommunicated by Guy Foulques , and his lands placed under an interdict .

In the following month, by which time they had obtained possession of Gloucester and Bristol , the Earl was proclaimed to be a rebel. However at this point he changed sides as he fell out with de Montfort and the Earl, in order to prevent de Montfort's escape, destroyed ships at the port of Bristol and the bridge over the River Severn at Gloucester .

Having changed sides, de Clare shared the Prince's victory at Kenilworth on 16 July , and in the Battle of Evesham , 4 August , in which de Montfort was slain, he commanded the second division and contributed largely to the victory.

On 24 June 1268 he took the Cross at Northampton in repentance and contrition for his past misdeeds.

Activities as a Marcher Lord
In October 1265, as a reward for supporting Prince Edward, Gilbert was given the castle and title of Abergavenny and honour and castle of Brecknock .

At Michaelmas his disputes with Llewelyn the Last were submitted to arbitration, but without a final settlement. Meanwhile he was building Caerphilly Castle into a fortress. At the end of the year 1268 he refused to obey the King's summons to attend parliament, alleging that, owing to the constant inroads of Llewelyn the Last , his Welsh estates needed his presence for their defence.

At the death of Henry III , 16 November 1272 , the Earl took the lead in swearing fealty to Edward I , who was then in Sicily on his return from the Crusade . The next day, with the Archbishop of York , he entered London and proclaimed peace to all, Christians and Jews , and for the first time, secured the acknowledgment of the right of the King's eldest son to succeed to the throne immediately.

Thereafter he was joint Guardian of England, during the King's absence, and on the new King's arrival in England, in August 1274, entertained him at Tonbridge Castle .

The Welsh war in 1282
During Llywelyn the Last 's Welsh rebellion in 1282, de Clare insisted on leading an attack into southern Wales. King Edward thus made de Clare the commander of the southern army invading Wales. However de Clare's army faced disaster after being heavily defeated at the Battle of Llandeilo Fawr . Following this defeat, de Clare was relieved of his position as the southern commander and was replaced by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke (who's son had died during the battle).

Marriage and succession
Gilbert's first marriage was to Alice de Lusignan , also known as Alice de Valence, the daughter of Hugh XI of Lusignan and of the family that had now succeeded the Marshal family to the title of the Earl of Pembroke in the person of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke. They were married in 1253, when Gilbert was ten-years-old. She was of high birth, being a niece of King Henry , but the marriage floundered.

Gilbert and Alice separated in 1267; allegedly, Alice's affections lay with her cousin, Prince Edward . Previous to this, Gilbert and Alice had produced two daughters:
Isabel de Clare (10 March 1262 -1333), married (1) Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick ; (2) Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley
Joan de Clare (1264-after 1302), married (1) Duncan Macduff, 7th Earl of Fife ; (2) Gervase Avenel
After his marriage to Alice de Lusignan was finally annulled in 1285, Gilbert was to be married to Joan of Acre , a daughter of King Edward I of England and his first wife Eleanor of Castile . King Edward sought to bind de Clare, and his assets, more closely to the Crown by this means. By the provisions of the marriage contract, their joint possessions and de Clare's extensive lands could only be inherited by a direct descendant, i.e. close to the Crown, and if the marriage proved childless the lands would pass to any children Joan may have by further marriage.

On 3 July 1290 the Earl gave a great banquet at Clerkenwell to celebrate his marriage of 30 April 1290 with Joan of Acre (1272 - 23 April 1307 ). The delay was in getting the Pope to facilitate and agree the arrangement.

Thereafter Gilbert and Joan are said to have taken the Cross and set out for the Holy Land , but in September he signed the Barons' letter to the Pope, and on 2 November surrendered to the King his claim to the advowson of the Bishopric of Llandaff .

Gilbert and Joan had one son - his successor Gilbert, Earl of Gloucester (1291-1314) who was killed at Bannockburn, and 3 daughters: Eleanor (1292-1337) who married firstly Hugh Despencer (The Younger, favourite of her uncle Edward II)-he was executed in 1326, and she married secondly William de la Zouche; Margaret (1293-1342) who married firstly Piers Gaveston (executed in 1312) and then Hugh Audeley; and the youngest Elizabeth de Clare (16 Sep 1295 -04 Nov 1360), who married John de Burgh , 30th Sept 1308, Waltham Abbey, Essex, England, then Theobald of Verdun in 1316, and finally Roger Damory in 1317. Each marriage was brief, produced one child (a son by the 1st, daughters by the 2nd and 3rd), and left her a widow.

Private Marcher War
In the next year, 1291, he quarrelled with the Earl of Hereford , Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford , grandson of his onetime guardian, about the Lordship of Brecknock , where de Bohun accused de Clare of building a castle on his land culminated in a private war between them. Although it was a given right for Marcher Lords to wage private war the King tested this right in this case, first calling them before a court of their Marcher peers, then realising the outcome would be coloured by their likely avoidance of prejudicing one of their greatest rights they were both called before the superior court, the Kings own. At this both were imprisoned by the King, both sentenced to having their lands forfeit for life and de Clare, the Earl of Gloucester , as the aggressor, was fined 10,000 marks, and the Earl of Hereford 1,000 marks.

They were released almost immediately and both of their lands completely restored to them - however they had both been taught a very public lesson and their prestige diminished and the King's authority shown for all.

Death & Burial
He died at Monmouth Castle on 7 December 1295 , and was buried at Tewkesbury Abbey , on the left side of his grandfather Gilbert de Clare .
His extensive lands were enjoyed by his surviving wife Joan of Acre until her death in 1307. Gilbert and Joan had a descendant named Ursula Hildyard of Yorkshire, who in 1596 married (Sir) Richard Jackson of Killingwoldgraves, near Beverley in the East Riding. Jackson died in 1610 and was interred at Bishop Burton. In 1613, James posthumously awarded a coat of arms and a knighthood to Richard for meretorious military service in the Lowlands of Scotland.

Noted events in his life were:

• 3rd Earl of Gloucester:

• 7th Earl of Hertford:

• Knighted: 14 May 1264.

Gilbert married Joan, of Acre,209 210 daughter of King Edward I, of England and Eleanor, of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu, about 30 Apr 1290 in Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England. Joan was born in 1272 in Acre, Syria and died on 23 Apr 1307 at age 35. Another name for Joan was Joanna of Acre.

Research Notes: Second wife of Sir Gilbert de Clare.

From Wikipedia - Joan of Acre :
Joan of Acre (April 1272 - April 23 , 1307 ) was the daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor . She is most notable for her marriage to Ralph de Monthermer and the claim that miracles have allegedly taken place at her grave. She is also notable for the multiple references of her in literature.

Birth and Childhood
Joan, or Joanna, of Acre as she is sometimes referred to, was born in the spring of 1272 in Syria, while her parents, King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castille, were on the crusade .[2] She was the only English princess to be born outside of her native land, in the city of Acre, where her name derives from.[3] Her parents departed from Acre shortly after her birth, traveling to Sicily and Spain[4] before leaving Joan with her grandmother in Ponthieu, France.[5] Joan lived for several years in France where she spent her time being educated by a bishop and "being thoroughly spoiled by an indulgent grandmother."[6] Joan was free to play among the "vine clad hills and sunny vales"[7] surrounding her grandmother's home, although she required "judicious surveillance."[8]

As Joan was growing up with her grandmother, her father was back in England, already arranging marriages for his daughter. He wanted to gain both political power and more wealth with his daughter, so he conducted the arrangement in a very "business like style".[9] He finally found a man suitable to marry Joan (aged 5 at the time), Hartman, son of King Rudoph I, of Germany. Edward then brought her home from France for the first time to meet him.[10] As she had spent her entire life away from Edward and Eleanor, when she returned she "stood in no awe of her parents"[11] and had a fairly distanced relationship with them.

Unfortunately for King Edward, his daughter's suitor died before he was able to meet or marry Joan. The news reported that Hartman had fallen through a patch of shallow ice while "amusing himself in skating" while a letter sent to the King himself stated that Hartman had set out on a boat to visit his father amidst a terrible fog and the boat had smashed into a rock, drowning him.[12]

First Marriage
Edward arranged a second marriage almost immediately after the death of Hartman.[13] Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, who was almost thirty years older than Joan and newly divorced was his first choice.[14] The earl resigned his lands to Edward upon agreeing to get them back when he married Joan, as well as agreed on a dower of two thousand silver marks.[15] By the time all of these negotiations were finished, Joan was twelve years old.[16] Gilbert de Clare became very enamored with Joan, and even though she had to marry him regardless of how she felt, he still tried to woo her.[17] He bought her expensive gifts and clothing to try to win favor with her.[18] The couple were married on April 30th, 1290 at Westminster Abbey, and had four children together.[19]

They were:
Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Hertford
Eleanor de Clare
Margaret de Clare
Elizabeth de Clare
Joan's first husband, Gilbert de Clare died on December 7th, 1295.[20]

Secret Second Marriage
Joan had been a widow for only a little over a year when she caught the eye of Ralph de Monthermer , a squire in Joan's father's household.[21] Joan fell in love and convinced her father to have Monthermer knighted. It was unheard of in European royalty for one in power to even converse with a man who had not won or acquired importance in the household. However, in January during the year of 1297, the couple was secretly married.[22] Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, and Joan of Acre blind-sided her father with this secret while he was already planning another marriage for his daughter to Amadeus V, Count of Savoy.[23] The arrangements for this marriage were quickly made through written letters. The date was to be March 16th, 1297. Joan of Acre was in dangerous predicament, as she was already a wedded wife, unbeknownst to her father. She sent her son and little daughters over to Edward I, their grandfather, in hopes that their sweetness would serve in her favor. However, her plan did not work.[24] He soon found out the intentions his daughter had, but did not realize she had already committed them.[25]
Upon finding out, he took all of Joan's lands into his own hands and continued on with his planning of the arranged marriage between Joan and Amadeus of Savoy.[26]
Soon after the seizure of her lands, Joan told her father of the official marriage between her and Monthermer. He was enraged and retaliated by immediately throwing Monthermer in prison at Bristol Castle .[27] The people of the land had differing opinions on the princess' matter, however, and has been argued that ones who were most upset were those who wanted Joan's hand in marriage.[28]

With regard to the matter, Joan famously said, "It is not considered ignominious, nor disgraceful for a great earl to take a poor and mean woman to wife; neither, on the other hand, is it worthy of blame, or too difficult a thing to promote to honor a gallant youth."[29] It is said that not only this claim, but the possibility of the appearance of a pregnant stomach seemed to soften Edward's attitude towards the situation.[30]
At last, her father relented for the sake of his daughter and released Monthermer from prison in August 1297.[31] Monthermer paid homage August 2nd and getting the title of Earl of Gloucester and Earl of Hertford , rose to favor with the King during Joan's lifetime. [32]. Monthermer and Joan had four children:

Mary de Monthermer, born October 1297. In 1306 her grandfather King Edward I arranged for her to wed Duncan Macduff, 8th Earl of Fife .
Joan de Monthermer, born 1299, became a nun at Amesbury .
Thomas de Monthermer , 2nd Baron Monthermer, born 1301.
Edward de Monthermer, born 1304 and died 1339.

Relationship With Family
Acre was the seventh child of Edward I and Eleanor's fourteen children. Most of her older siblings died before the age of seven, and many of her younger siblings died before adulthood.[33] Of the survivors, included were Joan, four of her sisters, and her younger brother, Edward (later Edward II , King of England). [34]

Acre, like her siblings, was raised outside her family's household. She lived with her grandmother while her parents were on the crusade.[35] Edward I did not have a close relationship with most of his children while they were growing up, yet "he seemed fonder of his daughters than his sons."[36] In fact, most of the children who made it to adulthood were Edward's daughters.[37]

However, Acre's independent nature caused numerous conflicts between her and her father. Her father disapproved of her leaving court after her marriage to the Earl of Gloucester, and in turn "seized seven robes that had been made for her."[38] He also strongly disapproved of her second marriage to Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household, even to the point of attempting to force her to marry someone else.[39][40] While Edward ultimately developed a cordial relationship with Monthermer, even giving him the title of Earl [41], there appears to have been a notable difference in the Edward's treatment of Joan as compared to the treatment of the rest of her siblings. For instance, her father famously paid messengers substantially when they brought news of the birth of grandchildren, but did not do this upon birth of Acre's daughter.[42]

In terms of her siblings, Acre kept a fairly tight bond. She and Monthermer both maintained a close relationship with her brother, Edward II, which was maintained through letters. After Edward II became estranged from his parents and lost his royal seal, "Joan offered to lend him her seal" instead.[43]

Death
Joan of Acre died on April 23, 1307.[44] The cause of her death remains unclear, though one popular theory is that she died during childbirth, a common cause of death at the time. However, historians have not confirmed this to be her cause of death.[45]

Less than four months after her death, Joan's father, Edward I died. Ralph de Monthermer was stripped of his title of Earl soon after the deaths of his wife and father in law, and the title was given to Joan's son from her first marriage, Gilbert.[46]
Joan's burial place has been the cause of some interest and debate. Allegedly, in 1357, Joan's daughter, Elizabeth De Burgh, claimed to have "inspected her mother's body and found the corpse to be intact,"[47]an indication of sanctity. Some sources claim that miracles have taken place at her tomb, from a cure of the toothache to the fever, which was often fatal at the time. [48]

(Duplicate Line. See Person 132)

Gilbert next married Alice de Lusignan,203 daughter of Hugh X de Lusignan, Count of la Marche and of Angoulême and Isabella, of Angoulême, on 2 Feb 1253. The marriage ended in divorce. Alice died on 9 Feb 1256. Another name for Alice was Alfais de Lusignan.

159. Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Yougal 244 245 (Sir Richard de Clare, 8th Earl of Clare118, Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1245 and died on 29 Aug 1287 about age 42.

Death Notes: Another source has d. Feb 1288.

Research Notes: 2nd son of Maud de Lacy and Sir Richard de Clare. First husband of Juliana FitzGerald.

From Wikipedia - Juliana FitzGerald :

In February 1275, at the age of about twelve years, Juliana married her first husband, Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Yougal. He was the second eldest son of Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford , 2nd Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy . Thomas was a friend of King Edward I of England , with whom he went on a Crusade . He held many important posts including the Office of Governor of Colchester Castle (1266), Governor of the City of London (1273). He was also the commander of the English forces in Munster , Ireland , and in 1276, he was granted the lordship of Thomond . He was born in 1245, which made him about eighteen years older than Juliana.

Juliana and her husband Thomas resided at Bunratty Castle , which Thomas constructed in stone replacing the earlier wooden structure. Together Thomas and Juliana had four children:[3]
Maud de Clare (1276- 1326/27), married firstly on 3 November 1295 Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford , by whom she had issue; she married secondly after 1314 Robert de Welle.
Richard de Clare, Steward of Forest of Essex , 1st Lord Clare (1278- 10 May 1318 at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea ), married a woman by the name of Joan by whom he fathered one son, Thomas.
Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond (3 February 1281- 1307)
Margaret de Clare (c.1 April 1287- 22 October 1333/3 January 1334), married firstly in 1303 Gilbert de Umfraville; she married secondly before 30 June 1308 Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere , by whom she had four daughters and one son.

Life at Bunratty Castle was marked by unrest and strife as civil war was waged between rival factions of the powerful O'Brien clan. In 1277, Juliana's husband had his former ally Brian Ruad , the deposed King of Thomond, hanged for treason at Bunratty.[4]
Thomas died on 29 August 1287.

Noted events in his life were:

• Governor of Colchester Castle: 1266.

• Governor of the City of London: 1273.

• Lord of Thomand: 1276.

• Lord of Inchequin and Yougha:

Thomas married Juliana FitzGerald, of Offaly,245 300 daughter of Maurice FitzMaurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly and Maud de Prendergast, in Feb 1275. Juliana was born about 1263 in Dublin, Dublin, Ireland and died in 1300 about age 37. Other names for Juliana were Juliana FitzMaurice of Offaly and Juliane FitzMaurice.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Juliana FitzGerald :

Juliana FitzGerald, Lady Thomond (c.1263- 1300), was a Norman -Irish noblewoman, the daughter of Maurice FitzGerald , 3rd Lord of Offaly , and the wife of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond , a powerful Anglo-Norman baron in Ireland, who was a younger brother of Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford . Juliana had a total of three husbands; Thomas was her first. He was the father of her four children.

She is sometimes referred to as Juliane FitzMaurice.

Family
Juliana FitzGerald was born in about 1263 in Dublin , Ireland the eldest daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly, Justiciar of Ireland (1238- 1287) and his first wife, Maud de Prendergast (born 17 March 1243).[1]She had a younger sister Amabel who died childless. Her first cousin was John FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Kildare . Her paternal grandparents were Maurice FitzGerald, 2nd Lord of Offaly (1190- 1257) and Juliana. Her maternal grandparents were Gerald de Prendergast and the unnamed daughter of Richard Mor de Burgh , Lord of Connacht and Egidia de Lacy . Juliana's maternal ancestors included Brian Boru , Dermot McMurrough , and Maud de Braose .

Juliana's mother Maud died on an unknown date. Her father married secondly in 1273, Emmeline Longespee, but fathered no children by her.[2]

Marriages and children
In February 1275, at the age of about twelve years, Juliana married her first husband, Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Yougal. He was the second eldest son of Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford , 2nd Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy . Thomas was a friend of King Edward I of England , with whom he went on a Crusade . He held many important posts including the Office of Governor of Colchester Castle (1266), Governor of the City of London (1273). He was also the commander of the English forces in Munster , Ireland , and in 1276, he was granted the lordship of Thomond . He was born in 1245, which made him about eighteen years older than Juliana.
Juliana and her husband Thomas resided at Bunratty Castle , which Thomas constructed in stone replacing the earlier wooden structure. Together Thomas and Juliana had four children:[3]

Maud de Clare (1276- 1326/27), married firstly on 3 November 1295 Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford , by whom she had issue; she married secondly after 1314 Robert de Welle.

Richard de Clare, Steward of Forest of Essex , 1st Lord Clare (1278- 10 May 1318 at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea ), married a woman by the name of Joan by whom he fathered one son, Thomas.
Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond (3 February 1281- 1307)
Margaret de Clare (c.1 April 1287- 22 October 1333/3 January 1334), married firstly in 1303 Gilbert de Umfraville; she married secondly before 30 June 1308 Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere , by whom she had four daughters and one son.

Life at Bunratty Castle was marked by unrest and strife as civil war was waged between rival factions of the powerful O'Brien clan. In 1277, Juliana's husband had his former ally Brian Ruad , the deposed King of Thomond, hanged for treason at Bunratty.[4]

Thomas died on 29 August 1287, leaving Juliana a widow at the age of twenty-four with four small children; the youngest, Margaret was not quite five months old. On an unknown date she married her second husband, Nicholas Avenel. He presumably died before 1292, as that was the year she married her third husband, Adam de Cretynges.

Juliana died in 1300. Her numerous descendants included English kings Henry V , Edward IV , Richard III , Mary, Queen of Scots , Anne Boleyn , Mary Boleyn , and Diana, Princess of Wales . The current British Royal Family directly descend from her, as do most of the other European royal families.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 206 F    i. Margaret de Clare 301 302 303 304 was born about 1 Apr 1287 in Bunratty Castle, Thomond, Ireland and died between 22 Oct 1333 and 8 Jan 1334.

160. Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale 248 (Isabel de Clare119, Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in Jul 1243 and died in Mar 1304 at age 60. Another name for Robert was Robert Bruce 6th Lord of Annandale.

Robert married someone.

His child was:

+ 207 M    i. Robert Bruce, King of Scotland

161. Rhys-Vaughn, Lord of Yestradtywy (Rhys-Mechyllt, of Llandovery Castle121, Joan de Clare89, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Welsh Settlement of Pensylvania by Charles H. Browning (Philadelphia, 1912), p. 281.

Rhys-Vaughn married someone.

His child was:

+ 208 M    i. Rhys-Gloff, Lord of Cymcydmaen .

162. Hugh de Courtenay 47 (John de Courtenay122, Mary de Reviers90, Mabel de Beaumont64, Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan49, Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan31, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 25 Mar 1250 in Okehampton, Devonshire, England, died on 3 Mar 1291 in Cullicomb, Devonshire, England at age 40, and was buried in Cowick, Devonshire, England.

Hugh married Eleanor Le Despencer,47 daughter of Hugh le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer and Aline Bassett, Countess of Norfolk, about 1274 in Devonshire, England. Eleanor was born about 1252 in <Ryhall, Rutland>, England, died on 30 Sep 1328 in London, Middlesex, England about age 76, and was buried on 1 Oct 1328 in Cowick, Devonshire, England. Another name for Eleanor was Eleanor Le Despencer.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 209 M    i. Hugh de Courtenay 47 was born on 14 Sep 1273 in Okehampton, Devonshire, England, died on 23 Dec 1340 in Exeter, Devonshire, England at age 67, and was buried on 5 Feb 1341 in Cowick, Exeter, Devonshire, England.

163. Isabella de Beauchamp 197 252 253 (William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick123, Isabel Mauduit91, Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1252 in <Warwick>, Warwickshire, England and died before 30 May 1306 in Elmley Castle, Worchestershire, England. Another name for Isabella was Isabel de Beauchamp.

Research Notes: FamilySearch lists 4 husbands:
William Blount of Belton, Rutland, England, m. abt 1261
Patrick de Chaworth, m. abt 1281
Hugh le Despencer, m. bef 1286
Henry Lovet

From Wikipedia - Isabella de Beauchamp :

Isabella de Beauchamp, Lady Kidwelly, Lady Despenser (died before 30 May 1306), was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress. She married twice; firstly to Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly, by whom she had a daughter, Maud Chaworth . Her second husband was Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester , by whom she had four children, including Hugh the younger Despenser .[1] Her second husband and eldest son were both executed in 1326 by the orders of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March , and his mistress, Isabella of France , Queen-consort of King Edward II . The couple were de facto rulers of England at the time. Isabella de Beauchamp had been dead for over twenty years at the time of their executions.

Family
Isabella was born on an unknown date in Warwickshire , England. She was the only daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzJohn . She had a brother, Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick who married Alice de Toeni , by whom he had seven children. Her paternal grandparents were William de Beauchamp of Elmley Castle and Isabel Maudit. Her maternal grandparents were Sir John FitzGeoffrey , Lord of Shere, and Isabel Bigod .

Marriages and children
Sometime before 1281, she married firstly Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly in Carmarthenshire , South Wales. The marriage produced one daughter:

Maud Chaworth (2 February 1282- 1322), married Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster , by whom she had seven children.
Following Patrick's death in 1286, Isabella had in her possession four manors in Wiltshire and two manors in Berkshire , assigned to her until her dowry should be set forth along with the livery of Chedworth in Gloucestershire and the Hampshire manor of Hartley Mauditt which had been granted to her and Sir Patrick in frankmarriage by her father.[2]
That same year 1286, she married secondly Sir Hugh le Despenser without the King's licence for which Hugh had to pay a fine of 2000 marks .[2] He was created Lord Despenser by writ of summons to Parliament in 1295, thereby making Isabella Lady Despenser.
Together Hugh and Isabella had four children:[3]
Hugh le Depenser, Lord Despenser the Younger (1286- executed 24 November 1326), married Eleanor de Clare , by whom he had issue.
Aline le Despenser (died before 28 November 1353), married Edward Burnell, Lord Burnell
Isabella le Despenser (died 4/5 December 1334), married firstly as his second wife, John de Hastings, Lord Hastings, by whom she had three children. Their descendants became the Lords Hastings; she married secondly as his second wife, Sir Ralph de Monthermer, Lord Monthermer .
Philip le Despenser (died 1313), married as her first husband Margaret de Goushill, by whom he had issue.
Isabella died sometime before 30 May 1306. Twenty years later, her husband and eldest son, favourites of King Edward II , were both executed by the orders of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Queen Isabella. The couple were by that time the de facto rulers of England, and along with most of the people in the kingdom, they had resented the power both Despensers wielded over the King.

As her husband had been made Earl of Winchester in 1322, Isabella was never styled as the Countess of Winchester.

Isabella married William Blount, of Belton, Rutland 197 about 1261. William was born in England.

Isabella next married Sir Patrick de Chaworth, 5th Baron of Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly,279 305 son of Patrick de Chaworth, of Kempsford and Hawise de London, before 1281. Patrick was born about 1260 and died on 7 Jul 1283 in <Kidwelly, > Carmarthenshire, Wales about age 23.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008.


The child from this marriage was:

+ 210 F    i. Maud de Chaworth, Countess of Lancaster & Countess of Leicester 278 279 280 was born on 2 Feb 1282 in <Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire>, Wales and died before 3 Dec 1322.

Isabella next married Sir Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester,306 307 308 son of Hugh le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer and Aline Bassett, Countess of Norfolk, in 1286. Hugh was born on 1 Mar 1260 and died on 27 Oct 1326 in Bristol, Gloucestershire, England at age 66. Another name for Hugh was Hugh "the Elder" le Despenser Sir.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has Of, Winchester, Hampshire, England Or Louchborough, Leicestershire, England

Death Notes: Hanged

Research Notes: 3rd husband of Isabella de Beauchamp.

From Wikipedia - Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester :

Hugh le Despenser (1262 - October 27 , 1326 ), sometimes referred to as "the elder Despenser", was for a time the chief adviser to King Edward II of England .
He was the son of Hugh le Despencer, 1st Baron le Despencer (or Despenser), and Aliva Basset, sole daughter and heiress of Philip Basset . His father was killed at Evesham when Hugh was just a boy, but Hugh's patrimony was saved through the influence of his maternal grandfather (who had been loyal to the king).[1]

He married Isabel de Beauchamp, daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick and Maud FitzJohn.

He was created a baron by writ of summons to Parliament in 1295. He was one of the few barons to remain loyal to Edward during the controversy regarding Piers Gaveston . Despenser became Edward's loyal servant and chief administrator after Gaveston was executed in 1312, but the jealousy of other barons - and, more importantly, his own corruption and unjust behaviour - led to his being exiled along with his son Hugh Despenser the younger in 1321, when Edmund de Woodstoke replaced him as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports.

Edward found it difficult to manage without them, and recalled them to England a year later, an action which enraged the queen, Isabella , the more so when Despenser was created Earl of Winchester . When Isabella and her lover, Roger Mortimer , led a rebellion against the king, both Despensers were captured and executed. Queen Isabella interceded for him, but his enemies, notably Roger Mortimer and Henry, Earl of Lancaster, insisted that he should face trial and execution. The elder Despenser was hanged at Bristol on October 27, 1326.

References
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 72-31, 74-31, 74A-31, 93A-29
Fryde, Natalie (1979). The tyranny and fall of Edward II, 1321-1326. ISBN 0521548063 .
Karau, Björn: Günstlinge am Hof Edwards II. von England - Aufstieg und Fall der Despensers, MA-Thesis, Kiel 1999. (Free Download: )
Hunt, William (1888). "Hugh Despenser". Dictionary of National Biography 14.

Noted events in his life were:

• Baron le Despenser: 1265-1326.

• Justice in Eyre: sourth of the Trent, 1296-1307.

• Justice in Eyre: south of the Trent, 1307-1311.

• Justice in Eyre: south of the Trent, 1312-1314.

• Lord Wardens of the Cinque Ports: 1320.

• Earl of Winchester: 1322-1326.

• Justice in Eyre: south of the Trent, 1324-1326.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 211 M    i. Sir Hugh le Despenser, Baron Despenser 308 309 310 was born in 1286, died on 24 Nov 1326 in Hereford, Herefordshire, England at age 40, and was buried after 15 Dec 1330 in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England.

+ 212 M    ii. Sir Edward Despenser 311 died on 30 Sep 1342.

164. Sarah de Beauchamp (William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick123, Isabel Mauduit91, Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick

165. Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick 254 255 256 (William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick123, Isabel Mauduit91, Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1272 in <Elmley Castle, Elmley>, Worcestershire, England, died on 12 Aug 1315 in Warwick, Warwickshire, England at age 43, and was buried in Bordesley Abbey, Worcestershire, England.

Guy married Alice de Toeni,254 daughter of Ralph de Toeni and Mary, on 10 Aug 1315 in Warwick Castle, Warwickshire, England. Alice was born in 1284 in <Flamsted, Hertfordshire>, England and died on 1 Jan 1324 at age 40.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 213 M    i. Thomas de Beauchamp 254 was born on 14 Feb 1314 in <Warwick Castle, Warwickshire>, England, died on 13 Nov 1369 in Calais, Pas-de-Calais, France at age 55, and was buried in Saint Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

166. Alice de Warenne 257 (Sir William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey127, John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey95, William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey69, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died before 23 May 1338.

Alice married Sir Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel,312 313 son of Sir Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel and Alasia, di Saluzzo, in 1305. Edmund was born on 1 May 1285 and died on 17 Nov 1326 in Hereford, Herefordshire, England at age 41. Other names for Edmund were Edmund FitzAlan d'Arundel and Sir Edmund FitzAlan d'Arundel.

Death Notes: Beheaded

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel :

Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel (8th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots) (1 May 1285 - 17 November 1326).

Lineage
Born in the Castle of Marlborough in Wiltshire . He was the son of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel (7th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots) and Alice of Saluzzo (also known as Alesia di Saluzzo), daughter of Thomas I of Saluzzo in Italy . He succeeded to his father's estates and titles on his death in 1302.

Prominent Nobleman
Edmund was an English nobleman prominent in the contention between Edward II and his Barons and second de facto Earl of Arundel of the FitzAlan line.
He was summoned to Parliament, 9 November 1306, as Earl of Arundel , and took part in the Scottish wars of that year.

Coronation duty
Arundel bore the Royal robes at Edward II's coronation, but he soon fell out with the King's favorite Piers Gaveston . In 1310 he was one of the Lords Ordainers , and he was one of the 5 Earls who allied in 1312 to oust Gaveston. Arundel resisted reconciling with the King after Gaveston's death, and in 1314 he along with some other Earls refused to help the King's Scottish campaign, which contributed in part to the English defeat at Bannockburn .

Allied to the Despensers
A few years later Arundel allied with King Edward's new favorites, Hugh le Despenser and his son of the same name, and had his son and heir, Richard, married to a daughter of the younger Hugh le Despenser. He reluctantly consented to the Despenser's banishment in 1321, and joined the King's efforts to restore them in 1321. Over the following years Arundel was one of the King's principal supporters, and after the capture of Roger Mortimer in 1322 he received a large part of the forfeited Mortimer estates. He also held the two great offices governing Wales, becoming Justice of Wales in 1322 and Warden of the Welsh Marches , responsible for the array in Wales, in 1325 and Constable of Montgomery Castle , his official base.

Loyalty
After Mortimer's escape from prison and invasion of England in 1326, amongst the Barons only Arundel and his brother-in-law John de Warenne remained loyal to the King.

Capture & execution
Their defensive efforts were ineffective, and Arundel was captured and executed at the behest of Queen Isabella .

Estates Forfeited
His estates and titles were forfeited when he was executed, but they were eventually restored to his eldest son Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel .

Marriage and issue
In 1305, Edmund married Alice de Warenne (June1287-23 May 1338) sister and eventual heiress of John de Warenne , 8th Earl of Surrey , daughter of William de Warenne and Joan de Vere . Their children included:
Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel
Alice FitzAlan, who married John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford

References
The Royal Ancestry Bible Royal Ancestors of 300 Colonial American Families by Michel L. Call (chart 28) ISBN 1-933194-22-7
Roy Martin (2003), King Edward II: His Life, His Reign, and Its Aftermath, 1284-1330, McGill-Queen's Press, ISBN 0773524320
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 28-32, 60-31, 83-30

Noted events in his life were:

• Knighted: 22 May 1306.

• Member: of Parliament, 1306.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 214 M    i. Sir Richard "Copped Hat" FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Warenne 314 315 316 was born about 1313, died on 24 Jan 1376 in Arundel, West Sussex, England about age 63, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England.

167. John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey 258 259 (Sir William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey127, John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey95, William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey69, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 30 Jun 1286 and died on 29 Jun 1347 about age 60. Another name for John was John II de Warenne.

Research Notes: May have built, or finished building, Holt Castle before his death. There is a record of officers of the Prince of Wales staying at Castrum Leonum (Holt) from 9th July to 6th August, 1347. It is unclear which of the Warennes commenced the building of the castle.

Noted events in his life were:

• Succeeded: to lordships of Bromfield (Wrexham) and Yale, 27 Sep 1304. upon the death of his grandfather, John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey.

• Inherited: Castle Lions (Holt Castle) and Castle Dinas Bran, 27 Sep 1304.

• Granted: all his lands, including castles Holt and Dinas Bran, to king Edward II, 29 Jun 1316.

John married Joan de Barre.317 They had no children.

John next married Isabel de Howland.317 They had no children.

Research Notes: Second wife of John II de Warenne

168. Angharad de Warenne, of Warren Hall, Salop 260 261 (Sir William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey127, John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey95, William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey69, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1294. Another name for Angharad was Angreta de Warren of Warren Hall, Salop.

Research Notes: From Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales, Vol. I, p. 455: "Sir Richard de Pyvelisdon, or Puleston, Kt., of Emral, who m. Angharad (whom Dwnn modifies from the Latin into Angreta), dau. of a Warren of Warren Hall, Salop, and had by her eight sons and a dau. william, the eldest, d. s. p., and the succession was in the wne son,--Sir Roger Puleston, Kt., of Emral..."

Angharad married Sir Richard Puleston, of Emral, son of Sir Roger Puleston, of Emral, Maelor Saesneg, Flintshire and Jane le Clerk, of Malpas,. Richard was born about 1281. Another name for Richard was Sir Richard de Pyvelisdon of Emral.

Research Notes: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593881439

Source: Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales by Thomas Nicholas, Vol. I, London, 1872, p. 455, which has "Sir Richard de Pyvelisdon, or Puleston, Kt., of Emral, who m. Angharad (whom Dwnn modifies from the Latin into Angreta), dau. of a Warren of Warren Hall, Salop, and had by her eight sons and a dau. William, the eldest, d. s. p., and the succession was in the 2nd son,--Sir Roger Puleston, Kt., of Emral..."


The child from this marriage was:

+ 215 M    i. Sir Roger Puleston, of Emral 261 318 319 320 was born about 1308.

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169. Jeanne, of Navarre 263 (Blanche, of Artois129, Robert I "the Good", Count of Artois96, Blanche, of Castile70, Eleanor, of England53, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in Jan 1272 and died on 2 Apr 1305 at age 33. Another name for Jeanne was Jeanne de Navarre.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Isabella of France.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 45-31.

Jeanne married Philip IV, King of France 321 on 16 Aug 1284 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France. Philip was born in 1268 in Fontainebleau and died on 29 Nov 1314 at age 46. Another name for Philip was Philip "the Fair" King of France.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Edward II of England

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 101-30

Noted events in his life were:

• Crowned: King of France, 1285.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 216 F    i. Isabella, of France 273 274 was born about 1295 in Paris, (Île-de-France), France and died on 22 Aug 1358 about age 63.

+ 217 M    ii. Charles IV, of France .

170. Edward I, of Bar, Comte de Bar (Eleanor, of England131, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1284 and died in 1336 at age 52.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1269-1298)

171. Eleanor (Eleanor, of England131, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1285.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1269-1298)

Eleanor married Llywelyn ap Owain ap Maredudd, son of Owain ap Maredudd ap Owain, of Cardigan and Angharad ferch Owain ap Maredudd,. Llywelyn died in 1309. Another name for Llywelyn was Llewellyn ap Owain ap Maredudd.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 254-32 - "Llewellyn Ap Owain, lord of a moiety of Gwynnionith and of Caerwedros"

Source: A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, p. 80

172. Jeanne (Eleanor, of England131, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1295 and died in 1361 at age 66.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1269-1298)

173. Eleanor de Clare 43 264 265 (Joan, of Acre132, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 3 Oct 1292 in Caerphilly, Glamorgan, Wales, died on 30 Jun 1337 at age 44, and was buried in Tewkesbury, Wiltshire, England. Other names for Eleanor were Alianore de Clare and Eleanore de Clare.

Research Notes: Wikipedia - Eleanor de Clare :

Eleanor de Clare (3 October 1292 - June 30 , 1337 ) was the wife of the powerful Hugh Despenser the younger . She was born in 1292 at Caerphilly in Glamorgan , Wales . She was the eldest daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester , and Joan of Acre , daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile ; thus she was a granddaughter to Edward I of England . With her sisters, Elizabeth de Clare and Margaret de Clare , she inherited her father's estates after the death of her brother, Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Gloucester at Bannockburn in 1314.

Marriage to Hugh Desepenser the younger
In May 1306 at Westminster , Eleanor married Hugh Despenser the younger , the son of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester and Isabel Beauchamp , daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick . Her grandfather, King Edward I of England , granted Eleanor a maritagium of 2,000 pounds sterling. Eleanor and Hugh had nine children:
Hugh le Despenser III (1308-1349)
Gilbert le Despenser , (1309- 1381).
Edward le Despenser , (1310 - 1342), soldier, killed at the siege of Vannes [1]; father of Edward II le Despenser , Knight of the Garter
John le Despenser , (1311 - June 1366).
Isabel le Despenser (1312-1356), married Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel
Eleanor le Despenser , (c. 1315 - 1351), nun at Sempringham Priory
Joan le Despenser , (c. 1317 - 1384), nun at Shaftesbury Abbey
Margaret le Despenser , (c. 1319 - 1337, nun at Whatton Priory
Elizabeth le Despenser , born 1325, died July 13 , 1389 , married Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley .
Eleanor's husband rose to prominence as the new favourite of her uncle, King Edward II of England . The king strongly favoured Hugh and Eleanor, visiting them often and granting them many gifts. One foreign chronicler even alleged that Edward was involved in a ménage à trois with his niece and her husband. Whatever the truth, Eleanor's fortunes changed drastically after the invasion of Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer . Hugh le Despenser was gruesomely executed.

Imprisonment
In November 1326, Eleanor was confined to the Tower of London . The Despenser family's fortunes also suffered with the executions of Eleanor's husband and father-in-law. Eleanor and Hugh's eldest son, another Hugh, who held Caerphilly Castle against the queen's forces until the spring of 1327, was spared his life when he surrendered the castle but remained a prisoner until July 1331, after which he was slowly restored to royal favor. Three of Eleanor's daughters were forcibly veiled as nuns. Only the eldest daughter, Isabel, and the youngest daughter, Elizabeth, escaped the nunnery, Isabel because she was already married and Elizabeth on account of her infancy.
In February 1328 Eleanor was freed from imprisonment. In April 1328, she was allowed possession of her own lands, for which she did homage.

Marriage to William de la Zouche
Eleanor was abducted from Hanley Castle in January, 1329, by William de la Zouche , who had been one of her husband's captors and who had led the siege of Caerphilly Castle. The abduction may in fact have been an elopement; in any case, Eleanor's lands were seized by the King, Edward III , and the couple was ordered to be arrested. At the same time, Eleanor was accused of stealing jewels from the Tower. Sometime after February 1329, she was imprisoned a second time in the Tower of London; later, she was moved to Devizes Castle . In January 1330, she was released and pardoned after agreeing to sign away the most valuable part of her share of the lucrative Clare inheritance to the crown. She could recover her lands only on the condition that she pay the enormous sum of 50,000 pounds in a single day.
Within the year, however, the young Edward III overthrew Queen Isabella's paramour, Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and had him executed. Eleanor was among those who benefited from the fall of Mortimer and Isabella. She petitioned Edward III for the restoration of her lands, claiming that she had signed them away after being threatened by Roger Mortimer that she would never be freed if she did not. In 1331, Edward III granted her petition "to ease the king's conscience" and allowed her to recover the lands on the condition that she pay a fine of 10,000 pounds, later reduced to 5,000 pounds, in installments. Eleanor made payments on the fine, but the bulk of it was outstanding at the time of her death.
Eleanor's troubles were by no means over, however. After Eleanor's marriage to Zouche, Sir John Grey, 1st Baron Grey claimed that he had married her first. Grey was still attempting to claim Eleanor in 1333; the case was appealed to the Pope several times. Ultimately, Zouche won the dispute. Eleanor remained with him until his death in February 1337, only a few months before Eleanor's own death. Eleanor and William had children:
William de la Zouche, born 1330, died after 1360, a monk at Glastonbury Abbey .
Joyce Zouche, born 1331, died after 4 May 1372 , married John de Botetourt, 2nd Lord Botetourt.

Tewkesbury Abbey Renovations
Hugh le Despenser the younger and Eleanor are generally credited with beginning the renovations to Tewkesbury Abbey that transformed it into the fine example of the decorated style of architecture that it is today. The famous fourteenth-century stained-glass windows in the choir, which include the armor-clad figures of Eleanor's ancestors, brother, and two husbands, were most likely Eleanor's own contribution, although she probably did not live to see them put in place. The nude, kneeling woman watching the Last Judgment in the choir's east window may represent Eleanor.

Eleanor married Sir Hugh le Despenser, Baron Despenser,308 309 310 son of Sir Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and Isabella de Beauchamp, after 14 Jun 1306. Hugh was born in 1286, died on 24 Nov 1326 in Hereford, Herefordshire, England at age 40, and was buried after 15 Dec 1330 in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England. Another name for Hugh was Hugh "the Younger" le Despenser Baron Despenser.

Death Notes: Hanged and quartered for teason

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Hugh Despenser the Younger :

Hugh Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser (1286 - 24 November 1326 , sometimes referred to as "the younger Despenser", was the son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester , by Isabel Beauchamp, daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick .

Background
He was knight of Hanley Castle , Worcestershire , King's Chamberlain , Constable of Odiham Castle , Keeper of the castle and town of Portchester , Keeper of the castle, town and barton of Bristol and, in Wales , Keeper of the castle and town of Dryslwyn , and the region of Cantref Mawr , Carmarthenshire . Also in Wales , he was Keeper of the castles, manor, and lands of Brecknock , Hay , Cantref Selyf, etc., in County Brecon , and, in England of Huntington , Herefordshire . He was given Wallingford Castle although this had previously been given to Queen Isabella for life.

Marriage
In May 1306 Hugh was knighted, and that summer he married Eleanor de Clare , daughter of Gilbert de Clare , 9th Lord of Clare and 7th Earl of Hertford and Joan of Acre . Eleanor's grandfather, Edward I , owed Hugh's father vast sums of money, and the marriage was intended as a payment of these debts. When Eleanor's brother was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn , she unexpectedly became one of the three co-heiresses to the rich Gloucester earldom, and in her right Hugh inherited Glamorgan and other properties. In just a few short years Hugh went from a landless knight to one of the wealthiest magnates in the kingdom.
Eleanor was also the niece of the new king, Edward II of England , and this connection brought Hugh closer to the English royal court. He joined the baronial opposition to Piers Gaveston , the king's favourite , and Hugh's brother-in-law, as Gaveston was married to Eleanor's sister. Eager for power and wealth, Hugh seized Tonbridge Castle in 1315. In 1318 he murdered Llywelyn Bren , a Welsh hostage in his custody.

Eleanor and Hugh had nine children:
Hugh le Despenser III (1308-1349)
Gilbert le Despenser , (1309- 1381).
Edward le Despenser , (1310 - 1342), soldier, killed at the siege of Vannes [1]; father of Edward II le Despenser , Knight of the Garter
John le Despenser , (1311 - June 1366).
Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Arundel (1312-1356), married Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel
Eleanor le Despenser , (c. 1315 - 1351), nun at Sempringham Priory
Joan le Despenser , (c. 1317 - 1384), nun at Shaftesbury Abbey
Margaret le Despenser , (c. 1319 - 1337, nun at Whatton Priory
Elizabeth le Despenser , born 1325, died July 13 , 1389 , married Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley .

Political Manoeuvrings
Hugh became royal chamberlain in 1318. As a royal courtier , Hugh manoeuvred into the affections of King Edward, displacing the previous favourite, Roger d'Amory . This was much to the dismay of the baronage as they saw him both taking their rightful places at court and being a worse version of Gaveston. By 1320 his greed was running free. Hugh seized the Welsh lands of his wife's inheritance, ignoring the claims of his two brothers-in-law. He forced Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln , to give up her lands, cheated his sister-in-law Elizabeth de Clare out of Gower and Usk , and allegedly had Lady Baret's arms and legs broken until she went insane. He also supposedly vowed to be revenged on Roger Mortimer because Mortimer's grandfather had murdered Hugh's grandfather, and once stated (though probably in jest) that he regretted he could not control the wind. By 1321 he had earned many enemies in every stratum of society, from Queen Isabella to the barons to the common people. There was even a bizarre plot to kill Hugh by sticking pins in a wax likeness of him.

Finally the barons prevailed upon King Edward and forced Hugh and his father into exile in 1321. His father fled to Bordeaux , and Hugh became a pirate in the English Channel , "a sea monster, lying in wait for merchants as they crossed his path". Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves. The following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, and the surrender of Roger Mortimer, the Despensers' chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Hugh as royal favourite. His time in exile had done nothing to quell his greed, his rashness, or his ruthlessness. The time from the Despensers' return from exile until the end of Edward II's reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge , and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. They grew rich from their administration and corruption. This period is sometimes referred to as the "Tyranny". This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II. Hugh repeatedly pressed King Edward to execute Mortimer, who had been held prisoner in the Tower of London, following his surrender. However, Mortimer escaped from the Tower and fled to France.

Relationship with Edward and Isabella
Queen Isabella had a special dislike for the man. Various historians have suggested, and it is commonly believed, that he and Edward had an ongoing sexual relationship. (Froissart states "he was a sodomite, even it is said, with the King.") Some speculate it was this relationship that caused the Queen's dislike of him.[citation needed ] Others, noting that her hatred for him was far greater than for any other favourite of her husband, suggest that his behaviour towards herself and the nation served to excite her particular disgust. Alison Weir , in her 2005 book, Queen Isabella: Treachery, Adultery, and Murder in Medieval England, speculates that he had raped Isabella and that was the source of her hatred. While Isabella was in France to negotiate between her husband and the French king, she formed a liaison with Roger Mortimer and began planning an invasion. Hugh supposedly tried to bribe French courtiers to assassinate Isabella, sending barrels of silver as payment. Roger Mortimer and the Queen invaded England in October 1326. Their forces only numbered about 1,500 mercenaries to begin with, but the majority of the nobility rallied to them throughout October and November. By contrast, very few people were prepared to fight for Edward II, mainly because of the hatred which the Despensers had aroused. The Despensers fled West with the King, with a sizable sum from the treasury. The escape was unsuccessful. Separated from the elder Despenser, the King and the younger Hugh were deserted by most of their followers, and were captured near Neath in mid-November. King Edward was placed in captivity and later deposed. Hugh the father (the elder Despenser) was hanged at Bristol on 27 October 1326, and Hugh the son was brought to trial.

Trial and Execution
Hugh tried to starve himself before his trial, but face trial he did on 24 November 1326 , in Hereford , before Mortimer and the Queen. He was judged a traitor and a thief, and sentenced to public execution by hanging, as a thief, and drawing and quartering , as a traitor. Additionally, he was sentenced to be disembowelled for having procured discord between the King and Queen, and to be beheaded, for returning to England after having been banished. Treason had also been the grounds for Gaveston's execution; the belief was that these men had misled the King rather than the King himself being guilty of folly. Immediately after the trial, he was dragged behind four horses to his place of execution, where a great fire was lit. He was stripped naked, and biblical verses denouncing arrogance and evil were written on his skin. He was then hanged from a gallows 50 ft (15 m) high, but cut down before he could choke to death, and was tied to a ladder, in full view of the crowd. The executioner climbed up beside him, and sliced off his penis and testicles which were burnt before him, while he was still alive and conscious; (although castration was not formally part of the sentence imposed on Despenser, it was typically practised on convicted traitors). Subsequently, the executioner slit open his abdomen, and slowly pulled out, and cut out, his entrails and, finally, his heart, which were likewise thrown into the fire. The executioner would have sought to keep him alive as long as possible, while disembowelling him. The burning of his entrails would, in all likelihood, have been the last sight that he witnessed. Just before he died, it is recorded that he let out a "ghastly inhuman howl," much to the delight and merriment of the spectators. Finally, his corpse was beheaded, his body cut into four pieces, and his head was mounted on the gates of London. Mortimer and Isabella feasted with their chief supporters, as they watched the execution...

After his death, his widow asked to be given the body so she could bury it at the family's Gloucestershire estate, but only the head, a thigh bone and a few vertebrae were returned to her.[2]



Children from this marriage were:

+ 218 M    i. Philip Le Despenser, of Stoke, Gloucestershire 308 was born about 1244 in <Gloucestershire, > England and died on 24 Sep 1313 about age 69.

+ 219 F    ii. Isabel le Despenser 322 323 was born in 1312 and died in 1356 at age 44.

Eleanor next married William La Zouche 324 in 1327. William died in 1337. Another name for William was William de Mortimer.

174. Eleanor de Bohun 268 (Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England134, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in Oct 1304 and died on 7 Oct 1363 at age 59. Another name for Eleanor was Alianore de Bohun.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 7-30

Also Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Rhuddlan

Eleanor married James le Botiller, 1st Earl of Ormond,325 son of Edmund Botiller, Justiciar and Governor of Ireland and Joan FitzGerald, in 1327. James was born about 1305 and died on 6 Jan 1338 about age 33. Another name for James was James Butler Earl of Ormond.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 220 M    i. James Botiller, 2nd Earl of Ormond was born on 4 Oct 1331 in Kilkenny, Ireland and died in 1382 at age 51.

+ 221 F    ii. Petronilla Botiller 326 died about 1368.

175. John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England134, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 23 Nov 1306 and died in 1335 at age 29.

176. Agnes de Bohun (Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England134, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in Nov 1309.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Rhuddlan

177. Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford 269 (Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England134, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 6 Dec 1309, died on 15 Oct 1361 in Pleshey Castle, Essex, England at age 51, and was buried in Friars Augustine, London.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford :

Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford, 5th Earl of Essex (6 December 1309 - 15 October 1361 ) was a Lord High Constable of England.

Lineage
He was born to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth Plantagenet and a younger brother of John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford . He succeeded his elder brother as Earl of Hereford and Essex upon his death on 20 January 1336. He also succeeded John as the Lord High Constable of England , the seventh highest office of the State.

Death & Burial
After his death in Pleshey , Essex he was buried in Friars Augustine , London . The Earldoms of Hereford and Essex were passed to his nephew, Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford , the son of his younger brother William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton , who predeceased him.

178. Margaret de Bohun 47 270 (Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England134, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 3 Apr 1311 in Caldecote, Northamptonshire, England, died on 16 Dec 1391 in Exeter, Devonshire, England at age 80, and was buried in Exeter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Margaret de Bohun, 2nd Countess of Devon :

Margaret de Bohun, 2nd Countess of Devon (3 April 1311 - 16 December 1391 ) was an English noblewoman of the fourteenth century who lived most of her life in the county of Devonshire . She was a granddaughter of King Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile . Her eighteen children included an Archbishop of Canterbury and six knights.


Family and marriage
Lady Margaret de Bohun was born on 3 April 1311 at Caldecote, Northampton , the third daughter and sixth child of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford , Lord Constable of England and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan . Her paternal grandparents were Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and Maud de Fiennes , and her maternal grandparents were King Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile .

Margaret was left an orphan shortly before her tenth birthday. On 16 March 1321 at The Battle of Boroughbridge , her father was brutally murdered in an ambush by the Welsh. Her mother had died five years previously in childbirth.

She, along with her siblings, received a classical education under a Sicilian Greek, Master Diogenes. As a result, Margaret became a lifelong scholar, and avid book collector.

At the age of fourteen, on 11 August 1325 Lady Margaret married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon (12 July 1303 - 2 May 1377 ). She had been betrothed to him since 27 September 1314 . He was the son of Hugh Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon and Agnes St.John. Part of her dowry was the manor of Powderham, near Exeter . Margaret assumed the title of 2nd Countess of Devon on 23 December 1340 .

Her eldest brother John de Bohun (23 November 1306 -20 January 1336 ) succeeded as 5th Earl of Hereford in 1326, having married Alice Fitzalan of Arundel in 1325. She had a younger brother William de Bohun (1312- 1360), who was created 1st Earl of Northampton in 1337 by King Edward III . He married Elizabeth de Badlesmere , by whom he had two children. Margaret's elder sister Lady Eleanor de Bohun (17 October 1304 -7 October 1363 ), married in 1327, her first husband, James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde . They were the ancestors of Anne Boleyn .

Hugh and Margaret had a total of eighteen children. More than half reached adulthood. Their notable descendants include Charles, Prince of Wales , and British Prime Minister , Sir Winston Churchill .

List of Children
Sir Hugh Courtenay KG (22 March 1327 Tiverton Castle, Devon -2 September 1349 ), married 1341 Lady Elizabeth Brian (died 23 September 1375 , daughter of Guy Brian, Lord of Tor-Brian. Together they had one son, Hugh.(Born 1343).
Sir Edward Courtenay of Godlington.(1329- 1372), married in 1356 Emmeline Dauney, by whom he had issue.
Margaret Courtenay.(1328 - 2 August 1385 ), married John Cobham, 3rd Lord Cobham by whom she had issue.
Sir Thomas Courtenay (1331- before 1374)
Sir Phillip Courtenay of Powderham, Lord Deputy of Ireland . (1340 - 29 July 1406 ), married Anne Wake by whom he had issue, including Richard Courtenay, Bishop of Norwich .
Elizabeth Courtenay. (c.1333- 7 August 1395 ), married firstly, John de Vere (1335-1350); she married secondly in 1359, Sir Andrew Luttrell by whom she had issue.
Catherine Courtenay.(1335-31 December 1399. She was married three times: William Mohun , Thomas Engain , and Lord William Harrington
Joan Courtenay. (born 1337), married John Chiverton
Matilda Courtenay (born 1339)
Eleanor Courtenay
Guinora Courtenay (born 1348)
Isabel Courtenay (born 1353)
Philippa Courtenay (born 1357)
William Courtenay (1342 St. Martin's, Exeter- 31 July 1396), Archbishop of Canterbury, and previously of London (1381-1396)
John Courtenay (born 1346)
Sir Peter Courtenay, Constable of Windsor(1349 -2 February 1404 ), married Margaret Clyveden
Sir Humphrey Courtenay (born c.1355)
Anne Courtenay (born 1351), died unmarried.


Death
Margaret died on 16 December 1391 at the age of eighty. She is buried in Exeter Cathedral .

Margaret married Hugh de Courtenay,47 son of Hugh de Courtenay and Agnes Saint John, on 11 Aug 1325. Hugh was born on 12 Jul 1303 in Okehampton, Devonshire, England, died on 2 May 1377 in Exeter, Devonshire, England at age 73, and was buried in Exeter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 222 F    i. Margaret Courtenay 47 was born about 1326 in <Exeter, Devonshire>, England, died on 2 Aug 1385 about age 59, and was buried on 2 Aug 1385 in Cobham, Kent, England.

179. Sir William de Bohun, K.G., 1st Earl of Northampton 271 272 (Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England134, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1311 and died on 16 Sep 1360 about age 49.

Research Notes: He was the twin of Edward de Bohun.

From Wikipedia - William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton:

He was the fifth son of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan . He had a twin brother, Edward. His maternal grandparents were Edward I of England and his first Queen consort Eleanor of Castile .

In 1332 he received many new properties: Hinton and Spaine in Berkshire; Hasley, Ascot, Dedington, Pyrton and Kirklington in Oxfordshire; Wincomb in Buckinghamshire; Longbenington in Lincolnshire; Kneesol in Bottinghamshire; Newnsham in Gloucestershire, Wix in Essex, and Bosham in Sussex. He was created Earl of Northampton in 1337 , adding to the titles of Count of Hereford and Essex.

In 1339 he accompanied the King to Flanders. He served variously in Brittany and in Scotland , and was present at the great English victories at Sluys and was a commander at Crécy .

In addition to being a warrior, William was also a renowned diplomat. He negotiated two treaties with France, one in 1343 and one in 1350. He was also charged with negotiating in Scotland for the freedom of David Bruce, prisoner of the English.

De Bohun was succeeded by his son Humphrey , who also succeeded his uncle and became 7th earl of Hereford. His daughter Elizabeth de Bohun was married to Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel .

Noted events in his life were:

• 6th Earl of Northampton: 16 Mar 1337.

William married Elizabeth de Badlesmere,302 327 328 329 daughter of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, of Badlesmere & Chilham Castle, Kent and Margaret de Clare,. Elizabeth was born about 1313 in Castle Badlesmere, Kent, England, died on 8 Jun 1356 about age 43, and was buried in Walden Abbey, Essex, England. Another name for Elizabeth was Elizabeth de Badelsmer.

Death Notes: Wikipedia (or some other source) has d. 8 Jun 1356. This contradicts Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry, Edited by Thomas Allen Glenn at the request of Howard Reifsnyder, privately printed, Philadelphia, 1902, provided by http://books.google.com, pp. 49, which has 5 Jun 1378, taken from the inscription on a table in Black Friars church, London.

Research Notes: From Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry, pp. 49-50:

"II WILLIAM DE BOHUN, Earl of Northampton and Knight of the Garter, who died 1360. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Bartholomew de Badelsmer--Lord Badelsmer, of Leeds Castle, County Kent, who was beheaded at Canterbury, 1322. The will of this Elizabeth is dated 1356, being executed prior to her husband's decease, but she did not die until 1378, as appears by the following inscription on a tablet erected to her memory in Black Friars, London:

"'Here lieth the body of Lady Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Bartholomew Balitismer, wife of William Bohun, Earl of Northampton, and mother of the Earles of March and Northampton, and of Elizabeth, Countess of Arundell. She died 5id of June, anno Christi, 1378.' She was interred before the high altar..
--Weever's Funeral Monuments, page 77].

"Her will was as follows:
'I, Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Northampton, on the last day of May 1356, with the leave of my husband to make this my will. My body to be buried in the choir of the Church of the Friar preachers, London: to that church C. Marks sterling, and also the cross made of the very wood of our Saviour's Cross, which I was wont to carry about me, and wherein is contained one of the thorns of his crown; also I bequeath to the said Church two fine acton clothes of one suit, two of cloth of gold, one chalice, one missal, one graile, and one silver bell, likewise thirty-one ells of linen cloth for making of abes, on pulpitary, one portfory, and an holy water pot of silver; to the Friars Preachers of Oxford one hundred marks, two cloths of gold of one suit and one chalice; to the Friars Preachers of Cambridge, fifty pounds; to those of Chelmsford, twenty pounds; to those of Exeter, twenty pounds; also I will that one hundred and fifty marks be distributed to several other convents of Friar Preachers, in such manner as Friar David de Stirington shall think best, for my soul's health; to the Grey Friars in London, five marks; to the Augustines, five marks; to the Churches of Rochford, one pair of vestments which I used on holidays in my own Chapel; to the Earl of Hereford, my lord, a tablet of gold with the form of a crucifix thereon; to Humphrey, my son, a cup of silver, gilt with two basons and one ewer of silver; to Elizabeth, my daughter, a bed of Red Worsted embroided; to my sister, the Countess of Oxford, a black horse and a nonche; to my sister, Roos, a set of beads of gold and jet, with a firmaile.' [Testamenta Vetusta, Nichol. Page 60: et Dugdale, Vol. I., page 180.] William de Bohun and Elizabeth, his wife, had issue: [Lady Elizabeth de Bohun]"
--------
From Wikipedia - Elizabeth de Badlesmere :

Elizabeth de Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton (1313- 8 June 1356) was the wife of two English noblemen, Sir Edmund Mortimer and William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton . She was a co-heiress of her brother Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere .

Family
Elizabeth was born at Castle Badlesmere , Kent , England in 1313 to Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere and Margaret de Clare . She was the third of four daughters. She had one younger brother Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere (18 October 1314- 7 June 1338) who married Elizabeth Montagu, by whom he had four daughters.
Her paternal grandparents were Guncelin de Badlesmere and Joan FitzBernard. Her maternal grandparents were Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond and Juliana FitzGerald of Offaly .

Elizabeth's father was hanged on 14 April 1322 for treason against King Edward II of England , and her mother imprisoned in the Tower of London until 3 November 1322. She had been arrested the previous October for refusing Queen Isabella admittance to Leeds Castle , where Lord Badlesmere held the post of castellan .[1]

In 1328, Elizabeth's brother Giles obtained a reversal of his father's attainder , and he succeeded to the barony as the 2nd Baron Badlesmere. Elizabeth, along with her three sisters, was a co-heiress of Giles who had no male issue. Upon his death in 1338, the barony fell fell into abeyance. The Badlesmere estates were divided between the four sisters.

Marriages and children
On 27 June 1316, when she was just three years old, Elizabeth married her first husband Sir Edmund Mortimer (1310- 16 December 1331)[2] son of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville . The marriage produced two sons:
Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March (11 November 1328 Ludlow Castle - 26 February 1360), married Philippa Montacute, daughter of William Montacute, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Catherine Grandison , by whom he had issue, including Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March ).
John Mortimer (died young)

In 1335, just over three years after the death of Edmund Mortimer, Elizabeth married secondly William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312- 1360), fifth son of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford and Elizabeth of Rhuddlan . He was a renowned military commander and diplomat.
By her second marriage, Elizabeth had two more children:[3]
Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford 6th Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Northampton (24 March 1342- 16 January 1373), after 9 September 1359, married Joan Fitzalan , by whom he had two daughters, Eleanor de Bohun Duchess of Gloucester, and Mary de Bohun , wife of Henry of Bolingbroke (who later reigned as King Henry IV ).

Elizabeth de Bohun (c.1350- 3 April 1385), on 28 September 1359, married Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel , by whom she had seven children including Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel , Elizabeth FitzAlan and Lady Joan FitzAlan , Baroness Bergavenny.

Death
Elizabeth de Badlesmere died on 8 June 1356. She was about forty-three years old. She was buried in Walden Abbey , Essex . Her many descendants included Kings Henry V of England and Edward IV of England , Anne Mortimer , Anne Boleyn , Mary Boleyn , and Diana, Princess of Wales .


Children from this marriage were:

+ 223 M    i. Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford, Earl of Essex & Northampton 330 331 was born in 1342, died on 16 Jan 1373 at age 31, and was buried in Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

+ 224 F    ii. Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel 332 333 334 was born about 1350 and died on 3 Apr 1385 about age 35.

180. Edward de Bohun 267 (Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England134, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1312 and died in 1334 at age 22.

Research Notes: Twin of William de Bohun

181. Eneas de Bohun (Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England134, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1313 and died after 1322.

Death Notes: Sources have varying death dates. One has aft 1322. Another has 1343.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Rhuddlan

182. Edward III, King of England 275 276 277 (King Edward II, of England135, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 13 Nov 1312 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England and died on 21 Jun 1377 in Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, England at age 64. Another name for Edward was Edward of Windsor.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Edward III of England :

Edward III (13 November 1312 - 21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages . Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II , Edward III went on to transform the Kingdom of England into the most efficient military power in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government-in particular the evolution of the English parliament-as well as the ravages of the Black Death . He remained on the throne for 50 years; no English monarch had reigned for as long since Henry III , and none would again until George III , as King of the United Kingdom .

Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen, following the deposition of his father. When he was only seventeen years old, he led a coup against his regent , Roger Mortimer , and began his personal reign. After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1338, starting what would be known as the Hundred Years' War . Following some initial setbacks, the war went exceptionally well for England; the victories of Crécy and Poitiers led up to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny . Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inertia and eventual bad health.

Edward III was a temperamental man, but also capable of great clemency. He was, in most ways, a conventional king, mainly interested in warfare. Highly revered in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians . This view has turned, and modern historiography credits him with many achievements[citation needed ].

Biography
Early life
Edward was born at Windsor on 13 November 1312, and was called "Edward of Windsor" in his early years. The reign of his father, Edward II , was fraught with military defeat, rebellious barons and corrupt courtiers, but the birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily strengthened Edward II's position on the throne.[1] To further this end, in what was probably an attempt by his father to shore up royal supremacy after years of discontent, Edward was created Earl of Chester at the age of only twelve days, and less than two months later, his father gave him a full household of servants for his court, so he could live independently as if he were a full adult Nobleman.[2]

On 20 January 1327, when the young Edward was fourteen years old his mother the queen Isabella , and her lover Roger Mortimer deposed the king. Edward, now Edward III, was crowned on 1 February, with Isabella and Mortimer as regents . Mortimer, the de facto ruler of England, subjected the young king to constant disrespect and humiliation. On 24 January 1328 the fifteen year old king married sixteen year old Philippa of Hainault at York Minster .[3]

Mortimer knew his position was precarious, especially after Philippa had a son on 15 June 1330.[4] Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, many of them belonging to Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel . FitzAlan, who had remained loyal to Edward II in his struggle with Isabella and Mortimer, had been executed on 17 November 1326. However Mortimer's greed and arrogance caused many of the other nobles to hate him; all this was not lost on the young king.

The young, headstrong King had never forgotten the fate of his father, or how he himself had been treated as a child. At almost 18 years old, Edward was ready to take his revenge. On the 19 October 1330, Mortimer and Isabella were sleeping at Nottingham Castle . Under the cover of night, a group loyal to Edward entered the fortress through a secret passageway and burst into Mortimer's quarters. Those conducting the coup arrested Mortimer in the name of the King and he was taken to the Tower of London . Stripped of his land and titles, he was hauled before the 17 year-old King and accused of assuming royal authority over England. Edward's mother-presumably pregnant with Mortimer's child-begged her son for mercy to no avail. Without trial, Edward sentenced Mortimer to death one month after the coup. As Mortimer was executed, Edward's mother was exiled in Castle Rising where she reportedly miscarried. By his 18th birthday, Edward's vengeance was complete and he became de facto ruler of England.

Early reign

Edward chose to renew the military conflict with the Kingdom of Scotland in which his father and grandfather had engaged with varying success. Edward repudiated the Treaty of Northampton that had been signed during the regency, thus renewing claims of English sovereignty over Scotland and resulting in the Second War of Scottish Independence .

Intending to regain what the English had conceded, he won back control of Berwick and secured a decisive English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 against the forces of the boy-king David II of Scotland . Edward III was now in a position to put Edward Balliol on the throne of Scotland and claim a reward of 2,000 librates of land in the southern counties - the Lothians, Roxburghshire, Berwickshire, Dumfriesshire, Lanarkshire and Peebleshire. Despite the victories of Dupplin and Halidon, the Bruce party soon started to recover and by the close of 1335 and the Battle of Culblean , the Plantagenet occupation was in difficulties and the Balliol party was fast losing ground.

At this time, in 1336, Edward III's brother John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall died. John of Fordun 's Gesta Annalia is alone in claiming that Edward killed his brother in a quarrel at Perth .

Although Edward III committed very large armies to Scottish operations, by 1337 the vast majority of Scotland had been recovered by the forces of David II, leaving only a few castles such as Edinburgh, Roxburgh and Stirling in Plantagenet possession. These installations were not adequate to impose Edward's rule and by 1338/9 Edward had moved from a policy of conquest to one of containment.

Edward faced military problems on two fronts; the challenge from the French monarchy was of no less concern. The French represented a problem in three areas: first, they provided constant support to the Scottish through the Franco-Scottish alliance . Philip VI protected David II in exile, and supported Scottish raids in Northern England . Second, the French attacked several English coastal towns, leading to rumours in England of a full-scale invasion.[5] Finally, the English king's possessions in France were under threat-in 1337, Philip VI confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu .

Instead of seeking a peaceful solution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, Edward laid claim to the French crown as the only living male descendant of his deceased maternal grandfather, Philip IV . The French, however, invoked the Salic law of succession and rejected the claim, pronouncing Philip IV's nephew, Philip VI, the true heir (see below ) and thereby setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War , by incorporating England's coat of arms, rampant lions, and France's coat of arms, the fleurs de lys, and he, in so doing, declared himself king of both England and France.[6]

In the war against France, Edward built alliances and fought by proxy through minor French princes. In 1338, Louis IV named him vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire , and promised his support. These measures, however, produced few results; the only major military gain made in this phase of the war was the English naval victory at Sluys on 24 June 1340, where 16,000 French soldiers and sailors died.

Meanwhile, the fiscal pressure on the kingdom caused by Edward's expensive alliances led to discontent at home. In response he returned unannounced on 30 November 1340. Finding the affairs of the realm in disorder, he purged the royal administration.[7] These measures did not bring domestic stability, however, and a standoff ensued between the king and John de Stratford , the Archbishop of Canterbury .

Edward, at the Parliament of England of April 1341, was forced to accept severe limitations to his financial and administrative prerogatives. Yet, in October of the same year, the king repudiated this statute, and Archbishop Stratford was politically ostracised. The extraordinary circumstances of the 1341 parliament had forced the king into submission, but under normal circumstances the powers of the king in medieval England were virtually unlimited, and Edward took advantage of this.[8]

Fortunes of war

After much inconclusive campaigning in Continental Europe , Edward decided to stage a major offensive in 1346, sailing for Normandy with a force of 15,000 men.[9] His army sacked the city of Caen and marched across northern France. On 26 August he met the French king's forces in pitched battle at Crécy and won a decisive victory. Meanwhile, back home, William Zouche , the Archbishop of York mobilized an army to oppose David II, who had returned, defeating and capturing him at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October. With his northern border having been secured, Edward felt free to continue his major offensive against France, laying siege to the town of Calais , which fell after almost a year-probably the greatest single military operation undertaken by the English state in the Middle Ages[citation needed ]-in August of 1347.

After the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV in October of 1347, his son Louis V, Duke of Bavaria negotiated with Edward to compete against the new German king Charles IV , but Edward finally decided in May 1348 not to run for the German crown.

In 1348, the Black Death struck Europe with full force, killing a third or more of England's population.[10] This loss of manpower meant a halt to major campaigning. The great landowners struggled with the shortage of manpower and the resulting inflation in labor cost. Attempting to cap wages, the king and parliament responded with the Ordinance of Labourers (1349) and the Statute of Labourers (1351). The plague did not, however, lead to a full-scale breakdown of government and society, and recovery was remarkably swift.[11]

In 1356, Edward's oldest son, the Black Prince , won a great victory at the battle of Poitiers . The greatly outnumbered English forces not only routed the French but captured the French king, John II . After a succession of victories, the English held great possessions in France, the French king was in English custody, and the French central government had almost totally collapsed. Whether Edward's claim to the French crown originally was genuine or just a political ploy,[12] it now seemed to be within reach. Yet a campaign in 1359, meant to complete the undertaking, was inconclusive. In 1360, therefore, Edward accepted the Treaty of Brétigny , whereby he renounced his claims to the French throne but secured his extended French possessions in full sovereignty.

Later reign

While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham . A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Lord Privy Seal in 1363 and Lord Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience, the Parliament forced him to resign the chancellorship in 1371.[13]

Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361-62 recurrence of the plague. William Montacute , Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, was dead by 1344. William de Clinton , who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls of 1337, William de Bohun , died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont , perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, succumbed to what was probably plague. Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself.

The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp , attempted to subdue by force the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland . The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366.[14]

In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brétigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home. He was followed by the vigorous Charles V , who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin .[15] In 1369, the French war started anew, and Edward's younger son John of Gaunt was given the responsibility of a military campaign. The effort failed, and with the Treaty of Bruges in 1375, the great English possessions in France were reduced to only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux and Bayonne.[16]

Military failure abroad and the associated fiscal pressure of campaigning led to political discontent at home. The problems came to a head in the parliament of 1376, the so-called Good Parliament . The parliament was called to grant taxation, but the House of Commons took the opportunity to address specific grievances. In particular, criticism was directed at some of the king's closest advisors. Lord Chamberlain William Latimer and Lord Steward John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby were dismissed from their positions. Edward's mistress, Alice Perrers , who was seen to hold far too much power over the aging king, was banished from court.[17]

Yet the real adversary of the Commons, supported by powerful men such as Wykeham and Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March , was John of Gaunt. Both the king and the Black Prince were by this time incapacitated by illness, leaving Gaunt in virtual control of government. Gaunt was forced to give in to the demands of parliament, but by its next convocation, in 1377, most of the achievements of the Good Parliament were reversed.[18]

Edward himself, however, did not have much to do with any of this; after around 1375 he played a limited role in the government.[19] Around 29 September 1376 he fell ill with a large abscess . After a brief period of recovery in February, the king died of a stroke (some sources say gonorrhea [20]) at Sheen on 21 June.[19] He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II , son of the Black Prince, since the Black Prince himself had died on 8 June 1376.


Noted events in his life were:

• King of England: 1327-1377.

Edward married Philippa, of Hainault,277 335 daughter of William, Count of Hainaut, Holland & Zeeland and Joan, on 24 Jan 1328 in York, Yorkshire, England. Philippa was born on 24 Jun 1311 and died on 15 Aug 1369 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England at age 58. Another name for Philippa was Philippa of Hainaut.

Death Notes: Died from the Black Death


The child from this marriage was:

+ 225 M    i. Edmund, of Langley, 1st Duke of York 277 was born on 5 Jun 1341 in Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England and died on 1 Aug 1402 in Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England at age 61.

183. John, of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall (King Edward II, of England135, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1316.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Edward II of England & Isabella of France

184. Eleanor, Countess of Guelders (King Edward II, of England135, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1318. Another name for Eleanor was Eleanor of Woodstock.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Edward II of England & Isabella of France

Eleanor married Reinoud II, of Guelders.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Isabella of France

185. Joan, Queen of Scots (King Edward II, of England135, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1321. Another name for Joan was Joan of the Tower.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Edward II of England & Isabella of France

Joan married David II, of Scotland.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Isabella of France

186. Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk (Thomas, of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk136, King Edward I, of England97, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died on 24 Mar 1399.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-30

Margaret married John de Segrave, 4th Lord Segrave. John died on 20 Mar 1353.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-30 (Margaret)


The child from this marriage was:

+ 226 F    i. Elizabeth de Segrave, 5th Baroness Segrave was born on 25 Oct 1338 in Croxton Abbey, Leicestershire, England and died before 1368.

Margaret next married Walter Manny, 1st Lord Manny after 30 May 1354.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-30 (Margaret)

187. Blanche, of Lancaster 281 (Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester138, Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1305 and died before 12 Jul 1380.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Maud Chaworth :

Blanche of Lancaster , (about 1302/05-1380); Maud's eldest daughter was probably born between 1302 and 1305, and was named after her father's mother Blanche of Artois . Around 9 October 1316, she married Thomas Wake , the second baron of Liddell. Blanch was about forty-five when Thomas died and lived as a widow for more than thirty years. She was one of the executers of her brother Henry's will when he died in 1361. Blanche outlived all her siblings, dying shortly before 12 July 1380 in her mid to late seventies. Born in the reign of Edward I, she survived all the way into the reign of his great grandson Richard II.

188. Henry of, Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster 282 (Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester138, Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1310 and died on 23 Mar 1361 about age 51. Another name for Henry was Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke of Lancaster.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Alice Comyn :

Isabel de Beaumont (c.1320- 1361), married in 1337 Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster , by whom she had two daughters, Maud, Countess of Leicester and Blanche of Lancaster .
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From Wikipedia - Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster :

Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster[a] (c.1310 - 23 March 1361), also Earl of Derby and Leicester, was a member of the English nobility in the 14th century, and a prominent English diplomat , politician , and soldier . The son and heir of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth , he became one of Edward III 's most trusted Captains in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War , and distinguished himself with victory in the Battle of Auberoche . He was a founding member of the Order of the Garter , and in 1351 was promoted to the title of duke. Grosmont was also the author of the book Livre de seyntz medicines; a highly personal devotional treatise. He is remembered as one of the founders and early patrons of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge , which was established by two of the guilds of the town in 1352.

Family background and early life
Grosmont's uncle, Thomas of Lancaster , was the son and heir of Edward I 's brother Edmund Crouchback . Through his inheritance and a fortunate marriage, Thomas became the wealthiest peer in England, but constant quarrels with King Edward II led to his execution in 1322.[1] Having no heir, Thomas's possessions and titles went to his younger brother Henry - Grosmont's father. Earl Henry of Lancaster assented to the deposition of Edward II in 1327, but did not long stay in favour with the regency of Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer . When Edward III took personal control of the government in 1330, relations with the Crown got better, but by this time the older Henry was already struggling with poor health and blindness.[2]

Little is known of Grosmont's early years, but it seems clear that he was born at the castle of Grosmont in Monmouthshire , and that he was born c.1310, not around the turn of the century as previously held.[3] According to his own memoirs he was better at the martial arts than at academic subjects, and did not learn to read until later in life.[4] In 1330 he was knighted, and represented his father in parliament . The next year he is recorded as participating in a Royal tournament , at Cheapside .[3]

In 1333 he took part in Edward's Scottish campaign, though it is unclear whether he was present at the great English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill .[5] After further service in the north , he was appointed the King's lieutenant in Scotland in 1336.[3] The next year he was one of the six men Edward III promoted to the higher levels of the peerage. One of his father's lesser titles, that of Earl of Derby , was bestowed upon Grosmont.[6]


Service in France
With the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War in 1337, Grosmont's attention was turned towards France . He took part in several diplomatic missions and minor campaigns, and was present at the great English victory in the naval battle of Sluys in 1340.[7] Later the same year, he was required to commit himself as hostage in the Low Countries for the king's considerable debts. He remained hostage until the next year, and had to pay a large ransom for his own release.[8] On his return he was made the king's lieutenant in the north, and stayed at Roxburgh until 1342. The next years he spent in diplomatic negotiations in the Low Countries, Castile and Avignon .[3]

In 1345 Edward III was planning a major assault on France. A three-pronged attack would have the Earl of Northampton attacking from Brittany , the King himself from Flanders , while Grosmont was dispatched to Aquitaine to prepare a campaign in the south.[3] Moving rapidly through the country he confronted the comte d'Isle at Auberoche on 21 October , and here achieved a victory described as 'the greatest single achievement of Lancaster's entire military career'.[9] The ransom from the prisoners has been estimated at £50,000.[10] The next year, while Edward was carrying out his Crécy campaign, Grosmont laid siege to, and captured, Poitiers , before returning home to England in 1347.[3]


Duke of Lancaster
In 1345, while Grosmont was in France, his father died. The younger Henry was now Earl of Lancaster - the wealthiest and most powerful peer of the realm. After participating in the siege of Calais in 1347, the king honoured Lancaster by including him as a founding knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.[11] A few years later, in 1351, Edward bestowed an even greater honour on Lancaster, when he created him Duke of Lancaster . The title of duke was of relatively new origin in England; only one other ducal title existed prior.[b] In addition to this, Lancaster was given palatinate status for the county of Lancashire , which entailed a separate administration independent of the crown.[12] This grant was quite exceptional in English history; only two other counties palatine existed: Durham , which was an ancient ecclesiastical palatinate, and Chester , which was crown property. It is a sign of Edward's high regard for Lancaster that he would bestow such extensive privileges on him. The two men were also second cousins, through their great-grandfather Henry III , and practically coeval (Edward was born in 1312), so it is natural to assume that a strong sense of camaraderie existed between them. Another factor that might have influenced the king's decision was the fact that Henry had no male heir, so the grant was made for the Earl's lifetime only, and not intended to be hereditary.[3]

Further prestige
Lancaster spent the 1350s intermittently campaigning and negotiating peace treaties with the French. In 1350 he was present at the naval victory at Winchelsea , where he allegedly saved the lives of the Black Prince and John of Gaunt .[13] The years 1351-2 he spent on crusade in Prussia . It was here that a quarrel with Otto, Duke of Brunswick , almost led to a duel between the two men, narrowly averted by the intervention of the French King, Jean II .[14] In the later half of the decade campaigning in France resumed. After a chevauchée in Normandy in 1356 and the siege of Rennes in 1358, Lancaster participated in the last great offensive of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War: the Rheims campaign of 1359-60. Then he was appointed principal negotiator for the treaty of Brétigny , where the English achieved very favourable terms.[3]

Returning to England in November 1360 he fell ill early the next year, and died at Leicester Castle on 23 March . It is likely that the cause of death was the plague , which that year was making a second visitation of England.[15]

Private life
Lancaster was married to Isabella, daughter of Henry, Lord Beaumont , in 1330. The two had no sons, but two daughters: Maude and Blanche . While Maude was married to the Duke of Bavaria , Blanche married Edward III's younger son, John of Gaunt . Gaunt ended up inheriting Lancaster's possessions and ducal title, but it was not until 1377, when the dying King Edward III was largely incapacitated, that he was able to restore the palatinate rights for the county of Lancaster. When Gaunt's son Henry of Bolingbroke usurped the crown in 1399 and became Henry IV, the vast Lancaster inheritance was merged with the crown as the Duchy of Lancaster .[16]

We know more of Lancaster's character than of most of his contemporaries, through his memoirs the Livre de seyntz medicines (Book of the Holy Doctors). This book is a highly personal treatise on matters of religion and piety, but it also contains details of historical interest. It is, among other things, revealed that Lancaster, at the age of 44 when he wrote the book in 1354, suffered from gout .[3] The book is primarily a devotional work though; it is organized around seven wounds which Henry claims to have, representing the seven sins. Lancaster confesses to his sins, explains various real and mythical medical remedies in terms of their theological symbolism, and exhorts the reader to greater morality.[17]


Henry married Isabel de Beaumont,298 daughter of Henry Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan and Alice Comyn, in 1337.298 Isabel was born about 1320 and died in 1361 about age 41.

Research Notes: 10th child of Henry Beaumont and Alice Comyn.

189. Maud, of Lancaster 281 (Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester138, Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1310 and died about 1377 about age 67.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Maud Chaworth :

Maud of Lancaster, (about 1310-1345)There is some discrepancy as to when Maud died. Another possible date of her death is 1377[3]

married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster in 1327. They bore one child, Elizabeth de Burgh who was born 6 July 1332. Eleven months after the birth of their child, Earl William was murdered at "Le Ford" in Belfast, apparently by some of his own men. The countess Maud fled to England with her baby and stayed with the royal family. In 1337, Maud of Lancaster managed to ensure that the Justiciar of Ireland was forbidden to pardon her husband's killers. She fought for her dower rights and exerted some influence there. She remarried in 1344 to Ralph Ufford and returned to Ireland where she had another daughter, Maud. After her second husband fell ill in 1346, she again returned to England. Maud of Lancaster died on May 5, 1345/77.

190. Joan, of Lancaster 283 (Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester138, Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1312 and died on 7 Jul 1345 in Yorkshire, England about age 33. Another name for Joan was Joan Plantagenet.

Death Notes: Died of the plague

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Joan of Lancaster :

Joan of Lancaster (c. 1310 - 7 July 1345) is also called Joan Plantagenet after her family's name. She married John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray on 28 February 1326 or 1327, then died in Yorkshire , England, of the plague.[1]

-------
From Wikipedia - Maud Chaworth :
Joan of Lancaster , (about 1312-1345); married between February 28 and June 4, 1327 to John, Lord Mowbray . John's father was horribly executed for reasons unknown and young John was imprisoned in the Tower of London along with his mother Alice de Braose, until late 1326. A large part of his inheritance was granted to Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was his future wife's uncle; however he was set free in 1327 before the marriage. Joan of Lancaster probably died in her early thirties, sometime before August 1344.

191. Isabel, of Lancaster, Abess of Ambresbury (Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester138, Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1317 and died after 1347.

192. Eleanor, of Lancaster 284 285 (Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester138, Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1318 in England, died on 11 Jan 1372 in Arundel Castle, West Sussex, England about age 54, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England. Another name for Eleanor was Eleanor Plantagenet.

Research Notes: Second wife of Richard (FitzAlan) d'Arundel.

From Wikipedia - Eleanor of Lancaster :

Eleanor of Lancaster (sometimes called Eleanor Plantagenet 1) (about 1315 - 11 January 1372 ) was born as the fifth daughter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster (c. 1281-1345) and his wife Maud Chaworth (1282-1322).


First marriage and offspring
Sometime between September 1 and November 6 , 1330 , she married John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont , son of Henry Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan (c. 1288 - 1340) and his wife Alice Comyn (c. 1291-1349). They had two children:
Henry Beaumont, 3rd Lord Beaumont , born 1340
Matilda Beaumont (died July 1467), married Hugh de Courtenay
Eleanor was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Philippa , and was in service to her in Ghent when her son Henry was born. John de Beaumont died in a tournament on 14 April 1342 .

Second marriage
On 5 February 1344 at Ditton Church , Stoke Poges , Buckinghamshire , she married Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel (9th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots), 4th Earl of Surrey, known by the soubriquet of "Copped Hat", Justiciar of North Wales, Governor of Carnarvon Castle, Admiral of the West.2

His previous marriage, to Isabel le Despenser , had taken place when they were children. It was annulled by Papal mandate as she, since her father's attainder and execution, had ceased to be of any importance to him. Pope Clement VI obligingly annulled the marriage, bastardized the issue, and provided a dispensation for his second marriage to the woman with whom he had been living in adultery (the dispensation, dated 4 March 1344 /1345 , was required because his first and second wives were first cousins).
The children of Eleanor's second marriage were:
Richard (1346-1397), who succeeded as Earl of Arundel
John Fitzalan (bef 1349-1379)
Thomas Arundel , Archbishop of York (c. 1345-February 19 , 1413 )
Joan Fitzalan (bef. 1351-April 17 , 1419 ), married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford
Alice Fitzalan (1352 -March 17 , 1416 ), married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (Thomas Holand)

Eleanor died at Arundel and was buried at Lewes Priory in Lewes , Sussex , England. Her husband was buried beside her; in his will Richard requests to be buried "near to the tomb of Eleanor de Lancaster, my wife; and I desire that my tomb be no higher than hers, that no men at arms, horses, hearse, or other pomp, be used at my funeral, but only five torches...as was about the corpse of my wife, be allowed."

Sources
Fowler, Kenneth. The King's Lieutenant, 1969
Nicolas, Nicholas Harris. Testamenta Vetusta, 1826.
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 17-30, 21-30, 28-33, 97-33, 114-31

Notes
1The surname "Plantagenet" has been retrospectively applied to the descendants of Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou and Empress Matilda without historical justification: it is simply a convenient, if deceptive, method of referring to people who had, in fact, no surname. The first descendant of Geoffrey to use the surname was Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (father of both Edward IV of England and Richard III of England ) who apparently assumed it about 1448.
2also called Richard de Arundel.

Eleanor married John de Beaumont, Earl of Buchan, 2nd Lord Beaumont,336 337 son of Henry Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan and Alice Comyn, on 6 Nov 1330.298 John was born in 1318 and died on 14 Apr 1342 at age 24.

Research Notes: First husband of Eleanor of Lancaster.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 17-30 (Eleanor of Lancaster). Has d. bet 24 Feb 1342 and 25 May 1342.

Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of Lancaster has d. in a tournament on 14 Apr 1342.


Children from this marriage were:

+ 227 M    i. Henry Beaumont, 3rd Lord Beaumont was born in 1340.

+ 228 F    ii. Matilda Beaumont died in Jul 1467.

Eleanor next married Sir Richard "Copped Hat" FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Warenne,314 315 316 son of Sir Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel and Alice de Warenne, on 5 Feb 1345 in Ditton Church, Stokes Poges, Buckinghamshire, England. Richard was born about 1313, died on 24 Jan 1376 in Arundel, West Sussex, England about age 63, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England. Other names for Richard were Richard of Arundel, Sir Richard de Arundel, and Richard FitzAlan d'Arundel 9th Ear;l of Arundel.

Marriage Notes: Wikipedia

Research Notes: When John II de Warenne died without legal issue on 29 June 1347, Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, was the next heir in blood through his mother, Alice de Warenne, John's sister.
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From Wikipedia - Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel :

Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel (c. 1307 - January 24, 1376) was an English nobleman and military leader.

Fitzalan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, and Alice Warenne. His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey.

His birthdate is uncertain, but could not have been before 1307. Around 1321, FitzAlan's father allied with King Edward II's (also an ancestor) favorites, the Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester (also an ancestor) and his namesake son, and Richard was married to Isabel le Despenser, daughter of Hugh the Younger. Fortune turned against the Despenser party, and in 1326, FitzAlan's father was executed, and he did not succeed to his father's estates or titles.

However, political conditions had changed by 1330, and over the next few years Richard was gradually able to reacquire the Earldom of Arundel as well as the great estates his father had held in Sussex and in the Welsh Marches. Beyond this, in 1334 he was made justice of North Wales (later his term in this office was made for life), sheriff for life of Caernarvonshire, and governor of Caernarfon Castle.

His daughter Joan was the mother of Mary de Bohun who would marry King of England Henry IV.

Noted events in his life were:

• Earl of Arundel: 1331.

• Lord of Bromfield (Wrexham) and Yale: 30 Jun 1347. upon the death of his uncle, John II de Warenne.

• Inherited: castles of Caerleon (Holt) and Dinas Bran, 30 Jun 1347.

• Did homage: to Edward III, 24 Oct 1353. for Bromfield and Yale as immediately subject to the Crown.

Children from this marriage were:

+ 229 M    i. Sir Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel & 10th Earl of Surrey 333 338 339 340 was born in 1346 in <Arundel, West Sussex>, England and died on 21 Sep 1397 in Cheapside, London, England at age 51.

+ 230 M    ii. John FitzAlan, 1st Baron Arundel and Lord Maltravers 341 342 was born about 1348 in Etchingham, Sussex, England and died on 16 Dec 1379 about age 31.

+ 231 F    iii. Joan FitzAlan 343 was born about 1348, died on 17 Apr 1419 about age 71, and was buried in Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

+ 232 M    iv. Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of York 284 was born about 1350 and died on 19 Feb 1413 about age 63.

+ 233 F    v. Alice FitzAlan 284 was born in 1350 and died on 17 Mar 1416 at age 66.

193. Mary, of Lancaster 281 (Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester138, Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester100, King Henry III, of England71, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1320 and died on 1 Sep 1362 about age 42.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Maud Chaworth :

Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320-1362); married Henry, Lord Percy before September 4, 1334 who fought at the battle of Crecy in 1346, and served in Gascony under the command of his brother in law Henry of Grosmont. Their son was Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland . Mary of Lancaster died on 1 September 1362, the year after her brother Henry.

194. Eleanor ferch Philip ap Ifor (Catherine verch Llewellyn Gryffyth141, Elinor de Montfort102, Eleanor75, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1318. Another name for Eleanor was Eleanor Goch verch Philip.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008)., Line 254-33 (Thomas ap Llewellyn)

RootsWeb - Celtic Royal Genealogy - has b. 1318.

Eleanor married Thomas ap Llywelyn ap Owain, of Iscoed Uch Hirwen, Cardiganshire,344 345 son of Llywelyn ap Owain ap Maredudd and < > de Vale,. Thomas was born before 14 Aug 1343 and died in Iscoed Uch Hirwen, Cardiganshire, Wales. Other names for Thomas were Thomas ap Llewellyn ap Owain of Iscoed Uch Hirwen, Cardiganshire, Thomas ap Llewellyn Owen of Trefgarned, Lord of South Wales, and Thomas ap Llywelyn Arglwydd Iscoed.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Gruffydd Fychan II :

"Gruffydd Fychan II was married to Elen, daughter of Thomas ap Llwelyn lord of half the of commote Iscoed Uch Hirwen and of quarter of Gwynonydd , both in Cardiganshire."


Children from this marriage were:

+ 234 F    i. Elen verch Thomas ap Llewellyn Owen was born about 1337.

+ 235 F    ii. Margaret verch Thomas ap Llywelyn Owain .346

195. Isabella de Mortimer 43 289 (Roger de Mortimer, of Wigmore, 1st Baron Mortimer143, Gwladys "Ddu" verch Llewellyn103, Joan, Princess of Gwynedd76, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died before 1 Apr 1292. Other names for Isabella were Isabel de Mortimer and Joane de Mortimer.

Death Notes: Wikipedia has d. 1292.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 28-30

Isabella married John FitzAlan, Lord of Clun and Oswestry,347 348 son of John FitzAlan, Lord of Clun and Oswestry and Maud le Boteler,. John was born on 14 Sep 1246 and died 18 Mar 1271 or 1302 at age 24.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - John FitzAlan, 7th Earl of Arundel :

John FitzAlan, 7th Earl of Arundel (14 September 1246 - 18 March 1272 ) was an English nobleman. He was also feudal Lord of Clun and Oswestry in the Welsh Marches .

Family
He was the son of John FitzAlan, 6th Earl of Arundel (d. 1267), and Maud le Boteler , daughter of Theobald le Botiller (or Boteler) and Rohese (or Rohesia) de Verdun. His paternal grandparents were John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry and Isabel d'Aubigny. Through his father, FitzAlan was also descended from Alan fitzFlaad , and Llywelyn the Great [citation needed ].

Marriage
Lord Arundel married Isabella Mortimer (died 1292), daughter of Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore and Maud de Braose in 1260. They had a son Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel .

References
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 28-30, 77-30, 149-29, 149-30

Noted events in his life were:

• 7th Earl of Arundel:

The child from this marriage was:

+ 236 M    i. Sir Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel 349 350 was born from 1207 to 3 Feb 1266 and died on 9 Mar 1302 at age 95.

Isabella next married Walter de Beauchamp, of Elmley, Worcestershire,197 son of Walter de Beauchamp, of Elmley, Worcestershire and Bertha de Braose, in 1212 in Elmley, Worcestershire, England. Walter was born about 1184 in Elmley, Worcestershire, England and died on 14 Apr 1236 about age 52. Another name for Walter was Walcheline de Beauchamp.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 237 M    i. William de Beauchamp, 5th Baron Beauchamp 145 195 196 was born about 1210 and died in 1269 about age 59.

196. Sir Edmund de Mortimer, 7th Baron Mortimer of Wigmore 290 291 (Roger de Mortimer, of Wigmore, 1st Baron Mortimer143, Gwladys "Ddu" verch Llewellyn103, Joan, Princess of Gwynedd76, King John "Lackland", of England54, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1261 in <Wigmore, Herefordshire>, England, died on 17 Jul 1304 in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England at age 43, and was buried in Wigmore, Herefordshire, England.

Birth Notes: FamilySearch has b. 1252

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 176B-30

Edmund married Margaret de Fiennes,291 351 daughter of William de Fiennes and Blanche de Brienne, Lady of Loupeland, about 1280. Margaret was born about 1262 in <Wigmore, Herefordshire>, England and died on 7 Feb 1334 about age 72. Another name for Margaret was Margaret de Fenlis.

Research Notes: Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 176B-30 (Sir Edmund de Mortimer)


Children from this marriage were:

+ 238 F    i. Isolde de Mortimer 291 was born about 1270 in <Wigmore, Herefordshire>, England and died in 1328 about age 58.

+ 239 M    ii. Sir Roger de Mortimer, 8th Baron Mortimer of Wigmore, 1st Earl of March was born on 25 Apr 1287 and died on 29 Nov 1330 at age 43.

197. Alice Audley 84 (Hugh I de Audley144, Ela Longspee106, William II Longspée77, William Longspée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury55, Henry II "Curtmantel", King of England42, Empress Matilda, Countess of Anjou24, Matilda, of Scotland12, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1304 in Hadley, Staffordshire, England, died on 11 Jan 1374 in Greystoke, Northumberland, England about age 70, and was buried in Durham Cathedral, Durham, Durham, England.

Alice married Ralph Neville,152 son of Randolf de Neville and Eupheme FitzRoger Clavering, on 14 Jan 1326 in Stratton Audley, Oxfordshire, England. Ralph was born about 1290 in <Raby>, Durham, England, died on 5 Aug 1367 in Durham, England about age 77, and was buried in Cathedral Church, Durham, Durham, England.

Marriage Notes: by Royal license

The child from this marriage was:

+ 240 M    i. John Neville 152 was born about 1328 in <Raby With Keverstone>, Durham, England and died on 17 Oct 1388 in Newcastle Upon Tyne, Northumberland, England about age 60.


198. Humphrey VIII de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex 266 267 (Humphrey VII de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford & 2nd Earl of Essex145, Humphrey VI de Bohun107, Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex78, Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford56, Margaret, of Huntingdon43, Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1276 in Pleshey Castle, Essex, England and died on 16 Mar 1322 in Boroughbridge, Yorkshire, England about age 46. Another name for Humphrey was Humphrey VIII de Bohun 4th Earl of Hereford.

Death Notes: At the Battle of Boroughbridge, murdered in an ambush by the Welsh.

Research Notes: Ancestral Roots, Line 97-31 has b. abt 1276, slain at Boroughbridge, 16 Mar 1321/2, 4th Earl of Hereford and Essex, Lord High Constable of England.
----------
From Wikipedia - Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford

Humphrey VIII de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276 - March 16 , 1321 /1322 ) was a member of an important Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II 's excesses.

Family Background
Humphrey de Bohun's birth year is uncertain although several contemporary sources indicate that it was 1276. His father was Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and his mother was Maud de Fiennes , daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes . He was born at Pleshey Castle located in Essex , England.

Humphrey de Bohun VIII succeeded his father as Earl of Hereford and Earl of Essex , and Constable of England (later called Lord High Constable ). Humphrey held the title of Bearer of the Swan Badge, a heraldic device passed down in the de Bohun family. This device did not appear on their coat of arms, (az, a bend ar cotised or, between 6 lioncels or) nor their crest (gu, doubled erm, a lion gardant crowned), but it does appear on his personal seal.

Scotland
Humphrey was one of several earls and barons under Edward I who laid siege to Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1300 and later took part in many campaigns in Scotland. He also loved tourneying and gained a reputation as an "elegant" fop. In one of the campaigns in Scotland Humphrey evidently grew bored and departed England for a tournament along with Piers Gaveston and other young barons and knights. On return all of them fell under Edward I's wrath for desertion, but were forgiven. It is probable that Gaveston's friend, Edward (the future Edward II) had given them permission to depart.

Later Humphrey became one of Gaveston's and Edward II's bitterest opponents. He would also have been associating with young Robert Bruce during the early campaigns in Scotland, since Bruce, like many other Scots and Border men, moved back and forth from English allegiance to Scottish. (NOTE: Robert Bruce, King Robert I of Scotland, is closely connected to de Bohun. Between the time that he swore his last fealty to Edward I in 1302 and his defection four years later, Bruce stayed for the most part in Annandale , rebuilding his castle of Lochmaben in stone, making use of its natural moat. Rebelling and taking the crown of Scotland in February, 1306, Bruce was forced to fight a war against England which went poorly for him at first, while Edward I still lived. After nearly all his family were killed or captured he had to flee to the isle of Rathlin , Ireland. His properties in England and Scotland were confiscated.)

Humphrey de Bohun received many of Robert Bruce's forfeited properties. It is unknown whether Humphrey was a long-time friend or enemy of Robert Bruce, but they were nearly the same age and the lands of the two families in Essex and Middlesex lay very close to each other. After Bruce's self-exile, de Bohun took Lochmaben and Edward I awarded him Annandale and the castle. During this period of chaos Bruce's queen, Elizabeth de Burgh , daughter of the Earl of Ulster, was captured by Edward I and taken prisoner, and Hereford and his wife Elizabeth later became her custodians. She was exchanged for Humphrey after Bannockburn in 1314. Lochmaben was from time to time retaken by the Scots but remained in the de Bohun family for many years, in the hands of Humphrey's son William, Earl of Northampton , who held and defended it until his death in 1360...

...Ordainer
Like his father, grandfather, and great-great-grandfather, this Humphrey de Bohun was careful to insist that the king obey Magna Carta , Habeas Corpus , and the other baronially-established safeguards against monarchic tyranny. He was a leader of the reform movements that promulgated the Ordinances of 1311 and fought to insure their execution.
The subsequent revival of royal authority and the ascendancy of the Despensers (Hugh the elder and younger ) led de Bohun and other barons to rebel against the king again in 1322. De Bohun had special reason for opposing the Despensers, for he had lost some of his estates in the Welsh Marches to their rapacity.

Death at Boroughbridge
The rebel forces were halted by loyalist troops at the wooden bridge at Boroughbridge , Yorkshire, where Humphrey de Bohun, leading an attempt to storm the bridge, met his death on March 16, 1322.

Although the details have been called into question by a few historians, his death may have been particularly gory. As recounted in The Greatest Traitor by Ian Mortimer, page 124:

"[The 4th Earl of] Hereford led the fight on the bridge, but he and his men were caught in the arrow fire. Then one of de Harclay's pikemen, concealed beneath the bridge, thrust upwards between the planks and skewered the Earl of Hereford through the anus, twisting the head of the iron pike into his intestines. His dying screams turned the advance into a panic."'

Humphrey de Bohun may have contributed to the failure of the reformers' aims. There is evidence that he suffered for some years, especially after his countess's death in 1316, from clinical depression. [1]

Marriage and children
His marriage to Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet), daughter of King Edward I of England and his first Queen consort Eleanor of Castile , on November 14 , 1302 , at Westminster gained him the lands of Berkshire.
Elizabeth had an unknown number of children, probably ten, by Humphrey de Bohun.

Until the earl's death the boys of the family, possibly the girls, were given a classical education under the tutelage of a Sicilian Greek, Master "Digines" (Diogenes), who may have been Humphrey de Bohun's boyhood tutor. He was evidently well-educated, a book collector and scholar, interests his son Humphrey and daughter Margaret (Courtenay) inherited.
Mary or Margaret (the first-born Margaret) and the first-born Humphrey were lost in infancy and are buried in the same sarcophagus in Westminster Abbey. Since fraternal twins were known in the Castilian royal family of Elizabeth Bohun, who gave birth to a pair who lived to manhood, Mary (Margaret?) and Humphrey, see next names, may have been twins, but that is uncertain. The name of a possible lost third child, if any, is unknown--and unlikely.

Hugh de Bohun? This name appears only in one Medieval source which gives Bohun names (see Flores Historiarum) and was a probably a copyist error for "Humphrey". It was never used by the main branch of the Bohuns in England. (Le Melletier, q.v., 16-17, 38-45, 138, in his comprehensive research into this family, cites no one named Hugh Bohun.) Date unknown, but after 1302 since she and Humphrey did not marry until late in 1302.
Humphrey de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Mary or Margaret) Infant.
Mary or Margaret de Bohun (birth and death dates unknown. Buried in Westminster Abbey with Humphrey) Infant.

John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (About 1307 - 1336 )
Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (About 1309 to 1311 - 1361 ).
Margaret de Bohun (About 1308-1310 - 1391), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon Gave birth to about 16 to 18 children (including an Archbishop, a sea commander and pirate, and more than one Knight of the Garter) and died in her eighties.
William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (About 1310-1312 -1360 ). Twin of Edward.
Edward de Bohun (About 1310-1312 -1334 ). Twin of William. Married Margaret, daughter of William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros , but they had no children. He served in his ailing elder brother's stead as Constable of England. He was close friend of young Edward III, and died a heroic death attempting to rescue a drowning man-at-arms from a Scottish river while on campaign.
Eleanor de Bohun (birth date unknown, could have been as late as 1314 or 15 - 1363 ) [2], married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth , 1st Baron Dagworth.
Eneas de Bohun, (Birth date unknown, died after 1322, when he's mentioned in his father's will). Nothing known of him. Name may reflect his father's classical education or the Earl's Welsh connections; could be either.
Isabel de Bohun (b. May ? , 1316 ). Elizabeth died in childbirth, and this child died on that day or very soon after. Buried with her mother in Waltham Abbey, Essex.

Humphrey married Elizabeth, of Rhuddlan, Princess of England,211 212 213 daughter of King Edward I, of England and Eleanor, of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu, on 14 Nov 1302 in Westminster Palace, London, England. Elizabeth was born on 7 Aug 1282 in Rhuddlan Castle, Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales, died on 5 May 1316 in Quendon, Essex, England at age 33, and was buried in Waltham Abbey, Essex, England. Other names for Elizabeth were Elizabeth Princess of England, Elizabeth of England, and Elizabeth Plantagenet of Rhuddlan.

Birth Notes: Wikipedia or some other source has b. 7 Aug 1282 or 1281. Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry, Edited by Thomas Allen Glenn at the request of Howard Reifsnyder, privately printed, Philadelphia, 1902, provided by http://books.google.com, p. 31 has b. 1284.

Death Notes: Per Wikipedia, died in childbirth

Research Notes: From Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry, p. 49:

"I. THE PRINCESS ELIZABETH PLANTAGENET, daughter of Edward I by his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, was born at Rudlan Castle, in Flintshire, 1284. She married, first, in London, John, Earl of Holland, who died without issue two years after his marriage; and secondly, Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Lord High Constable of England. By her second husband she had a son: William de Bohun.
---------
From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Rhuddlan :

Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet) (7 August 1282 Rhuddlan Castle - 5 May 1316 Quendon )

Born the eighth daughter of Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile . Of all her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother Edward II of England , as they were only two years apart in age.

In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth's betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland . The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 January 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich . In attendance at the marriage were Elizabeth's sister Margaret , her father, Edward I of England , her brother Edward , and Humphrey de Bohun . After the wedding Elizabeth was expected to go to Holland with her husband, but did not wish to go, leaving her husband to go alone.

After some time travelling England , it was decided Elizabeth should follow her husband. Her father accompanied her, travelling through Antwerp , Malines , Louvain and Brussels , before ending up in Ghent . There they remained for a few months, spending Christmas with her two sister's Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar and Margaret Plantagenet . On 10 November 1299 , John died of dysentery , though there were rumours of his being murdered. No children had been born from the marriage.

On her return trip to England , Elizabeth went through Brabant to see her sister Margaret. When she arrived in England , she met her step mother Margaret of France , whom Edward had married whilst she was in Holland . Reportedly, they became inseparable. On 14 November 1302 Elizabeth was married to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford , 3rd of Essex, also Constable of England , at Westminster Abbey .

During Christmas 1315 Elizabeth, who was pregnant with her 10th child, was visited by her sister-in-law Isabella of France . This was a great honour, but the stress of it may have caused unknown health problems that later contributed to Elizabeth's death in childbirth. On 5 May 1316 she went into labour, giving birth to her daughter Isabella. Both Elizabeth and Isabella died shortly after the birthing, and were buried together in Waltham Abbey .

The children of Elizabeth and Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford are:
Hugh de Bohun (September 1303 - 1305 )
Eleanor de Bohun (October 1304 - 1363 ), married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth , 1st Baron Dagworth.
Humphrey de Bohun (b&d 1305 )
John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (23 November 1306 - 1335 )
Agnes de Bohun, (November 1309 - ), married Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Chartley
Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (6 December about 1309 - 1361 )
Margaret de Bohun (3 April 1311 - 1391 ), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon
William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312 - 1360 ). Twin of Edward. Married Elizabeth de Badlesmere.
Edward de Bohun (1312 - 1334 ). Twin of William.
Eneas de Bohun, (1314 - after 1322 ), when he's mentioned in his father's will.
Isabel de Bohun (b&d 5 May 1316 )

(Duplicate Line. See Person 134)

199. Sir John de Ferrers, of Southoe and Keyston 293 (Alianore de Bohun146, Humphrey VI de Bohun107, Humphrey V de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, 7th Earl of Essex78, Henry de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford56, Margaret, of Huntingdon43, Henry, of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon26, David I "The Saint", King of Scots13, Saint Margaret, of Scotland7, Agatha5, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 30 Jun 1271 in Cardiff and died in Aug 1312 in Gascony at age 41.

Noted events in his life were:

• 1st Lord Ferrers: of Chartley, Staffordshire.

John married Hawise de Muscegros, of Charlton,296 daughter of Sir Robert de Muscegros, of Charlton, Somerset and Agnes de Ferrers, between 2 Feb 1298 and 13 Sep 1300. Hawise was born on 21 Dec 1276 and died After Jun 1340 By Dec 1350. Another name for Hawise was Hawyse de Muscegros of Charlton.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 241 F    i. Eleanor de Ferrers .352

200. Hawise de Muscegros, of Charlton 296 (Agnes de Ferrers147, Margaret de Quincy111, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 21 Dec 1276 and died After Jun 1340 By Dec 1350. Another name for Hawise was Hawyse de Muscegros of Charlton.

Hawise married Sir John de Ferrers, of Southoe and Keyston,293 son of Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby and Alianore de Bohun, Betw 2 Feb 1298 and 13 Sep 1300. John was born on 30 Jun 1271 in Cardiff and died in Aug 1312 in Gascony at age 41.

Noted events in his life were:

• 1st Lord Ferrers: of Chartley, Staffordshire.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 199)

201. Maurice de Berkeley 43 (Joan de Ferrers149, Margaret de Quincy111, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in Apr 1271 in <Berkeley Castle, > near Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England, died on 31 May 1326 in Wallingford Castle, Wallingford, Berkshire (Oxfordshire), England at age 55, and was buried in St. Augustine's, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. Another name for Maurice was Maurice "the Magnanimous" de Berkeley.

Birth Notes: May have been April 1281.

Maurice married Eve La Zouche,183 daughter of Eudo La Zouche and Millicent de Cantelou, in 1289 in Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. Eve was born about 1281 in <Harringworth, Northamptonshire>, England, died on 5 Dec 1314 about age 33, and was buried in Church, Portbury, Somersetshire, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 242 F    i. Isabel Berkeley 43 was born about 1307 in <Berkeley Castle, > near Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England and died on 25 Jul 1362 in Hartley Castle, Kirkeby Stephen, Westmoreland, England about age 55.

202. Alice Comyn 298 (Alexander Comyn152, Elizabeth de Quincey112, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1289 in Aberdeenshire, Scotland and died on 3 Jul 1349 at age 60.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Alice Comyn :

Alice Comyn, Lady Beaumont, Countess of Buchan (1289- 3 Jul 1349), was a Norman-Scottish noblewoman, being a member of the powerful Comyn family that supported the Balliols , who were claimants to the disputed Scottish throne against their rivals, the Bruces . She was the niece of John Comyn, Earl of Buchan to whom she was also heiress. The Earldom of Buchan, however, was later claimed by Alice's husband Henry de Beaumont , Earl of Buchan by right of his wife.

Alice was the maternal grandmother of Blanche of Lancaster , and thus great-grandmother of King Henry IV of England .

It was her husband's continued struggle to claim her inherited title of Buchan which was one of the causes of the Second War of Scottish Independence .

Family
Alice was born in Aberdeenshire , Scotland in 1289, the eldest daughter of Alexander Comyn, Sheriff of Aberdeen and Joan le Latimer. She had a younger sister, Margaret who would later marry firstly Sir John Ross; and secondly, Sir William Lindsay, Lord of Symertoun.[1]
Alice's paternal grandparents were Alexander Comyn , 2nd Earl of Buchan, Justiciar and Constable of Scotland, and Elizabeth de Quincy . Alice's maternal grandparents were William le Latimer and Alicia Ledet. Alice's uncle was John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, one of the most powerful nobles in Scotland. The earl, who died in December 1308, was married to Isabella MacDuff , but the marriage was childless. Alice was John Comyn's heiress to the title of Countess of Buchan, although the earldom had been forfeited to the crown prior to her uncle's death in England to where he had gone as a fugitive.

Marriage and children
Shortly before 14 July 1310, Alice married Henry de Beaumont, Lord Beaumont, the son of Louis de Brienne, Viscount de Beaumont and Agnes, Viscountess de Beaumont. Upon her marriage she was styled as Lady Beaumont. Henry was a key figure in the Anglo-Scottish wars of the 13th and 14th centuries. (See main article: Wars of Scottish Independence ) As a consequence of her marriage to Henry, Alice had become, in Scottish eyes, irretrievably English, therefore the Scots recognised her sister Margaret's right to the Earldom of Buchan rather than her own. [2]

The marriage produced ten children:[3]
Katherine de Beaumont (died 11 November 1368), married David III Strathbogie , Earl of Atholl , by whom she had issue.
Elizabeth de Beaumont (died 27 October 1400), married Nicholas Audley, 3rd Baron Audley . Died without issue.
Richard de Beaumont
John de Beaumont (died young)
Thomas de Beaumont
Alice de Beaumont
Joan de Beaumont, married Sir Fulk FitzWarin, 3rd Lord FitzWarin
Beatrice de Beaumont, married Charles I, Count of Dammartin
John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont (1318- 14 April 1342), on 6 November 1330 married as her first husband, Eleanor of Lancaster , by whom he had issue. He was killed in a tournament .
Isabel de Beaumont (c.1320- 1361), married in 1337 Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster , by whom she had two daughters, Maud, Countess of Leicester and Blanche of Lancaster .

In April 1313, Isabella MacDuff, the widow of Alice's uncle John Comyn, was placed into the custody of the Beaumonts, following her release from her harsh imprisonment. She had been confined in a cage for four years in Berwick , England by the orders of King Edward I after she crowned Robert the Bruce king of Scotland at Scone in March 1306. In 1310, she was sent to a convent, and three years later was ordered to one of the Beaumont manors where she died on an unknown date.

In 1314, Henry de Beaumont fought at the Battle of Bannockburn on the side of the English.
Sometime between 1317 and 1321, Alice succeeded to the English estates of her younger sister, Margaret. On 22 January 1334, Alice's husband Henry was summoned to Parliament as the Earl of Buchan. He was recognised as earl from that until 16 November 1339. On 10 February 1334, he sat in the Scottish Parliament bearing the same title. It was Henry's relentless pursuit of the earldom of Buchan which was one of the factors that lead to the Second War of Scottish Independence between the Comyns and their ancient rivals, the Bruces .

Alice died on 3 July 1349 at the age of sixty. Her husband Henry had died in 1340 in the Low Countries where he had gone with King Edward III of England . With the death of Alice, the earldom of Buchan forever passed out of the Comyn family.

Alice's numerous descendants included, Kings Henry IV of England and Henry V of England , Philippa of Lancaster , Queen of Portugal, Anne Boleyn , and Humphrey Kynaston , the English highwayman .

Alice married Henry Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan, son of Louis de Brienne, Viscount of Beaumont and Agnes, before 14 Jul 1310. Henry was born about 1288 and died in 1340 about age 52.

Research Notes: Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of Lancaster


Children from this marriage were:

+ 243 M    i. John de Beaumont, Earl of Buchan, 2nd Lord Beaumont 336 337 was born in 1318 and died on 14 Apr 1342 at age 24.

+ 244 F    ii. Isabel de Beaumont 298 was born about 1320 and died in 1361 about age 41.

203. Margaret Comyn 298 (Alexander Comyn152, Elizabeth de Quincey112, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

204. Eve La Zouche 183 (Eudo La Zouche153, Helen de Quincy, of Brackley113, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1281 in <Harringworth, Northamptonshire>, England, died on 5 Dec 1314 about age 33, and was buried in Church, Portbury, Somersetshire, England.

Eve married Maurice de Berkeley,43 son of Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley and Joan de Ferrers, in 1289 in Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. Maurice was born in Apr 1271 in <Berkeley Castle, > near Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England, died on 31 May 1326 in Wallingford Castle, Wallingford, Berkshire (Oxfordshire), England at age 55, and was buried in St. Augustine's, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England. Another name for Maurice was Maurice "the Magnanimous" de Berkeley.

Birth Notes: May have been April 1281.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 201)

205. Eupheme FitzRoger Clavering 299 (Margery La Zouche154, Helen de Quincy, of Brackley113, Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of Winchester82, Margaret de Beaumont58, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester45, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1267 in <Warkworth, Northumberland>, England, was christened in Clavering, Essex, England, died in 1329 in Warkworth, Northumberland, England about age 62, and was buried in Staindrop, Durham, England.

Eupheme married Randolf de Neville,152 son of Robert de Neville and Mary FitzRandolph, about 1282 in Warkworth, Northumberland, England. Randolf was born on 18 Oct 1262 in <Raby>, Durham, England and died on 18 Apr 1332 at age 69.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 245 M    i. Ralph Neville 152 was born about 1290 in <Raby>, Durham, England, died on 5 Aug 1367 in Durham, England about age 77, and was buried in Cathedral Church, Durham, Durham, England.

206. Margaret de Clare 301 302 303 304 (Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Yougal159, Sir Richard de Clare, 8th Earl of Clare118, Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1 Apr 1287 in Bunratty Castle, Thomond, Ireland and died between 22 Oct 1333 and 8 Jan 1334.

Research Notes: Youngest of 4 children.

"Heiress to her nephew Thomas de Clare, son of Richard de Clare, 2nd son of Thomas and Juliane... She was therefore sister to Richard, 2nd son, and to Thomas, 1st son..." -- Ancestral Roots, Line 54-32.

Also www.thepeerage.com
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From Wikipedia - Margaret de Clare, Lady Badlesmere :

Margaret de Clare (c.1 April 1287 - 22 October 1333/ 3 January 1334) was a Norman -Irish noblewoman and the wife of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere .[1]In 1321, she was arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London for refusing Isabella of France , Queen consort of King Edward II , admittance to Leeds Castle of which her husband, Lord Badlesmere, was castellan .

Family
Margaret was born at Bunratty Castle in Thomond , Ireland on or about 1 April 1287, the youngest child of Thomas de Clare , Lord of Thomond and Juliana FitzGerald of Offaly . Her paternal grandparents were Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford, 2nd Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy . Her maternal grandparents were Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly and Maud de Prendergast (born 17 March 1243), daughter of Gerald de Prendergast and a de Burgh daughter whose first name is not known. Margaret's maternal ancestors included Brian Boru , Dermot McMurrough , and Maud de Braose .

Margaret had an elder sister, Maud and two brothers, Richard de Clare, 1st Lord Clare , who was killed at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea in 1318, and Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond.[2]

On 29 August 1287, when she was almost five months of age, her father died. Her mother married her second husband, Nicholas Avenel sometime afterwards.

Margaret was co-heiress to her nephew Thomas de Clare, son of her brother Richard, by which she inherited the manors of Plashes in Standon, Hertfordshire and lands in Thomond, Limerick and Cork in 1321 upon the death of Thomas.[3]

Marriages
Before 1303, she married firstly, Gilbert de Umfraville, son of Gilbert de Umphraville, Earl of Angus, and Elizabeth Comyn. Upon their marriage, the Earl of Angus granted Gilbert and Margaret the manors of Hambleton and Market Overton. When Gilbert died childless, sometime before 1307, the manors passed to Margaret.
Sometime before 30 June 1308, she married secondly, Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere ,(1275 -14 April 1322 ) an English baron and Governor of Bristol Castle, by whom she had five children.[4] She was styled as Lady Badlesmere on 26 October 1309 , and henceforth known by that title.[5]

Leeds Castle
Lord Badlesmere was appointed castellan of the Royal Castle of Leeds in Kent , by Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster , Regent of King Edward II . In October 1321, the queen consort Isabella of France went on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thomas at Canterbury . She decided to break her journey by stopping at Leeds Castle, which was given to her as part of her dowry[6] Bartholomew was away at the time leaving Margaret in charge of the castle. Due to her dislike of Isabella as well as her own belligerent character, she refused the Queen admittance, and subsequently ordered her archers to fire upon Queen Isabella when she approached the outer barbican . When King Edward heard of the treatment meted out to his consort by Margaret, he sent an expeditionary force to the castle. After a successful assault of the castle, with the King's troops using ballistas , the defenders surrendered, and Margaret was seized and sent to the Tower of London .[7]
As a result of Margaret's arrest, Lord Badlesmere joined Lancaster's rebellion and fought in the Battle of Boroughbridge on 16 March 1322. He was arrested and afterward hanged for treason on 14 April 1322. Margaret remained imprisoned in the Tower until 3 November 1322.[2] She was released from the Tower, due to the successful mediation, on her behalf, of her son-in-law William de Ros. She retired to the convent house of the Minorite Sisters, outside Aldgate .[8]

In 1328, her son Giles obtained a reversal of his father's attainder and succeeded to the barony as the 2nd Baron Badlesmere.
Margaret died between 22 October 1333 and 3 January 1334.[9]

List of children
Margery de Badlesmere (1308/1309- 18 October 1363), married before 25 November 1316, William de Ros, 3rd Baron de Ros of Hamlake. (c.1290- 3 February 1343[10]), by whom she had six children.
Maud de Badlesmere (1310- 24 May 1366), married firstly Robert FitzPayn, and secondly, John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford . By her second marriage, Maud had seven children.
Elizabeth de Badlesmere (1313- 8 June 1356), married firstly Sir Edmund Mortimer , and secondly, William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton . Both marriages produced children.
Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere (18 October 1314 - 7 June 1338 , married Elizabeth Montagu, by whom he had four daughters.
Margaret de Badlesmere (born 1315), married John Tiptoft, 2nd Lord Tiptoft, by whom she had one son, Robert Tiptoft.

Margaret married Gilbert d' Umfreville, Earl of Angus,353 son of Gilbert d' Umfreville and Maud, in 1289. Gilbert was born in 1244 and died before 13 Oct 1307.

Research Notes: 1st husband of Margaret de Clare.

Margaret next married Bartholomew de Badlesmere, of Badlesmere & Chilham Castle, Kent,302 354 355 son of Sir Guncelin de Badlesmere, of Badlesmere, Kent and Joan FitzBernard, before 30 Jun 1308. Bartholomew was born about 1275 and died on 14 Apr 1322 in Canterbury, Kent, England about age 47. Another name for Bartholomew was Bartholomew de Badelsmer of Leeds Castle.

Death Notes: Hanged for treason against King Edward II of England

Research Notes: 2nd husband of Margaret de Clare.

From Wikipedia - Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere :
Bartholomew Badlesmere (1275 - 14 April 1322 ), English nobleman, was the son and heir of Gunselm de Badlesmere (died 1301), and fought in the English army both in France and Scotland during the later years of the reign of Edward I of England .

Life
In 1307 he became governor of Bristol Castle . Edward II appointed him steward of his household. Badlesmere made a compact with some other noblemen to gain supreme influence in the royal council. Although very hostile to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster , Badlesmere helped to make peace between the king and the earl in 1318, and was a member of the middle party which detested alike Edward's minions, like the Despensers , and his violent enemies like Lancaster.
The king's conduct, however, drew him to the side of the earl, and he had already joined Edward's enemies when, in October 1321, his wife, Margaret de Clare, Lady Badlesmere refused to admit Queen Isabella to her husband's castle at Leeds in Kent . The king assaulted and captured the castle, seized and imprisoned Lady Badlesmere, and civil war began.
After the defeat of the Earl of Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge , Badlesmere was captured, attainted, and hanged at Blean near Canterbury on April 14 , 1322 . His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate at Canterbury. His son and heir, Giles, died in 1338 leaving four daughters, but no sons.

Family
His son and heir, Giles, died in 1338 leaving four daughters, but no sons. His daughter Elizabeth de Badlesmere (1313-8 June 1356), was married firstly (27 June 1316) to the Hon. Edmund Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer (1302-17 December 1331), Lord Mortimer, eldest son of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, Baroness Geneville . Both were the parents of Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March .
See also the history of Chilham Castle , which was held from time to time by his descendants until the reign of King Henry VIII .

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From www.thepeerage.com:
Bartholomew Badlesmere (1275 - 14 April 1322), English nobleman, was the son and heir of Gunselm de Badlesmere (died 1301), and fought in the English army both in France and Scotland during the later years of the reign of Edward I of England. In 1307 he became governor of Bristol Castle. Edward II appointed him steward of his household. Badlesmere made a compact with some other noblemen to gain supreme influence in the royal council. Although very hostile to Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, Badlesmere helped to make peace between the king and the earl in 1318, and was a member of the middle party which detested alike Edward's minions, like the Despensers, and his violent enemies like Lancaster. The king's conduct, however, drew him to the side of the earl, and he had already joined Edward's enemies when, in October 1321, his wife, Margaret de Clare, refused to admit Queen Isabella to her husband's castle at Leeds in Kent. The king assaulted and captured the castle, seized and imprisoned Lady Badlesmere, and civil war began. After the defeat of the Earl of Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge, Badlesmere was captured and hanged at Canterbury on April 14, 1322. His son and heir, Giles, died without children in 1338. His daughter Elizabeth Badlesmere, 3rd Baroness Badlesmere (1313-8 June 1356), was married (27 June 1316) to the Hon. Edmund Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer (1302-17 December 1331), Lord Mortimer, eldest son of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joane de Geneville, Baroness Geneville. Both were the parents of Roger Mortimer, 2nd Earl of March.

Noted events in his life were:

• 1st Lord Badlesmere:

• Steward of the King's household:

• Ambassador to France, Savoy, and the Pope:

Children from this marriage were:

+ 246 F    i. Margery de Badlesmere 356 was born in 1306 and died on 18 Oct 1363 at age 57.

+ 247 F    ii. Elizabeth de Badlesmere 302 327 328 329 was born about 1313 in Castle Badlesmere, Kent, England, died on 8 Jun 1356 about age 43, and was buried in Walden Abbey, Essex, England.

+ 248 F    iii. < > de Badlesmere, Countess of Oxford .

+ 249 F    iv. Roos de Badlesmere .

207. Robert Bruce, King of Scotland (Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale160, Isabel de Clare119, Sir Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester86, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1)

208. Rhys-Gloff, Lord of Cymcydmaen (Rhys-Vaughn, Lord of Yestradtywy161, Rhys-Mechyllt, of Llandovery Castle121, Joan de Clare89, Amice FitzWilliam, Countess of Gloucester63, Hawise de Beaumont, of Leicester46, Sir Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester30, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1).

Research Notes: Source: Welsh Settlement of Pensylvania by Charles H. Browning (Philadelphia, 1912), p. 281.

Rhys-Gloff married someone.

His child was:

+ 250 M    i. Madoc ap Rhys-Gloff .

209. Hugh de Courtenay 47 (Hugh de Courtenay162, John de Courtenay122, Mary de Reviers90, Mabel de Beaumont64, Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan49, Waleran IV de Beaumont, Count of Meulan31, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 14 Sep 1273 in Okehampton, Devonshire, England, died on 23 Dec 1340 in Exeter, Devonshire, England at age 67, and was buried on 5 Feb 1341 in Cowick, Exeter, Devonshire, England.

Hugh married Agnes Saint John,47 daughter of John Saint John and Alice FitzPiers, in 1292. Agnes was born about 1275 in <Basing, Hampshire>, England, died on 11 Jun 1345 in Exeter, Devonshire, England about age 70, and was buried on 27 Jun 1345 in Cowick, Devonshire, England.

The child from this marriage was:

+ 251 M    i. Hugh de Courtenay 47 was born on 12 Jul 1303 in Okehampton, Devonshire, England, died on 2 May 1377 in Exeter, Devonshire, England at age 73, and was buried in Exeter Cathedral, Devonshire, England.

210. Maud de Chaworth, Countess of Lancaster & Countess of Leicester 278 279 280 (Isabella de Beauchamp163, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick123, Isabel Mauduit91, Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 2 Feb 1282 in <Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire>, Wales and died before 3 Dec 1322. Other names for Maud were Matilda de Chaworth and Maud Chaworth.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Maud Chaworth :

Maud de Chaworth (2 February 1282 - 1322), was an English noblewoman and wealthy heiress. She was the only child of Patrick de Chaworth . Sometime before 2 March 1297, she married Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster , by whom she had seven children. Although the exact date of her death is unknown, it is estimated that she must have died sometime before 3 December 1322.

Parents
Maud was the daughter and only child of Sir Patrick de Chaworth ,Lord of Kidwelly, in Carmarthenshire, South Wales, and Isabella de Beauchamp . Her maternal grandfather was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick . Her father, Patrick de Chaworth died on 7 July 1283. He was thought to be 30 years old. Approximately, three years later, in 1286, Isabella de Beauchamp married Hugh Despenser the Elder and had two sons and four daughters by him. This made Maud the half-sister of Hugh the younger Despenser . Her mother, Isabella de Beauchamp, died in 1306.

Childhood
When her father died, Maud was only a year old and his death left her a wealthy heiress. However, because she was an infant, she became a ward of Eleanor of Castile , Queen consort of King Edward I of England . Upon Queen Eleanor's death in 1290, her husband, King Edward I, granted Maud's marriage to his brother Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster on 30 December 1292.
Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster , Earl of Leicester was the son of Eleanor of Provence and Henry III of England . He first married Aveline de Forz, Countess of Albemarle, in 1269. Later, in Paris on 3 February 1276, he married Blanche of Artois who is niece of Louis IX and Queen of Navarre by association with her first marriage. Blanche and Edmund had four children together, one of whom was Henry Plantagenet, who would later become 3rd Earl of Leicester and Maud Chaworth's husband.

[edit ] Marriage and Children
Although sources say that Edmund was married to Maud, it has been suggested that Maud was betrothed to Edmund and his son Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster [1] together, to ensure that she married into the family even if Edmund were to die. Therefore, when Edmund did pass away, Henry and Maud were bonded in holy matrimony sometime before 2 March 1297. Henry was supposedly born between the years 1280 and 1281, making him somewhat older than Maud, but not by much since they were either fourteen or fifteen-years-old.
Since Maud inherited her father's property, Henry also acquired this property through the rights of marriage. Some of that property was of the following: Hampshire, Glamorgan, Wiltshire, and Carmarthenshire. Henry was the nephew to the King of England, as well as being closely associated with the French royal family line. Henry's half-sister Jeanne (or Juana) was given the title Queen of Navarre in her own right, and married Philip IV of France. Not only that, but Henry was the uncle of King Edward II 's Queen Isabella and of three Kings of France. He was also the younger brother of Thomas (Earl of Lancaster) and first cousin of Edward II.
Maud is very often described as the "Countess of Leicester" or "Countess of Lancaster" but she never bore the titles as she died before her husband received them. Henry was only named "Earl of Leicester" in 1324 and "Earl of Lancaster" in 1327, both after her death. Henry never remarried and died on 22 September 1345 when he would have been in his mid-sixties. All but one of his seven children with Maud outlived him.
Maud and Henry had seven children:
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster , (about 1310-1361); Maud's only son Henry was usually called Henry of Grosmont to distinguish him from his father. He was one of the great, well known and respected men of the fourteenth century. He took after his father and was well educated, literate, pious, a soldier and a diplomat. Henry produced his own memoir "Le Livre de Seyntz Medicines" which was completed in 1354. At one point, Henry of Grosmont was considered to be the richest man in England aside from the Prince of Wales. He was emerging as a political figure in his own right within England: he was knighted and represented his father in parliament. It was in the same year that he married his wife, Isabella, daughter of Henry, Lord Beaumont. His daughter Blanche was betrothed and eventually married to the son of Edward III, John of Gaunt. In 1361, Henry was killed by a new outbreak of the Black Death, leaving John of Gaunt his inheritance and eventually his title through his daughter Blanche.[2]
Blanche of Lancaster , (about 1302/05-1380); Maud's eldest daughter was probably born between 1302 and 1305, and was named after her father's mother Blanche of Artois . Around 9 October 1316, she married Thomas Wake , the second baron of Liddell. Blanch was about forty-five when Thomas died and lived as a widow for more than thirty years. She was one of the executers of her brother Henry's will when he died in 1361. Blanche outlived all her siblings, dying shortly before 12 July 1380 in her mid to late seventies. Born in the reign of Edward I, she survived all the way into the reign of his great grandson Richard II.
Maud of Lancaster, (about 1310-1345)There is some discrepancy as to when Maud died. Another possible date of her death is 1377[3]
married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster in 1327. They bore one child, Elizabeth de Burgh who was born 6 July 1332. Eleven months after the birth of their child, Earl William was murdered at "Le Ford" in Belfast, apparently by some of his own men. The countess Maud fled to England with her baby and stayed with the royal family. In 1337, Maud of Lancaster managed to ensure that the Justiciar of Ireland was forbidden to pardon her husband's killers. She fought for her dower rights and exerted some influence there. She remarried in 1344 to Ralph Ufford and returned to Ireland where she had another daughter, Maud. After her second husband fell ill in 1346, she again returned to England. Maud of Lancaster died on May 5, 1345/77.
Joan of Lancaster , (about 1312-1345); married between February 28 and June 4, 1327 to John, Lord Mowbray . John's father was horribly executed for reasons unknown and young John was imprisoned in the Tower of London along with his mother Alice de Braose, until late 1326. A large part of his inheritance was granted to Hugh Despenser the Younger, who was his future wife's uncle; however he was set free in 1327 before the marriage. Joan of Lancaster probably died in her early thirties, sometime before August 1344.
Isabel of Lancaster, Prioress of Ambresbury, (about 1317-after 1347); often said to be born in 1317 as one of the youngest daughters of Maud and Henry. Her life is somewhat obscure, going on pilgrimages and spending a lot of time alone. She spent a great deal of time outside the cloister on non-spiritual matters. Her father had given her quite a bit of property which she administered herself. She owned hunting dogs and had personal servants. She used her family connections to secure privileges and concessions.[4]
Eleanor of Lancaster , (1318- Sept. 1372); married John Beaumont between September and November 1330. Eleanor bore John a son, Henry, who married Margaret de Vere, a sister of Elizabeth and Thomas de Vere, Earl of Oxford. John Beaumont was killed in a jousting tournament in Northampton on 14 April 1342. Eleanor then became mistress of the Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel , who happened to be married to her first cousin Isabel, daughter of Hugh Despenser the Younger. Richard obtained a divorce from the Pope and married Eleanor on 5 February 1345 in the presence of Edward III. They had five children together, three sons and two daughters. Eleanor died on 11 January 1372.
Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320-1362); married Henry, Lord Percy before September 4, 1334 who fought at the battle of Crecy in 1346, and served in Gascony under the command of his brother in law Henry of Grosmont. Their son was Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland . Mary of Lancaster died on 1 September 1362, the year after her brother Henry.

Maud married Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester,217 218 son of Edmund "Crouchback", 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester and Blanche, of Artois, before 2 Mar 1297 in Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales. Henry was born about 1281 in Grosmont Castle, Monmouthshire, England, died on 25 Mar 1345 in Canons Monastery, England about age 64, and was buried in Newark Abbey, Leicestershire, England. Other names for Henry were Henry of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester, Henry Plantagenet Earl of Leicester, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, and Henry "Tortcol" Plantagenet.

Marriage Notes: Marriage year could be 1296

Death Notes: Ancestral Roots, line 17-29, has d. 22 Sept. 1345, bur. Neward Abbey, co. Leics.
Wikipedia has d. 25 March 1345.

Research Notes: One of the principals behind the deposition of King Edward II.

Some data from Albert Doublass Hart, Jr ("Our Folk" - de Chaworth Family Genealogy). Albert has death date as 22 Sep 1345 in Cannons Monastery, England.
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From Wikipedia - Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster :

Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (1281 - March 25 , 1345 ) was an English nobleman, one of the principals behind the deposition of Edward II.

Lineage
He was the younger son of Blanche of Artois and Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster , Earl of Leicester , who was a son of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence .

Henry's elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster succeeded their father in 1296 , but Henry was summoned to Parliament on February 6 , 1298 /99 by writ directed Henrico de Lancastre nepoti Regis, by which he is held to have become Lord Lancaster. He took part in the siege of Carlaverock in July 1300 .

Petition for succession and inheritance
Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and his lands and titles forfeited in 1322 . But Henry, who had not participated in his brother's rebellion, petitioned for his brother's lands and titles, and on March 29 , 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester , and a few years later the earldom of Lancaster was also restored to him.

Revenge
On the Queen's return to England with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March in September 1326 , Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the King's cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser .

He was sent in pursuit and captured the king at Neath in South Wales. He was appointed to take charge of the King, and was responsible for his custody at Kenilworth Castle .

Full restoration and reward
After Edward II's death Henry was appointed guardian of the new king Edward III of England , and was also appointed captain-general of all the King's forces in the Scottish Marches .

Loss of sight
In about the year 1330 , he became blind .

Succession
He was succeeded as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester by his eldest son, Henry of Grosmont , who subsequently became Duke of Lancaster.

Family

He married Maud Chaworth , before 2 March 1296 /1297 .
Henry and Maud had seven children:
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster , (about 1300 -1360 /61 )
Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1305 - 1380 ) married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell
Maud of Lancaster, (about 1310 -1377 ); married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster
Joan of Lancaster , (about 1312 -1345 ); married John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray
Isabel of Lancaster, Abbess of Ambresbury, (about 1317 -after 1347 )
Eleanor of Lancaster , (about 1318 -1371 /72 ) married (1) John De Beaumont and (2) 5 Feb. 1344/5, Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel ;
Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320 -1362 ), who married Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy , and was the mother of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland .

(Duplicate Line. See Person 138)

211. Sir Hugh le Despenser, Baron Despenser 308 309 310 (Isabella de Beauchamp163, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick123, Isabel Mauduit91, Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born in 1286, died on 24 Nov 1326 in Hereford, Herefordshire, England at age 40, and was buried after 15 Dec 1330 in Tewkesbury Abbey, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England. Another name for Hugh was Hugh "the Younger" le Despenser Baron Despenser.

Death Notes: Hanged and quartered for teason

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Hugh Despenser the Younger :

Hugh Despenser, 1st Lord Despenser (1286 - 24 November 1326 , sometimes referred to as "the younger Despenser", was the son and heir of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester , by Isabel Beauchamp, daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick .

Background
He was knight of Hanley Castle , Worcestershire , King's Chamberlain , Constable of Odiham Castle , Keeper of the castle and town of Portchester , Keeper of the castle, town and barton of Bristol and, in Wales , Keeper of the castle and town of Dryslwyn , and the region of Cantref Mawr , Carmarthenshire . Also in Wales , he was Keeper of the castles, manor, and lands of Brecknock , Hay , Cantref Selyf, etc., in County Brecon , and, in England of Huntington , Herefordshire . He was given Wallingford Castle although this had previously been given to Queen Isabella for life.

Marriage
In May 1306 Hugh was knighted, and that summer he married Eleanor de Clare , daughter of Gilbert de Clare , 9th Lord of Clare and 7th Earl of Hertford and Joan of Acre . Eleanor's grandfather, Edward I , owed Hugh's father vast sums of money, and the marriage was intended as a payment of these debts. When Eleanor's brother was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn , she unexpectedly became one of the three co-heiresses to the rich Gloucester earldom, and in her right Hugh inherited Glamorgan and other properties. In just a few short years Hugh went from a landless knight to one of the wealthiest magnates in the kingdom.
Eleanor was also the niece of the new king, Edward II of England , and this connection brought Hugh closer to the English royal court. He joined the baronial opposition to Piers Gaveston , the king's favourite , and Hugh's brother-in-law, as Gaveston was married to Eleanor's sister. Eager for power and wealth, Hugh seized Tonbridge Castle in 1315. In 1318 he murdered Llywelyn Bren , a Welsh hostage in his custody.

Eleanor and Hugh had nine children:
Hugh le Despenser III (1308-1349)
Gilbert le Despenser , (1309- 1381).
Edward le Despenser , (1310 - 1342), soldier, killed at the siege of Vannes [1]; father of Edward II le Despenser , Knight of the Garter
John le Despenser , (1311 - June 1366).
Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Arundel (1312-1356), married Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel
Eleanor le Despenser , (c. 1315 - 1351), nun at Sempringham Priory
Joan le Despenser , (c. 1317 - 1384), nun at Shaftesbury Abbey
Margaret le Despenser , (c. 1319 - 1337, nun at Whatton Priory
Elizabeth le Despenser , born 1325, died July 13 , 1389 , married Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley .

Political Manoeuvrings
Hugh became royal chamberlain in 1318. As a royal courtier , Hugh manoeuvred into the affections of King Edward, displacing the previous favourite, Roger d'Amory . This was much to the dismay of the baronage as they saw him both taking their rightful places at court and being a worse version of Gaveston. By 1320 his greed was running free. Hugh seized the Welsh lands of his wife's inheritance, ignoring the claims of his two brothers-in-law. He forced Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln , to give up her lands, cheated his sister-in-law Elizabeth de Clare out of Gower and Usk , and allegedly had Lady Baret's arms and legs broken until she went insane. He also supposedly vowed to be revenged on Roger Mortimer because Mortimer's grandfather had murdered Hugh's grandfather, and once stated (though probably in jest) that he regretted he could not control the wind. By 1321 he had earned many enemies in every stratum of society, from Queen Isabella to the barons to the common people. There was even a bizarre plot to kill Hugh by sticking pins in a wax likeness of him.

Finally the barons prevailed upon King Edward and forced Hugh and his father into exile in 1321. His father fled to Bordeaux , and Hugh became a pirate in the English Channel , "a sea monster, lying in wait for merchants as they crossed his path". Following the exile of the Despensers, the barons who opposed them fell out among themselves. The following year, King Edward took advantage of these divisions to secure the defeat and execution of the Earl of Lancaster, and the surrender of Roger Mortimer, the Despensers' chief opponents. The pair returned and King Edward quickly reinstated Hugh as royal favourite. His time in exile had done nothing to quell his greed, his rashness, or his ruthlessness. The time from the Despensers' return from exile until the end of Edward II's reign was a time of uncertainty in England. With the main baronial opposition leaderless and weak, having been defeated at the Battle of Boroughbridge , and Edward willing to let them do as they pleased, the Despensers were left unchecked. They grew rich from their administration and corruption. This period is sometimes referred to as the "Tyranny". This maladministration caused hostile feeling for them and, by proxy, Edward II. Hugh repeatedly pressed King Edward to execute Mortimer, who had been held prisoner in the Tower of London, following his surrender. However, Mortimer escaped from the Tower and fled to France.

Relationship with Edward and Isabella
Queen Isabella had a special dislike for the man. Various historians have suggested, and it is commonly believed, that he and Edward had an ongoing sexual relationship. (Froissart states "he was a sodomite, even it is said, with the King.") Some speculate it was this relationship that caused the Queen's dislike of him.[citation needed ] Others, noting that her hatred for him was far greater than for any other favourite of her husband, suggest that his behaviour towards herself and the nation served to excite her particular disgust. Alison Weir , in her 2005 book, Queen Isabella: Treachery, Adultery, and Murder in Medieval England, speculates that he had raped Isabella and that was the source of her hatred. While Isabella was in France to negotiate between her husband and the French king, she formed a liaison with Roger Mortimer and began planning an invasion. Hugh supposedly tried to bribe French courtiers to assassinate Isabella, sending barrels of silver as payment. Roger Mortimer and the Queen invaded England in October 1326. Their forces only numbered about 1,500 mercenaries to begin with, but the majority of the nobility rallied to them throughout October and November. By contrast, very few people were prepared to fight for Edward II, mainly because of the hatred which the Despensers had aroused. The Despensers fled West with the King, with a sizable sum from the treasury. The escape was unsuccessful. Separated from the elder Despenser, the King and the younger Hugh were deserted by most of their followers, and were captured near Neath in mid-November. King Edward was placed in captivity and later deposed. Hugh the father (the elder Despenser) was hanged at Bristol on 27 October 1326, and Hugh the son was brought to trial.

Trial and Execution
Hugh tried to starve himself before his trial, but face trial he did on 24 November 1326 , in Hereford , before Mortimer and the Queen. He was judged a traitor and a thief, and sentenced to public execution by hanging, as a thief, and drawing and quartering , as a traitor. Additionally, he was sentenced to be disembowelled for having procured discord between the King and Queen, and to be beheaded, for returning to England after having been banished. Treason had also been the grounds for Gaveston's execution; the belief was that these men had misled the King rather than the King himself being guilty of folly. Immediately after the trial, he was dragged behind four horses to his place of execution, where a great fire was lit. He was stripped naked, and biblical verses denouncing arrogance and evil were written on his skin. He was then hanged from a gallows 50 ft (15 m) high, but cut down before he could choke to death, and was tied to a ladder, in full view of the crowd. The executioner climbed up beside him, and sliced off his penis and testicles which were burnt before him, while he was still alive and conscious; (although castration was not formally part of the sentence imposed on Despenser, it was typically practised on convicted traitors). Subsequently, the executioner slit open his abdomen, and slowly pulled out, and cut out, his entrails and, finally, his heart, which were likewise thrown into the fire. The executioner would have sought to keep him alive as long as possible, while disembowelling him. The burning of his entrails would, in all likelihood, have been the last sight that he witnessed. Just before he died, it is recorded that he let out a "ghastly inhuman howl," much to the delight and merriment of the spectators. Finally, his corpse was beheaded, his body cut into four pieces, and his head was mounted on the gates of London. Mortimer and Isabella feasted with their chief supporters, as they watched the execution...

After his death, his widow asked to be given the body so she could bury it at the family's Gloucestershire estate, but only the head, a thigh bone and a few vertebrae were returned to her.[2]


Hugh married Eleanor de Clare,43 264 265 daughter of Sir Gilbert de Clare, 9th Earl of Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and Joan, of Acre, after 14 Jun 1306. Eleanor was born on 3 Oct 1292 in Caerphilly, Glamorgan, Wales, died on 30 Jun 1337 at age 44, and was buried in Tewkesbury, Wiltshire, England. Other names for Eleanor were Alianore de Clare and Eleanore de Clare.

Research Notes: Wikipedia - Eleanor de Clare :

Eleanor de Clare (3 October 1292 - June 30 , 1337 ) was the wife of the powerful Hugh Despenser the younger . She was born in 1292 at Caerphilly in Glamorgan , Wales . She was the eldest daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford and 3rd Earl of Gloucester , and Joan of Acre , daughter of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile ; thus she was a granddaughter to Edward I of England . With her sisters, Elizabeth de Clare and Margaret de Clare , she inherited her father's estates after the death of her brother, Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Gloucester at Bannockburn in 1314.

Marriage to Hugh Desepenser the younger
In May 1306 at Westminster , Eleanor married Hugh Despenser the younger , the son of Hugh le Despenser, Earl of Winchester and Isabel Beauchamp , daughter of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick . Her grandfather, King Edward I of England , granted Eleanor a maritagium of 2,000 pounds sterling. Eleanor and Hugh had nine children:
Hugh le Despenser III (1308-1349)
Gilbert le Despenser , (1309- 1381).
Edward le Despenser , (1310 - 1342), soldier, killed at the siege of Vannes [1]; father of Edward II le Despenser , Knight of the Garter
John le Despenser , (1311 - June 1366).
Isabel le Despenser (1312-1356), married Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel
Eleanor le Despenser , (c. 1315 - 1351), nun at Sempringham Priory
Joan le Despenser , (c. 1317 - 1384), nun at Shaftesbury Abbey
Margaret le Despenser , (c. 1319 - 1337, nun at Whatton Priory
Elizabeth le Despenser , born 1325, died July 13 , 1389 , married Maurice de Berkeley, 4th Baron Berkeley .
Eleanor's husband rose to prominence as the new favourite of her uncle, King Edward II of England . The king strongly favoured Hugh and Eleanor, visiting them often and granting them many gifts. One foreign chronicler even alleged that Edward was involved in a ménage à trois with his niece and her husband. Whatever the truth, Eleanor's fortunes changed drastically after the invasion of Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer . Hugh le Despenser was gruesomely executed.

Imprisonment
In November 1326, Eleanor was confined to the Tower of London . The Despenser family's fortunes also suffered with the executions of Eleanor's husband and father-in-law. Eleanor and Hugh's eldest son, another Hugh, who held Caerphilly Castle against the queen's forces until the spring of 1327, was spared his life when he surrendered the castle but remained a prisoner until July 1331, after which he was slowly restored to royal favor. Three of Eleanor's daughters were forcibly veiled as nuns. Only the eldest daughter, Isabel, and the youngest daughter, Elizabeth, escaped the nunnery, Isabel because she was already married and Elizabeth on account of her infancy.
In February 1328 Eleanor was freed from imprisonment. In April 1328, she was allowed possession of her own lands, for which she did homage.

Marriage to William de la Zouche
Eleanor was abducted from Hanley Castle in January, 1329, by William de la Zouche , who had been one of her husband's captors and who had led the siege of Caerphilly Castle. The abduction may in fact have been an elopement; in any case, Eleanor's lands were seized by the King, Edward III , and the couple was ordered to be arrested. At the same time, Eleanor was accused of stealing jewels from the Tower. Sometime after February 1329, she was imprisoned a second time in the Tower of London; later, she was moved to Devizes Castle . In January 1330, she was released and pardoned after agreeing to sign away the most valuable part of her share of the lucrative Clare inheritance to the crown. She could recover her lands only on the condition that she pay the enormous sum of 50,000 pounds in a single day.
Within the year, however, the young Edward III overthrew Queen Isabella's paramour, Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, and had him executed. Eleanor was among those who benefited from the fall of Mortimer and Isabella. She petitioned Edward III for the restoration of her lands, claiming that she had signed them away after being threatened by Roger Mortimer that she would never be freed if she did not. In 1331, Edward III granted her petition "to ease the king's conscience" and allowed her to recover the lands on the condition that she pay a fine of 10,000 pounds, later reduced to 5,000 pounds, in installments. Eleanor made payments on the fine, but the bulk of it was outstanding at the time of her death.
Eleanor's troubles were by no means over, however. After Eleanor's marriage to Zouche, Sir John Grey, 1st Baron Grey claimed that he had married her first. Grey was still attempting to claim Eleanor in 1333; the case was appealed to the Pope several times. Ultimately, Zouche won the dispute. Eleanor remained with him until his death in February 1337, only a few months before Eleanor's own death. Eleanor and William had children:
William de la Zouche, born 1330, died after 1360, a monk at Glastonbury Abbey .
Joyce Zouche, born 1331, died after 4 May 1372 , married John de Botetourt, 2nd Lord Botetourt.

Tewkesbury Abbey Renovations
Hugh le Despenser the younger and Eleanor are generally credited with beginning the renovations to Tewkesbury Abbey that transformed it into the fine example of the decorated style of architecture that it is today. The famous fourteenth-century stained-glass windows in the choir, which include the armor-clad figures of Eleanor's ancestors, brother, and two husbands, were most likely Eleanor's own contribution, although she probably did not live to see them put in place. The nude, kneeling woman watching the Last Judgment in the choir's east window may represent Eleanor.

(Duplicate Line. See Person 173)

212. Sir Edward Despenser 311 (Isabella de Beauchamp163, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick123, Isabel Mauduit91, Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) died on 30 Sep 1342.

213. Thomas de Beauchamp 254 (Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick165, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick123, Isabel Mauduit91, Alice de Beaumont65, Waleran de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Warwick50, Gundred de Warenne37, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born on 14 Feb 1314 in <Warwick Castle, Warwickshire>, England, died on 13 Nov 1369 in Calais, Pas-de-Calais, France at age 55, and was buried in Saint Mary's, Warwick, Warwickshire, England.

Thomas married someone.

His child was:

+ 252 F    i. Maud de Beauchamp 254 was born about 1335 in <Warwick, Warwickshire>, England and died in Jan 1403 about age 68.

214. Sir Richard "Copped Hat" FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel and Warenne 314 315 316 (Alice de Warenne166, Sir William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey127, John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey95, William de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey69, Isabelle de Warenne, Countess of Surrey52, William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey and Warenne38, Isabel de Vermandois, Countess of Leicester15, Hugh Magnus, of Vermandois and Valois, Duke of France11, Anne, of Kiev6, Yaroslav I, of Kiev4, Vladimir I, of Kiev3, Sviatoslav I, of Kiev2, Igor, Grand Prince of Kiev1) was born about 1313, died on 24 Jan 1376 in Arundel, West Sussex, England about age 63, and was buried in Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England. Other names for Richard were Richard of Arundel, Sir Richard de Arundel, and Richard FitzAlan d'Arundel 9th Ear;l of Arundel.

Research Notes: When John II de Warenne died without legal issue on 29 June 1347, Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel, was the next heir in blood through his mother, Alice de Warenne, John's sister.
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From Wikipedia - Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel :

Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel (c. 1307 - January 24, 1376) was an English nobleman and military leader.

Fitzalan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel, and Alice Warenne. His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey.

His birthdate is uncertain, but could not have been before 1307. Around 1321, FitzAlan's father allied with King Edward II's (also an ancestor) favorites, the Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester (also an ancestor) and his namesake son, and Richard was married to Isabel le Despenser, daughter of Hugh the Younger. Fortune turned against the Despenser party, and in 1326, FitzAlan's father was executed, and he did not succeed to his father's estates or titles.

However, political conditions had changed by 1330, and over the next few years Richard was gradually able to reacquire the Earldom of Arundel as well as the great estates his father had held in Sussex and in the Welsh Marches. Beyond this, in 1334 he was made justice of North Wales (later his term in this office was made for life), sheriff for life of Caernarvonshire, and governor of Caernarfon Castle.

His daughter Joan was the mother of Mary de Bohun who would marry King of England Henry IV.

Noted events in his life were:

• Earl of Arundel: 1331.

• Lord of Bromfield (Wrexham) and Yale: 30 Jun 1347. upon the death of his uncle, John II de Warenne.

• Inherited: castles of Caerleon (Holt) and Dinas Bran, 30 Jun 1347.

• Did homage: to Edward III, 24 Oct 1353. for Bromfield and Yale as immediately subject to the Crown.

Richard married Isabel le Despenser,322 323 daughter of Sir Hugh le Despenser, Baron Despenser and Eleanor de Clare, on 9 Feb 1321. Marriage status: annulment in Dec 1344. Isabel was born in 1312 and died in 1356 at age 44. Another name for Isabel was Isabel Despenser.

Research Notes: From Wikipedia - Isabel le Despenser, Countess of Arundel :

Isabel le Despenser (1312 - 1356) was the eldest daughter of Hugh the younger Despenser and Eleanor