The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Geoffrey Todd and Margaret




Husband Geoffrey Todd 1

           Born: Abt 1589 - Denton, Durham, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Margaret 1

           Born: Abt 1593
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children


Humphrey III de Bohun Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford and Margaret of Hereford




Husband Humphrey III de Bohun Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford 2 3 4

            AKA: Humphrey "the Magnificent" de Bohun Lord of Bohun
           Born: Abt 1057
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1129
         Buried: 


         Father: Humphrey II "the Great" de Bohun Lord of Bohun (      -      ) 4
         Mother: Maud d'Evreux (      -      ) 4


       Marriage: 

Events

• Steward and sewer: to King Henry I.

• Steward and sewer: to Empress Maud.




Wife Margaret of Hereford 5

            AKA: Margaret de Gloucester, Margery of Hereford
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1146
         Buried: 


         Father: Miles de Pitres of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Hereford (Abt 1100-1143) 6 7 8
         Mother: Sibyl de Neufmarché (Abt 1096-After 1143) 8 9




Children
1 M Humphrey IV de Bohun Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford 10 11

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1182
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Margaret of Huntingdon (      -1201) 12
           Marr: 1175



Research Notes: Husband - Humphrey III de Bohun Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford

From Magna Charta Barons, p. 80:

"Humphrey de Bohun, eldest son and heir, who was steward and sewer to King Henry I. At the instigation of his father-in-law he espoused the cause of the Empress Maud and her son against King Stephen, and so faithfully maintained his allegiance that the Emress, by her especial charter, granted him the office of steward and sewer, in both Normandy and England. In 20 Henry II. he accompanied Richard de Lacie, Justiciary of England, into Scotland, with an army, to waste the country; and was one of the witnesses to the accord made by William of Scotland and Henry of England, as to the subjection of Scotland to the crown of England.

"This feudal Baron m. Margery, daughter and coheiress of Milo de Gloucester, first Earl of Hereford, lord high constable of England, whose charter was the earliest of express creation, the patent being dated in 1140, and, dying April 6, 1187, had issue: Humphrey de Bohun [IV]."


Research Notes: Child - Humphrey IV de Bohun Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford

Second husband of Margaret of Huntingdon.

From Magna Charta Barons, p. 81:

Humphrey de Bohun, who was Earl of Hereford and lord high constable of England, in right of is mother. He m. Margaret, daughter of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland, d. v. p. 1152 (and widow of Conale Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond, and sister of William the Lion, king of Scots), eldes son of David I., King of Scots, by his wife Matilda, widow of Simon de St. Liz, and daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland and Northampton, beheaded in 1075, and his wife, a niece of William the conqueror. Lady Margaret's mother, m. 1139, d. 1178, was Ada de Warren, daughter of William, second Earl of Surrey (by his wife, Isabel, or Elizabeth, d. 1131, widow of Robert, Earl of Mellent, and daughter of Hugh the Great, Count de Vermandois, son of Henry I., King of France), the son of William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, by his wife, Gundreda, the reputed daughter of William the Conqueror, or the daughter of his consort, Queen Maud, or Matilda, of Flanders, by Gherbod, advocate of the Abbey of St. Bestin, at St. Omer, before her marriage to William of Normandy. Humphrey de Bohun and Lady Margaret had: Henry de Bohun, eldest son and heir...


Joseph Wood and Margaret




Husband Joseph Wood 13

           Born: 4 Nov 1680 - Portsmouth, Newport, Rhode Island, (United States)
     Christened: 
           Died:  - Warwick, Orange, New York, (United States)
         Buried: 


         Father: William Wood (Abt 1630-1697) 13 14
         Mother: Martha Earle of Portsmouth, R.I. (Abt 1633-1696) 15


       Marriage: 



Wife Margaret 13 16

           Born: 4 Nov 1680 - <Kakiat (New Hempstead), Rockland, New York, (United States)> 17
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Rebecca Wood 18

           Born: 10 Jul 1710
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



2 M Joseph Wood [Jr.]

           Born: 26 Mar 1712
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 M Jonas Wood 19 20 21

           Born: 13 Jan 1713 - Kakiat (New Hempstead), Ramapo Twp, (Rockland), New York, (United States)
     Christened: 31 Jul 1722 - Tappan, Orange, New York, (United States)
           Died: After 24 May 1769 - Warwick, Orange, New York, (United States)
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Neltje Lena Errels (Abt 1716-1800) 19 22 23 24
           Marr: Abt 1733 - Haverstraw, Orange, New York, (United States)


4 F Margaret Wood

           Born: 19 Nov 1716
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



5 M William N. Wood 25

           Born: 18 Jan 1718
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



6 M Jonathan Wood

            AKA: Jonathon Wood
           Born: 29 Aug 1720
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



7 F Martha Wood

           Born: 1721
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



8 F Marie Wood

           Born: 1726
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



9 F Sarah Wood

           Born: 20 Sep 1729
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



10 F Elizabeth Wood

           Born: 10 May 1732
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



11 F Immatie Wood

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



12 M John Wood

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Joseph Wood

Probably the 6th son of William Wood.

Source: http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25

Source: The New England Historical and Genealogical Register 1906, vol. 60 (Boston, 1906), p. 400


Research Notes: Child - Rebecca Wood

Also Source http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Research Notes: Child - Joseph Wood [Jr.]

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I804

Also http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Research Notes: Child - Jonas Wood

From http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1029 :

Title: Register of the Dutch Reformed Church at Tappan, New York
Abbrev: DUTCH REFORMED, TAPPAN NY
Note:
Cited in 'Jonas Wood UEL' by Elizabeth Hoople
Page: No. 405
Title: Deed Nathaniel Ordle to Jonah Wood Jr 50 Acres 1769
Abbrev: Deed Ordle-Wood 1769
Publication: Precinct of Haverstraw, Orange Co, 24 may 1769


Research Notes: Child - Margaret Wood

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I805

Also http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Research Notes: Child - William N. Wood



Also http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Research Notes: Child - Jonathan Wood

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I807 = Jonathon Wood

Source: http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Research Notes: Child - Martha Wood

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I808

Also http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Research Notes: Child - Marie Wood

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I809

Also http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Research Notes: Child - Sarah Wood

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I810

Also http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Research Notes: Child - Elizabeth Wood

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I811

Also http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Research Notes: Child - Immatie Wood

Source: http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25

Source http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I799 has name as Immatic


Research Notes: Child - John Wood

Source: http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1031
From Title: Jonas Wood UEL
Abbrev: Jonas Wood UEL
Author: Elizabeth Hoople
Publication: Stormont, Dundas & Glengarry Historical Society
Page: p 25


Paul Drew and Margaret




Husband Paul Drew 26

           Born: Abt 1735
     Christened: 
           Died: 1814 - Cornwall Twp (South Stormont), Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), Canada
         Buried: 
       Marriage: Abt 1757

Events

• Owned: Half of lot 2 in 4th concession, on eastern boundary of Township No. 2 (now Cornwall), 1 Nov 1786, Cornwall Twp, Lunenburg District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Quebec (Ontario), Canada. 27

• Will: 12 Feb 1814, Cornwall, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), Canada.




Wife Margaret 28 29

           Born: Abt 1737
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Paul Drew [Jr.]

           Born: 1758
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



2 F Agnes Drew 30

           Born: 1759
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Thomas Young (      -      ) 29


3 F Mary Drew

           Born: 1762
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Cpl. John Bradshaw (      -      ) 29
           Marr: Abt 1779


4 F Margaret Drew 31 32 33

           Born: Abt 1766 - <Cornwall Twp, (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Quebec (Ontario), Canada>
     Christened: 
           Died: 5 Jan 1864 - <Osnabruck Twp or Cornwall Twp>, Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Canada West (Ontario), Canada
         Buried:  - Willis Cemetery, [North] Lunenburg, Osnabruck Twp (South Stormont), Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, Ontario, Canada
         Spouse: Lt. Col. Roger Wood (U.E.L.) (Abt 1766-1862) 34 35 36 37 38
           Marr: 11 Aug 1793 - Cornwall Twp, Stormont, Eastern District (Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry), Upper Canada (Ontario), Canada


5 F Abigail Drew 33 39 40

            AKA: Abigail Bradshaw
           Born: Abt 1767 - Kakiat, Rockland, New York, (United States) 41
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: John Wood (U.E.L.) (Abt 1764-1852) 37 42 43 44 45 46 47 48
           Marr: 11 Aug 1793 - New York, United States



Research Notes: Husband - Paul Drew

Gord Adams wrote on 6 Nov 2011 (http://www.myfamily.com/isapi.dll?c=content&htx=view&siteid=54C*CM&contentid=ZZZZZX75&contentclass=NEWS&categoryid=0&_lin=1) this correspondence from Michelle Lockhart Jones 3 Dec 2007 and others regarding Paul Drew:

Gord Adams - Nov 6, 2011
Because Paul Drew is my GGGGGGrandfather I did a lot of of looking over 20 years for the genealogy of Paul Drew. His Will gives a lot of insight as to who is who. More importantly it puts to rest a lot of misinformation that has been floating around on the net.

See Will transcription by Michelle Lockhart Jones 2007.

Here is some more correspondence...
John Drew wrote on 17 May 2004

This is what I have on Paul Drew:
He was born in 1729, when he came to America he went to the Mohawk River Valley to farm. He was a loyal British subject. It is unknown when he moved to Willington Vermont, it is beleived that it was some tiime before 1786. He was imprisoned at least 6 times by the American Goverment. In March 1786 Paul was living in New Johnstown in the District of Montreal, in the Province of Qucbec, Canada,. (which is now known as Cornwell, Ontriao, Canada,.) I have found that Paul Drew is listed in Upper Canada Militia Rolls of Colonel James Gary's Company on February, 1789. It listed :
Paul Drew, 60 years of age, marital status not indicated, no concession or not shown, no years of service shown, country of orgin not shown, and no remarks nor regiment notes. So if he was of rank of Captain Colonel Gray would have stated it. With this same paper all the enlisted and officers are list even if retired.

If anyone has any info that is different or has proof of a rank I do want to see it, other wise it will stand that he was a common settler.!!!!


Paul Drew (First) was born abt 1735 and died in 1814 according to the Will and probate. He was married to Margaret Unknown abt 1757

Paul and Margaret had 5 living children at the time of his death.
1. Paul Drew (Second) was born abt 1758. I still do not know who his wife is/was but they had Paul Drew (Third) born abt 1782 and the recipient of some proceeds of Paul (First's) will. Also a William Drew born about 1783.

Paul Drew and Margaret had 4 girls as well
2. Agnes Drew (abt 1759) married Thomas Young
3. Mary Drew (abt 1762) married (abt 1779) Cpl. John Bradshaw born Co.. Armagh, Ireland. John and Mary are prominent ancestors and Gn.parents for many of our cousins including Jacob J. Poapst and Mary Bradshaw; James Bradshaw and Rachel Eamon; Jane Bradshaw and Jacob Martin Shaver; Nancy Bradshaw and David McWilliams; Elizabeth Bradshaw and John Collins; Margaret Bradshaw and Jacob Rombough.
4. Abigail Bradshaw married John R. Wood
5. Margaret Drew married Roger Wood

Cpl. John Bradshaw is recorded in the Crowder Early Settler lists for Osnabruck. Very little is known about him however we see that he was the town constable in Osnabruck Centre

Sue Gardiner writes

Here is my husband's BRADSHAW line; as per two written family histories written by grandson John Bradshaw in 1881, Rochester, MN & Chas. Currier gg grandson, 1902, Chicago, IL.

John BRADSHAW, probably s/o of a Wm. Bradshaw b. 1761 Ireland, removed from Armagh, (near Belfast) No. Ireland bef. the Rev. War & settled in Stockholm / Albany, NY. Shortly there after was taken prisoner by Indians & "others" from Canada & brought to Canada where he was kept a prisoner for some time. He complied with requirements, took an Oath of Allegiance & became a British subject & was freed. Served 1780 in the Kings Royal Regiment. After the war he married ? & resided in OSNABRUCK, CANADA. Children of this marriage were -

** Robert (my husband's line); James, William, Nancy who m. David MC WILLIAMS; Mary who m. Jacob PABST; Jane; Margaret who m. Jacob RAMBOUGH & Eliz. who m. John COLLINS. No other info on these siblings except for ***ROBERT.

**Robert BRADSHAW b. abt. 1780 Osnabruck, Canada & d. abt. 1862 m. abt. 1800 in Canada to Christiana FLINN b. abt. 1783 & d. abt. 1831 of Scottish descent. Robert is buried Freeport, Stephenson Co., IL. Their children - the first 3 born in OSNABRUCK, CANADA, the rest b. in POTSDAM, ST. LAWRENCE CO., NY.

CHILDREN OF ROBERT & CHRISTIANA (FLINN) BRADSHAW
Have added names of their grandchildren still living in 1902 & their place of residence in 1902.

1. Mary m. David CURRIER of Potsdam, NY - Chas. L. (Chicago, IL); Robert S. (Aurora, IL); James B. (Freeport, IL) & David G. (Minneapolis, MN)
2. Margaret m. ____CROMBIE of Canada - Wm. & Alexander (Montreal, Canada) & Robert (near Montreal)
3. Rev. John b. 10 Nov. 1811 & d. 1899 MN m. *1st in 1839 to Sarah Fasset WILLIAMS of Mooers / Potsdam, NY -2nd in 1883 Charlotte O'DAY - * Wm. J., Rev. (Oberlin, OH) - I have an 18 page published bio of his life & career.
4. Jennet m. Horsy WASHBURN - David (IA) & Harvery (MN)
5. Judith m. Francis TOWNSEND - Martha NELSON (MN), Christiana NELSON (Onieda, IL) & Martha RUSSELL (Chicago, IL)
6. David M. m. Hariet POMROY - Mrs. Chas SQUIRES (Chicago, IL)
7. William - never married
8. Rebecca m. John BARNES
9. Elizabeth - never married
10.Martha B. 3 May 1824 & d. 28 Aug. 1902 m. Chas. Ridgway SHREVE - Thos. Wistar (Martins Ferry, OH) [my husband's grandfather]
11.James Henry - never married
12.Hester m. 1st James C. Medill & 2nd James SAXTON

As of 1902 all of the above children of Robert & Christiana (FLINN) BRADSHAW were deceased except for #10 Martha who lived in Martins Ferry, OH & #12 Hester who lived in Chicago, IL.





Cpl John Bradshaw's daughter Nancy Posted by: Linda McDonald
Date: July 06, 2001 at 09:48:50 In Reply to: Cpl John Bradshaw UEL Born abt 1761 by Gord Adams

Gord,
Can't help you much with John Bradshaw, but his daughter Nancy was one of my husband's ancestors. She was said to be from "Asnabruck." Her first husband David McWilliams died and she married again. McWilliams "had been downed while on a horse back journey to look after his UEL land." She married David Brown of Mouontain township of Dundas Co., Ontario, Canada. David's first wife, Margaret Guernsey, died there in 1806. David Brown was also a UEL loyalist and was from Vermont. From thier second marriage, Nancy & David Brown had 9 children.
The only source I have besides family tradition, is what I found in "Loyalist Lineages of Canada," Vol II, Part 1, p. 116, where there is a list of John Bradshaw's seven childen, which included Nancy and her husband David McWilliams. It said John was in the King's Royal Regiment of New York.
Thanks.

Linda

Here is the Family of David Brown and Nancy Bradshaw (d/o John Bradshaw and Mary Drew) in 1852

1852 / Canada West / Dundas (county) / 36 Mountain township / p. 18d, 19a, (37)
George L. Broeffle, Enumerator

40 Brown, David Farmer United States Wesleyan Methodist 70 M
41 Brown, Nancy Canada Wesleyan Methodist 66 F
42 Brown, William Labourer Canada Wesleyan Methodist 34 F
43 Brown, Hiram Labourer Canada Wesleyan Methodist 22 M
44 Brown, Mariah Canada Wesleyan Methodist 28 F
45 Brown, Johnathan Farmer Canada Wesleyan Methodist 30 M
46 Brown, Lidy Canada Wesleyan Methodist 25 F
47 Brown, Hariet Canada Wesleyan Methodist 2 F
48 Brown, Robert Farmer Canada Wesleyan Methodist 36 M
49 Brown, Sally Canada Wesleyan Methodist 32 F
50 Brown, Polly Canada Wesleyan Methodist 14 F

1852 / Canada West / Dundas (county) / 36 Mountain township / p. 19d, 20a, (39)
1 Brown, Silas Canada Wesleyan Methodist 10 M
2 Brown, Sary M. Canada Wesleyan Methodist 8 F
3 Brown, Seanath A. Canada Wesleyan Methodist 7 F
4 Brown, George E. Canada Wesleyan Methodist 4 M
5 Brown, James Shoemaker Canada Wesleyan Methodist 32 M
6 Brown, Liza Canada Wesleyan Methodist 27 F
7 Brown, Jemima Canada Wesleyan Methodist 8 F
8 Brown, Mary Canada Wesleyan Methodist 6 F
9 Brown, Jacob Canada Wesleyan Methodist 4 M
10 Brown, Carline Canada Wesleyan Methodist 2 F
11 Pike, Mr. Pedler England Wesleyan Methodist Augusta 40 M 49


Research Notes: Child - Paul Drew [Jr.]

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dmuir1&id=I2799


Research Notes: Child - Agnes Drew

Eldest daughter of Paul Drew.


Research Notes: Child - Mary Drew

Second daughter of Paul Drew.

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dmuir1&id=I2801


Research Notes: Child - Margaret Drew

Third daughter of Paul Drew. Inherited 50 acres of land (one quarter of Lot 23 in the Third Concession of Roxborough) in 1814.

Mother of Margaret Wood, who married John F. (T.) Poapst/Papst.


Research Notes: Child - Abigail Drew

Not the mother of the Margaret Drew who married John Frederick Poapst.

Fourth daughter of Paul Drew.

From her father's will filed 12 February 1814 (probated in 1814):
"Sixthly to my fourth daughter Abigail, wife of John Wood, 50 acres of land being one quarter of Lot 23 in the Third Concession of Roxborough;" 49


Geoffrey de Percy and Margaret




Husband Geoffrey de Percy 8

           Born: Abt 1005 - Perci-En-Auge, (Calvados), Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Mainfred de Percy (Abt 0980-      ) 8
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife Margaret 8

           Born: Abt 1012 - <Alnwick, Northumberland, England>
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M William de Percy 1st Baron Percy 8 50

           Born: Abt 1034 - Perci-En-Auge, (Calvados), Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 1096 - Mt. Joy near Jerusalem, Palestine (Israel)
         Buried:  - Mt. Joy near Jerusalem, Palestine (Israel)
         Spouse: Emma de Port (Abt 1038-After 1096) 8
           Marr: Abt 1066 - Semar, Yorkshire, England




Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots and Saint Margaret of Scotland




Husband Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots 51 52




            AKA: Malcolm III King of Scotland, Malcolm III "Canmore" King of Scots, Máel Coluim mac Donnchada
           Born: Abt 1031
     Christened: 


           Died: 13 Nov 1093 - Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Duncan I MacCrinan King of Scots (      -1040) 53
         Mother: < > [Daughter of Siward, Danish Earl of Northumbria] (      -      ) 54


       Marriage: 1068 or 1069 - Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland

   Other Spouse: Ingibiorg (      -      ) 55 - 1059

Events

• Crowned: King of Scots, 17 Mar 1057 or 1058, Scone, (Perth and Kinross), Scotland.




Wife Saint Margaret of Scotland 56 57

            AKA: Margaret of Scotland


           Born: 1045 - Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, Southern Transdanubia, Hungary
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Nov 1093 - St. Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, Midlothian, Scotland


         Buried:  - Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland


         Father: Edward "the Exile" Saxon Prince of England (1016-1057) 58 59
         Mother: Agatha (Abt 1020-After 1070) 60 61




Children
1 F Matilda of Scotland

            AKA: Edith of Scotland, Maud of Scotland
           Born: 1079 - Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 May 1118 - Westminster Palace, London, England
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England (Between 1068/1069-1135) 62 63
           Marr: 11 Nov 1100 - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England


2 M David I "The Saint" King of Scots 64 65




            AKA: Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim
           Born: Abt 1083
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 May 1153 - Carlisle
         Buried:  - Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland
         Spouse: Maud of Huntingdon (Abt 1074-1131) 66 67 68
           Marr: 1113 or 1114


3 F Mary of Scotland 69

            AKA: Marie of Scotland
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Apr 1118
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Eustace III Count of Boulogne and Lens (      -After 1125) 70 71
           Marr: 1102



Death Notes: Husband - Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots

Slain while besieging Alnwick Castle.


Research Notes: Husband - Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots

From Wikipedia - Malcolm III of Scotland :

Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (Modern Gaelic : Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh),[1] called in most Anglicised regnal lists Malcolm III, and in later centuries nicknamed Canmore, "Big Head"[2][3] or Long-neck [4] (died 13 November 1093), was King of Scots . It has also been argued recently that the real "Malcolm Canmore" was this Malcolm's great-grandson Malcolm IV , who is given this name in the contemporary notice of his death.[5] He was the eldest son of King Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin). Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age.

Malcolm's Kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland : the north and west of Scotland remained in Scandinavian , Norse-Gael and Gaelic control, and the areas under the control of the Kings of Scots would not advance much beyond the limits set by Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) until the 12th century. Malcolm III fought a succession of wars against the Kingdom of England , which may have had as their goal the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria . However, these wars did not result in any significant advances southwards. Malcolm's main achievement is to have continued a line which would rule Scotland for many years,[6] although his role as "founder of a dynasty" has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David, and his descendants, than with any historical reality.[7]

Malcolm's second wife, Saint Margaret of Scotland , was later beatified and is Scotland's only royal saint. However, Malcolm himself gained no reputation for piety. With the notable exception of Dunfermline Abbey he is not definitely associated with major religious establishments or ecclesiastical reforms.

Background
Malcolm's father Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin) became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda), Duncan's maternal grandfather. According to John of Fordun , whose account is the original source of part at least of William Shakespeare 's Macbeth , Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria ,[8][9] but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen.[10]

Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed by Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findlaích) on 15 August 1040. Although Shakespeare's Macbeth presents Malcolm as a grown man and his father as an old one, it appears that Duncan was still young in 1040,[11] and Malcolm and his brother Donalbane (Domnall Bán) were children.[12] Malcolm's family did attempt to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt.[13]

Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety - exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm (then aged about 9) was sent to England, and his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles.[14][15] Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeth's seventeen year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor .[16][17]
According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson , Earl of Orkney , an enemy of Macbeth's family, and perhaps Duncan's kinsman by marriage.[18]

An English invasion in 1054, with Earl Siward in command, had as its goal the installation of Máel Coluim , "son of the King of the Cumbrians (i.e. of Strathclyde )". This Máel Coluim, perhaps a son of Owen the Bald , disappears from history after this brief mention. He has been confused with King Malcolm III.[19][20] In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolm's hand, on 15 August 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire .[21][22] Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach , who was crowned at Scone , probably on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by treachery",[23] near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm became king, perhaps being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this.[24]

Malcolm and Ingibiorg

If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as King may have been to travel south to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret , who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary .[25] If he did visit the English court, he was the first reigning King of Scots to do so in more than eighty years. If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, however, it was not kept, and this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered.[26] Equally, Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, which was under Malcolm's control by 1070.[27]

The Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg , a daughter of Finn Arnesson .[28] Although Ingibiorg is generally assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058.[29] The Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim), who was later king.[4] Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury , claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim .[30] Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Saga. He is assumed to have been born to Ingibiorg.[31]

Malcolm's marriage to Ingibiorg secured him peace in the north and west. The Heimskringla tells that her father Finn had been an adviser to Harald Hardraade and, after falling out with Harald, was then made an Earl by Sweyn Estridsson , King of Denmark , which may have been another recommendation for the match.[32] Malcolm enjoyed a peaceful relationship with the Earldom of Orkney , ruled jointly by his stepsons, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson . The Orkneyinga Saga reports strife with Norway but this is probably misplaced as it associates this with Magnus Barefoot , who became king of Norway only in 1093, the year of Malcolm's death.[33]

Malcolm and Margaret

Although he had given sanctuary to Tostig Godwinson when the Northumbrians drove him out, Malcolm was not directly involved in the ill-fated invasion of England by Harald Hardraade and Tostig in 1066, which ended in defeat and death at the battle of Stamford Bridge .[34] In 1068, he granted asylum to a group of English exiles fleeing from William of Normandy , among them Agatha , widow of Edward the Confessor's nephew Edward the Exile , and her children: Edgar Ætheling and his sisters Margaret and Cristina . They were accompanied by Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria . The exiles were disappointed, however, if they had expected immediate assistance from the Scots.[35]

In 1069 the exiles returned to England, to join a spreading revolt in the north. Even though Gospatric and Siward's son Waltheof submitted by the end of the year, the arrival of a Danish army under Sweyn Estridsson seemed to ensure that William's position remained weak. Malcolm decided on war, and took his army south into Cumbria and across the Pennines , wasting Teesdale and Cleveland then marching north, loaded with loot, to Wearmouth . There Malcolm met Edgar and his family, who were invited to return with him, but did not. As Sweyn had by now been bought off with a large Danegeld , Malcolm took his army home. In reprisal, William sent Gospatric to raid Scotland through Cumbria. In return, the Scots fleet raided the Northumbrian coast where Gospatric's possessions were concentrated.[36] Late in the year, perhaps shipwrecked on their way to a European exile, Edgar and his family again arrived in Scotland, this time to remain. By the end of 1070, Malcolm had married Edgar's sister Margaret, the future Saint Margaret of Scotland .[37]

The naming of their children represented a break with the traditional Scots Regal names such as Malcolm, Cináed and Áed. The point of naming Margaret's sons, Edward after her father Edward the Exile , Edmund for her grandfather Edmund Ironside , Ethelred for her great-grandfather Ethelred the Unready and Edgar for her great-great-grandfather Edgar was unlikely to be missed in England, where William of Normandy's grasp on power was far from secure.[38] Whether the adoption of the classical Alexander for the future Alexander I of Scotland (either for Pope Alexander II or for Alexander the Great ) and the biblical David for the future David I of Scotland represented a recognition that William of Normandy would not be easily removed, or was due to the repetition of Anglo-Saxon Royal name-another Edmund had preceded Edgar-is not known.[39] Margaret also gave Malcolm two daughters, Edith , who married Henry I of England , and Mary, who married Eustace III of Boulogne .

In 1072, with the Harrying of the North completed and his position again secure, William of Normandy came north with an army and a fleet. Malcolm met William at Abernethy and, in the words of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle "became his man" and handed over his eldest son Duncan as a hostage and arranged peace between William and Edgar.[40] Accepting the overlordship of the king of the English was no novelty, previous kings had done so without result. The same was true of Malcolm; his agreement with the English king was followed by further raids into Northumbria, which led to further trouble in the earldom and the killing of Bishop William Walcher at Gateshead . In 1080, William sent his son Robert Curthose north with an army while his brother Odo punished the Northumbrians. Malcolm again made peace, and this time kept it for over a decade.[41]

Malcolm faced little recorded internal opposition, with the exception of Lulach's son Máel Snechtai . In an unusual entry, for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains little on Scotland, it says that in 1078:
" Malcholom [Máel Coluim] seized the mother of Mælslæhtan [Máel Snechtai] ... and all his treasures, and his cattle; and he himself escaped with difficulty.[42] " Whatever provoked this strife, Máel Snechtai survived until 1085.[43]

Malcolm and William Rufus

When William Rufus became king of England after his father's death, Malcolm did not intervene in the rebellions by supporters of Robert Curthose which followed. In 1091, however, William Rufus confiscated Edgar Ætheling's lands in England, and Edgar fled north to Scotland. In May, Malcolm marched south, not to raid and take slaves and plunder, but to besiege Newcastle , built by Robert Curthose in 1080. This appears to have been an attempt to advance the frontier south from the River Tweed to the River Tees . The threat was enough to bring the English king back from Normandy , where he had been fighting Robert Curthose. In September, learning of William Rufus's approaching army, Malcolm withdrew north and the English followed. Unlike in 1072, Malcolm was prepared to fight, but a peace was arranged by Edgar Ætheling and Robert Curthose whereby Malcolm again acknowledged the overlordship of the English king.[44]

In 1092, the peace began to break down. Based on the idea that the Scots controlled much of modern Cumbria , it had been supposed that William Rufus's new castle at Carlisle and his settlement of English peasants in the surrounds was the cause. However, it is unlikely that Malcolm did control Cumbria, and the dispute instead concerned the estates granted to Malcolm by William Rufus's father in 1072 for his maintenance when visiting England. Malcolm sent messengers to discuss the question and William Rufus agreed to a meeting. Malcolm travelled south to Gloucester , stopping at Wilton Abbey to visit his daughter Edith and sister-in-law Cristina. Malcolm arrived there on 24 August 1093 to find that William Rufus refused to negotiate, insisting that the dispute be judged by the English barons. This Malcolm refused to accept, and returned immediately to Scotland.[45]


It does not appear that William Rufus intended to provoke a war,[46] but, as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports, war came:
" For this reason therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King Malcolm returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more hostility than behoved him ... " Malcolm was accompanied by Edward, his eldest son by Margaret and probable heir-designate (or tánaiste), and by Edgar.[47] Even by the standards of the time, the ravaging of Northumbria by the Scots was seen as harsh.[48]

Death
While marching north again, Malcolm was ambushed by Robert de Mowbray , Earl of Northumbria, whose lands he had devastated, near Alnwick on 13 November 1093. There he was killed by Arkil Morel, steward of Bamburgh Castle . The conflict became known as the Battle of Alnwick .[49] Edward was mortally wounded in the same fight. Margaret, it is said, died soon after receiving the news of their deaths from Edgar.[50] The Annals of Ulster say:

" Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French i.e. in Inber Alda in England. His queen, Margaret, moreover, died of sorrow for him within nine days.[51] " Malcolm's body was taken to Tynemouth Priory for burial, where it remains to this day. A body of a local farmer was sent north for burial in Dunfermline Abbey in the reign of his son Alexander or perhaps on Iona .[52]

On 19 June 1250, following the canonisation of Malcolm's wife Margaret by Pope Innocent IV , Margaret's remains were disinterred and placed in a reliquary. Tradition has it that as the reliquary was carried to the high altar of Dunfermline Abbey , past Malcolm's grave, it became too heavy to move. As a result, Malcolm's remains were also disinterred, and buried next to Margaret beside the altar.[53]

Issue
Malcolm and Ingebjorg had a son:
Duncan II of Scotland , suceeded his father as King of Scotland

Malcolm and Margaret had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
Edward, killed 1093.
Edmund of Scotland
Ethelred , abbot of Dunkeld
King Edgar of Scotland
King Alexander I of Scotland
King David I of Scotland
Edith of Scotland , also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
Mary of Scotland , married Eustace III of Boulogne



Research Notes: Wife - Saint Margaret of Scotland

From Wikipedia - Saint Margaret of Scotland :
Saint Margaret (c. 1045 - 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling , the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England . She married Malcolm III , King of Scots , becoming his Queen consort .

Early life
Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile , son of Edmund Ironside . She was probably born at Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd , in the region of Southern Transdanubia , Hungary .[citation needed ] The provenance of her mother, Agatha , is disputed.

Margaret had one brother Edgar and one sister Christina.

When her uncle, Saint Edward the Confessor , the French-speaking Anglo-Saxon King of England , died in 1066, she was living in England where her brother, Edgar Ætheling , had decided to make a claim to the vacant throne.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans , the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland , where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III . The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry .

Malcolm was probably a widower , and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.

Family
Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
Edward, killed 1093.
Edmund of Scotland
Ethelred , abbot of Dunkeld
King Edgar of Scotland
King Alexander I of Scotland
King David I of Scotland
Edith of Scotland , also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
Mary of Scotland , married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

Veneration
Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10 , because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16 . In Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death.

Per the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, the Church transferred her feast day to November 16, the actual day of her death.[1] Traditional Roman Catholics continue to celebrate the feast day of "St Margaret, Queen of Scots, Widow" on June 10 as a Semi-Double feast, or a 3rd Class feast.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow) , Queen Margaret Union , Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline ), North Queensferry , South Queensferry , Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church .


Notes: Marriage

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 170-21 (Malcolm III Canmore) has m. 1068/9 in Dunfermline. St. Margaret was Malcolm's 2nd wife.


Birth Notes: Child - Matilda of Scotland

Place name may be Dermfermline.


Research Notes: Child - Matilda of Scotland

Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-22

From Wikipedia - Matilda of Scotland :

Matilda of Scotland[1] (born Edith; c. 1080 - 1 May 1118) was the first wife and queen consort of Henry I .

Matilda was born around 1080 in Dunfermline , the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret . She was christened Edith, and Robert Curthose stood as godfather at her christening - the English queen Matilda of Flanders was also present at the font and may have been her godmother.
When she was about six years old, Matilda (or Edith as she was then probably still called) and her sister Mary were sent to Romsey , where their aunt Cristina was abbess. During her stay at Romsey and Wilton , The Scottish princess was much sought-after as a bride; she turned down proposals from both William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , and Alan Rufus , Lord of Richmond. Hermann of Tournai even claims that William II Rufus considered marrying her. She was out of the monastery by 1093, when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury ordering that the daughter of the king of Scotland be returned to the monastery that she had left.

After the death of William II Rufus in August 1100, his brother Henry quickly seized the royal treasury and the royal crown. His next task was to marry, and Henry's choice fell on Matilda. Because Matilda had spent most of her life in a nunnery, there was some controversy over whether or not she had been veiled as a nun and would thus be ineligible for marriage. Henry sought permission for the marriage from Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , who returned to England in September 1100 after a long exile. Professing himself unwilling to decide so weighty a matter on his own, Anselm called a council of bishops in order to determine the legality of the proposed marriage. Matilda testified to the archbishop and the assembled bishops of the realm that she had never taken holy vows. She insisted that her parents had sent her and her sister to England for educational purposes, and that her aunt Cristina had veiled her only to protect her "from the lust of the Normans ." Matilda claimed she had pulled the veil off and stamped on it, and her aunt beat and scolded her most horribly for this. The council concluded that Matilda had never been a nun, nor had her parents intended that she become one, and gave their permission for the marriage.
Matilda and Henry seem to have known one another for some time before their marriage - William of Malmesbury states that Henry had "long been attached" to her, and Orderic Vitalis says that Henry had "long adored" Edith's character. Through her mother she was descended from Edmund Ironside and thus Alfred the Great and the old line of the kings of Wessex; this was very important as Henry wanted to help make himself more popular with the English people and Matilda represented the old English dynasty. In their children the Norman and Anglo-Saxon dynasties would be united. Another benefit of the marriage was that England and Scotland became politically closer; three of her brothers served as kings of Scotland and were unusually friendly to England during this period.

After Matilda and Henry were married on 11 November 1100 at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , she was crowned as "Matilda", a fashionable Norman name. She gave birth to a daughter, Matilda, in February 1102, and a son, William, in November 1103. As queen, she maintained her court primarily at Westminster , but accompanied her husband in his travels all across England, and, circa 1106-1107, probably visited Normandy with him. She also served in a vice-regal capacity when Henry was away from court. Her court was filled with musicians and poets; she commissioned a monk, probably Thurgot , to write a biography of her mother, Saint Margaret . She was an active queen, and like her mother was renowned for her devotion to religion and the poor. William of Malmesbury describes her as attending church barefoot at Lent , and washing the feet and kissing the hands of the sick. She also administered extensive dower properties and was known as a patron of the arts, especially music.

After Matilda died on 1 May 1118 at Westminster Palace , she was buried at Westminster Abbey . The death of her only son and Henry's failure to produce a legitimate son from his second marriage led to the succession crisis of The Anarchy .


Research Notes: Child - David I "The Saint" King of Scots

From Wikipedia - David I of Scotland :

David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern : Daibhidh I mac [Mhaoil] Chaluim;[1] 1083 x 1085 - 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians (1113-1124) and later King of the Scots (1124-1153). The youngest son of Malcolm III and Margaret , David spent most of his childhood in Scotland , but was exiled to England temporarily in 1093. Perhaps after 1100, he became a dependent at the court of King Henry I . There he was influenced by the Norman and Anglo-French culture of the court.

When David's brother Alexander I of Scotland died in 1124, David chose, with the backing of Henry I, to take the Kingdom of Scotland (Alba ) for himself. He was forced to engage in warfare against his rival and nephew, Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair . Subduing the latter seems to have taken David ten years, a struggle that involved the destruction of Óengus , Mormaer of Moray . David's victory allowed expansion of control over more distant regions theoretically part of his Kingdom. After the death of his former patron Henry I, David supported the claims of Henry's daughter and his own niece, the former Empress-consort, Matilda , to the throne of England. In the process, he came into conflict with King Stephen and was able to expand his power in northern England, despite his defeat at the Battle of the Standard in 1138.

The term "Davidian Revolution " is used by many scholars to summarise the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during his reign. These included his foundation of burghs , implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform , foundation of monasteries , Normanisation of the Scottish government, and the introduction of feudalism through immigrant French and Anglo-French knights.

Childhood and flight to England
David was born at an unknown point between 1083 and 1085.[2] He was probably the eighth son of King Malcolm III , and certainly the sixth and youngest produced by Malcolm's second marriage to Queen Margaret .[3]

In 1093 King Malcolm and David's brother Edward were killed at the river Aln during an invasion of Northumberland .[4] David and his two brothers Alexander and Edgar , both future kings of Scotland, were probably present when their mother died shortly afterwards.[5] According to later medieval tradition, the three brothers were in Edinburgh when they were besieged by their uncle, Donald Bane .[6]


Donald became King of Scotland.[7] It is not certain what happened next, but an insertion in the Chronicle of Melrose states that Donald forced his three nephews into exile, although he was allied with another of his nephews, Edmund .[8] John of Fordun wrote, centuries later, that an escort into England was arranged for them by their maternal uncle Edgar Ætheling .[9]


Intervention of William Rufus and English exile
William Rufus , King of the English, opposed Donald's accession to the northerly kingdom. He sent the eldest son of Malcolm III, David's half-brother Donnchad , into Scotland with an army. Donnchad was killed within the year,[10] and so in 1097 William sent Donnchad's half-brother Edgar into Scotland. The latter was more successful, and was crowned King by the end of 1097.[11]

During the power struggle of 1093-97, David was in England. In 1093, was probably about nine years old.[12] From 1093 until 1103 David's presence cannot be accounted for in detail, but he appears to have been in Scotland for the remainder of the 1090s. When William Rufus was killed, his brother Henry Beauclerc seized power and married David's sister, Matilda . The marriage made David the brother-in-law of the ruler of England. From that point onwards, David was probably an important figure at the English court.[13] Despite his Gaelic background, by the end of his stay in England, David had become a full-fledged Normanised prince. William of Malmesbury wrote that it was in this period that David "rubbed off all tarnish of Scottish barbarity through being polished by intercourse and friendship with us".[14]

Prince of the Cumbrians, 1113-1124

David's time as Prince of the Cumbrians marks the beginning of his life as a great territorial lord. The year of these beginnings was probably 1113, when Henry I arranged David's marriage to Matilda, Countess of Huntingdon , who was the heiress to the Huntingdon-Northampton lordship. As her husband David used the title of Earl , and there was the prospect that David's children by her would inherit all the honours borne by Matilda's father Waltheof . 1113 is the year when David, for the first time, can be found in possession of territory in what is now Scotland.

Obtaining the inheritance
David's brother, King Edgar, had visited William Rufus in May 1099 and bequeathed to David extensive territory to the south of the river Forth .[15] On 8 January 1107, Edgar died. It has been assumed that David took control of his inheritance , the southern lands bequeathed by Edgar, soon after the latter's death.[16] However, it cannot be shown that he possessed his inheritance until his foundation of Selkirk Abbey late in 1113.[17] According to Richard Oram , it was only in 1113, when Henry returned to England from Normandy, that David was at last in a position to claim his inheritance in southern "Scotland".[18]

King Henry's backing seems to have been enough to force King Alexander to recognise his younger brother's claims. This probably occurred without bloodshed, but through threat of force nonetheless.[19] David's aggression seems to have inspired resentment amongst some native Scots. A Gaelic quatrain from this period complains that:
Olc a ndearna mac Mael Colaim, It's bad what Máel Coluim's son has done;, ar cosaid re hAlaxandir, dividing us from Alexander; do-ní le gach mac rígh romhaind, he causes, like each king's son before; foghail ar faras Albain. the plunder of stable Alba. [20] If "divided from" is anything to go by, this quatrain may have been written in David's new territories in southern "Scotland".[21]

The lands in question consisted of the pre-1975 counties of Roxburghshire , Selkirkshire , Berwickshire , Peeblesshire and Lanarkshire . David, moreover, gained the title princeps Cumbrensis, "Prince of the Cumbrians ", as attested in David's charters from this era.[22] Although this was a large slice of Scotland south of the river Forth, the region of Galloway-proper was entirely outside David's control.[23]

David may perhaps have had varying degrees of overlordship in parts of Dumfriesshire , Ayrshire , Dunbartonshire and Renfrewshire .[24] In the lands between Galloway and the Principality of Cumbria, David eventually set up large-scale marcher lordships, such as Annandale for Robert de Brus, Cunningham for Hugh de Morville, and possibly Strathgryfe for Walter Fitzalan .[25]

In England

In the later part of 1113, King Henry gave David the hand of Matilda of Huntingdon, daughter and heiress of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland . The marriage brought with it the "Honour of Huntingdon", a lordship scattered through the shires of Northampton , Huntingdon , and Bedford ; within a few years, Matilda de Senlis bore a son, whom David named Henry after his patron.[26]

The new territories which David controlled were a valuable supplement to his income and manpower, increasing his status as one of the most powerful magnates in the Kingdom of the English. Moreover, Matilda's father Waltheof had been Earl of Northumberland , a defunct lordship which had covered the far north of England and included Cumberland and Westmorland , Northumberland -proper, as well as overlordship of the bishopric of Durham. After King Henry's death, David would revive the claim to this earldom for his son Henry.[27]

David's activities and whereabouts after 1114 are not always easy to trace. He spent much of his time outside his principality, in England and in Normandy. Despite the death of his sister on 1 May 1118, David still possessed the favour of King Henry when his brother Alexander died in 1124, leaving Scotland without a king.[28]


Political and military events in Scotland during David's kingship

Michael Lynch and Richard Oram portray David as having little initial connection with the culture and society of the Scots;[29] but both likewise argue that David became increasingly re-Gaelicised in the later stages of his reign.[30] Whatever the case, David's claim to be heir to the Scottish kingdom was doubtful. David was the youngest of eight sons of the fifth from last king. Two more recent kings had produced sons. William fitz Duncan , son of King Donnchad II, and Máel Coluim , son of the last king Alexander, both preceded David in terms of the slowly emerging principles of primogeniture . However, unlike David, neither William nor Máel Coluim had the support of Henry. So when Alexander died in 1124, the aristocracy of Scotland could either accept David as King, or face war with both David and Henry I.[31]

Coronation and struggle for the kingdom

Alexander's son Máel Coluim chose war. Orderic Vitalis reported that Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair "affected to snatch the kingdom from [David], and fought against him two sufficiently fierce battles; but David, who was loftier in understanding and in power and wealth, conquered him and his followers".[32] Máel Coluim escaped unharmed into areas of Scotland not yet under David's control, and in those areas gained shelter and aid.[33]

In either April or May of the same year David was crowned King of Scotland (Gaelic : rí(gh) Alban; Latin : rex Scottorum )[34] at Scone . If later Scottish and Irish evidence can be taken as evidence, the ceremony of coronation was a series of elaborate traditional rituals,[35] of the kind infamous in the Anglo-French world of the 12th century for their "unchristian" elements.[36] Ailred of Rievaulx, friend and one time member of David's court, reported that David "so abhorred those acts of homage which are offered by the Scottish nation in the manner of their fathers upon the recent promotion of their kings, that he was with difficulty compelled by the bishops to receive them".[37]

Outside his "Cumbrian" principality and the southern fringe of Scotland-proper, David exercised little power in the 1120s, and in the words of Richard Oram, was "king of Scots in little more than name".[38] He was probably in that part of Scotland he did rule for most of the time between late 1127 and 1130.[39] However, he was at the court of Henry in 1126 and in early 1127,[40] and returned to Henry's court in 1130, serving as a judge at Woodstock for the treason trial of Geoffrey de Clinton .[39] It was in this year that David's wife, Matilda of Huntingdon, died. Possibly as a result of this,[41] and while David was still in southern England,[42] Scotland-proper rose up in arms against him.

The instigator was, again, his nephew Máel Coluim, who now had the support of Óengus of Moray . King Óengus was David's most powerful "vassal", a man who, as grandson of King Lulach of Scotland , even had his own claim to the kingdom. The rebel Scots had advanced into Angus , where they were met by David's Mercian constable , Edward ; a battle took place at Stracathro near Brechin . According to the Annals of Ulster , 1000 of Edward's army, and 4000 of Óengus' army, including Óengus himself, died.[43]

According to Orderic Vitalis, Edward followed up the killing of Óengus by marching north into Moray itself, which, in Orderic's words, "lacked a defender and lord"; and so Edward, "with God's help obtained the entire duchy of that extensive district".[44] However, this was far from the end of it. Máel Coluim escaped, and four years of continuing "civil war" followed; for David this period was quite simply a "struggle for survival".[45]

It appears that David asked for and obtained extensive military aid from his patron, King Henry. Ailred of Rievaulx related that at this point a large fleet and a large army of Norman knights, including Walter l'Espec, were sent by Henry to Carlisle in order to assist David's attempt to root out his Scottish enemies.[46] The fleet seems to have been used in the Irish Sea , the Firth of Clyde and the entire Argyll coast, where Máel Coluim was probably at large among supporters. In 1134 Máel Coluim was captured and imprisoned in Roxburgh Castle .[47] Since modern historians no longer confuse him with Malcolm MacHeth , it is clear that nothing more is ever heard of Máel Coluim mac Alaxadair, except perhaps that his sons were later allied with Somerled .[48]

Pacification of the west and north
Richard Oram puts forward the suggestion that it was during this period that David granted Walter fitz Alan the kadrez of Strathgryfe , with northern Kyle and the area around Renfrew , forming what would become the "Stewart" lordship of Strathgryfe; he also suggests that Hugh de Morville may have gained the kadrez of Cunningham and the settlement of "Strathyrewen" (i.e. Irvine ). This would indicate that the 1130-34 campaign had resulted in the acquisition of these territories.[49]

How long it took to pacify Moray is not known, but in this period David appointed his nephew William fitz Duncan to succeed Óengus, perhaps in compensation for the exclusion from the succession to the Scottish throne caused by the coming of age of David's son Henry . William may have been given the daughter of Óengus in marriage, cementing his authority in the region. The burghs of Elgin and Forres may have been founded at this point, consolidating royal authority in Moray.[50] David also founded Urquhart Priory , possibly as a "victory monastery", and assigned to it a percentage of his cain (tribute) from Argyll.[51]

During this period too, a marriage was arranged between the son of Matad, Mormaer of Atholl , and the daughter of Haakon Paulsson , Earl of Orkney . The marriage temporarily secured the northern frontier of the Kingdom, and held out the prospect that a son of one of David's Mormaers could gain Orkney and Caithness for the Kingdom of Scotland. Thus, by the time Henry I died on 1 December 1135, David had more of Scotland under his control than ever before.[52]

Dominating the north

While fighting King Stephen and attempting to dominate northern England in the years following 1136, David was continuing his drive for control of the far north of Scotland. In 1139, his cousin, the five year old Harald Maddadsson , was given the title of "Earl" and half the lands of the earldom of Orkney , in addition to Scottish Caithness. Throughout the 1140s Caithness and Sutherland were brought back under the Scottish zone of control.[53] Sometime before 1146 David appointed a native Scot called Aindréas to be the first Bishop of Caithness , a bishopric which was based at Halkirk , near Thurso , in an area which was ethnically Scandinavian.[54]

In 1150, it looked like Caithness and the whole earldom of Orkney were going to come under permanent Scottish control. However, David's plans for the north soon began to encounter problems. In 1151, King Eystein II of Norway put a spanner in the works by sailing through the waterways of Orkney with a large fleet and catching the young Harald unawares in his residence at Thurso. Eystein forced Harald to pay fealty as a condition of his release. Later in the year David hastily responded by supporting the claims to the Orkney earldom of Harald's rival Erlend Haraldsson , granting him half of Caithness in opposition to Harald. King Eystein responded in turn by making a similar grant to this same Erlend, cancelling the effect of David's grant. David's weakness in Orkney was that the Norwegian kings were not prepared to stand back and let him reduce their power.[55]

England

David's relationship with England and the English crown in these years is usually interpreted in two ways. Firstly, his actions are understood in relation to his connections with the King of England. No historian is likely to deny that David's early career was largely manufactured by King Henry I of England. David was the latter's "greatest protégé",[56] one of Henry's "new men".[57] His hostility to Stephen can be interpreted as an effort to uphold the intended inheritance of Henry I, the succession of his daughter, Matilda , the former Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. David carried out his wars in her name, joined her when she arrived in England, and later knighted her son, the future Henry II .[58]

However, David's policy towards England can be interpreted in an additional way. David was the independence-loving king trying to build a "Scoto-Northumbrian" realm by seizing the most northerly parts of the English kingdom. In this perspective, David's support for Matilda is used as a pretext for land-grabbing. David's maternal descent from the House of Wessex and his son Henry's maternal descent from the English Earls of Northumberland is thought to have further encouraged such a project, a project which only came to an end after Henry II ordered David's child successor Máel Coluim IV to hand over the most important of David's gains. It is clear that neither one of these interpretations can be taken without some weight being given to the other.[59]


Usurpation of Stephen and First Treaty of Durham
Henry I had arranged his inheritance to pass to his daughter Empress Matilda . Instead, Stephen , younger brother of Theobald II, Count of Blois , seized the throne.[60] David had been the first lay person to take the oath to uphold the succession of Matilda in 1127, and when Stephen was crowned on 22 December 1135, David decided to make war.[61]

Before December was over, David marched into northern England, and by the end of January he had occupied the castles of Carlisle , Wark , Alnwick , Norham and Newcastle . By February David was at Durham, but an army led by King Stephen met him there. Rather than fight a pitched battle, a treaty was agreed whereby David would retain Carlisle, while David's son Henry was re-granted the title and half the lands of the earldom of Huntingdon, territory which had been confiscated during David's revolt. On Stephen's side he received back the other castles; and while David would do no homage, Stephen was to receive the homage of Henry for both Carlisle and the other English territories. Stephen also gave the rather worthless but for David face-saving promise that if he ever chose to resurrect the defunct earldom of Northumberland, Henry would be given first consideration. Importantly, the issue of Matilda was not mentioned. However, the first Durham treaty quickly broke down after David took insult at the treatment of his son Henry at Stephen's court.[62]


Renewal of war and Clitheroe
When the winter of 1136-37 was over, David again invaded England. The King of the Scots confronted a northern English army waiting for him at Newcastle. Once more pitched battle was avoided, and instead a truce was agreed until November. When November fell, David demanded that Stephen hand over the whole of the old earldom of Northumberland. Stephen's refusal led to David's third invasion, this time in January 1138.[63]

The army which invaded England in the January and February 1138 shocked the English chroniclers. Richard of Hexham called it "an execrable army, savager than any race of heathen yielding honour to neither God nor man" and that it "harried the whole province and slaughtered everywhere folk of either sex, of every age and condition, destroying, pillaging and burning the vills, churches and houses".[64] Several doubtful stories of cannibalism were recorded by chroniclers, and these same chroniclers paint a picture of routine enslavings, as well as killings of churchmen, women and infants.[65]

By February King Stephen marched north to deal with David. The two armies avoided each other, and Stephen was soon on the road south. In the summer David split his army into two forces, sending William fitz Duncan to march into Lancashire , where he harried Furness and Craven . On 10 June, William fitz Duncan met a force of knights and men-at-arms. A pitched battle took place, the battle of Clitheroe , and the English army was routed.[66]


Battle of the Standard and Second Treaty of Durham
By later July, 1138, the two Scottish armies had reunited in "St Cuthbert's land", that is, in the lands controlled by the Bishop of Durham , on the far side of the river Tyne . Another English army had mustered to meet the Scots, this time led by William, Earl of Aumale . The victory at Clitheroe was probably what inspired David to risk battle. David's force, apparently 26,000 strong and several times larger than the English army, met the English on 22 August at Cowdon Moor near Northallerton , North Yorkshire .[67]

The Battle of the Standard , as the encounter came to be called, was unsuccessful for the Scots. Afterwards, David and his surviving notables retired to Carlisle. Although the result was a defeat, it was not by any means decisive. David retained the bulk of his army and thus the power to go on the offensive again. The siege of Wark, for instance, which had been going on since January, continued until it was captured in November. David continued to occupy Cumberland as well as much of Northumberland .[68]

On 26 September Cardinal Alberic , Bishop of Ostia , arrived at Carlisle where David had called together his kingdom's nobles, abbots and bishops. Alberic was there to investigate the controversy over the issue of the Bishop of Glasgow's allegiance or non-allegiance to the Archbishop of York. Alberic played the role of peace-broker, and David agreed to a six week truce which excluded the siege of Wark. On 9 April David and Stephen's wife Matilda of Boulogne met each other at Durham and agreed a settlement. David's son Henry was given the earldom of Northumberland and was restored to the earldom of Huntingdon and lordship of Doncaster ; David himself was allowed to keep Carlisle and Cumberland. King Stephen was to retain possession of the strategically vital castles of Bamburgh and Newcastle. This effectively fulfilled all of David's war aims.[68]

Arrival of Matilda and the renewal of conflict
The settlement with Stephen was not set to last long. The arrival in England of the Empress Matilda gave David an opportunity to renew the conflict with Stephen. In either May or June, David travelled to the south of England and entered Matilda's company; he was present for her expected coronation at Westminster Abbey , though this never took place. David was there until September, when the Empress found herself surrounded at Winchester .[69]

This civil war, or "the Anarchy " as it was later called, enabled David to strengthen his own position in northern England. While David consolidated his hold on his own and his son's newly acquired lands, he also sought to expand his influence. The castles at Newcastle and Bamburgh were again brought under his control, and he attained dominion over all of England north-west of the river Ribble and Pennines , while holding the north-east as far south as the river Tyne, on the borders of the core territory of the bishopric of Durham. While his son brought all the senior barons of Northumberland into his entourage, David rebuilt the fortress of Carlisle. Carlisle quickly replaced Roxburgh as his favoured residence. David's acquisition of the mines at Alston on the South Tyne enabled him to begin minting the Kingdom of Scotland 's first silver coinage. David, meanwhile, issued charters to Shrewsbury Abbey in respect to their lands in Lancashire .[70]


Bishopric of Durham and the Archbishopric of York
However, David's successes were in many ways balanced by his failures. David's greatest disappointment during this time was his inability to ensure control of the bishopric of Durham and the archbishopric of York. David had attempted to appoint his chancellor, William Comyn, to the bishopric of Durham, which had been vacant since the death of Bishop Geoffrey Rufus in 1140. Between 1141 and 1143, Comyn was the de facto bishop, and had control of the bishop's castle; but he was resented by the chapter . Despite controlling the town of Durham, David's only hope of ensuring his election and consecration was gaining the support of the Papal legate, Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester and brother of King Stephen. Despite obtaining the support of the Empress Matilda, David was unsuccessful and had given up by the time William de St Barbara was elected to the see in 1143.[71]

David also attempted to interfere in the succession to the archbishopric of York. William FitzHerbert , nephew of King Stephen, found his position undermined by the collapsing political fortune of Stephen in the north of England, and was deposed by the Pope. David used his Cistercian connections to build a bond with Henry Murdac , the new archbishop. Despite the support of Pope Eugenius III , supporters of King Stephen and William FitzHerbert managed to prevent Henry taking up his post at York. In 1149, Henry had sought the support of David. David seized on the opportunity to bring the archdiocese under his control, and marched on the city. However, Stephen's supporters became aware of David's intentions, and informed King Stephen. Stephen therefore marched to the city and installed a new garrison. David decided not to risk such an engagement and withdrew.[72] Richard Oram has conjectured that David's ultimate aim was to bring the whole of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria into his dominion. For Oram, this event was the turning point, "the chance to radically redraw the political map of the British Isles lost forever".[73]

Scottish Church

Historical treatment of David I and the Scottish church usually emphasises David's pioneering role as the instrument of diocesan reorganisation and Norman penetration, beginning with the bishopric of Glasgow while David was Prince of the Cumbrians, and continuing further north after David acceded to the throne of Scotland. Focus too is usually given to his role as the defender of the Scottish church's independence from claims of overlordship by the Archbishop of York and the Archbishop of Canterbury .

Ecclesiastical disputes
One of the first problems David had to deal with as king was an ecclesiastical dispute with the English church. The problem with the English church concerned the subordination of Scottish sees to the archbishops of York and/or Canterbury, an issue which since his election in 1124 had prevented Robert of Scone from being consecrated to the see of St Andrews (Cell Ríghmonaidh). It is likely that since the 11th century the bishopric of St Andrews functioned as a de facto archbishopric. The title of "Archbishop" is accorded in Scottish and Irish sources to Bishop Giric [82] and Bishop Fothad II .[83]

The problem was that this archiepiscopal status had not been cleared with the papacy, opening the way for English archbishops to claim overlordship of the whole Scottish church. The man responsible was the new aggressively assertive Archbishop of York, Thurstan . His easiest target was the bishopric of Glasgow, which being south of the river Forth was not regarded as part of Scotland nor the jurisdiction of St Andrews. In 1125, Pope Honorius II wrote to John, Bishop of Glasgow ordering him to submit to the archbishopric of York.[84] David ordered Bishop John of Glasgow to travel to the Apostolic See in order to secure a pallium which would elevate the bishopric of St Andrews to an archbishopric with jurisdiction over Glasgow.[85]

Thurstan travelled to Rome, as did the Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil , and both presumably opposed David's request. David however gained the support of King Henry, and the Archbishop of York agreed to a year's postponement of the issue and to consecrate Robert of Scone without making an issue of subordination.[86] York's claim over bishops north of the Forth were in practice abandoned for the rest of David's reign, although York maintained her more credible claims over Glasgow.[87]

In 1151, David again requested a pallium for the Archbishop of St Andrews. Cardinal John Paparo met David at his residence of Carlisle in September 1151. Tantalisingly for David, the Cardinal was on his way to Ireland with four pallia to create four new Irish archbishoprics. When the Cardinal returned to Carlisle, David made the request. In David's plan, the new archdiocese would include all the bishoprics in David's Scottish territory, as well as bishopric of Orkney and the bishopric of the Isles . Unfortunately for David, the Cardinal does not appear to have brought the issue up with the papacy. In the following year the papacy dealt David another blow by creating the archbishopric of Trondheim, a new Norwegian archbishopric embracing the bishoprics of the Isles and Orkney.[88]

Succession and death

Perhaps the greatest blow to David's plans came on 12 July 1152 when Henry, Earl of Northumberland, David's only son and successor, died. He had probably been suffering from some kind of illness for a long time. David had under a year to live, and he may have known that he was not going to be alive much longer. David quickly arranged for his grandson Máel Coluim to be made his successor, and for his younger grandson William to be made Earl of Northumberland. Donnchad I, Mormaer of Fife , the senior magnate in Scotland-proper, was appointed as rector, or regent , and took the 11 year-old Máel Coluim around Scotland-proper on a tour to meet and gain the homage of his future Gaelic subjects. David's health began to fail seriously in the Spring of 1153, and on 24 May 1153, David died.[89] In his obituary in the Annals of Tigernach , he is called Dabíd mac Mail Colaim, rí Alban & Saxan, "David, son of Máel Coluim, King of Scotland and England", a title which acknowledged the importance of the new English part of David's realm.[90]

Monastic patronage
David was one of medieval Scotland's greatest monastic patrons. In 1113, in perhaps David's first act as Prince of the Cumbrians, he founded Selkirk Abbey for the Tironensians .[118] David founded more than a dozen new monasteries in his reign, patronising various new monastic orders.[119]

Not only were such monasteries an expression of David's undoubted piety, but they also functioned to transform Scottish society. Monasteries became centres of foreign influence,, and provided sources of literate men, able to serve the crown's growing administrative needs.[120] These new monasteries, and the Cistercian ones in particular, introduced new agricultural practices.[121] Cistercian labour, for instance, transformed southern Scotland into one of northern Europe's most important sources of sheep wool.[122]


Humphrey IV de Bohun Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford and Margaret of Huntingdon




Husband Humphrey IV de Bohun Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford 10 11

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1182
         Buried: 


         Father: Humphrey III de Bohun Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford (Abt 1057-Abt 1129) 2 3 4
         Mother: Margaret of Hereford (      -1146) 5


       Marriage: 1175

Events

• Hereditary Constable of England:




Wife Margaret of Huntingdon 12

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1201
         Buried: 


         Father: Henry of Huntingdon, Earl of Northumberland & Huntingdon (1114-1152) 67 72
         Mother: Ada de Warenne (      -Abt 1178) 67 73 74



   Other Spouse: Alan Lord of Galloway (Abt 1186-1234) 8 - 1209


Children
1 M Henry de Bohun 5th Earl of Hereford 75 76

           Born: 1176
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Jun 1220
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Maud FitzGeoffrey de Mandeville (      -1236) 77



Research Notes: Husband - Humphrey IV de Bohun Baron de Bohun, Lord of Hereford

Second husband of Margaret of Huntingdon.

From Magna Charta Barons, p. 81:

Humphrey de Bohun, who was Earl of Hereford and lord high constable of England, in right of is mother. He m. Margaret, daughter of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland, d. v. p. 1152 (and widow of Conale Petit, Earl of Brittany and Richmond, and sister of William the Lion, king of Scots), eldes son of David I., King of Scots, by his wife Matilda, widow of Simon de St. Liz, and daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland and Northampton, beheaded in 1075, and his wife, a niece of William the conqueror. Lady Margaret's mother, m. 1139, d. 1178, was Ada de Warren, daughter of William, second Earl of Surrey (by his wife, Isabel, or Elizabeth, d. 1131, widow of Robert, Earl of Mellent, and daughter of Hugh the Great, Count de Vermandois, son of Henry I., King of France), the son of William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, by his wife, Gundreda, the reputed daughter of William the Conqueror, or the daughter of his consort, Queen Maud, or Matilda, of Flanders, by Gherbod, advocate of the Abbey of St. Bestin, at St. Omer, before her marriage to William of Normandy. Humphrey de Bohun and Lady Margaret had: Henry de Bohun, eldest son and heir...


Research Notes: Wife - Margaret of Huntingdon

Second wife of Alan, Lord of Galloway.


Death Notes: Child - Henry de Bohun 5th Earl of Hereford

Died on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land


Research Notes: Child - Henry de Bohun 5th Earl of Hereford

From Magna Charta Barons, pp. 81-82:
Henry de Bohun, eldest son and heir, who in reality was the first Earl of Hereford of this family, being so created by charter of King John, dated April 28, 1199; but the office of lord high constable he inherited. As he took prominent part with the Barons against the king, his lands were sequestered, but he received them again at the sealing of the Magna Charta. He was elected one of the celebrated twenty-five Sureties for the observance of the Magna Charta, and having been excommunicated by the Pope, with the other Barons, he did not return to his allegiance on the decease of King John, but was one of the commanders in the army of Louis, the Dauphin, at the battle of Lincoln, and was taken prisoner. After this defeat he joined Saher de Quincey, and others, in a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and c. on the passage, June 1, 1220, 4 Henry III. His body was brought home and buried in the chapter-house of Llanthony Abbey, in Gloucestershire.

He m. Maud, daughter of Geoffrey Fitz-Piers, Baron de Mandeville, created, in 1199, Earl of Essex, Justiciary of England, d. 1212, and eventually heiress of her brother William de Mandeville, last Earl of Essex of that family, by whom he acquired the honor of Essex and many extensive lordships, and sister of Geoffrey de Mandeville, one of the celebrated twenty-five Magna Charta Sureties, and had:
Humphrey de Bohun, second Earl of Hereford and Essex.
Margaret, wife of Waleran de Newburgh, fourth Earl of Warwick.
Ralph de Bohun.


John de Segrave 4th Lord Segrave and Margaret Duchess of Norfolk




Husband John de Segrave 4th Lord Segrave

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 20 Mar 1353
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Margaret Duchess of Norfolk

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Mar 1399
         Buried: 


         Father: Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk (1300-1338)
         Mother: Alice Hales (      -After 1316)



   Other Spouse: Walter Manny 1st Lord Manny (      -      ) - After 30 May 1354


Children
1 F Elizabeth de Segrave 5th Baroness Segrave

           Born: 25 Oct 1338 - Croxton Abbey, Leicestershire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 1368
         Buried: 
         Spouse: John de Mowbray 4th Lord Mowbray (1340-1368)
           Marr: 25 Mar 1349



Research Notes: Husband - John de Segrave 4th Lord Segrave

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-30 (Margaret)


Research Notes: Wife - Margaret Duchess of Norfolk

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-30


Research Notes: Child - Elizabeth de Segrave 5th Baroness Segrave

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-31


Walter Manny 1st Lord Manny and Margaret Duchess of Norfolk




Husband Walter Manny 1st Lord Manny

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: After 30 May 1354



Wife Margaret Duchess of Norfolk

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Mar 1399
         Buried: 


         Father: Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk (1300-1338)
         Mother: Alice Hales (      -After 1316)



   Other Spouse: John de Segrave 4th Lord Segrave (      -1353)


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Walter Manny 1st Lord Manny

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-30 (Margaret)


Research Notes: Wife - Margaret Duchess of Norfolk

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-30


Geoffrey de Dutton and Margaret




Husband Geoffrey de Dutton

            AKA: Geoffrey de Dutton
           Born: Abt 1207 - Nether Tabley, Bucklow, Cheshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1296 - Dutton, Runcorn, Cheshire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Geoffrey de Dutton (Abt 1184-      )
         Mother: Agnes de Massey (Abt 1188-      ) 78


       Marriage: 



Wife Margaret 79

           Born: Abt 1212 - Cheshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Peter de Warburton 80

           Born: Abt 1236 - Dutton, Runcorn, Cheshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 





Sources


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8. http://www.familysearch.org.

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10. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 193-6.

11. Browning, Charles Henry, The Magna Charta Barons and their American Descendants (Philadelphia, 1898.), p. 81.

12. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 97-26, 38-26 (Alan).

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19. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I690.

20. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dmuir1&id=I2537.

21. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1029.

22. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=cornwalls&id=I779.

23. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dmuir1&id=I2538.

24. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=sensato&id=I1030.

25. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I806.

26. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dmuir1&id=I2545 (David L. Muir).

27. Pringle, J. F, Lunenburgh or the Old Eastern District: Its Settlement and Early Progress (Cornwall, Ontario: Standard Printing House, 1890.), p. 406.

28. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dmuir1&id=I2547.

29. Web - Message Boards, Discussion Groups, Email, http://www.myfamily.com/isapi.dll?c=content&htx=view&siteid=54C*CM&contentid=ZZZZZY6L&contentclass=HIST (Gord Adams).

30. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dmuir1&id=I2800.

31. http://www.familysearch.org, https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.2.1/STW6-8RK.

32. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dmuir1&id=I2800 (David L. Muir).

33. Johan Adam Papst U.E., Descendants and Ancestors, http://www.myfamily.com/isapi.dll?c=content&htx=view&siteid=54C*CM&contentid=ZZZZZY6L&contentclass=HIST (Gord Adams).

34. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=cornwalls&id=I423 (Jan Jordan Lokensgard).

35. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=dmuir1&id=I2812 (David L. Muir).

36. http://www.familysearch.org, https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.2.1/STW6-84M.

37. <Poaps, Richard A. "Sam">, Papst and Smiley Family History (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~poaps/FamilyTree.htm), http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~poaps/Biographies.htm.

38. Poaps, John, Papst Family Canadianwebs (http://www.papst-family.canadianwebs.com/index.html), http://www.papst-family.canadianwebs.com/custom2.html.

39. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I719 (Eileen Backen Gardiner).

40. Benson, Rosemary, Our Combined Families (Online family tree hosted by Ancestry.com.), http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3047155&id=I582488812.

41. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=cornwalls&id=I471 (Jan Jordan Lokensgard).

42. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=carder-freeman-w&id=I687 (Eileen Backen Gardiner).

43. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3047155&id=I582488812 (Rosemary Benson).

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46. http://www.familysearch.org, https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.2.1/STW6-8WK "Pedigree Resource File," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.2.1/STW6-8WK : accessed 24 October 2011), entry for John /Wood/.

47. Poaps, John, Papst Family Canadianwebs (http://www.papst-family.canadianwebs.com/index.html), http://www.papst-family.canadianwebs.com/custom2.html (J. Poaps).

48. Johan Adam Papst U.E., Descendants and Ancestors, http://www.myfamily.com/isapi.dll?c=content&htx=view&siteid=54C*CM&contentid=ZZZZZYWU&contentclass=HIST (John Poaps and Jessie E. Robertson).

49. Johan Adam Papst U.E., Descendants and Ancestors, http://www.myfamily.com/isapi.dll?c=content&htx=view&siteid=54C*CM&contentid=ZZZZZX75&contentclass=NEWS&categoryid=0&_lin=1 (Gord Adams).

50. Wikipedia.org, Baron Percy.

51. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-21, 171-21.

52. http://www.familysearch.org, (Kevin Bradford).

53. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-20.

54. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), ine 170-20 (Duncan I MacCrinan).

55. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 171-21 (Malcolm III Canmore).

56. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-21, 158-23 (Eustace III).

57. Wikipedia.org, Saint Margaret of Scotland.

58. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-20.

59. Wikipedia.org, Edward the Exile.

60. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 241-6, , 1-20 (Edward the Exile), 158-23 (Eustace III).

61. Wikipedia.org, Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile.

62. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 121-25, 121B-26 (Elizabeth).

63. Wikipedia.org, Henry I of England.

64. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-22.

65. Wikipedia.org, David I of Scotland.

66. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 130-26.

67. Lloyd, Jacob Youde William, The History of the Princes, the Lords Marcher, and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fadog, and the Ancient Lords of Arwystli, Cedewen, and Meirionydd. (Vol. 5. London: Whiting & Co., 1885.), p. 413.

68. Wikipedia.org, Maud, Countess of Huntingdon.

69. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 158-23 (Eustace III).

70. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 158-23.

71. Wikipedia.org, Eustace III, Count of Boulogne.

72. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-23.

73. Wikipedia.org, Elizabeth of Vermandois.

74. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 89-25.

75. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 97-27.

76. Browning, Charles Henry, The Magna Charta Barons and their American Descendants (Philadelphia, 1898.), pp. 81-82.

77. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 97-27 (Henry de Bohun).

78. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650877.

79. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650872.

80. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650869.

81. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650871.


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38 Poaps, John, Papst Family Canadianwebs (http://www.papst-family.canadianwebs.com/index.html), http://www.papst-family.canadianwebs.com/custom2.html.

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79 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650872.

80 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650869.

81 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650871.


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