The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Thorald Sheriff of Lincoln




Husband Thorald Sheriff of Lincoln 1

           Born: Abt 955 - <Mercia>, England
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Wife

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Children
1 F Godgifu 1 2

            AKA: Lady Godiva
           Born: Abt 1010 - <Mercia>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 10 Sep 1067
         Buried:  - <Coventry, Warwickshire>, England
         Spouse: Leofric (0968-1057) 1 3
           Marr: by 1030




Birth Notes: Child - Godgifu

FamilySearch has b. abt. 980, Mercia.


Research Notes: Child - Godgifu

From Ancestral Roots, Line 176A-2:
"LEOFRIC... m. prob. by 1030 (pos. as her 2nd husb.) Godgifu (or Godiva), b. prob. abt. 1010, sister of Thorold of Buckingham, sheriff of Lincolnshire. Godgifu's ancestry is uncertain, but she was evidently of an old, noble family. She is the 'Lady Godiva' of legend. They had one known child... Aelfgar" 1 2


Thored Ealdorman of York




Husband Thored Ealdorman of York 1 4 5

            AKA: Thored Gunnarsson Ealdorman of Northumbria
           Born: 
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           Died: After 992
         Buried: 
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Wife

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Children
1 F Ælfgifu of York 1 6 7

            AKA: Elgiva
           Born: Abt 968 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1002
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Æthelred II "the Redeless" King of England (Abt 0968-1016) 1 8 9
           Marr: 985




Research Notes: Husband - Thored Ealdorman of York

Son of either Gunnar or Oslac , northern ealdormen.

From Wikipedia - Thored :

Thored (Old English : Ðoreð or Þoreð; fl. 979-992) was a 10th century ealdorman of York , ruler of the southern half of the old Kingdom of Northumbria on behalf of the king of England . He was the son of either Gunnar or Oslac , northern ealdormen . If he was the former, he may had attained adulthood by the 960s, when a man of his name raided Westmorland . Other potential appearances in the records are likewise uncertain until 979, the point from which Thored's period as ealdorman can be accurately dated.

Although historians differ in their opinions about his relationship, if any, to Kings Edgar the Peaceable and Edward the Martyr , it is generally thought that he enjoyed a good relationship with King Æthelred II . His daughter Ælfgifu married Æthelred. Thored was ealdorman in Northumbria for much of Æthelstan 's reign, disappearing from the sources in 992 after being appointed by Æthelred to lead an expedition against the Vikings.

Origins

Thored appears to have been of at least partially Scandinavian origin, suggested by the title applied to him in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 992. Here, the ealdorman of Hampshire is called by the English title "ealdorman", while Thored himself is styled by the Scandinavian word eorl (i.e. Earl ).[1]

Two accounts of Thored's origins have been offered by modern historians. The first is that he was a son of Oslac , ealdorman of York from 966 until his exile in 975.[2] This argument is partly based on the assertion by the Historia Eliensis , that Oslac had a son named Thorth (i.e. "Thored").[3] The other suggestion, favoured by most historians, is that he was the son of a man named Gunnar.[4] This Gunnar is known to have held land in the East and North Ridings of Yorkshire.[5]

If the latter suggestion is correct, then Thored's first appearance in history is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recension D (EF)'s entry for 966, which recorded the accession of Oslac to the ealdormanry of southern Northumbria:

In this year, Thored, Gunnar's son, harried Westmoringa land, and, in this same year, Oslac succeeded to the office of ealdorman.[6]

The Anglo-Saxon scholar Frank Stenton believed that this was an act of regional faction-fighting, rather than, as had been suggested by others, Thored carrying out the orders of King Edgar the Peaceable .[7] This entry is, incidentally, the first mention of Westmoringa land, that is, Westmorland .[7] Gunnar seems to have been ealdorman earlier in the decade, for in one charter (surviving only in a later cartulary ) dated to 963 and three Abingdon charters dated to 965, an ealdorman (dux) called Gunnar is mentioned.[8]

Thored may be the Thored who appears for the first time in charter attestations during the reign of King Edgar (959-75), his earliest possible appearance being in 964, witnessing a grant of land in Kent by King Edgar to St Peter's, Ghent . This is uncertain because the authenticity of this particular charter is unclear.[9] A charter issued by Edgar in 966, granting land in Oxfordshire to a woman named Ælfgifu, has an illegible ealdorman witness signature beginning with Þ, which may be Thored.[10]

Ealdorman

Thored's governorship as ealdorman, based on charter attestations, cannot be securely dated before 979.[11] He did attest royal charters during the reign of Æthelred II , the first in 979,[12] six in 983,[13] one in 984,[14] three in 985,[15] one in 988,[16] appearing in such attestations for the last time in 989.[17] It is possible that such appearances represent more than one Thored, though that is not a generally accepted theory.[18] His definite predecessor, Oslac, was expelled from England in 975.[19] The historian Richard Fletcher thought that Oslac's downfall may have been the result of opposing the succession of Edward the Martyr , enemy and brother of Æthelred II.[20] What is known about Thored's time as ealdorman is that he did not have a good relationship with Oswald , Archbishop of York (971-92). In a memorandum written by Oswald, a group of estates belonging to the archdiocese of York was listed, and Oswald noted that "I held them all until Thored came to power; then was St Peter [to whom York was dedicated] robbed".[21] One of the estates allegedly lost was Newbald , an estate given by King Edgar to a man named Gunnar, suggesting to historian Dorothy Whitelock that Thored may just have been reclaiming land "wrongly alienated from his family".[22]

His relationship with King Edgar is unclear, particularly given the uncertainty of Thored's paternity, Oslac being banished from England in 975, the year of Edgar's death.[2] Richard Fletcher, who thought Thored was the son of Gunnar, argued that Thored's raid on Westmorland was caused by resentment derived from losing out on the ealdormanry to Oslac, and that Edgar thereafter confiscated various territories as punishment.[23] The evidence for this is that Newbald, granted by Edgar to Gunnar circa 963, was bought by Archbishop Osketel from the king sometime before 971, implying that the king had seized the land.[23]

Thored's relationship with the English monarchy under Æthelred II seems to have been good. Ælfgifu, the first wife of King Æthelred II, was probably Thored's daughter.[24] Evidence for this is that in the 1150s Ailred of Rievaulx in his De genealogia regum Anglorum wrote that the wife of Æthelred II was the daughter of an ealdorman (comes) called Thored (Thorth).[25] Historian Pauline Stafford argued that this marriage was evidence that Thored had been a local rather than royal appointment to the ealdormanry of York, and that Æthelred II's marriage was an attempt to woo Thored.[26] Stafford was supported in this argument by Richard Fletcher.[27]

Death

The date of Thored's death is uncertain, but his last historical appearance came in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, recension C (D, E), under the year 992, which reported the death of Archbishop Oswald and an expedition against a marauding Scandinavian fleet:
In this year the holy Archbishop Oswald left this life and attained the heavenly life, and Ealdorman Æthelwine [of East Anglia] died in the same year. Then the king and all his counsellors decreed that all the ships that were any use should be assembled at London. And the king then entrusted the expedition to the leadership of Ealdorman Ælfric (of Hampshire), Earl Thored and Bishop Ælfstan [.of London or of Rochester .] and Bishop Æscwig [of Dorchester], and they were to try if they could entrap the Danish army anywhere at sea. Then Ealdorman Ælfric sent someone to warn the enemy, and then in the night before the day on which they were to have joined battle, he absconded by night from the army, to his own disgrace, and then the enemy escaped, except that the crew of one ship was slain. And then the Danish army encountered the ships from East Anglia and from London, and they made a great slaughter there and captured the ship, all armed and equipped, on which the ealdorman was.[28]

Scandinavians led by Óláfr Tryggvason had been raiding England's coast since the previous year, when they killed Ealdorman Brihtnoth of Essex at the Battle of Maldon .[29]

Historians think that Thored was either killed fighting these Scandinavians, or else survived, but became disgraced through defeat or treachery.[30] Fletcher speculated that Thored was removed from office and replaced by the Mercian Ælfhelm as a result of his failure against the Scandinavians.[31] Another historian, William Kapelle , believed Thored was removed because of his Scandinavian descent, an argument based on the Worcester Chronicle 's claim, added to the text borrowed from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, that Fræna, Godwine and Frythegyst fled a battle against the Danes in the following year because "they were Danish on their father's side".[32]

A man named Æthelstan who died at the Battle of Ringmere in 1010, "the king's aþum", was probably Thored's son.[33] The term aþum means either "son-in-law" or "brother-in-law", so this Æthelstan could also have been Thored's grandson by an unknown intermediary.[34] Thored's immediate successor was Ælfhelm, who appears witnessing charters as ealdorman from 994.[35] 1 4 5


Research Notes: Child - Ælfgifu of York

From Wikipedia - Ælfgifu of York :

Ælfgifu (fl. c. 985-1002) was presumably a daughter of Thored , earl of southern Northumbria, and the first wife of King Æthelred (r. 978-1016), by whom she bore many offspring, including Edmund Ironside .

Identity and background
Her name and paternity do not surface in the sources until sometime after the Conquest. The first to offer any information at all, Sulcard of Westminster (fl. 1080s), merely describes her as being "of very noble English stock" (ex nobilioribus Anglis), without naming her,[1] while in in the early 12th century, William of Malmesbury has nothing to report. All primary evidence comes from two Anglo-Norman historians. John of Worcester , in a chronicle which is thought to rely on earlier material compiled c. 1100, tells that Æthelred's first wife was Ælfgifu, daughter of the nobleman Æthelberht (comes Agelberhtus) and the mother of Edmund, Æthelstan, Eadwig and Eadgyth.[2] Writing in the 1150s, Ailred of Rievaulx had reason to identify Æthelred's first wife as a daughter of earl (comes) Thored and the mother of Edmund, though he supplies no name.[3] Ailred had been seneschal at the court of King David I of Scotland (r. 1124-53), whose mother Margaret descended from King Æthelred and his first wife. Although his testimony is late, his proximity to the royal family may have given him access to genuine information.[4]

These two accounts are irreconcilable at the point of ascribing two different fathers to Æthelred's first wife (in both cases, Edmund's mother). One way out of it would be to assume the existence of two different wives before the arrival of Queen Emma , Æthelred's Norman wife, although this interpretation presents difficulties of its own, especially as the sources envisage a single woman.[5] Historians generally favour the view that John of Worcester was in error about the father's name, as Æthelberht's very existence is under suspicion:[6] if Latin comes is to be interpreted as a gloss on the office of ealdorman , only two doubtful references to one or two duces (ealdormen) of this name can be put forward that would fit the description.[7] All in all, the combined evidence suggests that Æthelred's first wife was Ælfgifu, the daughter of Earl Thored. This magnate is likely to have been the Thored who was a son of Gunnar and earl of (southern) Northumbria.[8]

Marriage and offspring
Based largely on the careers of her sons, Ælfgifu's marriage has been dated approximately to the (mid-)980s.[9] Considering Thored's authority as earl of York and apparently, the tenure of that office without royal appointment, the union would have signified an important step for the West-Saxon royal family by which it secured a foothold in the north.[10] Such a politically weighty union would help explain the close connections maintained by Ælfgifu's eldest sons Edmund and Æthelstan with noble families based in the northern Danelaw.[11]

The marriage produced six sons, all of whom were named after Æthelred's predecessors, and an indefinite number of daughters. The eldest sons Æthelstan, Ecgberht, Eadred and Edmund first attest charters in 993, while the younger sons Eadwig and Edgar first make an appearance in them in 997 and 1001 respectively.[12] Some of these sons seem to have spent part of their childhood in fosterage elsewhere, possibly with Æthelred's mother Ælfthryth .[13]

The only ætheling to become king was Edmund Ironside, whose brief reign came to an end when Cnut won a series of victories and so conquered England (1016). Æthelred gave three of his daughters in marriage to ealdormen, presumably in order to secure the loyalties of his nobles and so to consolidate a defence system against Viking attacks.[14]

sons
Æthelstan (born before 993, d. 1014)
Ecgberht (born before 993, d. 1005)
Edmund (II) Ironside (born before 993, d. 1016)
Eadred (d. 1012 x 1015)
Eadwig (born before 997, exiled and killed 1017)
Edgar (born before 1001, d. 1012 x 1015)

daughters
Eadgyth (born before 993), married Eadric Streona , ealdorman of Mercia.[15]
Ælfgifu, married ealdorman Uhtred of Northumbria.[16]
(possibly) Wulfhild, who married Ulfcytel (Snillingr) (d. 1016), apparently ealdorman of East Anglia.[17]
possibly an unnamed daughter who married the Æthelstan who was killed fighting the Danes at the Battle of Ringmere in 1010. He is called Æthelred's aðum, meaning either son-in-law or brother-in-law.[18] Ann Williams, however, argues that the latter meaning is the appropriate one and refers to Æthelstan as being Ælfgifu's brother.[19]
possibly unnamed daughter, who became abbess of Wherwell.[20]
Life and death
Ælfgifu seems to have kept a low profile in her husband's political life, to judge by her total absence from royal diplomas. She did, however, make at least some impression on the contemporary record. In a will issued between 975/980 and 987, the thegn Beorhtric and his wife bequeathed to their "lady" (hlæfdige) an armlet worth 30 gold mancuses and a stallion, calling upon her authority to oversee that the arrangements set out by will were implemented.[21] In a will of later date (AD 990 x 1001), in which she is addressed as "my lady" (mire hlæfdian), the noblewoman Æthelgifu promised a bequest of 30 mancuses of gold.[22] Just as little is known of Ælfgifu's life, so the precise date and circumstances of her death cannot be recovered.[23] In any event, she appears to have died by 1002, when Æthelred took to wife Emma, daughter of Count Richard of Rouen, who received or adopted her predecessor's Anglo-Saxon name, Ælfgifu. 1 6 7


Thorold Sheriff of Lincoln and < > Malet




Husband Thorold Sheriff of Lincoln 10

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Wife < > Malet

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Children
1 F Lucy of Bolingbroke 1 10 11

            AKA: Lucia
           Born: Abt 1070 - <Spalding, Lincolnshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1136
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Ranulf le Meschin 3rd Earl of Chester (Abt 1070-1129) 1 12 13 14 15
           Marr: Abt 1098




Death Notes: Child - Lucy of Bolingbroke

Wikipedia has d. abt 1138


Research Notes: Child - Lucy of Bolingbroke

Husbands:
Ivo de Tailbois
Roger Fitz Gerold
Ranulph III le Meschin, de Briquessart

From Wikipedia - Lucy of Bolingbroke :

Lucy (died c. 1138), sometimes called Lucy of Bolingbroke[1] was an Anglo-Norman heiress in central England and, later in life, countess-consort of Chester . Probably related to the old English earls of Mercia , she came to possess extensive lands in Lincolnshire which she passed on to her husbands and sons. She was a notable religious patron, founding or co-founding two small religious houses and endowing several with lands and churches.

Ancestry
A charter of Crowland Abbey , now thought to be spurious, described Thorold of Bucknall, perhaps the same as her probable father Thorold of Lincoln, as a brother of Godgifu (Godiva), wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia .[2] The same charter contradicted itself on the matter, proceeding to style Godgifu's son (by Leofric), Ælfgar, as Thorold's cognatus (cousin).[3] Another later source, from Coventry Abbey , made Lucy the sister of Earls Edwin and Morcar Leofricsson , while two other unreliable sources, the Chronicle of Abbot Ingmund of Crowland and the Peterbrough Chronicle also make Lucy the daughter of Earl Ælfgar.[3] Keats-Rohan's explanation for these accounts is that they were ill-informed and were confusing Lucy with her ancestor, William Malet's mother, who was in some manner related to the family of Godgifu.[3]


Although there is much confusion about Lucy's ancestry in earlier writings, recent historians tend to believe that she was the daughter of Thorold, sheriff of Lincoln , by a daughter of William Malet (died 1071).[4] She inherited a huge group of estates centred on Spalding in Lincolnshire , probably inherited from both the Lincoln and the Malet family.[5] This group of estates have come to be called the "Honour of Bolingbroke ".[6]

Marriages
The heiress Lucy was married to three different husbands, all of whom died in her lifetime. The first of these was to Ivo Taillebois , a marriage which took place "around 1083".[7] Ivo took over her lands as husband, and seems in addition to have been granted estates and extensive authority in Westmorland and Cumberland .[8] Ivo died in 1094.[9]


The second marriage was to one Roger de Roumare or Roger fitz Gerold, with whom she had one son, William de Roumare (future Earl of Lincoln ), who inherited some of her land.[10] The latter was the ancestor of the de Roumare family of Westmorland.[11] Roger died in either 1097 or 1098.[12]
Sometime after this, though before 1101, she was married to Ranulf le Meschin , her last and longest marriage.[13] A son Ranulf de Gernon , succeeded his father to the earldom of Chester (which Ranulf acquired in 1121) and a daughter, Alice, married Richard de Clare .[6]


Upon her death, most of the Lincolnshire lands she inherited passed to her younger son William de Roumare, while the rest passed to Ranulf II of Chester (forty versus twenty knights' fees).[14] The 1130 pipe roll informs us that Lucy had paid King Henry I 500 marks after her last husband's death for the right not to have to remarry.[15] She died around 1138.[6]

Religious patronage
Lucy, as widowed countess, founded the convent of Stixwould in 1135, becoming, in the words of one historian, "one of the few aristocratic women of the late eleventh and twelfth centuryes to achieve the role of independent lay founder".[16] Her religious patronage however centered on Spalding Priory , a religious house for which her own family was the primary patron. This house (a monastic cell of Crowland) was founded, or re-founded, in 1085 by Lucy and her first husband Ivo Taillebois.[16]


Later, she was responsible for many endowments, for instance in the 1120s she and her third husband Earl Ranulf granted the priory the churches of Minting, Belchford and Scamblesby.[16] In 1135, Lucy, now widowed for the last time, granted the priory her own manor of Spalding for the permanent use of the monks.[16] The records indicate that Lucy went to great effort to ensure that, after her own death, her sons would honour and uphold her gifts.[17] 1 10 11


Thorstein "Galge"




Husband Thorstein "Galge" 1

           Born: Abt 955 - <Onundfjord, Norway>
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Wife

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Children
1 F Thora Thorsteinsdatter 1

           Born: Abt 972 - <Onundfjord, Norway>
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           Died: 
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         Spouse: Arni Arnmodsson (Abt 0977-1024) 1
           Marr: Abt 0090 - Giske, More Og Romsdal, Norway





Thrond




Husband Thrond 1

           Born: Abt 625 - <Trondheim, Sør-Trøndelag, (Norway)>
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Wife

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Children
1 M Eystein "Haardaade" Throndsson 1 16

           Born: Abt 668 - <Trondheim, Sør-Trøndelag, (Norway)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 710 - <(Norway)>
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Solveig Halfdansdatter (Abt 0670-      ) 1





Thurcytel




Husband Thurcytel 1 17

            AKA: Thureyitel
           Born: Abt 990 - <France>
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Children
1 M Geoffroy de Neufmarché 1 17 18

            AKA: Geoffrey de Neufmarché
           Born: Abt 1025 - <France>
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           Died: 
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         Spouse: Ada FitzGilbert de Hugleville (Abt 1030-      ) 1 17





Thuringbert




Husband Thuringbert 1 19 20

            AKA: Thurincbertus
           Born: Abt 724 - (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1 Jun 770
         Buried: 


         Father: Rutpert I Count in the Upper Rhine and Wormgau (Abt 0698-Bef 0764) 1 21 22
         Mother: Williswint (Abt 0700-0768) 23 24


       Marriage: 



Wife

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Children
1 M Rutpert II Count of Wormgau and Rheingau 1 25 26 27

            AKA: Chrodobert Count of Worms and Rheingau, Robert of Hesbaye, Robert II Count of Worms and Rheingau, Rodbert II Count of Wormgau and Rheingau
           Born: Abt 750 - (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 12 Jul 807
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Theoderata of Wormgau (Abt 0752-Between 0785/0789) 1 28
         Spouse: Isengard (      -After 0789) 29




Birth Notes: Husband - Thuringbert

FamilySearch has b. abt 745


Death Notes: Husband - Thuringbert

FamilySearch has d. 1 Jun 770


Birth Notes: Child - Rutpert II Count of Wormgau and Rheingau

Wikipedia has b. abt 770.


Research Notes: Child - Rutpert II Count of Wormgau and Rheingau

From Wikipedia - Robert of Hesbaye :

Robert II, Rodbert or Chrodobert (770-807) was a Frank , count of Worms and Rheingau and duke of Hesbaye around the year 800. His family is known as Robertians . His son is Robert of Worms and his grandson is Robert the Strong , the namegiver of the Robertians. Robert of Hesbaye is the oldest known ancestor in the line of Robertians that is thought to be certain. He is the great-grandfather of two Frankish kings, Odo and Robert , that ruled in the kingdom of Western Francia . One of his descendants is Hugh Capet , who was the "last Frankish king" and the "first king of France ". The descendants of Hugh Capet ruled France until the French Revolution , with a junior line having ruled Spain since 1700.

Ingerman and Cancor are possibly his brothers. Landrada, mother of Saint Chrodogang , archbishop of Metz , is likely his sister. His father may have been named Rodbert or, Chrodobert. He was likely the son of Thuringbert of Worms and Rheingau and grandson of Robert I of Worms and Rheingau, who died in 764.

Ermengarde , wife of emperor Louis the Pious was most likely his niece. 1 25 26 27



Geva Knudsson King of Denmark and Thyre "Danebod"




Husband Geva Knudsson King of Denmark 1

           Born: Abt 840 - Denmark
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 940 - Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark
         Buried:  - Gormshoj, Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark


         Father: Knud Sigurdsson (Abt 0814-      ) 1
         Mother: 


       Marriage: Abt 897 - Denmark



Wife Thyre "Danebod" 1

           Born: Abt 844 - Denmark
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 935 - Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark
         Buried:  - Jellinghojene, Jellinge, Vejle, Denmark


Children
1 M Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson King of Denmark 1 30

            AKA: Harald I of Denmark, Harald I "Bluetooth" King of Denmark
           Born: Abt 910 - Denmark
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Nov 987
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Gyrid Olafsdottir (Abt 0930-      ) 1 30
           Marr: by 950




Research Notes: Child - Harald "the Blue Tooth" Gormsson King of Denmark

From Wikipedia - Harald I of Denmark :

Harald Bluetooth Gormson (Old Norse : 'Haraldr Blátönn', Danish : Harald Blåtand, Norwegian : Harald Blåtann, Swedish : Harald Blåtand) (born c. 935) was the son of King Gorm the Old and of Thyra Dannebod . He died in 985 or 986 having ruled as King of Denmark from around 958 and king of Norway for a few years probably around 970. Some sources state that his son Sweyn forcibly deposed him as king.

The Jelling stones
Harald Bluetooth caused the Jelling stones to be erected to honour his parents.[1] Encyclopedia Britannica (Britannica) considers the runic inscriptions as the most well known in Denmark.[2] The biography of Harald Bluetooth is summed up by this runic inscription from the Jelling stones:
"Harald, king, bade these memorials to be made after Gorm, his father, and Thyra, his mother. The Harald who won the whole of Denmark and Norway and turned the Danes to Christianity."

Conversion and Christianisation of Denmark

The conversion of the Danes or, rather, the conversion of King Harald Bluetooth, is a contested bit of history, not least because medieval writers such as Widukind of Corvey and Adam of Bremen give conflicting accounts of how it came about.
We know from the runestone erected at Jelling Monument that Harald claimed to have converted the Danes himself. In his "History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen," finished in 1076, Adam of Bremen claimed that Harald was himself forcibly converted by Otto I , after a defeat in battle.[3] In the Icelandic saga about the Kings of Norway called the Heimskringla , this story was changed somewhat to have Harald be converted, along with Earl Hakon , by Otto II .

However, Widukind of Corvey, writing nearly 100 years before Adam and during the lives of Otto I and Harald, mentioned no such episode in his Res gestae saxonicae sive annalium libri tres or "Deeds of the Saxons". Considering that this history was at least partly written to promote the greatness of Otto and his family, this silence is damning to Adam of Bremen's claim. Widukind himself claims that Harald was converted by a "cleric by the name of Poppa" who, when asked by Harald whether he would be tested as to his faith in Christ, supposedly carried "a great weight of iron" heated by a fire without being burned.[4] A similar story does appear in Adam of Bremen's history, but about Eric of Sweden , who had supposedly conquered Denmark (there is no evidence that this happened anywhere else), and a self-immolating cleric named Poppo.[5] The story of this otherwise unknown Poppo or Poppa's miracle and baptism of Harald is also depicted on the gilded altar piece in the Church of Tandrup in Denmark, a detail of which is at the top of this article. The altar itself has been dated to about 1200.[6] Adam of Bremen's claim regarding Otto I and Harald appears to have been inspired by an attempt to manufacture a historical reason for the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen to claim jurisdiction over Denmark (and thus the rest of Scandinavia); in the 1070s, the Danish King was in Rome asking for Denmark to have its own arch-bishop, and Adam's account of Harald's supposed conversion (and baptism of both him and his "little son" Sweyn , with Otto serving as Sweyn's godfather) is followed by the unambiguous claim that "At that time Denmark on this side of the sea, which is called Jutland by the inhabitants, was divided into three dioceses and subjected to the bishopric of Hamburg."[7]

As noted above, Harald's father, Gorm the Old had died in 958, and he had been buried in a mound with many grave goods, after the pagan practice. The mound was itself from c. 500 BCE, but Harald had it built higher over his father's grave, and added a second mound to the south. Mound-building was a newly revived custom in the tenth century, possibly as a "self-conscious appeal to old traditions in the face of Christian customs spreading from Denmark's southern neighbors, the Germans."[8]
But after his conversion, in about the 960s, Harald had his father's body disinterred and reburied in the church he built next to the now empty mound, and erected the now famous Jelling stones described above.

Reign
During his reign, Harald oversaw the reconstruction not only of the Jelling runic stones but of other projects as well. Some believe that these projects were a way for him to preserve the economic and military control of his country. During that time, ring forts were built in five strategic locations: Trelleborg on Sjælland , Nonnebakken on Fyn , Fyrkat in central Jylland , Aggersborg near Limfjord , and Trelleborg near the city of Trelleborg in Scania in present-day Sweden . All five fortresses had similar designs: "perfectly circular with gates opening to the four corners of the earth, and a courtyard divided into four areas which held large houses set in a square pattern"[10] A sixth Trelleborg is located in Borgeby , in Scania in present-day Sweden. This one has been dated to the vicinity of 1000 AD and has a similar design, so it too may have been built by king Harald.
He also constructed the oldest known bridge in southern Scandinavia, known as the Ravninge Bridge in Ravninge meadows, which was 5m wide and 760m long.

While absolute quiet prevailed throughout the interior, he was even able to turn his thoughts to foreign enterprises. Again and again he came to the help of Richard the Fearless of Normandy (in the years 945 and 963), while his son conquered Samland and, after the assassination of King Harald Graafeld of Norway, he also managed to force the people of that country into temporary subjection to himself.
The Norse sagas presents Harald in a rather negative light. He was forced twice to submit to the renegade Swedish prince Styrbjörn the Strong of the Jomsvikings - first by giving Styrbjörn a fleet and his daughter Tyra , the second time by giving up himself as hostage and an additional fleet. Styrbjörn brought this fleet to Uppsala in Sweden in order to claim the throne of Sweden. However, this time Harald broke his oath and fled with his Danes in order to avoid facing the Swedish army at the Battle of the Fýrisvellir .
As a consequence of Harald's army having lost to the Germans in the shadow of Danevirke in 974, he no longer had control of Norway and Germans having settled back into the border area between Scandinavia and Germany. The German settlers were driven out of Denmark in 983 by an alliance consisting of Obodrite soldiers and troops loyal to Harald. Soon after, Harald was killed fighting off a rebellion led by his son Sweyn. He was believed to have died in 986 , although there are many other accounts that claim he died in 985.

Marriages and issue

Gyrid Olafsdottir , probably by 950.
Thyra Haraldsdotter , married Styrbjörn Starke
Sveyn Forkbeard . Born about 960. Usually given as the son of Harald and Gyrid, though it is said in some of the older sagas that he was an illegitimate son.
Hakon. Born in 961.
Gunhilde . She married Pallig , Jarl and Ealdorman in Devon. They both died in the St. Brice's Day massacre in November 1002.
Thora (Tova) the daughter of Mistivir in 970. She raised the Sønder Vissing Runestone after her mother. 1 30




Tiberius Roman Emperor




Husband Tiberius Roman Emperor 31

           Born: 0041 B.C.
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Mar 0037
         Buried: 


         Father: 
         Mother: Livia (      -      ) 32


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Drusus

           Born: Abt 0022 B.C.
     Christened: 
           Died: 0023
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Anotonia "the Younger" (      -      ) 33




Research Notes: Child - Drusus

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873368 :

Poisoned by Lucius Aelius Sejanus, the ambitious equestrian prefect of the guard, who has designs on the imperial throne.
Drusus in 16 A.D. defeates Arminius, breaks up his Germanic kingdom, recovers the eagles of the legions lost at the Battle of Teutoburger Wald 7 years earlier, and avenges the defeat of Varus.
!The People's Chronology; 35


Trahaearn




Husband Trahaearn

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Llywarch ap Trahaearn

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1129
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Dyddgu of Builth (      -      )




Research Notes: Husband - Trahaearn

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 176B-24 (Llywarch ap Trahaern)


Research Notes: Child - Llywarch ap Trahaearn

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 176B-24


Sources


1 http://www.familysearch.org.

2 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-2 (Leofric).

3 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-2.

4 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-18 (Aethelred II).

5 Wikipedia.org, Thored.

6 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-18 (Ethelred II).

7 Wikipedia.org, Ælfgifu of York.

8 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-18, 34-19.

9 Wikipedia.org, Ethelred "the Unready."

10 Wikipedia.org, Lucy of Bolingbroke.

11 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 132A-26 (Ranulph III).

12 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 132A-26, 132D-26.

13 Browning, Charles Henry, The Magna Charta Barons and their American Descendants (Philadelphia, 1898.), pp. 86-87.

14 Wikipedia.org, Ranulf le Meschin, 3rd Earl of Chester.

15 Website - Genealogy, thepeerage.com.

16 Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f50/a0025026.htm.

17 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 177-3 (Nesta).

18 Wikipedia.org, Bernard de Neufmarché.

19 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-14.

20 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872399.

21 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-13.

22 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872400.

23 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-13 (Rutpert I).

24 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872401.

25 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-15.

26 Wikipedia.org, Robert of Hesbaye.

27 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872397.

28 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872398.

29 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-15 (Rutpert II).

30 Wikipedia.org, Harald I of Denmark.

31 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593876233.

32 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593876234.

33 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873369.


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