The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




William FitzAlan of Oswestry and Isabel de Say of Clun




Husband William FitzAlan of Oswestry 1

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1210
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Isabel de Say of Clun 2

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Ingram de Say of Clun (      -      ) 3
         Mother: 




Children
1 M John FitzAlan Lord of Clun and Oswestry, Salop 4 5

           Born: 1200
     Christened: 
           Died: 1240
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Isabel d'Aubigny (      -      )


2 M William FitzAlan Lord of Clun and Oswestry 6

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1216
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Child - John FitzAlan Lord of Clun and Oswestry, Salop

From Wikipedia - John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry :

John Fitzalan, Lord of Clun and Oswestry (1200-1240[1]) in the Welsh Marches in the county of Shropshire .

Family
John succeeded his brother, William FitzAlan, Lord of Clun and Oswestry, who died in 1216 without issue. They were sons of William FitzAlan of Oswestry (d. c1210) and Isabel, daughter and heiress of Ingram de Say, who brought Clun to the marriage. The FitzAlans were descendants of Alan fitzFlaad , a Breton .[2]

Royal conflicts
He was one of the feudal barons who became a target for the anger of King John of England , whose forces attacked Oswestry town and burned it in 1216. John Fitzalan was close to Llywelyn ap Iorwerth until 1217.
He was also a representative of the Crown in a dispute between King Henry III of England and the Welsh leader, Llywelyn the Great in 1226. In the same year he mediated between a neighbour, William Pantulf , Lord of Wem in Shropshire and Madog ap Gruffydd (died 1236), Lord of Powys and a cousin to Llywelyn ap Iorwerth .
In 1233/4 during the conflict between King Henry III, the Earl Marshal , and Llywelyn the Great, John Fitzalan sided firmly with the Crown and Oswestry was again attacked, this time by Welsh forces.

Marriage
He married Isabel, daughter of William d'Aubigny, 3rd Earl of Arundel and Mabel of Chester, and were parents of:
John FitzAlan , Lord of Clun & Oswestry, who inherited jure matris, in 1243, the castle and honour of Arundel and became de jure Earl of Arundel.[3]

Notes
^ Cockayne, G. E., edited by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs & H. A. Doubleday, The Complete Peerage, London, 1926, vol.v., p.392
^ Cockayne (1926) vol.v., p.391-2
^ Cockayne (1926) vol.v., p.392

References
Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 p.149-28.
D.C. Roberts Some Aspects of the History of the Lordship of Oswestry, Thesis in the National Library of Wales .



Warine FitzBenedict




Husband Warine FitzBenedict 7

           Born: Abt 1197 - <Kent, England>
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Maud FitzBenedict 7

            AKA: Joane FitzBenedict
           Born: Abt 1223 - <Kent>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: John de Cobham (Abt 1220-1252) 7
           Marr: Abt 1239 - Kent, England




Maldred FitzDolphin




Husband Maldred FitzDolphin 7

           Born: Abt 1157 - <Raby>, Durham, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Dolphin (Abt 1110-      ) 7
         Mother: Alice (Abt 1115-      ) 7


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Robert FitzMaldred 7

           Born: Abt 1170 - Raby, Durham, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1245
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Isabel de Neville (Abt 1176-Bef 1254) 7
           Marr: 1213 - Brancepeth, Durham, England




Richard FitzEustace 5th Baron of Halton and Albreda de Lisoures




Husband Richard FitzEustace 5th Baron of Halton 8 9 10 11

            AKA: Richard Fitz Eustace
           Born: Abt 1128 - East Halton, Skipton, West Riding, Yorkshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Between 1157 and 1163
         Buried: 


         Father: Eustace FitzJohn 4th Baron of Halton (Abt 1110-1157) 11 12 13
         Mother: Agnes FitzWilliam (Abt 1114-1166) 11 14 15


       Marriage: 1150 - Chester, Cheshire, England

Events

• Baron of Halton: 1157-1171.

• Lord of Halton:

• Constable of Chester:




Wife Albreda de Lisoures 16

            AKA: Albreda de Lisours
           Born: Abt 1128 - Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1194 - Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Eudo de Lisoures (Abt 1097-      ) 17 18 19
         Mother: Albreda de Lacy (Abt 1097-      ) 20




Children
1 M John FitzRichard de Lacy 6th Baron of Halton 10 21

            AKA: John de Lacie, John de Lacy
           Born: Abt 1150 - Halton, West Riding, Yorkshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 11 Oct 1198 - Tyre, Lebanon
         Buried:  - Stanlow Abbey, Cheshire, England
         Spouse: Alice de Mandeville (Abt 1146-      ) 21
           Marr: Abt 1164 - Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England



Research Notes: Husband - Richard FitzEustace 5th Baron of Halton

From Wikipedia - Barons of Halton :

5 Richard FitzEustace
(1157-1171)
The son of Eustace FitzJohn. He married into the de Lacy family of Yorkshire .[9]


Research Notes: Wife - Albreda de Lisoures

Only daughter and heiress of Eudo (Robert) de Lisoures and Albreda de Lacy.


Death Notes: Child - John FitzRichard de Lacy 6th Baron of Halton

Wikipedia (Barons of Halton) has "died at the siege of Tyre [in 1190]."

Magna Charta Barons
has d. in the Holy Land, 1179.


Burial Notes: Child - John FitzRichard de Lacy 6th Baron of Halton

From Wikipedia - Stanlow Abbey :

Stanlow Abbey (or Stanlaw Abbey) was a Cistercian abbey situated on Stanlow Point on the banks of the River Mersey in the Wirral Peninsula , Cheshire , England (grid reference SJ427773 ).

The abbey was founded in 1178 by John FitzRichard , the sixth Baron of Halton .[1] Roger de Lacy , John de Lacy and Edmund de Lacy , respectively the 7th, 8th and 9th Barons of Halton, were buried at Stanlow.[2] The abbey was in an exposed situation near the Mersey estuary and it suffered from a series of disasters. In 1279 it was flooded by water from the Mersey and in 1287 during a fierce storm, its tower collapsed and part of the abbey was destroyed by fire. The monks appealed to the pope for the monastery to be moved to a better site and, with the pope's consent and the agreement of Edward I and Henry de Lacy , the 10th Baron, they moved to Whalley Abbey near Clitheroe , Lancashire .[3] This move took place in 1296.[4][5] However a small cell of monks remained on the site until the Reformation ,[3] the site becoming a grange of Whalley Abbey.[6] The remains of the abbey lie between the Mersey and the Manchester Ship Canal . The standing remains include two sandstone walls and a re-used doorway, and the buried features include part of a drain leading to the River Gowy . These remains are recognised as a scheduled monument .[6]


Research Notes: Child - John FitzRichard de Lacy 6th Baron of Halton

Inherited the baronies of Halton and Pontefract, with the constableship of Chester, and assumed the surname de Lacie, through his mother, whose first husband was Henry, feudal Baron de Lacie.

From Wikipedia - List of Barons of Halton :

6 John FitzRichard
(1171-1190)
The son of Richard FitzEustace. He was a Governor in Ireland for Henry II . Being a patron of science, he maintained an astronomer at Halton Castle. He founded a Cistercian monastery at Stanlow .[8] In 1190 he granted the second known charter for a ferry at Runcorn Gap. He served with Richard I in the Third Crusade and died at the siege of Tyre .[10]



Gerard de Furnivalle Lord of Hallamshire and Maud FitzGeoffrey




Husband Gerard de Furnivalle Lord of Hallamshire

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1261
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Maud FitzGeoffrey 7 22 23

            AKA: Maud FitzJohn
           Born: Abt 1237 - Shere, Surrey, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Apr 1301 - <Grey Friars>, Worcestershire, England
         Buried: 7 May 1301 - Grey Friars, Worcestershire, England


         Father: John FitzGeoffrey of Fambridge, Essex (Abt 1215-1258) 7 24
         Mother: Isabel Bigod (Abt 1212-1250) 25 26



   Other Spouse: William de Beauchamp 9th Earl of Warwick (Abt 1237-1298) 7 27 - Bef 1270 - Worcestershire, England


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Gerard de Furnivalle Lord of Hallamshire

Source: Wikipedia - John FitzGeoffrey


Burial Notes: Wife - Maud FitzGeoffrey

House of the Friars Minor, Worcester, Worcestershire, England.


Research Notes: Wife - Maud FitzGeoffrey

Eldest daughter of John FitzGeoffrey

Wikipedia - John FitzGeoffrey has d. 16/18 Apr 1301. Married firstly to Gerard de Furnivalle, Lord of Hallamshire (?-1261). Married secondly to William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick, son of William de Beauchamp of Elmley, Worcestershire & his wife Isabel Mauduit.

From Wikipedia - Maud FitzJohn :

Maud FitzJohn, Countess of Warwick (died 16/18 April 1301), was an English noblewoman and the eldest daughter of John FitzGeoffrey , Lord of Shere. Her second husband was William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick , a celebrated soldier. Through her daughter, Isabella , Maud was the maternal grandmother of Hugh the younger Despenser , the unpopular favourite of King Edward II of England , who was executed in 1326.

Family
Maud was born in Shere, Surrey, England on an unknown date, the eldest daughter of John FitzGeoffrey , Lord of Shere, Justiciar of Ireland , and Isabel Bigod , a descendant of Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster . Maud had two brothers, Richard FitzJohn of Shere and John FitzJohn of Shere, and three younger sisters, Aveline FitzJohn, Joan FitzJohn, and Isabel FitzJohn. She also had a half-brother, Walter de Lacy, and two half-sisters, Margery de Lacy, and Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville , from her mother's first marriage to Gilbert de Lacy of Ewyas Lacy. The chronicle of Tintern Abbey in Monmouthshire names Matilda uxor Guidono comitis Warwici as the eldest daughter of Johanni Fitz-Geffrey and Isabella Bygod.[1] Her paternal grandparents were Geoffrey Fitzpeter, 1st Earl of Essex and Aveline de Clare. Her maternal grandparents were Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk and Maud Marshal .

Marriages and children
Maud married her first husband, Gerald de Furnivalle, Lord Hallamshire on an unknown date. Sometime after his death in 1261, Maud married her second husband, the celebrated soldier, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Upon their marriage, Maud was styled as Countess of Warwick.
Together William and Maud had at least two children:[2]
Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick (1270/1271- 28 July 1315), on 28 February 1310, he married as her second husband, heiress Alice de Toeni , by whom he had seven children.

Isabella de Beauchamp (died before 30 May 1306), married firstly in 1281 Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly, by whom she had a daughter, Maud Chaworth ; she married secondly in 1286, Hugh le Despenser, Lord Despenser by whom she had four children including Hugh Despenser the younger, the unpopular favourite of King Edward II, who was executed in 1326, shortly after his father.
Maud died between 16 and 18 April 1301. She was buried at the house of the Friars Minor in Worcester .


John Fitz Thomas FitzGerald 5th Baron of Offaly, 1st Earl of Kildare and Blanche Roche




Husband John Fitz Thomas FitzGerald 5th Baron of Offaly, 1st Earl of Kildare 28

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 12 Sep 1316 - Laraghbryan near Maynooth
         Buried:  - Church of the Friars Minor, Kildare
       Marriage: 



Wife Blanche Roche 29

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: John Roche of Fermoy (      -      ) 29
         Mother: 




Children
1 F Joan FitzGerald 30

            AKA: Joan FitzGerald
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Edmund Botiller Justiciar and Governor of Ireland (      -1321)
           Marr: 1302




Maurice FitzGerald Lord of Lanstephan, Wales and Alice de Montgomery




Husband Maurice FitzGerald Lord of Lanstephan, Wales 31 32

           Born: Abt 1100 - <Windsor, England>
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Sep 1176 - <Wexford, England>
         Buried: 


         Father: Gerald de Windsor (      -Bef 1136) 33
         Mother: Nest verch Rhys (      -After 1136) 34 35 36


       Marriage: 

Events

• Steward: of St. David's.

• Landed: in Wexford, 1 Sep 1176.




Wife Alice de Montgomery 37

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Arnulph de Montgomery (Bef 1074-      ) 37 38
         Mother: Lafracoth O'Brien (Bef 1076-      ) 38




Children
1 M Gerald FitzMaurice 1st Baron of Offaly 39

           Born: Abt 1150
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 15 Jan 1204
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Eve de Bermingham (      -Bef 1226) 40
           Marr: Abt 1193



Research Notes: Husband - Maurice FitzGerald Lord of Lanstephan, Wales

Brother of David FitzGerald, Bishop of St. David's.

From Wikipedia - Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan :

Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan [1] (c1100 - 1 September 1176 ) was a major figure in the Norman conquest of Ireland .

He was the son of Gerald de Windsor , Constable of Pembroke Castle . His mother was Nest , a Welsh princess and former mistress of Henry I . He fought under Robert FitzMartin at the Battle of Crug Mawr in 1136 . The exiled High King of Ireland , Dermot MacMurrough (Irish Diarmait Mac Murchada) sought his assistance to regain his position.

Family
The original Earldom of Desmond was based on land holdings in Munster belonging to his descendents. His son Sir Gerald FitzMaurice (c1152 -c1203 ) married the daughter of Robert de Birmingham . Their son was Sir Maurice FitzGerald , Justiciar of Ireland , Lord of Offaly , (1190 - 1257 , died at Youghal . His son was Sir Maurice FitzMaurice Fitz Gerald , Justiciar of Ireland , Lord of Offaly , (c1239 , Wexford - 1286 , Ross ,Ireland )


Research Notes: Child - Gerald FitzMaurice 1st Baron of Offaly

First husband of Eve de Bermingham.


Maurice FitzMaurice FitzGerald 3rd Lord of Offaly and Maud de Prendergast




Husband Maurice FitzMaurice FitzGerald 3rd Lord of Offaly 41 42

            AKA: Maurice FitzMaurice FitzGerald
           Born:  - Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1286
         Buried: 


         Father: Sir Maurice FitzGerald 2nd Baron Offaly (1190-1257) 42 43
         Mother: Juliane (      -      ) 42


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Emmeline Longespée (Abt 1250-1291) - Abt 1266

Events

• Justiciar of Ireland: 1238-1287.




Wife Maud de Prendergast 42

           Born: 17 Mar 1243
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Gerald de Prendergast (      -      ) 42
         Mother: < > de Burgh (      -      ) 42




Children
1 F Juliana FitzGerald of Offaly 42 44

            AKA: Juliana FitzMaurice of Offaly, Juliane FitzMaurice
           Born: Abt 1263 - Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1300
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Thomas de Clare Lord of Inchiquin and Yougal (Abt 1245-1287) 42 45
           Marr: Feb 1275



Research Notes: Child - Juliana FitzGerald of Offaly

From Wikipedia - Juliana FitzGerald :

Juliana FitzGerald, Lady Thomond (c.1263- 1300), was a Norman -Irish noblewoman, the daughter of Maurice FitzGerald , 3rd Lord of Offaly , and the wife of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond , a powerful Anglo-Norman baron in Ireland, who was a younger brother of Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford . Juliana had a total of three husbands; Thomas was her first. He was the father of her four children.

She is sometimes referred to as Juliane FitzMaurice.

Family
Juliana FitzGerald was born in about 1263 in Dublin , Ireland the eldest daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly, Justiciar of Ireland (1238- 1287) and his first wife, Maud de Prendergast (born 17 March 1243).[1]She had a younger sister Amabel who died childless. Her first cousin was John FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Kildare . Her paternal grandparents were Maurice FitzGerald, 2nd Lord of Offaly (1190- 1257) and Juliana. Her maternal grandparents were Gerald de Prendergast and the unnamed daughter of Richard Mor de Burgh , Lord of Connacht and Egidia de Lacy . Juliana's maternal ancestors included Brian Boru , Dermot McMurrough , and Maud de Braose .

Juliana's mother Maud died on an unknown date. Her father married secondly in 1273, Emmeline Longespee, but fathered no children by her.[2]

Marriages and children
In February 1275, at the age of about twelve years, Juliana married her first husband, Thomas de Clare, Lord of Inchiquin and Yougal. He was the second eldest son of Richard de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford , 2nd Earl of Gloucester and Maud de Lacy . Thomas was a friend of King Edward I of England , with whom he went on a Crusade . He held many important posts including the Office of Governor of Colchester Castle (1266), Governor of the City of London (1273). He was also the commander of the English forces in Munster , Ireland , and in 1276, he was granted the lordship of Thomond . He was born in 1245, which made him about eighteen years older than Juliana.
Juliana and her husband Thomas resided at Bunratty Castle , which Thomas constructed in stone replacing the earlier wooden structure. Together Thomas and Juliana had four children:[3]

Maud de Clare (1276- 1326/27), married firstly on 3 November 1295 Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford , by whom she had issue; she married secondly after 1314 Robert de Welle.

Richard de Clare, Steward of Forest of Essex , 1st Lord Clare (1278- 10 May 1318 at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea ), married a woman by the name of Joan by whom he fathered one son, Thomas.
Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond (3 February 1281- 1307)
Margaret de Clare (c.1 April 1287- 22 October 1333/3 January 1334), married firstly in 1303 Gilbert de Umfraville; she married secondly before 30 June 1308 Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere , by whom she had four daughters and one son.

Life at Bunratty Castle was marked by unrest and strife as civil war was waged between rival factions of the powerful O'Brien clan. In 1277, Juliana's husband had his former ally Brian Ruad , the deposed King of Thomond, hanged for treason at Bunratty.[4]

Thomas died on 29 August 1287, leaving Juliana a widow at the age of twenty-four with four small children; the youngest, Margaret was not quite five months old. On an unknown date she married her second husband, Nicholas Avenel. He presumably died before 1292, as that was the year she married her third husband, Adam de Cretynges.

Juliana died in 1300. Her numerous descendants included English kings Henry V , Edward IV , Richard III , Mary, Queen of Scots , Anne Boleyn , Mary Boleyn , and Diana, Princess of Wales . The current British Royal Family directly descend from her, as do most of the other European royal families.


Maurice FitzMaurice FitzGerald 3rd Lord of Offaly and Emmeline Longespée




Husband Maurice FitzMaurice FitzGerald 3rd Lord of Offaly 41 42

            AKA: Maurice FitzMaurice FitzGerald
           Born:  - Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1286
         Buried: 


         Father: Sir Maurice FitzGerald 2nd Baron Offaly (1190-1257) 42 43
         Mother: Juliane (      -      ) 42


       Marriage: Abt 1266

   Other Spouse: Maud de Prendergast (1243-      ) 42

Events

• Justiciar of Ireland: 1238-1287.




Wife Emmeline Longespée

           Born: Abt 1250
     Christened: 
           Died: 1291
         Buried: 


         Father: Stephen Longespée (      -      ) 46
         Mother: Emeline de Ridelisford (      -      ) 46




Children

Research Notes: Wife - Emmeline Longespée

Wikipedia (Juliane FitzGerald) states that she was Maurice FitzMaurice's second wife and had no children by him. Ancestral Roots line 178-6 states that she was the mother of Juliana FitzGerald.


Geoffroy de Neufmarché and Ada FitzGilbert de Hugleville




Husband Geoffroy de Neufmarché 7 47 48

            AKA: Geoffrey de Neufmarché
           Born: Abt 1025 - <France>
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Thurcytel (Abt 0990-      ) 7 47
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife Ada FitzGilbert de Hugleville 7 47

            AKA: Ada de Hugleville, Ada de Heugelville
           Born: Abt 1030 - <Saint-Valéry-en-Caux>, Haute-Normandie, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Richard FitzGilbert Seigneur of Hugleville & Auffay (Abt 1005-      ) 7 47
         Mother: <Papia> (      -      )




Children
1 M Bernard de Neufmarché Lord of Brecon 47 48

            AKA: Bernard of Newmarket, Lord of Brecon
           Born: Abt 1050 - Le-Neuf-Marché-en-Lions, (Seine-Maritime), Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1125
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Nesta (Abt 1079-      ) 7 49



Birth Notes: Child - Bernard de Neufmarché Lord of Brecon

FamilySearch has b. abt 1070


Research Notes: Child - Bernard de Neufmarché Lord of Brecon

From Wikipedia - Bernard de Neufmarché :

Bernard of Neufmarché or Newmarket (c. 1050 - c. 1125) was "the first of the original conquerors of Wales ."[1] He was a minor Norman lord who rose to power in the Welsh Marches before successfully undertaking the invasion and conquest of the Kingdom of Brycheiniog between 1088 and 1095. Out of the ruins of the Welsh kingdom he created the Anglo-Norman lordship of Brecon .

Coming to England
Because Bernard's family had attachments to the monastery of Saint-Evroul-sur-Ouche , the monkish chronicler Orderic Vitalis of that foundation had special knowledge of him and his family, though this still does not reduce the general obscurity of his origins or his life when compared to the richer Marcher lords , like the great Roger of Montgomery .[2] Bernard was the son of the minor and incompetent Norman baron Geoffrey de Neufmarché and Ada de Heugelville,[3] and he was born at the castle of Le-Neuf-Marché-en-Lions on the frontier between Normandy and Beauvais .[4] His ancestors on his mother's side had founded the town of Aufay south of Dieppe on the Sie , while his paternal grandfather, Turketil had served the young William II of Normandy as a guardian and was killed in that capacity. On his mother's side he also descended from Richard II of Normandy .[5]

The question of Bernard's participation in the Battle of Hastings and therefore in the Norman Invasion is subject to debate.[4] While Bernard had close family connexions to the port of Saint-Valery-sur-Somme from which William's invading fleet launched, Bernard himself was not the ruler of that city and need not have been in the fleet. He had later connexions with Battle Abbey : he established a cell of that abbey in Brecon, but that may have been an analogous foundation intended to mark his conquest of Brycheiniog.[6] Bernard's peculiar absence from the Domesday Book more or less damns the case for his presence at Hastings, for it is impossible that a noble participant in the victorious battle should not have received land to be recorded in Domesday if he was still living in 1087.[6]


Rise to power
Bernard was finally rewarded by the king, then William II of Normandy, in 1086 or 1087. He received lands in Herefordshire and lands which had devolved to the crown with the deaths of Gilbert fitz Thorold and Alfred of Marlborough .[7] Gilbert's lands were concentrated in Herefordshire and included the manors of Bach , Middlewood , and Harewood in the Golden Valley and the castles of Dorstone , Snodhill , and Urishay connecting Clifford Castle to Ewyas Harold , which belonged to Alfred's lordship.[8] Among Bernard's acquisitions from Gilbert was the domus defensabilis of Eardisley . From Alfred he received Pembridge , Burghill , and Brinsop .[6] Of these it should be noted that Snodhill was not founded until the twelfth century and then became the caput of the honour of Chandos . Bernard was also established in Speen and Newbury in Berkshire and Brinsop and Burghill in Herefordshire sometime before 1079. Both these latter vills were held from his honour of Brecon in the twelfth century. Bernard's ommission from Domesday is especially peculiar there. It is possible that he had some kind of exemption.

Probably as a consequence of his rapid rise in the marches, Bernard attracted the attention of Osbern fitz Richard , who gave him his daughter, Agnes (Nest), whose mother was the Welsh princess Nest, daughter of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn and Edith of Mercia ,[3] in marriage sometime before 1099.[9] She brought with her a dowry of Berrington and Little Hereford .
All of Bernard's estates lay in the valley of the river Wye and along an old Roman road which led from Watling Street to Y Gaer and on into Brycheiniog. The military possibilities of that road could only have encouraged his subsequent ventures into Wales.[10]

Conquest of Brycheiniog
Bernard joined the rebellion of the marcher lords against William Rufus at Lent in 1088.[11] Bernard escaped without recorded punishment and the king probably conceded the marcher lords the right to expand their lands by conquest at the expense of the Welsh buffer kingdoms of Brycheiniog, Morgannwg , and Gwynllwg .[12] Shortly after the settlement with the king, Bernard spearheaded an invasion of Brycheiniog which was to lead eventually to its conquest. Before the end of the year, though, he had captured Glasbury , for he issued a charter for lands near that place to the abbey of Saint Peter's at Gloucester (Autumn 1088).[6]

The chronology of events at this juncture is often confused. Bernard may well have already been in power in Brycheiniog by 1088 if he had already inherited a claim to it after the defeat of Roger de Breteuil , Earl of Hereford , in 1075. In 1088 the king, William Rufus, confirmed a previous charter of Bernard's stating that he had already made an exchange "within his lordship of Brycheiniog" at Glasbury. He also already held Castell Dinas which had probably been built by the Earl of Hereford before 1075.

After the initial conquest of 1088, Bernard continued warring with Brycheiniog until 1090, probably supported by Richard fitz Pons , the lord of Clifford.[13] Talgarth was captured early and a castle was constructed at Bronllys where the rivers Dulais and Llyfni meet, a site probably central to the llys of the tywysog of the commote of Bronllys.[13] By 1091 Bernard had reached the valley of the Usk , which was at the centre of the kingdom which was to become his own principality.

There is some discrepancy in this description of events also. Richard Fitz Pons was lord of Llandovery , which he had reached probably through Glamorgan , already by 1088. Bronllys Castle may not have been built until 1144, when Roger Fitzmiles , Earl of Hereford, is first recorded granting it as a five knights' fee mesne barony to Walter de Clifford , son of Richard Fitz Pons.

According to much later accounts and reconstructions, the accuracy of which is very dubious but which contain some references to verifiable history, the king of Brycheiniog, Bleddyn ap Maenarch , allied with the king of Deheubarth , Rhys ap Tewdwr , in 1093 (or perhaps 1094) and tried to attack the forces of Bernard which were building a castle at Brecon on the Usk and Honddu in the centre of a great plain in his kingdom where several Roman viae met.[14] Bleddyn led a charge up the hill, but the Normans defeated the Welsh and Rhys was killed in battle. Brecknock Priory , which was later founded at the site of the battle, may have been built on the spot where Rhys supposedly fell.[15] Bleddyn died not long after and Bernard was able to advance over the whole of Brycheiniog.

Reliable historical records refer to no king of Brycheiniog after a Tewdwr ab Elise who died after 934. Certainly there is no contemporary reference to a Bleddyn ap Maenarch. The Welsh Bruts simply state that "Rhys ap Tewdwr, king of Deheubarth, was slain by the Frenchmen who were inhabiting Brycheiniog." This passage lends evidence to the belief that the conquest of Brycheiniog was mostly finished by Eastertide 1093 and that the main effect of the battle of Brecon was to open the way to the conquest of Deheubarth.

Pacification and administration of Brycheiniog
He followed the Usk down to Ystradyw and took it, which incited the bishops of Llandaff to protest because the annexation of Ystradyw removed it from their diocese and brought it into the lordship of Brecon, which was under the episcopal authority of Saint David's .[16] In Spring 1094, the southern Welsh rose in revolt against the Normans that had come to dominate them. Brycheiniog was unaffected and the Normans of that region launched a counterattack from Ystrad Tywy and Cantref Bychan which devastated Kidwelly and Gower but did not put down the revolt.[16] In 1095 it spread to Brycheiniog and the Welsh of the countryside, allied with their compatriots of Gwynllwg and Gwent took back control of the province while the Normans were forced into their fortified centres.
Two expeditions from Glamorgan came to the rescue of the garrisons of Brycheiniog. The first was crushed in battle at Celli Carnant , but the second defeated the rebels at Aber Llech .[17] What followed was the complete encastellation of Brycheiniog. Among the castles possibly built during Bernard's lordship to defend the entrances to Brycheiniog from the southeast were Tretower , Blaen Llyfni (not attested before 1207-1215), and Crickhowell .

Bernard also extensively enfeoffed his followers with Welsh land.[17] Richard fitz Pons may have been enfeoffed at Cantref Selyff on the western border of Brycheiniog and immediately he began in miniature the process whereby Bernard had come to rule Brycheiniog.[17] However, Richard's son Walter is the first recorded landholder at Cantref Selyff. Furthermore, Bernard enfeoffed the sons of the king he had displaced in the less habitable land, thereby creating a loyal Welsh aristocracy and extracting more out of his land than the Normans otherwise knew how to do.[18] The Normans lived predominantly in the valleys and lowlands in an agrarian society while the Welsh kept to the hills and mountains living pastorally, thus creating an overall economic gain.[19] Among Bleddyn's sons, Gwrgan received Blaen Llyfni and Aberllyfni while Caradog received an unnamed hill country, and Drymbenog, Bleddyn's brother, was given land neighbouring that of Richard fitz Pons.

Death and succession
By the time of his death around 1125, Bernard had established a flourishing borough around his castle of Brecon. Henry I had married Bernard's daughter Sybil to Miles Fitz Walter , the sheriff of Gloucestershire , in 1121 and passed a significant portion of Bernard's honour to him as a dowry, including Hay-on-Wye Castle.[20] According to Giraldus Cambrensis this was because Mahel de Neufmarché the son and heir of Bernard had mutilated the paramour of his mother. In vengeance his mother, Princess Nesta, swore to King Henry I that her son was illegitimate. Henry was therefore able by law and custom to pass over Mahel and give the land to his friend and confident Miles Fitz Walter with Bernard's legal heiress in marriage.


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2. Wikipedia.org, John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry (her 2nd son).

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4. Wikipedia.org, John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry.

5. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 149-28 (Isabel d'Aubigny).

6. Wikipedia.org, John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry (his younger brother).

7. http://www.familysearch.org.

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22. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.).

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25. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 70-29, 71-29, 177A-8 (Gilbert de Lacy).

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27. Wikipedia.org, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick.

28. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Lines 178A-7, 7-30 (Eleanor de Bohun).

29. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 73-31 (Edmund Botiller).

30. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 7-30 (Eleanor de Bohun).

31. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-3.

32. Wikipedia.org, Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan.

33. Wikipedia.org, Gerald de Windsor.

34. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), 178-2.

35. Davies, John, A History of Wales. (Rev. ed. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.).

36. Wikipedia.org, Nest ferch Rhys.

37. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-3 (Maurice FitzGerald).

38. Website:, http://www.renderplus.com/hartgen/htm/montgomery.htm.

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40. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-4 (Gerald FitzMaurice).

41. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-6, 54-31 (Thomas de Clare).

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44. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-7, 54-31 (Thomas de Clare).

45. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 54-31.

46. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-6 (Maurice FitzMaurice FitzGerald).

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49. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 177-3.


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2 Wikipedia.org, John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry (her 2nd son).

3 Wikipedia.org, John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry (his grandson).

4 Wikipedia.org, John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry.

5 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 149-28 (Isabel d'Aubigny).

6 Wikipedia.org, John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry (his younger brother).

7 http://www.familysearch.org.

8 Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f51/a0025186.htm.

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20 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #125 Pin #877662 Maitland Dirk Brower.

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23 Wikipedia.org, Maud FitzJohn; John FitzGeoffrey.

24 Wikipedia.org, John Fitzgeoffrey.

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27 Wikipedia.org, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick.

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29 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 73-31 (Edmund Botiller).

30 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 7-30 (Eleanor de Bohun).

31 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-3.

32 Wikipedia.org, Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan.

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36 Wikipedia.org, Nest ferch Rhys.

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40 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-4 (Gerald FitzMaurice).

41 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-6, 54-31 (Thomas de Clare).

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43 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-5.

44 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-7, 54-31 (Thomas de Clare).

45 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 54-31.

46 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 178-6 (Maurice FitzMaurice FitzGerald).

47 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 177-3 (Nesta).

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