The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Edward I "the Elder" King of England and Elfreda




Husband Edward I "the Elder" King of England 1 2 3




            AKA: Eadweard se Ieldra King of England
           Born: Between 871 and 875 - Wessex, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 17 Jul 924 or 925 - Fardon-on-Dee, Cheshire, England
         Buried:  - New Minster, Winchester, England


         Father: Alfred the Great King of Wessex, King of England (Between 0847/0849-0899) 4 5 6
         Mother: Ealhswith of the Gaini, Queen of the Anglo-Saxons (Abt 0852-0904/0905) 7 8 9


       Marriage: 899

   Other Spouse: Ecgwynn (      -      ) - Abt 893

   Other Spouse: Eadgifu (Abt 0881-0968) 10 11 - Abt 919

Events

• King of England: 899-924.




Wife Elfreda 2 12 13

            AKA: Ælfflæd, Elfleda
           Born: Abt 878 - Wessex, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Ethelhelm Lord of Meopham, Cooling & Lenham in Kent (Abt 0848-      ) 11 12 14
         Mother: 




Children
1 M Ælfweard 2

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



2 F Ogiva of England

            AKA: Edgifu, Edgiva of England, Ogive
           Born: 902 - Wessex, England
     Christened: 
           Died: After 955
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Charles III "the Simple" King of Western Francia (0879-0929) 12 15 16
           Marr: 7 Oct 919
         Spouse: Herbert III Count of Vermandois (Between 0942/0953-0993) 12 17
           Marr: 951


3 F Edith 18

            AKA: Eadgyth
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 26 Jan 946
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Otto I "the Great" Holy Roman Emperor (0912-0973) 19
           Marr: Sep 929



Research Notes: Husband - Edward I "the Elder" King of England

From Wikipedia - Edward the Elder :

Edward I the Elder (Old English : se Ieldra) (c. 870 - 17 July 924 ) was King of England (899 - 924 ). He was the son of Alfred the Great (Ælfr se Gr) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith , and became King of Wessex upon his father's death in 899 .

Family
Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda , Queen of the Mercians and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders .

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too.

Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893 , and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric , King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest . [5][6]

When he became king in 899 , Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married Ælfflæd , a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire . [7] Their son was the future king, Ælfweard , and their daughter Eadgyth married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor . The couples other children included five more daughters: Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple ; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great , Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married Conrad King of Burgundy; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. According to the entry on Boleslaus II of Bohemia , the daughter Adiva (referred to in the entry for Eadgyth ) was his wife. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[8] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.

Edward married for a third time, about 919 , to Edgiva , aka Eadgifu,[7] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent . They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred , and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis d'Aveugle, King of Arles.

Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar . William of Malmsbury 's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.


Research Notes: Wife - Elfreda

From Wikipedia - Edward the Elder :

When he became king in 899 , Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married Ælfflæd , a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire . [7] Their son was the future king, Ælfweard , and their daughter Eadgyth married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor . The couples other children included five more daughters: Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple ; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great , Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married Conrad King of Burgundy; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. According to the entry on Boleslaus II of Bohemia , the daughter Adiva (referred to in the entry for Eadgyth ) was his wife. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[8] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.


Research Notes: Child - Ogiva of England

3rd wife of Charles II "the Simple"

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 50-20 (Herbert III). Line 148-17 (Charles III) has d. 951

Source: Wikipedia - Edward the Elder and Eadgifu of England

From Wikipedia - Eadgifu of England :

Eadgifu (b. 902 , d. after 955 ) or Edgifu, was a daughter [1] of Edward the Elder , King of Wessex and England , and his second wife Aelffaed . She was born in Wessex .


Marriage to the French King
She was the second wife of King Charles III of France ,[1] whom she married in 919 after the death of his first wife, Frederonne ; she was mother to Louis IV of France .


Flight to England
In 922 Charles III was deposed and the next year taken prisoner by Count Herbert II of Vermandois , an ally of the present King. To protect her son's safety Eadgifu took him to England in 923 to the court of her half-brother, Athelstan of England .[2] Because of this, Louis IV of France became known as Louis d'Outremer of France. He stayed there until 936, when he was called back to France to be crowned King. Eadgifu accompanied him.
She retired to a convent in Laon. Then, in 951, she left the convent and married Herbert III, Count of Vermandois .[2]


Notes
^ a b Lappenberg, Johann ; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray, pp. 88-89.
^ a b Williams, Ann ; Alfred P. Smyth, D. P. Kirby (1991). A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain: England, Scotland, and Wales. Routledge, p. 112. ISBN 1852640472 .

References
Lappenberg, Johann ; Benjamin Thorpe, translator (1845). A History of England Under the Anglo-Saxon Kings. J. Murray, pp. 88-89.
Williams, Ann ; Alfred P. Smyth, D. P. Kirby (1991). A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain: England, Scotland, and Wales. Routledge, p. 112. ISBN 1852640472 .


Research Notes: Child - Edith

Source: Wikipedia - Edward the Elder


King Edward II of England and Isabella of France




Husband King Edward II of England 20 21




            AKA: Edward of Caenarvon


           Born: 25 Apr 1284 - Caernarfon Castle, Caernarfonshire, Gwynedd, Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 21 Sep 1327 - <Berkeley Castle, > [near Gloucester], Gloucestershire, England


         Buried:  - Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England


         Father: King Edward I of England (1239-1307) 22 23
         Mother: Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu (1241-1290) 24 25


       Marriage: 25 Jan 1308 - Boulogne-sur-Mer [Boulogne], (Pas-de-Calais), France

Events

• King of England: 1307-1327.




Wife Isabella of France 26 27




           Born: Abt 1295 - Paris, (Île-de-France), France
     Christened: 


           Died: 22 Aug 1358
         Buried: 


         Father: Philip IV King of France (1268-1314) 28
         Mother: Jeanne of Navarre (1272-1305) 29




Children
1 M Edward III King of England 30 31 32

            AKA: Edward of Windsor


           Born: 13 Nov 1312 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 21 Jun 1377 - Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, England
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Philippa of Hainault (1311-1369) 32 33
           Marr: 24 Jan 1328 - York, Yorkshire, England


2 M John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall

           Born: 1316
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 F Eleanor Countess of Guelders

            AKA: Eleanor of Woodstock
           Born: 1318
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Reinoud II of Guelders (      -      )


4 F Joan Queen of Scots

            AKA: Joan of the Tower
           Born: 1321
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: David II of Scotland (      -      )



Research Notes: Husband - King Edward II of England

From Wikipedia - Edward II of England :

Edward II, (April 25 , 1284 - September 21 , 1327 ) of Caernarfon , was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January 1327. His tendency to ignore his nobility in favour of low-born favourites led to constant political unrest and his eventual deposition. Edward is perhaps best remembered for his murder and his alleged homosexuality .
Edward II was the first monarch to establish colleges in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge ; he founded Cambridge's King's Hall in 1317 and gave Oxford's Oriel College its royal charter in 1326. Both colleges received the favour of Edward's son, Edward III , who confirmed Oriel's charter in 1327 and refounded King's Hall in 1337.

Prince of Wales
The fourth son of Edward I of England by his first wife Eleanor of Castile , Edward II was born at Caernarfon Castle . He was the first English prince to hold the title of the Prince of Wales , which was formalized by the Lincoln Parliament of February 7 , 1301 .
The story that his father presented Edward II as a newborn to the Welsh as their future native prince is unfounded (the Welsh would have asked the King to give them a prince that spoke Welsh , and he would have answered he would give them a prince that spoke no English at all); the story first appeared in the work of 16th century Welsh "antiquary " David Powel [citation needed ].
Edward became heir at just a few months old, following the death of his elder brother Alphonso . His father, a notable military leader, trained his heir in warfare and statecraft starting in his childhood, yet the young Edward preferred boating and craftsman work - activities thought beneath kings at the time...

On January 25 , 1308 , Edward married Isabella of France , the daughter of King Philip IV of France , "Philip the Fair," and sister to three French kings. The marriage was doomed to failure almost from the beginning. Isabella was frequently neglected by her husband, who spent much of his time conspiring with his favourites regarding how to limit the powers of the Peerage in order to consolidate his father's legacy for himself. Nevertheless, their marriage produced two sons, Edward (1312-1377), who would succeed his father on the throne as Edward III, and John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall (1316-1336), and two daughters, Eleanor (1318-1355) and Joanna (1321-1362), wife of David II of Scotland . Edward had also fathered at least one illegitimate son, Adam FitzRoy , who accompanied his father in the Scottish campaigns of 1322 and died on 18 September 1322 .

[edit ] War with the Barons
When Edward travelled to the northern French city of Boulogne to marry Isabella, he left his friend and counsellor Gaveston to act as regent. Gaveston also received the earldom of Cornwall and the hand of the king's niece, Margaret of Gloucester; these proved to be costly honours.
Various barons grew resentful of Gaveston, and insisted on his banishment through the Ordinances of 1311 . Edward recalled his friend, but in 1312, Gaveston was executed by the Earl of Lancaster and his allies, who claimed that Gaveston led the king to folly. (Gaveston was run through and beheaded on Blacklow Hill, outside the small village of Leek Wootton , where a monument called Gaveston's Cross still stands today).
Immediately following, Edward focused on the destruction of those who had betrayed him, while the barons themselves lost impetus (with Gaveston dead, they saw little need to continue). By mid-July, Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was advising the king to make war on the barons who, unwilling to risk their lives, entered negotiations in September 1312. In October, the Earls of Lancaster, Warwick, Arundel and Hereford begged Edward's pardon.

[edit ] Conflict with Scotland
During this period, Robert the Bruce was steadily re-conquering Scotland . Each campaign begun by Edward, from 1307 to 1314, ended in Robert's clawing back more of the land that Edward I had taken during his long reign. Robert's military successes against Edward II were due to a number of factors, not the least of which was the Scottish King's strategy. He used small forces to trap an invading English army, he took castles by stealth to preserve his troops and he used the land itself as a weapon against Edward by attacking quickly and then disappearing into the hills before facing the superior numbers of the English. Castle by castle, Robert the Bruce rebuilt Scotland and united the country against its common enemy. Indeed, Robert is quoted as saying that he feared more the dead Edward I than the living Edward II. Thus, by June 1314, only Stirling Castle and Berwick remained under English control.
On 23 June 1314 , Edward and his army of 20,000 foot soldiers and 3000 cavalry faced Robert and his army of foot soldiers and farmers wielding 14 foot long pikes. Edward knew he had to keep the critical stronghold of Stirling Castle if there was to be any chance for English military success. The castle, however, was under a constant state of siege, and the English commander, Sir Phillip de Mowbray, had advised Edward that he would surrender the castle to the Scots unless Edward arrived by June 24 , 1314 , to relieve the siege. Edward could not afford to lose his last forward castle in Scotland. He decided therefore to gamble his entire army to break the siege and force the Scots to a final battle by putting its army into the field.
However, Edward had made a serious mistake in thinking that his vastly superior numbers alone would provide enough of a strategic advantage to defeat the Scots. Robert not only had the advantage of prior warning, as he knew the actual day that Edward would come north and fight, he also had the time to choose the field of battle most advantageous to the Scots and their style of combat. As Edward moved forward on the main road to Stirling, Robert placed his army on either side of the road north, one in the dense woods and the other placed on a bend on the river, a spot hard for the invading army to see. Robert also ordered his men to dig potholes and cover them with bracken in order to help break any cavalry charge.
By contrast, Edward did not issue his writs of service, calling upon 21,540 men, until May 27 , 1314 . Worse, his army was ill-disciplined and had seen little success in eight years of campaigns. On the eve of battle, he decided to move his entire army at night and placed it in a marshy area, with its cavalry laid out in nine squadrons in front of the foot soldiers. The following battle, the Battle of Bannockburn , is considered by contemporary scholars to be the worst defeat sustained by the English since the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Tactics similar to Robert's were employed by victorious English armies against the French in later centuries, partly as a direct result of the enduring decisiveness of the Scots' victory. A young Henry V of England would use this exact tactic against French cavalry in a key battle on the fields of Agincourt in 1415, winning the day and the war against France.[citation needed ]...

[edit ] End of the Despensers
Reprisals against Edward's allies began immediately thereafter. The Earl of Arundel, an old enemy of Roger Mortimer, was beheaded; this was followed by the trial and execution of Despenser.
Despenser was brutally executed and a huge crowd gathered in anticipation at seeing him die. They dragged him from his horse, stripped him, and scrawled Biblical verses against corruption and arrogance on his skin. They then led him into the city, presenting him in the market square to Roger, Isabella, and the Lancastrians. He was then condemned to hang as a thief, be castrated , and then be drawn and quartered as a traitor, his quarters to be dispersed through England.

[edit ] Abdication
With the King imprisoned, Mortimer and the Queen faced the problem of what to do with him. The simplest solution would be execution: his titles would then pass to Edward of Windsor, whom Isabella could control, while it would also prevent the possibility of his being restored. Execution would require the King to be tried and convicted of treason: and while most Lords agreed that Edward had failed to show due attention to his country, several Prelates argued that, appointed by God, the King could not be legally deposed or executed; if this happened, they said, God would punish the country. Thus, at first, it was decided to have Edward imprisoned for life instead.
However, the fact remained that the legality of power still lay with the King. Isabella had been given the Great Seal, and was using it to rule in the names of the King, herself, and their son as appropriate; nonetheless, these actions were illegal, and could at any moment be challenged.
In these circumstances, Parliament chose to act as an authority above the King. Representatives of the House of Commons were summoned, and debates began. The Archbishop of York and others declared themselves fearful of the London mob, loyal to Roger Mortimer. Others wanted the King to speak in Parliament and openly abdicate , rather than be deposed by the Queen and her General. Mortimer responded by commanding the Mayor of London , Richard de Bethune, to write to Parliament, asking them to go to the Guildhall to swear an oath to protect the Queen and Prince Edward, and to depose the King. Mortimer then called the great lords to a secret meeting that night, at which they gave their unanimous support to the deposition of the King.
Eventually Parliament agreed to remove the King. However, for all that Parliament had agreed that the King should no longer rule, they had not deposed him. Rather, their decision made, Edward was asked to accept it.
On January 20, Edward II was informed at Kenilworth Castle of the charges brought against him. The King was guilty of incompetence; allowing others to govern him to the detriment of the people and Church; not listening to good advice and pursuing occupations unbecoming to a monarch; having lost Scotland and lands in Gascony and Ireland through failure of effective governance; damaging the Church , and imprisoning its representatives; allowing nobles to be killed, disinherited, imprisoned and exiled; failing to ensure fair justice, instead governing for profit and allowing others to do likewise; and of fleeing in the company of a notorious enemy of the realm, leaving it without government, and thereby losing the faith and trust of his people. Edward, profoundly shocked by this judgement, wept while listening. He was then offered a choice: he might abdicate in favour of his son; or he might resist, and relinquish the throne to one not of royal blood, but experienced in government - this, presumably, being Roger Mortimer. The King, lamenting that his people had so hated his rule, agreed that if the people would accept his son, he would abdicate in his favour. The lords, through the person of Sir William Trussel, then renounced their homage to him, and the reign of Edward II ended.
The abdication was announced and recorded in London on January 24, and the following day was proclaimed the first of the reign of Edward III - who, at 14, was still controlled by Isabella and Mortimer. The former King Edward remained imprisoned.

Death

Edward II's tomb at Gloucester Cathedral
The government of Isabella and Mortimer was so precarious that they dared not leave the deposed king in the hands of their political enemies. On April 3, Edward II was removed from Kenilworth and entrusted to the custody of two dependents of Mortimer, then later imprisoned at Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire where, it is generally believed, he was murdered by an agent of Isabella and Mortimer...

Following the public announcement of the king's death, the rule of Isabella and Mortimer did not last long. Mortimer and Isabella made peace with the Scots in the Treaty of Northampton , but this move was highly unpopular. Consequently, when Edward III came of age in 1330, he executed Roger Mortimer on fourteen charges of treason, most significantly the murder of Edward II (thereby removing any public doubt about his father's survival). Edward III spared his mother and gave her a generous allowance, but ensured that she retired from public life for several years. She died at Hertford on August 23 , 1358 .


Research Notes: Wife - Isabella of France

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 101-31 has b. 1292, d. 27 Aug 1357, m. Boulogne, 28 Jan 1308. But see "Notes" from Wikipedia below.

From Wikipedia - Isabella of France :

Isabella of France (c.1295 - August 22 , 1358 ), Queen consort of England, known as the She-Wolf of France,[1] was the Queen consort of Edward II of England . She was a member of the House of Capet .


Biography

Isabella was born in Paris on an uncertain date - probably between May and November 1295 [2] - the daughter of King Philip IV of France and Queen Jeanne of Navarre , and the sister of three French kings. While still an infant, her father had promised her in marriage to Edward II to resolve the conflicts between France and England over the latter's continental possession of Gascony and claims to Anjou, Normandy and Aquitaine. Pope Boniface VIII had urged the marriage as early as 1298 but was delayed by wrangling over the terms of the marriage contract. The English king, Edward I had also attempted to break the engagement several times. Only after he died in 1307 did the wedding go forward.


Her groom, the new King Edward II , looked the part of a Plantagenet king to perfection. He was tall and athletic, and wildly popular at the beginning of his reign. She married Edward at Boulogne-sur-Mer on January 25 , 1308 . Since he had ascended the throne the previous year, Isabella never was titled Princess of Wales...

Edward and Isabella produced four children, and she suffered at least one miscarriage . The itineraries of Edward II and Queen Isabella also show that they were together 9 months prior to the births of all four surviving offspring. Their children were:
Edward of Windsor , born 1312
John of Eltham , born 1316
Eleanor of Woodstock , born 1318, married Reinoud II of Guelders
Joan of the Tower , born 1321, married David II of Scotland

... When her brother, King Charles IV of France , seized Edward's French possessions in 1325, she returned to France, initially as a delegate of the King charged with negotiating a peace treaty between the two countries. However, her presence in France became a focal point for the many nobles opposed to Edward's reign and she gathered an army to oppose Edward, in alliance with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March , who had become her lover. Enraged by this, Edward demanded that Isabella return to England. Her brother, King Charles, replied, "The queen has come of her own will and may freely return if she wishes. But if she prefers to remain here, she is my sister and I refuse to expel her."
Despite this public show of support by the King of France, Isabella and Mortimer left the French court in summer 1326 and went to William I, Count of Hainaut in Holland (his wife was Isabella's cousin). William provided them with eight men of war (ships) in return for a marriage contract between his daughter Philippa and Isabella's son, Edward . On September 21 , 1326 Isabella and Mortimer landed in Suffolk with an army (most of whom were mercenaries ). King Edward offered a reward for their deaths, and is rumoured to have even carried a knife in his hose with which to kill his wife. Isabella responded by offering twice as much money for the head of Hugh the younger Despenser (this reward was issued from Wallingford Castle ).

The invasion by Isabella and Mortimer was successful: King Edward's few allies deserted him without a battle; the Despensers were killed, and Edward himself was captured and forced to abdicate in favour of his eldest son, Edward III of England . Since the young king was only fourteen when he was crowned on 1 February 1327 , Isabella and Mortimer ruled as regents in his place.

... When Edward III attained his majority (at the age of 18) he, and a few trusted companions, staged a coup on October 19, 1330 and had both Isabella and Mortimer taken prisoner. Despite Isabella's cries of "Fair son, have pity on gentle Mortimer", Mortimer was executed for treason one month later in November of 1330.
Isabella's life was spared by her son and she was allowed to retire to Castle Rising in Norfolk . She did not, as legend would have it, go insane; she enjoyed a comfortable retirement and made many visits to her son's court, doting on her grandchildren. Isabella took the habit of the Poor Clares before she died on August 22 , 1358 , and her body was returned to London for burial at the Franciscan church at Newgate . She was buried in her wedding dress, with Edward's heart interred with her.

[edit ] Notes
^ A sobriquet appropriated from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3 , where it is used to refer to Henry 's Queen, Margaret of Anjou
^ She is referred to as born in 1292 in the Annals of Wigmore, and Piers Langtoft agrees, claiming that she was 7 years old in 1299. The French chronicler Guillaume de Nangis and Thomas Walsingham describe her as 12 years old at the time of her marriage in January 1308, placing her birth between the January of 1295 and of 1296. A Papal dispensation by Clement V in November 1305 permits her to marry by proxy immediately, despite not having reached age 12, and only being 10 years old - suggesting a birth-date between November 1294 and November 1295. Since she had to reach the canonical age of 7 before her betrothal in May 1303, and that of 12 before her marriage in January 1308, the above evidence suggests that she was born between May and November 1295. See Weir, Alison, Isabella

[edit ] Sources
Blackley, F.D. Isabella of France, Queen of England 1308-1358, and the Late Medieval Cult of the Dead. (Canadian Journal of History)
Doherty, P.C. Isabella and the Strange Death of Edward II, 2003
McKisack, May. The Fourteenth Century 1307-1399, 1959.
Woods, Charles T. Queens, Queans and Kingship, appears in Joan of Arc and Richard III: Sex, Saints and Government in the Middle Ages, 1988.
Weir, Alison. Queen Isabella:Treachery, Adultery, and Murder in Medieval England, Balantine Books, 2005.



Research Notes: Child - Edward III King of England

From Wikipedia - Edward III of England :

Edward III (13 November 1312 - 21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages . Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II , Edward III went on to transform the Kingdom of England into the most efficient military power in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government-in particular the evolution of the English parliament-as well as the ravages of the Black Death . He remained on the throne for 50 years; no English monarch had reigned for as long since Henry III , and none would again until George III , as King of the United Kingdom .

Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen, following the deposition of his father. When he was only seventeen years old, he led a coup against his regent , Roger Mortimer , and began his personal reign. After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1338, starting what would be known as the Hundred Years' War . Following some initial setbacks, the war went exceptionally well for England; the victories of Crécy and Poitiers led up to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny . Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inertia and eventual bad health.

Edward III was a temperamental man, but also capable of great clemency. He was, in most ways, a conventional king, mainly interested in warfare. Highly revered in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians . This view has turned, and modern historiography credits him with many achievements[citation needed ].

Biography
Early life
Edward was born at Windsor on 13 November 1312, and was called "Edward of Windsor" in his early years. The reign of his father, Edward II , was fraught with military defeat, rebellious barons and corrupt courtiers, but the birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily strengthened Edward II's position on the throne.[1] To further this end, in what was probably an attempt by his father to shore up royal supremacy after years of discontent, Edward was created Earl of Chester at the age of only twelve days, and less than two months later, his father gave him a full household of servants for his court, so he could live independently as if he were a full adult Nobleman.[2]

On 20 January 1327, when the young Edward was fourteen years old his mother the queen Isabella , and her lover Roger Mortimer deposed the king. Edward, now Edward III, was crowned on 1 February, with Isabella and Mortimer as regents . Mortimer, the de facto ruler of England, subjected the young king to constant disrespect and humiliation. On 24 January 1328 the fifteen year old king married sixteen year old Philippa of Hainault at York Minster .[3]

Mortimer knew his position was precarious, especially after Philippa had a son on 15 June 1330.[4] Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, many of them belonging to Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel . FitzAlan, who had remained loyal to Edward II in his struggle with Isabella and Mortimer, had been executed on 17 November 1326. However Mortimer's greed and arrogance caused many of the other nobles to hate him; all this was not lost on the young king.

The young, headstrong King had never forgotten the fate of his father, or how he himself had been treated as a child. At almost 18 years old, Edward was ready to take his revenge. On the 19 October 1330, Mortimer and Isabella were sleeping at Nottingham Castle . Under the cover of night, a group loyal to Edward entered the fortress through a secret passageway and burst into Mortimer's quarters. Those conducting the coup arrested Mortimer in the name of the King and he was taken to the Tower of London . Stripped of his land and titles, he was hauled before the 17 year-old King and accused of assuming royal authority over England. Edward's mother-presumably pregnant with Mortimer's child-begged her son for mercy to no avail. Without trial, Edward sentenced Mortimer to death one month after the coup. As Mortimer was executed, Edward's mother was exiled in Castle Rising where she reportedly miscarried. By his 18th birthday, Edward's vengeance was complete and he became de facto ruler of England.

Early reign

Edward chose to renew the military conflict with the Kingdom of Scotland in which his father and grandfather had engaged with varying success. Edward repudiated the Treaty of Northampton that had been signed during the regency, thus renewing claims of English sovereignty over Scotland and resulting in the Second War of Scottish Independence .

Intending to regain what the English had conceded, he won back control of Berwick and secured a decisive English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 against the forces of the boy-king David II of Scotland . Edward III was now in a position to put Edward Balliol on the throne of Scotland and claim a reward of 2,000 librates of land in the southern counties - the Lothians, Roxburghshire, Berwickshire, Dumfriesshire, Lanarkshire and Peebleshire. Despite the victories of Dupplin and Halidon, the Bruce party soon started to recover and by the close of 1335 and the Battle of Culblean , the Plantagenet occupation was in difficulties and the Balliol party was fast losing ground.

At this time, in 1336, Edward III's brother John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall died. John of Fordun 's Gesta Annalia is alone in claiming that Edward killed his brother in a quarrel at Perth .

Although Edward III committed very large armies to Scottish operations, by 1337 the vast majority of Scotland had been recovered by the forces of David II, leaving only a few castles such as Edinburgh, Roxburgh and Stirling in Plantagenet possession. These installations were not adequate to impose Edward's rule and by 1338/9 Edward had moved from a policy of conquest to one of containment.

Edward faced military problems on two fronts; the challenge from the French monarchy was of no less concern. The French represented a problem in three areas: first, they provided constant support to the Scottish through the Franco-Scottish alliance . Philip VI protected David II in exile, and supported Scottish raids in Northern England . Second, the French attacked several English coastal towns, leading to rumours in England of a full-scale invasion.[5] Finally, the English king's possessions in France were under threat-in 1337, Philip VI confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu .

Instead of seeking a peaceful solution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, Edward laid claim to the French crown as the only living male descendant of his deceased maternal grandfather, Philip IV . The French, however, invoked the Salic law of succession and rejected the claim, pronouncing Philip IV's nephew, Philip VI, the true heir (see below ) and thereby setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War , by incorporating England's coat of arms, rampant lions, and France's coat of arms, the fleurs de lys, and he, in so doing, declared himself king of both England and France.[6]

In the war against France, Edward built alliances and fought by proxy through minor French princes. In 1338, Louis IV named him vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire , and promised his support. These measures, however, produced few results; the only major military gain made in this phase of the war was the English naval victory at Sluys on 24 June 1340, where 16,000 French soldiers and sailors died.

Meanwhile, the fiscal pressure on the kingdom caused by Edward's expensive alliances led to discontent at home. In response he returned unannounced on 30 November 1340. Finding the affairs of the realm in disorder, he purged the royal administration.[7] These measures did not bring domestic stability, however, and a standoff ensued between the king and John de Stratford , the Archbishop of Canterbury .

Edward, at the Parliament of England of April 1341, was forced to accept severe limitations to his financial and administrative prerogatives. Yet, in October of the same year, the king repudiated this statute, and Archbishop Stratford was politically ostracised. The extraordinary circumstances of the 1341 parliament had forced the king into submission, but under normal circumstances the powers of the king in medieval England were virtually unlimited, and Edward took advantage of this.[8]

Fortunes of war

After much inconclusive campaigning in Continental Europe , Edward decided to stage a major offensive in 1346, sailing for Normandy with a force of 15,000 men.[9] His army sacked the city of Caen and marched across northern France. On 26 August he met the French king's forces in pitched battle at Crécy and won a decisive victory. Meanwhile, back home, William Zouche , the Archbishop of York mobilized an army to oppose David II, who had returned, defeating and capturing him at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October. With his northern border having been secured, Edward felt free to continue his major offensive against France, laying siege to the town of Calais , which fell after almost a year-probably the greatest single military operation undertaken by the English state in the Middle Ages[citation needed ]-in August of 1347.

After the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV in October of 1347, his son Louis V, Duke of Bavaria negotiated with Edward to compete against the new German king Charles IV , but Edward finally decided in May 1348 not to run for the German crown.

In 1348, the Black Death struck Europe with full force, killing a third or more of England's population.[10] This loss of manpower meant a halt to major campaigning. The great landowners struggled with the shortage of manpower and the resulting inflation in labor cost. Attempting to cap wages, the king and parliament responded with the Ordinance of Labourers (1349) and the Statute of Labourers (1351). The plague did not, however, lead to a full-scale breakdown of government and society, and recovery was remarkably swift.[11]

In 1356, Edward's oldest son, the Black Prince , won a great victory at the battle of Poitiers . The greatly outnumbered English forces not only routed the French but captured the French king, John II . After a succession of victories, the English held great possessions in France, the French king was in English custody, and the French central government had almost totally collapsed. Whether Edward's claim to the French crown originally was genuine or just a political ploy,[12] it now seemed to be within reach. Yet a campaign in 1359, meant to complete the undertaking, was inconclusive. In 1360, therefore, Edward accepted the Treaty of Brétigny , whereby he renounced his claims to the French throne but secured his extended French possessions in full sovereignty.

Later reign

While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham . A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Lord Privy Seal in 1363 and Lord Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience, the Parliament forced him to resign the chancellorship in 1371.[13]

Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361-62 recurrence of the plague. William Montacute , Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, was dead by 1344. William de Clinton , who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls of 1337, William de Bohun , died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont , perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, succumbed to what was probably plague. Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself.

The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp , attempted to subdue by force the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland . The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366.[14]

In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brétigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home. He was followed by the vigorous Charles V , who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin .[15] In 1369, the French war started anew, and Edward's younger son John of Gaunt was given the responsibility of a military campaign. The effort failed, and with the Treaty of Bruges in 1375, the great English possessions in France were reduced to only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux and Bayonne.[16]

Military failure abroad and the associated fiscal pressure of campaigning led to political discontent at home. The problems came to a head in the parliament of 1376, the so-called Good Parliament . The parliament was called to grant taxation, but the House of Commons took the opportunity to address specific grievances. In particular, criticism was directed at some of the king's closest advisors. Lord Chamberlain William Latimer and Lord Steward John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby were dismissed from their positions. Edward's mistress, Alice Perrers , who was seen to hold far too much power over the aging king, was banished from court.[17]

Yet the real adversary of the Commons, supported by powerful men such as Wykeham and Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March , was John of Gaunt. Both the king and the Black Prince were by this time incapacitated by illness, leaving Gaunt in virtual control of government. Gaunt was forced to give in to the demands of parliament, but by its next convocation, in 1377, most of the achievements of the Good Parliament were reversed.[18]

Edward himself, however, did not have much to do with any of this; after around 1375 he played a limited role in the government.[19] Around 29 September 1376 he fell ill with a large abscess . After a brief period of recovery in February, the king died of a stroke (some sources say gonorrhea [20]) at Sheen on 21 June.[19] He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II , son of the Black Prince, since the Black Prince himself had died on 8 June 1376.



Research Notes: Child - John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall

Source: Wikipedia - Edward II of England & Isabella of France


Research Notes: Child - Eleanor Countess of Guelders

Source: Wikipedia - Edward II of England & Isabella of France


Research Notes: Child - Joan Queen of Scots

Source: Wikipedia - Edward II of England & Isabella of France


Edward III King of England and Philippa of Hainault




Husband Edward III King of England 30 31 32

            AKA: Edward of Windsor


           Born: 13 Nov 1312 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 21 Jun 1377 - Sheen Palace, Richmond, Surrey, England
         Buried: 


         Father: King Edward II of England (1284-1327) 20 21
         Mother: Isabella of France (Abt 1295-1358) 26 27


       Marriage: 24 Jan 1328 - York, Yorkshire, England

Events

• King of England: 1327-1377.




Wife Philippa of Hainault 32 33




            AKA: Philippa of Hainaut
           Born: 24 Jun 1311
     Christened: 
           Died: 15 Aug 1369 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: William Count of Hainaut, Holland & Zeeland (      -      )
         Mother: Joan (      -      )




Children
1 M Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 32

           Born: 5 Jun 1341 - Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Aug 1402 - Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York (Abt 1355-1392) 32
           Marr: 1372



Research Notes: Husband - Edward III King of England

From Wikipedia - Edward III of England :

Edward III (13 November 1312 - 21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English monarchs of the Middle Ages . Restoring royal authority after the disastrous reign of his father, Edward II , Edward III went on to transform the Kingdom of England into the most efficient military power in Europe. His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government-in particular the evolution of the English parliament-as well as the ravages of the Black Death . He remained on the throne for 50 years; no English monarch had reigned for as long since Henry III , and none would again until George III , as King of the United Kingdom .

Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen, following the deposition of his father. When he was only seventeen years old, he led a coup against his regent , Roger Mortimer , and began his personal reign. After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in 1338, starting what would be known as the Hundred Years' War . Following some initial setbacks, the war went exceptionally well for England; the victories of Crécy and Poitiers led up to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny . Edward's later years, however, were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inertia and eventual bad health.

Edward III was a temperamental man, but also capable of great clemency. He was, in most ways, a conventional king, mainly interested in warfare. Highly revered in his own time and for centuries after, Edward was denounced as an irresponsible adventurer by later Whig historians . This view has turned, and modern historiography credits him with many achievements[citation needed ].

Biography
Early life
Edward was born at Windsor on 13 November 1312, and was called "Edward of Windsor" in his early years. The reign of his father, Edward II , was fraught with military defeat, rebellious barons and corrupt courtiers, but the birth of a male heir in 1312 temporarily strengthened Edward II's position on the throne.[1] To further this end, in what was probably an attempt by his father to shore up royal supremacy after years of discontent, Edward was created Earl of Chester at the age of only twelve days, and less than two months later, his father gave him a full household of servants for his court, so he could live independently as if he were a full adult Nobleman.[2]

On 20 January 1327, when the young Edward was fourteen years old his mother the queen Isabella , and her lover Roger Mortimer deposed the king. Edward, now Edward III, was crowned on 1 February, with Isabella and Mortimer as regents . Mortimer, the de facto ruler of England, subjected the young king to constant disrespect and humiliation. On 24 January 1328 the fifteen year old king married sixteen year old Philippa of Hainault at York Minster .[3]

Mortimer knew his position was precarious, especially after Philippa had a son on 15 June 1330.[4] Mortimer used his power to acquire noble estates and titles, many of them belonging to Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel . FitzAlan, who had remained loyal to Edward II in his struggle with Isabella and Mortimer, had been executed on 17 November 1326. However Mortimer's greed and arrogance caused many of the other nobles to hate him; all this was not lost on the young king.

The young, headstrong King had never forgotten the fate of his father, or how he himself had been treated as a child. At almost 18 years old, Edward was ready to take his revenge. On the 19 October 1330, Mortimer and Isabella were sleeping at Nottingham Castle . Under the cover of night, a group loyal to Edward entered the fortress through a secret passageway and burst into Mortimer's quarters. Those conducting the coup arrested Mortimer in the name of the King and he was taken to the Tower of London . Stripped of his land and titles, he was hauled before the 17 year-old King and accused of assuming royal authority over England. Edward's mother-presumably pregnant with Mortimer's child-begged her son for mercy to no avail. Without trial, Edward sentenced Mortimer to death one month after the coup. As Mortimer was executed, Edward's mother was exiled in Castle Rising where she reportedly miscarried. By his 18th birthday, Edward's vengeance was complete and he became de facto ruler of England.

Early reign

Edward chose to renew the military conflict with the Kingdom of Scotland in which his father and grandfather had engaged with varying success. Edward repudiated the Treaty of Northampton that had been signed during the regency, thus renewing claims of English sovereignty over Scotland and resulting in the Second War of Scottish Independence .

Intending to regain what the English had conceded, he won back control of Berwick and secured a decisive English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 against the forces of the boy-king David II of Scotland . Edward III was now in a position to put Edward Balliol on the throne of Scotland and claim a reward of 2,000 librates of land in the southern counties - the Lothians, Roxburghshire, Berwickshire, Dumfriesshire, Lanarkshire and Peebleshire. Despite the victories of Dupplin and Halidon, the Bruce party soon started to recover and by the close of 1335 and the Battle of Culblean , the Plantagenet occupation was in difficulties and the Balliol party was fast losing ground.

At this time, in 1336, Edward III's brother John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall died. John of Fordun 's Gesta Annalia is alone in claiming that Edward killed his brother in a quarrel at Perth .

Although Edward III committed very large armies to Scottish operations, by 1337 the vast majority of Scotland had been recovered by the forces of David II, leaving only a few castles such as Edinburgh, Roxburgh and Stirling in Plantagenet possession. These installations were not adequate to impose Edward's rule and by 1338/9 Edward had moved from a policy of conquest to one of containment.

Edward faced military problems on two fronts; the challenge from the French monarchy was of no less concern. The French represented a problem in three areas: first, they provided constant support to the Scottish through the Franco-Scottish alliance . Philip VI protected David II in exile, and supported Scottish raids in Northern England . Second, the French attacked several English coastal towns, leading to rumours in England of a full-scale invasion.[5] Finally, the English king's possessions in France were under threat-in 1337, Philip VI confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine and the county of Ponthieu .

Instead of seeking a peaceful solution to the conflict by paying homage to the French king, Edward laid claim to the French crown as the only living male descendant of his deceased maternal grandfather, Philip IV . The French, however, invoked the Salic law of succession and rejected the claim, pronouncing Philip IV's nephew, Philip VI, the true heir (see below ) and thereby setting the stage for the Hundred Years' War , by incorporating England's coat of arms, rampant lions, and France's coat of arms, the fleurs de lys, and he, in so doing, declared himself king of both England and France.[6]

In the war against France, Edward built alliances and fought by proxy through minor French princes. In 1338, Louis IV named him vicar-general of the Holy Roman Empire , and promised his support. These measures, however, produced few results; the only major military gain made in this phase of the war was the English naval victory at Sluys on 24 June 1340, where 16,000 French soldiers and sailors died.

Meanwhile, the fiscal pressure on the kingdom caused by Edward's expensive alliances led to discontent at home. In response he returned unannounced on 30 November 1340. Finding the affairs of the realm in disorder, he purged the royal administration.[7] These measures did not bring domestic stability, however, and a standoff ensued between the king and John de Stratford , the Archbishop of Canterbury .

Edward, at the Parliament of England of April 1341, was forced to accept severe limitations to his financial and administrative prerogatives. Yet, in October of the same year, the king repudiated this statute, and Archbishop Stratford was politically ostracised. The extraordinary circumstances of the 1341 parliament had forced the king into submission, but under normal circumstances the powers of the king in medieval England were virtually unlimited, and Edward took advantage of this.[8]

Fortunes of war

After much inconclusive campaigning in Continental Europe , Edward decided to stage a major offensive in 1346, sailing for Normandy with a force of 15,000 men.[9] His army sacked the city of Caen and marched across northern France. On 26 August he met the French king's forces in pitched battle at Crécy and won a decisive victory. Meanwhile, back home, William Zouche , the Archbishop of York mobilized an army to oppose David II, who had returned, defeating and capturing him at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October. With his northern border having been secured, Edward felt free to continue his major offensive against France, laying siege to the town of Calais , which fell after almost a year-probably the greatest single military operation undertaken by the English state in the Middle Ages[citation needed ]-in August of 1347.

After the death of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV in October of 1347, his son Louis V, Duke of Bavaria negotiated with Edward to compete against the new German king Charles IV , but Edward finally decided in May 1348 not to run for the German crown.

In 1348, the Black Death struck Europe with full force, killing a third or more of England's population.[10] This loss of manpower meant a halt to major campaigning. The great landowners struggled with the shortage of manpower and the resulting inflation in labor cost. Attempting to cap wages, the king and parliament responded with the Ordinance of Labourers (1349) and the Statute of Labourers (1351). The plague did not, however, lead to a full-scale breakdown of government and society, and recovery was remarkably swift.[11]

In 1356, Edward's oldest son, the Black Prince , won a great victory at the battle of Poitiers . The greatly outnumbered English forces not only routed the French but captured the French king, John II . After a succession of victories, the English held great possessions in France, the French king was in English custody, and the French central government had almost totally collapsed. Whether Edward's claim to the French crown originally was genuine or just a political ploy,[12] it now seemed to be within reach. Yet a campaign in 1359, meant to complete the undertaking, was inconclusive. In 1360, therefore, Edward accepted the Treaty of Brétigny , whereby he renounced his claims to the French throne but secured his extended French possessions in full sovereignty.

Later reign

While Edward's early reign had been energetic and successful, his later years were marked by inertia, military failure and political strife. The day-to-day affairs of the state had less appeal to Edward than military campaigning, so during the 1360s Edward increasingly relied on the help of his subordinates, in particular William Wykeham . A relative upstart, Wykeham was made Lord Privy Seal in 1363 and Lord Chancellor in 1367, though due to political difficulties connected with his inexperience, the Parliament forced him to resign the chancellorship in 1371.[13]

Compounding Edward's difficulties were the deaths of his most trusted men, some from the 1361-62 recurrence of the plague. William Montacute , Edward's companion in the 1330 coup, was dead by 1344. William de Clinton , who had also been with the king at Nottingham, died in 1354. One of the earls of 1337, William de Bohun , died in 1360, and the next year Henry of Grosmont , perhaps the greatest of Edward's captains, succumbed to what was probably plague. Their deaths left the majority of the magnates younger and more naturally aligned to the princes than to the king himself.

The king's second son, Lionel of Antwerp , attempted to subdue by force the largely autonomous Anglo-Irish lords in Ireland . The venture failed, and the only lasting mark he left were the suppressive Statutes of Kilkenny in 1366.[14]

In France, meanwhile, the decade following the Treaty of Brétigny was one of relative tranquillity, but on 8 April 1364 John II died in captivity in England, after unsuccessfully trying to raise his own ransom at home. He was followed by the vigorous Charles V , who enlisted the help of the capable Constable Bertrand du Guesclin .[15] In 1369, the French war started anew, and Edward's younger son John of Gaunt was given the responsibility of a military campaign. The effort failed, and with the Treaty of Bruges in 1375, the great English possessions in France were reduced to only the coastal towns of Calais, Bordeaux and Bayonne.[16]

Military failure abroad and the associated fiscal pressure of campaigning led to political discontent at home. The problems came to a head in the parliament of 1376, the so-called Good Parliament . The parliament was called to grant taxation, but the House of Commons took the opportunity to address specific grievances. In particular, criticism was directed at some of the king's closest advisors. Lord Chamberlain William Latimer and Lord Steward John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby were dismissed from their positions. Edward's mistress, Alice Perrers , who was seen to hold far too much power over the aging king, was banished from court.[17]

Yet the real adversary of the Commons, supported by powerful men such as Wykeham and Edmund de Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March , was John of Gaunt. Both the king and the Black Prince were by this time incapacitated by illness, leaving Gaunt in virtual control of government. Gaunt was forced to give in to the demands of parliament, but by its next convocation, in 1377, most of the achievements of the Good Parliament were reversed.[18]

Edward himself, however, did not have much to do with any of this; after around 1375 he played a limited role in the government.[19] Around 29 September 1376 he fell ill with a large abscess . After a brief period of recovery in February, the king died of a stroke (some sources say gonorrhea [20]) at Sheen on 21 June.[19] He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II , son of the Black Prince, since the Black Prince himself had died on 8 June 1376.



Death Notes: Wife - Philippa of Hainault

Died from the Black Death


Research Notes: Child - Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York




Private




Husband Private (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Private
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Private (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Efrog Gadarn King of Britain [Legendary]

Reigned 40 or 60 years. Contemporary of David.

From Wikipedia - Ebraucus :

Ebraucus (Welsh : Efrawg/Efrog) was a legendary king of the Britons , as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth . He was the son of King Mempricius before he abandoned the family.

Following the death of his father, Mempricius, he became king and reigned 39 years. According to Geoffrey he was admired, tall, and remarkably strong. He was the first to wage war on the Gauls since the time of Brutus . By pillaging the cities and shores and slaughtering many men, he became extremely wealthy and enriched the lands of Britain . He founded Kaerebrauc (City of Ebraucus) (later York ) north of the Humber , (see Eboracum ) and Alclud in Albany , (see Dunbarton , capital of Strathclyde ). He had twenty wives who produced twenty sons and thirty daughters. All his daughters he sent to his cousin Silvius Alba in Alba Longa (Italy) to be married to the other Trojan descendants. Except for Brutus Greenshield , all of Ebraucus's sons, led by Assaracus , went to Germany , creating a kingdom there. Brutus thus succeeded Ebraucus upon his death.


Research Notes: Child - Private

Reigned about 12 years.

From Wikipedia - Brutus Greenshield :

Brutus Greenshield (Welsh : Brutus Darian Las) was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth . He was the son of King Ebraucus .

Brutus, called Greenshield, was the eldest of twenty sons and the only remaining son of Ebraucus in Britain at the time of his death. All Ebraucus's other sons were in Germany establishing a new kingdom there. He reigned for twelve years after his father's death and was succeeded by his son, Leil .


Ega




Husband Ega 34

           Born: Abt 572 - <Neustria>, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 646
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Erchembaldus 35

           Born: Abt 590
     Christened: 
           Died: 661
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Gerberga (Abt 0574-      ) 36




Egbert King of Wessex and Rædburga




Husband Egbert King of Wessex

            AKA: Ecgberht King of the West Saxons
           Born: Abt 775 - Kent, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Between 837 and 839 - Wessex, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Eahlmund King of Kent (Abt 0745-0827)
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife Rædburga 37

            AKA: Raedburh, Redburga
           Born: Abt 777
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Æthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent 38 39




            AKA: Aethelwulf King of Wessex, Ethelwulf King of Wessex
           Born: Between 795 and 800
     Christened: 
           Died: 13 Jan 858
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Osburga (Abt 0805-After 0876) 5 40 41
           Marr: Bef 844
         Spouse: Judith Princess of France (0844-After 0870) 42 43 44
           Marr: 1 Oct 856 - Verberie-sur-Oise, (Oise), France



Research Notes: Husband - Egbert King of Wessex

King of Wessex 802-827, first king of all England 827-836.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871984 :

King of Wessex 802-839 and the first King of all England 827-839. Ecgberht became King of Wessex in 802, having previously spent some years serving in the army of Charlemange (RIN # 534) in Europe. He steadily increased the power and influence of Wessex, and in 825 defeated the Mercians at the Battle of Ellandun. Two years later, Northumbria submitted to him, and from 827 until his death in 839 Ecgberht was recognixed by his fellow kings as King of all England.

!Taken directly from "The Kings and Queens of England and Scotland" pg. 11

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), Line 1-12. "The male line of kings descends from him to Edward the Confessor and the female line to the present time."


Research Notes: Child - Æthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent

From Wikipedia - Æthelwulf of Wessex :

Æthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English : Æþelwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 - 858 ) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex . He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839 , whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames .

In 839 , Æthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Æthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Æthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Æthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Æthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga , had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald , Ethelbert , Ethelred , and Alfred . Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Æthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith , was married as a child to the king of Mercia .

... In 853 Æthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855 , about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Æthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome . In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald , King of the West Franks .

Upon their return to England in 856 Æthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Æthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Æthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Æthelwulf yielded Wessex proper to his son, and accepted Surrey, Sussex and Essex for himself. he ruled there until his death on January 13 , 858 . The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Æthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

... He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester . His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral .




William Longspée 3rd Earl of Salisbury and Ela Countess of Salisbury




Husband William Longspée 3rd Earl of Salisbury 12 45

            AKA: wILLIAM Longespée 3rd Earl of Salisbury
           Born: Abt 1176 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 Mar 1226 - Salisbury Castle, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
         Buried:  - Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England


         Father: Henry II "Curtmantel" King of England (1132-1189)
         Mother: Ida de Tosny (      -      ) 46 47


       Marriage: 1196



Wife Ela Countess of Salisbury 12 48

           Born: 1187 - Amesbury, Wiltshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Aug 1261 - Lacock Abbey, Lacock, Wiltshire, England
         Buried:  - Lacock Abbey, Lacock, Wiltshire, England


         Father: William FitzPatrick 2nd Earl of Salisbury (Abt 1150-1196) 12 48 49
         Mother: Eléonore de Vitré (Abt 1164-1233) 12 48


Events

• Founded: Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire, 1229.

• Sheriff of Wiltshire: 1226-1228.

• Entered: Lacock Abbey as a nun, 1238.

• Abbess: of Lacock Abbey, 1240-1257.


Children
1 M William II Longspée 12 50

            AKA: William II Longespée
           Born: Abt 1212 - Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Feb 1250 - (Mansoura), Egypt
         Buried:  - Acre, Palestine (Israel)
         Spouse: Idoine de Camville (Abt 1209-1251) 12 50
           Marr: Jun 1226



Research Notes: Husband - William Longspée 3rd Earl of Salisbury

Illegitimate son of Henry II, probably through Countess Ida.

From Wikipedia - William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury :

William Longespée, jure uxoris 3rd Earl of Salisbury (c. 1176 - 7 March 1226 ) was an English noble, primarily remembered for his command of the English forces at the Battle of Damme and for remaining loyal to King John .

He was an illegitimate son of Henry II of England . His mother was unknown for many years, until the discovery of a charter of William mentioning "Comitissa Ida, mater mea" (engl. "Countess Ida, my mother")[2] [3]


This Ida, a member of the prominent Tosny or Toesny family, later (1181) married Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk [4].

King Henry acknowledged William as his son and gave him the Honour of Appleby, Lincolnshire in 1188. Eight years later, his half-brother, King Richard I , married him to a great heiress, Ela, Countess of Salisbury in her own right, and daughter of William of Salisbury, 2nd Earl of Salisbury .

During the reign of King John, Salisbury was at court on several important ceremonial occasions, and held various offices: sheriff of Wiltshire , lieutenant of Gascony , constable of Dover and warden of the Cinque Ports , and later warden of the Welsh Marches . He was a commander in the king's Welsh and Irish expeditions of 1210-1212. The king also granted him the honour of Eye .

In 1213, Salisbury led a large fleet to Flanders , where he seized or destroyed a good part of a French invasion fleet anchored at or near Damme . This ended the invasion threat but not the conflicts between England and France . In 1214, Salisbury was sent to help Otto IV of Germany , an English ally, who was invading France. Salisbury commanded the right wing of the army at their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Bouvines , where he was captured.

By the time he returned to England, revolt was brewing amongst the barons. Salisbury was one of the few who remained loyal to John. In the civil war that took place the year after the signing of the Magna Carta , Salisbury was one of the leaders of the king's army in the south. However, after the French prince Louis (later Louis VIII ) landed as an ally of the rebels, Salisbury went over to his side. Presumably, he thought John's cause was lost.

After John's death and the departure of Louis, Salisbury, along with many other barons, joined the cause of John's young son, now Henry III of England . He held an influential place in the government during the king's minority and fought in Gascony to help secure the remaining part of the English continental possessions. Salisbury's ship was nearly lost in a storm while returning to England in 1225, and he spent some months in refuge at a monastery on the French island of Ré . He died not long after his return to England at Salisbury Castle . Roger of Wendover alleged that he was poisoned by Hubert de Burgh . He was buried at Salisbury Cathedral in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.

William Longespee's tomb was opened in 1791. Bizarrely, the well-preserved corpse of a rat which carried traces of arsenic [5], was found inside his skull. The rat is now on display in a case at the Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum.

Family
By his wife Ela, Countess of Salisbury , he had four sons and four daughters [6]:
William II Longespée (1212?-1250), who was sometimes called Earl of Salisbury but never legally bore the title because he died before his mother, Countess Ela, who held the earldom until her death in 1161;
Richard, a canon of Salisbury ;
Stephen (d. 1260), who was seneschal of Gascony;
Nicholas (d. 1297), bishop of Salisbury
Isabella, who married William de Vesey
Ella, married William d'Odingsels
Ela Longespée , who first married Thomas de Beaumont, 6th Earl of Warwick , and then married Philip Basset
Ida, who first married Ralph de Somery, and then William de Beauchamp


Burial Notes: Wife - Ela Countess of Salisbury

The incription on her tombstone, originally written in Latin, reads:
Below lie buried the bones of the venerable Ela, who gave this sacred house as a home for the nuns. She also had lived here as holy abbess and Countess of Salisbury, full of good works


Research Notes: Wife - Ela Countess of Salisbury

Only daughter and heiress of William FitzPatrick, who had no son.

From Wikipedia - Ela, Countess of Salisbury :

Ela, 3rd Countess of Salisbury (1187- 24 August 1261), was a wealthy English heiress and the suo jure Countess of Salisbury, having succeeded to the title in 1196 upon the death of her father, William FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Salisbury .[1] Her husband William Longespee , an illegitimate half-brother of kings Richard I of England and John of England assumed the title of 3rd Earl of Salisbury by right of his marriage to Ela, which took place in 1196 when she was nine years old.

Ela became a nun after William's death, then Abbess of Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire which she had founded in 1229. Mary, Queen of Scots , English kings Edward IV and Richard III , and three of the queens consort of King Henry VIII , Anne Boleyn , Jane Seymour , and Catherine Howard were among her many descendants.

Family
Ela was born in Amesbury , Wiltshire in 1187, the only child and heiress of William FitzPatrick, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, Sheriff of Wiltshire and Eléonore de Vitré (c.1164- 1232/1233).[2] Her paternal grandparents were Patrick of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Salisbury and Ela Talvas. Her maternal grandparents were Robert III de Vitré and Emma de Dinan, daughter of Alan de Dinan and Eléonore de Penthievre. In 1196, she succeeded her father as 3rd Countess of Salisbury suo jure. There is a story that immediately following her father's death she was imprisoned in a castle in Normandy by one of her paternal uncles who wished to take her title and enormous wealth for himself.

According to the legend, Ela was eventually rescued by William Talbot, a knight who had gone to France where he sang ballads under windows in all the castles of Normandy until he received a response from Ela.[3]


In 1198, Ela's mother married her fourth husband, Gilbert de Malesmains.

Marriage and children
In 1196, the same year she became countess and inherited her father's numerous estates, Ela married William Longespee, an illegitimate son of King Henry II of England , by his mistress Ida de Tosny, who later married Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk . Longespee became 3rd Earl of Salisbury by right of his wife. The Continuator of Florence recorded that their marriage had been arranged by King Richard I of England , who was William's legitimate half-brother.[1]


Together William and Ela had at least eight or possibly nine children:
William II Longespee , titular Earl of Salisbury (c.1209- 7 February 1250), married in 1216 Idoine de Camville, daughter of Richard de Camville and Eustache Basset, by whom he had four children. William was killed while on crusade at the Battle of Mansurah .

Richard Longespee, clerk and canon of Salisbury.
Stephen Longespee , Seneschal of Gascony and Justiciar of Ireland (1216- 1260), married as her second husband 1243/1244 Emmeline de Ridelsford, daughter of Walter de Ridelsford and Annora Vitré, by whom he had two daughters: Ela, wife of Sir Roger La Zouche, and Emmeline, the second wife of Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly .

Nicholas Longespee, Bishop of Salisbury (died 28 May 1297)
Isabella Longespee (died before 1244), married as his first wife shortly after 16 May 1226, William de Vescy, Lord of Alnwick, by whom she had issue.
Petronilla Longespee, died unmarried
Ela Longespee (died 9 Februry 1298), married firstly Thomas de Warwick, Earl of Warwick; married secondly Sir Philip Basset
Ida Longespee , married firstly Ralph de Somery, Baron of Dudley; she married secondly William de Beauchamp, Baron of Bedford , by whom she had six children, including Maud de Beauchamp, wife of Roger de Mowbray.[4]
Ida de Longespee (she is alternatively listed as William and Ela's granddaughter: see notes below), married Sir Walter FitzRobert of Woodham Walter, Essex , by whom she had issue including Ela FitzWalter FitzRobert, wife of William de Odyngsells.

Later life
In 1225, Ela's husband William was shipwrecked off the coast of Brittany , upon returning from Gascony. He spent months recovering at a monastery on the Island of Ré in France. He died at Salisbury Castle on 7 March 1226 just several days after arriving in England. Ela held the post of Sheriff of Wiltshire for two years following her husband's death.

Three years later in 1229, Ela founded Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire as a nunnery of the Augustinian order. In 1238, she entered the abbey as a nun ; she was made Abbess of Lacock in 1240, and held the post until 1257. The Book of Lacock recorded that Ela founded the monasteries at Lacock and Henton.[1] During her tenure as abbess, Ela obtained many rights for the abbey and village of Lacock.

Ela, Countess of Salisbury died on 24 August 1261 and was buried in Lacock Abbey. The incription on her tombstone, originally written in Latin, reads:
Below lie buried the bones of the venerable Ela, who gave this sacred house as a home for the nuns. She also had lived here as holy abbess and Countess of Salisbury, full of good works[5]


Her numerous descendants included English kings Edward IV and Richard III, Mary, Queen of Scots, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex , Sir Winston Churchill , Diana, Princess of Wales , the Dukes of Norfolk , Mary Boleyn , and queens consort Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, and Catherine Howard.

References
^ a b c Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, England, Earls of Salisbury 1196-1310 (Longespee)
^ The Earls of Salisbury are sometimes mistakenly assigned the surname "d'Evreux", but it is spurious, arising from confusion over the nickname of a fictitious ancestor, Walter le Ewrus (Walter the Fortunate). The family of the Earls of Salisbury never used the name "d'Evreux", they do not descend from the Norman Counts of Evreux, nor do the later Devereux derive from them. See Cokayne, George (1982). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct, or Dormant. XI. Gloucester England: A. Sutton. p. 373, note (b). ISBN 0904387828 .

^ Thomas B. Costain, The Conquering Family, pp.291-92, published by Doubleday and Company, Inc., New York, 1949.
^ This Ida is sometimes confused with another Ida Longespee, who married Sir Walter FitzRobert of Woodham Walter, Essex , by whom she had issue including Ela FitzWalter FitzRobert, wife of William de Odyngsells. This latter Ida Longespee has been given different parents by different genealogists; G. Andrews Moriarty suggested the two Idas were sisters; Gerald Paget suggests the Ida who married Walter FitzRobert may have been the daughter of William Longespee II, Earl of Salisbury, by his wife, Idoine de Camville.

^ History of Chitterne: Ela, Countess of Salibury


Death Notes: Child - William II Longspée

Died in the Battle of Al Mansurah, between crusaders led by Louis IX , King of France , and Ayyubid forces led by Emir Fakhr-ad-Din Yussuf, Faris ad-Din Aktai and Baibars al-Bunduqdari .


Research Notes: Child - William II Longspée

From Wikipedia - William II Longespée :

Sir William II Longespée (c. 1212 - 8 February, 1250) was the son of William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury , an English noble. His death became of significant importance to the English psyche, having died as a martyr due to the purported mistakes, and arrogance, of the French at the Battle of Mansurah , near Al-Mansurah in Egypt .

Longespee made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1240, and again in 1247. The second time, he proceeded to Rome and made a plea to Pope Innocent IV for support:

"Sir, you see that I am signed with the cross and am on my journey with the King of France to fight in this pilgrimage. My name is great and of note, viz., William Longespee, but my estate is slender, for the King of England , my kinsman and liege lord, hath bereft me of the title of earl and of that estate, but this he did judiciously, and not in displeasure, and by the impulse of his will; therefore I do not blame him for it. Howbeit, I am necessitated to have recourse to your holiness for favour, desiring your assistance in this distress. We see here (quoth he) that Earl Richard (of Cornwall) who, though he is not signed with the cross, yet, through the especial grace of your holiness, he hath got very much money from those who are signed, and therefore, I, who am signed and in want, do intreat the like favour."[1]

Having succeeded in gaining the favour of the Pope, Longespee raised a company of 200 English horse to join with Louis IX on his crusade. To raise funds for his expedition, he sold a charter of liberties to the burgesses of the town of Poole in 1248 for 70 marks .[2] During the Seventh Crusade , Longespee commanded the English forces. He became widely known for his feats of chivalry and his subsequent martyrdom. The circumstances of his death served to fuel growing English animosity toward the French; it is reported that the French Count d'Artois lured Longespee into attacking the Mameluks before the forces of King Louis IX arrived in support. Robert d'Artois, William II Longespee and his men, along with 280 Knights Templar , were killed at this time.

It is said that his mother, Abbess Ela Longespee, had a vision of the martyr being received into heaven by angels just one day prior to his death. In 1252, the Sultan delivered Longespee's remains to a messenger who conveyed them to Acre (Akko ) for burial at the church of St. Cross. However, his effigy is found amongst family members at Salisbury Cathedral , in England.

Marriage and issue
William married Idoine de Camville, daughter of Richard de Camville & Eustacia Basset. They had two sons and two daughters:
Ida Longespee , who married Walter FitzRobert Lord of Dunmow
Ela Longespee , married James De Audley (1220-1272), son of Henry De Audley & Bertred Mainwaring
William III Longespee
Richard Longespee


Henry III Count of Bar and Eleanor of England




Husband Henry III Count of Bar

           Born: 1259 - Naples, Italy
     Christened: 
           Died: Sep 1302
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 20 Sep 1283 - Bristol, England



Wife Eleanor of England

            AKA: Eleanor Plantagenet
           Born: 18 Jun 1269
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Aug 1298
         Buried:  - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England


         Father: King Edward I of England (1239-1307) 22 23
         Mother: Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu (1241-1290) 24 25




Children
1 M Edward I of Bar, Comte de Bar

           Born: 1284
     Christened: 
           Died: 1336
         Buried: 



2 F Eleanor

           Born: 1285
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Llywelyn ap Owain ap Maredudd (      -1309)


3 F Jeanne

           Born: 1295
     Christened: 
           Died: 1361
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Henry III Count of Bar

From Wikipedia - Henry III, Count of Bar :

Henry III of Bar (Henri III de Bar, 1259 -Naples , September 1302 ) was Count of Bar from 1291 to 1302. He was son of Thibault II of Bar and Jeanne de Toucy.

Life
His introduction to military life came as he was made a knight in a conflict between his father and the Bishop of Metz . He then served Ferry III of Lorraine . He was preparing to go on crusade when his father died.
In 1284 Jeanne de Navarre , countess of Champagne, had married the future Philip IV of France , making the county of Bar adjacent to the French royal domain. Henry's reaction was a marriage to Eleanor , daughter of Edward I of England . When war broke out in short order between France and England, Henry was drawn in. The fighting ceased after the 1301 Treaty of Bruges . Under its terms, Henry gave up some fortresses and paid homage to Philip for part of his lands, then called the Barrois mouvant . He also undertook to fight in Cyprus against the Muslim forces.
Henry therefore made his way to the Kingdom of Naples . In assisting Charles II of Naples against the invading forces of Frederick I of Sicily , he was wounded in fighting, and died soon afterwards.

Family
He married at Bristol on 20 September 1283 Eleanor of England (1269-1298) , daughter of Edward I of England , and Eleanor of Castile . Their children were :
Edward I of Bar (1284-1336), comte de Bar
Eleanor (b. 1285), who married Llewelyn ap Owain
Jeanne (1295-1361), who married John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey . The marriage was annulled 1315. Jeanne became regent of Bar from 1354.

Source
Georges Poull (1994), La Maison souveraine et ducale de Bar


Research Notes: Wife - Eleanor of England

From Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1269-1298) :

Eleanor of England (18 June 1269 - 29 August 1298 ), was the eldest surviving daughter of Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile .
For a long period she was betrothed to King Alphonso III of Aragon (d. 18 June 1291 ). However, Alphonso's death occurred before the marriage could take place.
Eleanor subsequently married the French nobleman, Henry III, Count of Bar in 1293, as a means of allying Bar and England against the Kings of France. Eleanor and Henry had three surviving children:
Edward I of Bar (1284-1336), comte de Bar
Eleanor (b. 1285), who married Llewelyn ap Owain
Jeanne (1295-1361), who married John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey . The marriage was annulled 1315. Jeanne became regent of Bar from 1354
Eleanor pre-deceased her husband and was buried 12 October 1298 in Westminster Abbey .


Research Notes: Child - Edward I of Bar, Comte de Bar

Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1269-1298)


Research Notes: Child - Eleanor

Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1269-1298)


Research Notes: Child - Jeanne

Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1269-1298)


King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence




Husband King Henry III of England 51 52




           Born: 1 Oct 1207 - Winchester Castle, Winchester, (Hampshire), England
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Nov 1272 - Westminster Palace, London, England
         Buried:  - Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, Middlesex, England


         Father: King John "Lackland" of England (1167-1216) 53 54
         Mother: Isabella of Angoulême (Abt 1186-1246)


       Marriage: 14 Jan 1237 - Canterbury, Kent, England

Events

• King of England: 1216-1272.




Wife Eleanor of Provence 55 56




           Born: Abt 1223
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 Jun 1291 - Amesbury, Wiltshire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Ramon Berenguer IV Count of Provence and Forcalquier (1195-1245)
         Mother: Beatrice of Savoy (      -      )




Children
1 M King Edward I of England 22 23




            AKA: Edward I "Hammer of the Scots," Edward I "Longshanks" King of England


           Born: 17 Jun 1239 - Westminster Palace, London, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 Jul 1307 - Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland, England


         Buried:  - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England
         Spouse: Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu (1241-1290) 24 25
           Marr: 18 Oct 1254 - Monastery of Las Huelgas
         Spouse: Marguerite of France (Abt 1275-1317/1318) 57
           Marr: 8 Sep 1299 - Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England


2 F Margaret of England 58

           Born: 29 Sep 1240 - Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 26 Feb 1275 - Cupar Castle
         Buried:  - Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland



3 F Beatrice of England 59

           Born: 25 Jun 1242 - Bordeaux, (Gironde), Aquitaine, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Mar 1275 - London, Middlesex, England
         Buried: 



4 M Edmund "Crouchback" 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester 60




           Born: 16 Jan 1245 - London, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 5 Jun 1296 - Bayonne, (Pyrènées-Atlantiques), Aquitaine, France
         Buried: 15 Jul 1296 - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England
         Spouse: Blanche of Artois (Between 1245/1250-1302) 61
           Marr: 29 Oct 1276 - Paris, (Île-de-France), France


5 F Katharine

           Born: 1253
     Christened: 
           Died: 1257
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - King Henry III of England

From Wikipedia - Henry III of England :

Henry III (1 October 1207 - 16 November 1272 ) was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England , reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. Mediaeval English monarchs did not use numbers after their names, and his contemporaries knew him as Henry of Winchester. He was the first child king in England since the reign of Ethelred the Unready . Despite his long reign, his personal accomplishments were slim and he was a political and military failure. England, however, prospered during his century and his greatest monument is Westminster , which he made the seat of his government and where he expanded the abbey as a shrine to Edward the Confessor .

He assumed the crown under the regency of the popular William Marshal , but the England he inherited had undergone several drastic changes in the reign of his father. He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta [citation needed ] and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first "parliament " in 1264. He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy , Anjou , and Aquitaine .

Coronation
Henry III was born in 1207 at Winchester Castle . He was the son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême . After his father's death in 1216, Henry, who was nine at the time, was hastily crowned in Gloucester Cathedral ; he was the first child monarch since the Norman invasion of England in 1066. The coronation was a simple affair, attended by only a handful of noblemen and three bishops. None of his father's executors was present, and in the absence of a crown a simple golden band was placed on the young boy's head, not by the Archbishop of Canterbury (who was at this time supporting Prince Louis of France , the newly-proclaimed king of England) but rather by the Bishop of Gloucester . In 1220, a second coronation was ordered by Pope Honorius III who did not consider that the first had been carried out in accordance with church rites. This occurred on 17 May 1220 in Westminster Abbey .[1]

Under John's rule, the barons had supported an invasion by Prince Louis because they disliked the way that John had ruled the country. However, they quickly saw that the young prince was a safer option. Henry's regents immediately declared their intention to rule by Magna Carta , which they proceeded to do during Henry's minority. Magna Carta was reissued in 1217 as a sign of goodwill to the barons and the country was ruled by regents until 1227...

Death
Henry's reign ended when he died in 1272, after which he was succeeded by his son, Edward I . His body was laid, temporarily, in the tomb of Edward the Confessor while his own sarcophagus was constructed in Westminster Abbey ...


Marriage and children
Married on 14 January 1236 , Canterbury Cathedral , Canterbury , Kent , to Eleanor of Provence , with at least five children born:
Edward I (b. 17 January 1239 - d. 8 July 1307 )
Margaret (b. 29 September 1240 - d. 26 February 1275 ), married King Alexander III of Scotland
Beatrice (b. 25 June 1242 - d. 24 March 1275 ), married to John II, Duke of Brittany
Edmund (16 January 1245 - d. 5 June 1296 )
Katharine (b. 25 November 1253 - d. 3 May 1257 ), deafness was discovered at age 2. [1]

There is reason to doubt the existence of several attributed children of Henry and Eleanor.
Richard (b. after 1247 - d. before 1256 ),
John (b. after 1250 - d. before 1256 ), and
Henry (b. after 1253 - d. young)

Are known only from a 14th century addition made to a manuscript of Flores historiarum , and are nowhere contemporaneously recorded.
William (b. and d. ca. 1258 ) is an error for the nephew of Henry's half-brother, William de Valence .
Another daughter, Matilda, is found only in the Hayles abbey chronicle, alongside such other fictitious children as a son named William for King John , and a bastard son named John for King Edward I . Matilda's existence is doubtful, at best. For further details, see Margaret Howell, The Children of King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence (1992).

Personal details
His Royal Motto was qui non dat quod habet non accipit ille quod optat (He who does not give what he has, does not receive what he wants).
His favorite wine was made with the Loire Valley red wine grape Pineau d'Aunis which Henry first introduced to England in the thirteenth century. [2]
His favourite oath was "By the face of Lucca", referring to the Volto Santo di Lucca .
He built a Royal Palace in the town of Cippenham , Slough , Berkshire named "Cippenham Moat ".

In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, which contributed to the emergence of the Hanseatic League .


Research Notes: Wife - Eleanor of Provence

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 111-30.

From Wikipedia - Eleanor of Provence (different dates from above):

Eleanor of Provence (c. 1223 - 26 June 1291 ) was Queen Consort of King Henry III of England .

Born in Aix-en-Provence , she was the daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence (1198-1245) and Beatrice of Savoy (1206-1266), the daughter of Tomasso, Count of Savoy and his second wife Marguerite of Geneva . All four of their daughters became queens. Like her mother, grandmother, and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty.[citation needed ] Eleanor was probably born in 1223; Matthew Paris describes her as being "jamque duodennem" (already twelve) when she arrived in the Kingdom of England for her marriage.

Eleanor was married to Henry III, King of England (1207-1272) on January 14 , 1236 . She had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his impoverished kingdom.[citation needed ] Edmund Rich , Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated.

Eleanor and Henry had five children:
Edward I (1239-1307)
Margaret of England (1240-1275), married King Alexander III of Scotland
Beatrice of England (1242 - 1275), married John II, Duke of Brittany
Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster (1245-1296)
Katharine (25 November 1253 - 3 May 1257 )

Eleanor seems to have been especially devoted to her eldest son, Edward; when he was deathly ill in 1246, she stayed with him at the abbey at Beaulieu for three weeks, long past the time allowed by monastic rules.[citation needed ] It was because of her influence that King Henry granted the duchy of Gascony to Edward in 1249.[citation needed ] Her youngest child, Katharine, seems to have had a degenerative disease that rendered her deaf. When she died aged four, both her royal parents suffered overwhelming grief.[citation needed ]


She was a confident consort to Henry, but she brought in her retinue a large number of cousins, "the Savoyards," and her influence with the King and her unpopularity with the English barons created friction during Henry's reign.[citation needed ] Eleanor was devoted to her husband's cause, stoutly contested Simon de Montfort , raising troops in France for Henry's cause. On July 13 , 1263 , she was sailing down the Thames on a barge when her barge was attacked by citizens of London. In fear for her life, Eleanor was rescued by Thomas FitzThomas , the mayor of London, and took refuge at the bishop of London's home.

In 1272 Henry died, and her son Edward, 33 years old, became Edward I, King of England . She stayed on in England as Dowager Queen , and raised several of her grandchildren -- Edward's son Henry and daughter Eleanor, and Beatrice's son John . When her grandson Henry died in her care in 1274, Eleanor mourned him and his heart was buried at the priory at Guildford she founded in his memory. Eleanor retired to a convent but remained in touch with her son and her sister, Marguerite.
Eleanor died in 1291 in Amesbury , England .

References
Margaret Howell, Eleanor of Provence: Queenship in Thirteenth-century England, 1997


Notes: Marriage

Ancestral Roots has m. 14 Jan 1237 and m. 14 Jan 1236


Research Notes: Child - King Edward I of England

From Wikipedia - Edward I of England :

Edward I (17 June 1239 - 7 July 1307 ), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as "Edward the Lawgiver" or "the English Justinian" because of his legal reforms, and as "Hammer of the Scots",[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried (but failed) to do the same to Scotland . He reigned from 1272 to 1307, ascending the throne of England on 20 November 1272 after the death of his father, King Henry III . His mother was queen consort Eleanor of Provence .
As regnal post-nominal numbers were a Norman (as opposed to English) custom, Edward Longshanks is known as Edward I, even though he is the fourth King Edward, following Edward the Elder , Edward the Martyr , and Edward the Confessor ....

Childhood and marriage to Eleanor
Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the evening of 17 June 1239 .[3] He was an older brother of Beatrice of England , Margaret of England and Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster . He was named after Edward the Confessor . [4] From 1239 to 1246 Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard (the son of Godfrey Giffard ) and his wife, Sybil, who had been one of the midwives at Edward's birth. On Giffard's death in 1246, Bartholomew Pecche took over. Early grants of land to Edward included Gascony , but Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester had been appointed by Henry to seven years as royal lieutenant in Gascony in 1248, a year before the grant to Edward, so in practice Edward derived neither authority nor revenue from the province.
Edward's first marriage (age 15) was arranged in 1254 by his father and Alfonso X of Castile . Alfonso had insisted that Edward receive grants of land worth 15,000 marks a year and also asked to knight him; Henry had already planned a knighthood ceremony for Edward but conceded. Edward crossed the Channel in June, and was knighted by Alfonso and married to Eleanor of Castile (age 13) on 1 November 1254 in the monastery of Las Huelgas .
Eleanor and Edward would go on to have sixteen children, and her death in 1290 affected Edward deeply. He displayed his grief by erecting the Eleanor crosses , one at each place where her funeral cortège stopped for the night. His second marriage, (age 60) at Canterbury on September 10 , 1299 , to Marguerite of France , (age 17) (known as the "Pearl of France" by her English subjects), the daughter of King Philip III of France (Phillip the Bold) and Maria of Brabant , produced three children...

Welsh Wars

Edward I depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902 )
One of King Edward's early moves was the conquest of Wales . Under the 1267 Treaty of Montgomery , Llywelyn ap Gruffydd had extended Welsh territories southwards into what had been the lands of the English Marcher Lords , and gained the title of Prince of Wales although he still owed homage to the English monarch as overlord. King Edward refused to recognize this Treaty - which had been concluded by his father - and in 1275, pirates in King Edward's pay intercepted a ship carrying Eleanor de Montfort , Simon de Montfort's only daughter, from France to Wales , where she expected to marry Llywelyn. Edward then imprisoned her at Windsor . After Llywelyn repeatedly refused to pay homage to Edward in 1274-1275, Edward raised an army and launched his first campaign against the Welsh prince in 1276-1277. After this campaign, Llywelyn was forced to pay homage to Edward and was stripped of all but a rump of territory in Gwynedd . But Edward allowed Llywelyn to retain the title of Prince of Wales , and the marriage with Eleanor de Montfort went ahead.
Llywelyn's younger brother, Dafydd (who had briefly been an ally of the English) started another rebellion in 1282. But Edward quickly destroyed the remnants of resistance, capturing, brutally torturing, and executing Dafydd in the following year. To consolidate his conquest, he commenced the construction of a string of massive stone castles encircling the principality, of which Caernarfon Castle provides a notable surviving example.
Wales became incorporated into England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301, Edward dubbed his eldest son Edward first Prince of Wales , since which time the eldest son of most English monarchs have borne the same title, the only exception being Edward III .

Scottish Wars

Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As Duke of Aquitaine , Edward was a vassal to the French king.
Edward then turned his attentions to Scotland. He had planned to marry off his son and heir Edward , to the heiress Margaret, the Maid of Norway , but when Margaret died with no clear successor, the Scottish Guardians invited Edward's arbitration, to prevent the country from descending into dynastic war. Before the process got underway Edward insisted that he be recognized as Lord Paramount of Scotland, the feudal superior of the realm and, after some initial resistance, this precondition was finally accepted.
Edward presided over a feudal court held at the castle of Berwick-upon-Tweed in November 1292, where judgment was given in favour of John Balliol over other candidates . Balliol was chosen as the candidate with the strongest claim in feudal law, but Edward subsequently used the concessions he had gained to undermine the authority of the new king even summoning Balliol to do homage to him in Westminster in 1293. Edward also made it clear he expected John's military and financial support against France. This was too much for Balliol, who concluded a pact with France and prepared an army to invade England.
In response Edward gathered his largest army yet (25,000) and razed Berwick , massacring almost the whole population of 11,000 inhabitants. During the Scottish campaign, he made extensive use of a large trebuchet called the Warwolf .
After Berwick, he proceeded to Dunbar and Edinburgh , also removing the Stone of Destiny from Perth to Westminster Abbey. Balliol renounced the crown and was imprisoned in the Tower of London for three years before withdrawing to his estates in France. All freeholders in Scotland were required to swear an oath of homage to Edward, and he ruled Scotland like a province through English viceroys .
Opposition sprang up (see Wars of Scottish Independence ), and Edward executed the focus of discontent, William Wallace , on 23 August 1305 , having earlier defeated him at the Battle of Falkirk (1298) .
Edward was known to be fond of falconry and horse riding . The names of his horses have survived: Lyard, his war horse; Ferrault his hunting horse; and his favourite, Bayard. At the Siege of Berwick, Edward is said to have led the assault personally, using Bayard to leap over the earthen defences of the city.

Later career and death
Edward's later life was fraught with difficulty, as he lost his beloved first wife Eleanor and his heir failed to develop the expected kingly character.
Edward's plan to conquer Scotland never came to fruition during his lifetime, however, as he died in 1307 at Burgh-by-Sands , Cumberland on the Scottish border, while on his way to wage another campaign against the Scots under the leadership of Robert the Bruce . According to chroniclers, Edward desired to have his bones carried on Scottish military campaigns, and that his heart be taken to the Holy Land. Against his wishes, Edward was buried in Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb, which in later years was painted with the words Scottorum malleus, Latin for Hammer of the Scots.[7] He was buried in a lead casket wishing to be moved to the usual regal gold casket only when Scotland was fully conquered and part of the Kingdom of England.
On 2 January 1774 , the Society of Antiquaries opened the coffin and discovered that his body had been perfectly preserved for 467 years. His body was measured to be 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm).[8]
To this day he still lies in the lead casket - although the thrones of Scotland and England were united in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I and the accession of James VI of Scotland to the English throne, and the Kingdom of Great Britain was created in 1707 by the Acts of Union 1707 , uniting Scotland and England in an incorporating union, the conquest Edward envisaged was never completed. His son, King Edward II of England , succeeded him...

Issue
Children of Edward and Eleanor:
Eleanor , born ca. 17 June 1264 (or possibly as late as 1269, although the issue rolls of 1302 describe her as Edward's eldest daughter) and died 12 October 1298 . She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon , who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and on 20 September 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar .
Joan, born Summer 1265, either in Paris, or perhaps at Abbeville, Ponthieu. She died in France but was buried at Westminster Abbey before September 7 , 1265 .
John, born at either Windsor or Kenilworth Castle June or July 10 , 1266 , died August 1 or 1271 at Wallingford , in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall . Buried at Westminster Abbey .
Henry , born on July 13 1267/8 at Windsor Castle, died October 14 , 1274 either at Merton, Surrey, or at Guildford Castle.
Alice, born at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, but the date of her birth is unknown. May have died at the age of twelve. Sometimes identified with the child, Isabella, born in March 1279 , but this cannot be correct, as that infant's funeral took place during the same year.
Juliana (also known as Katherine) born at Acre, Palestine, in 1271, and died there on 28 May or 5 September 1271
Joan of Acre . Born at Acre in Spring 1272 and died at her manor of Clare, Suffolk on April 23 , 1307 and was buried in the priory church of the Austin friars, Clare, Suffolk. She married (1) Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , (2) Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer .
Alphonso, Earl of Chester , born either at Bayonne, at Bordeaux, Gascony or at Maine 24 November 1273 , died 14 or 19 August 1284 , at Windsor Castle, buried in Westminster Abbey .
Margaret , born September 11 , 1275 at Windsor Castle and died in 1318, being buried in the Collegiate Church of St. Gudule, Brussels. She married John II of Brabant .
Berengaria (also known as Berenice), born 1 May 1276 at Kempton Palace, Surrey and died on June 27 , 1278 , buried in Westminster Abbey .
Mary, born 11 March or 22 April 1278 at Windsor Castle and died 8 July 1332 , a nun in Amesbury , Wiltshire , England.
Isabella, born on 12 March 1279 , either at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, at Windsor Castle or at Marlbourgh Castle Wiltshire, she died in 1279, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan , born August 1282 at Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire, Wales, died c.5 May 1316 at Quendon, Essex, in childbirth, and was buried in Walden Abbey, Essex. She married (1) John I, Count of Holland , (2) Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex .
Edward II of England , also known as Edward of Caernarvon , born 25 April 1284 at Caernarvon Castle, Wales, murdered 21 September 1327 at Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, buried in Gloucester Cathedral. He married Isabella of France .
Beatrice born after 12 August 1286 either in Gascony or in Aquitaine. She died young.
Blanche born in 1289/90 and died young.
Children of Edward and Marguerite:
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk born 1 June 1300 at Brotherton, Yorkshire, died between the 4 August and 20 September 1338, was buried in the abbey of Bury-St.-Edmunds, married (1) Alice Hayles, with issue; (2) Mary Brewes, with issue.
Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent , 5 August 1301 at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, married Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell with issue. Executed by Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer on the 19 March 1330 following the overthrow of Edward II.
Eleanor, born 4 May 1306 at Winchester, died in 1311 at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, buried in Beaulieu Abbey, Hants.

References
Michael Prestwich , Edward I (London: Methuen, 1988, updated edition Yale University Press , 1997 ISBN 0-300-07209-0 )
Thomas B. Costain, The Three Edwards (Popular Library, 1958, 1962, ISBN 0-445-08513-4 )
The Times Kings & Queens of The British Isles, by Thomas Cussans (page 84, 86, 87) ISBN 0-0071-4195-5
GWS Barrow, Robert Bruce and the community of the realm of scotland




Research Notes: Child - Margaret of England

From Wikipedia - Margaret of England :

Margaret of England (29 September 1240 - 26 February 1275) was a medieval English princess who became Queen of Scots . A daughter of the Plantagenet king Henry III of England and his queen, Eleanor of Provence , she was Queen consort to Alexander III "the Glorious" , King of the Scots .

She was the second child of Henry III of England and his wife, Eleanor of Provence , and was born at Windsor Castle .

Margaret was married on 26 December 1251, at York Minster , to King Alexander III of Scotland , with whom she had three children:

Children
Margaret , Princess of Scotland (1260/61-1283), who married Eirik II of Norway
Alexander, Prince of Scotland (21 January 1263 Jedburgh - 28 January 1283 Lindores Abbey ); buried in Dunfermline Abbey
David of Scotland (20 March 1272 - June 1281 Stirling Castle ); buried in Dunfermline Abbey

Death & Burial
She died 26 February 1275, at Cupar Castle, and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey , Fife .


Research Notes: Child - Beatrice of England

From Wikipedia - Beatrice of England :

"Beatrice of England", also known as "Beatrice de Dreux" (born 25 June 1242-1275) Born in Bordeaux, France. She was the second daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence , and sister of Edward I of England , Margaret, Queen of Scotland , Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster , Richard of England, John of England, Katherine of England, William of England, and Henry of England. She and her family were members of the Royal house of Plantagenet , which first ruled in the 12th century and was founded by Henry II of England .

Tragedy plagued Beatrice's childhood. Her oldest brother Edward became deathly ill when she was very young. Though he recovered, Beatrice's younger siblings Richard, Henry, William, Katharine, and John died at very young ages, leaving Beatrice's parents grief-stricken. Eleanor was especially upset about the death of her youngest daughter Katharine, who possibly had a degenerative disease that had caused her to become deaf and eventually die at the age of three.

Beatrice's childhood was also marred by the stresses of her father's reign. The English were unhappy with King Henry III owing to the influence that Eleanor and her Savoyard kinsmen exercised on the monarchy, and the Barons demanded more power. In 1263, Eleanor was sailing on a barge that was attacked by London citizens. This harsh, bitter, dislike created several problems for Henry III and his family. On the other hand, Eleanor and Henry enjoyed a happy marriage, and Beatrice grew up in a loving environment, close to her siblings.

Adult life
At one point, Henry conducted negotiations for Beatrice to marry the king of France and also rejected a proposal that she should wed the son of the King of Norway. When she was eighteen she married John II, Duke of Brittany . Beatrice later changed her name to Beatrice de Dreux, and she and John II had seven children:
Arthur II, Duke of Brittany
John de Bretagne, 1st Earl of Richmond
Marie de Dreux , wife of Guy III of Châtillon (1268-1339)
Pierre, Viscount de Leon (1269-1312)
Blanche de Dreux , wife of Philip of Artois (1271-1327)
Eleonore, Abbess of Fontevrault (1274-1329)

Death
Beatrice died on 24 March 1275 in London , England . Her death was once said to have occurred in childbirth, but the dates do not bear out this theory, which has been disproved in several articles. John II honored his wife with a chantry , an institutional chapel on private land or within a greater church, which was to be finished when he died, so that he and Beatrice would be together again. Beatrice was buried at Grey Friars Church in Greenwich , London.


Research Notes: Child - Edmund "Crouchback" 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 17-28

Wikipedia:
"...soon after the forfeiture of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester in 1265, Edmund received the Earldom of Leicester and of Lancaster and also the honour of the Stewardship of England and the lands of Nicolas de Segrave.
"In 1271 he accompanied his elder brother Edward [I Longshanks] on the Ninth Crusade to Palestine. It was because of this he received the nickname Crouchback (or cross back) indicating that he was entitled to wear a cross on his back."

Much more info in Wikipedia & other sources.


John de Beaumont Earl of Buchan, 2nd Lord Beaumont and Eleanor of Lancaster




Husband John de Beaumont Earl of Buchan, 2nd Lord Beaumont 62 63

           Born: 1318
     Christened: 
           Died: 14 Apr 1342
         Buried: 


         Father: Henry Beaumont 4th Earl of Buchan (Abt 1288-1340)
         Mother: Alice Comyn (1289-1349) 64


       Marriage: 6 Nov 1330 64



Wife Eleanor of Lancaster 65 66

            AKA: Eleanor Plantagenet
           Born: Abt 1318 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: 11 Jan 1372 - Arundel Castle, West Sussex, England
         Buried:  - Lewes Priory, Lewes, Sussex, England


         Father: Henry 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester (Abt 1281-1345) 67 68
         Mother: Maud de Chaworth Countess of Lancaster & Countess of Leicester (1282-Bef 1322) 69 70 71



   Other Spouse: Sir Richard "Copped Hat" FitzAlan 10th Earl of Arundel and Warenne (Abt 1313-1376) 72 73 74 - 5 Feb 1345 - Ditton Church, Stokes Poges, Buckinghamshire, England


Children
1 M Henry Beaumont 3rd Lord Beaumont

           Born: 1340
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



2 F Matilda Beaumont

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Jul 1467
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - John de Beaumont Earl of Buchan, 2nd Lord Beaumont

First husband of Eleanor of Lancaster.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 17-30 (Eleanor of Lancaster). Has d. bet 24 Feb 1342 and 25 May 1342.

Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of Lancaster has d. in a tournament on 14 Apr 1342.


Research Notes: Wife - Eleanor of Lancaster

Second wife of Richard (FitzAlan) d'Arundel.

From Wikipedia - Eleanor of Lancaster :

Eleanor of Lancaster (sometimes called Eleanor Plantagenet 1) (about 1315 - 11 January 1372 ) was born as the fifth daughter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster (c. 1281-1345) and his wife Maud Chaworth (1282-1322).


First marriage and offspring
Sometime between September 1 and November 6 , 1330 , she married John de Beaumont, 2nd Lord Beaumont , son of Henry Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan (c. 1288 - 1340) and his wife Alice Comyn (c. 1291-1349). They had two children:
Henry Beaumont, 3rd Lord Beaumont , born 1340
Matilda Beaumont (died July 1467), married Hugh de Courtenay
Eleanor was a lady-in-waiting to Queen Philippa , and was in service to her in Ghent when her son Henry was born. John de Beaumont died in a tournament on 14 April 1342 .

Second marriage
On 5 February 1344 at Ditton Church , Stoke Poges , Buckinghamshire , she married Richard Fitzalan, 10th Earl of Arundel (9th Earl of Arundel per Ancestral Roots), 4th Earl of Surrey, known by the soubriquet of "Copped Hat", Justiciar of North Wales, Governor of Carnarvon Castle, Admiral of the West.2

His previous marriage, to Isabel le Despenser , had taken place when they were children. It was annulled by Papal mandate as she, since her father's attainder and execution, had ceased to be of any importance to him. Pope Clement VI obligingly annulled the marriage, bastardized the issue, and provided a dispensation for his second marriage to the woman with whom he had been living in adultery (the dispensation, dated 4 March 1344 /1345 , was required because his first and second wives were first cousins).
The children of Eleanor's second marriage were:
Richard (1346-1397), who succeeded as Earl of Arundel
John Fitzalan (bef 1349-1379)
Thomas Arundel , Archbishop of York (c. 1345-February 19 , 1413 )
Joan Fitzalan (bef. 1351-April 17 , 1419 ), married Humphrey de Bohun, 7th Earl of Hereford
Alice Fitzalan (1352 -March 17 , 1416 ), married Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent (Thomas Holand)

Eleanor died at Arundel and was buried at Lewes Priory in Lewes , Sussex , England. Her husband was buried beside her; in his will Richard requests to be buried "near to the tomb of Eleanor de Lancaster, my wife; and I desire that my tomb be no higher than hers, that no men at arms, horses, hearse, or other pomp, be used at my funeral, but only five torches...as was about the corpse of my wife, be allowed."

Sources
Fowler, Kenneth. The King's Lieutenant, 1969
Nicolas, Nicholas Harris. Testamenta Vetusta, 1826.
Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 17-30, 21-30, 28-33, 97-33, 114-31

Notes
1The surname "Plantagenet" has been retrospectively applied to the descendants of Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou and Empress Matilda without historical justification: it is simply a convenient, if deceptive, method of referring to people who had, in fact, no surname. The first descendant of Geoffrey to use the surname was Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York (father of both Edward IV of England and Richard III of England ) who apparently assumed it about 1448.
2also called Richard de Arundel.


Research Notes: Child - Henry Beaumont 3rd Lord Beaumont

Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of Lancaster


Research Notes: Child - Matilda Beaumont

Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of Lancaster


Sources


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19. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 45-17, 147-19.

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51. Wikipedia.org, Henry III of England.

52. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-26, 17-27.

53. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Lines 1-25, 29A-26.

54. Wikipedia.org, Line 1-25.

55. Wikipedia.org, Eleanor of Provence.

56. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 111-30, 1-26 (Henry III).

57. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 155-30.

58. Wikipedia.org, Margaret of England.

59. Wikipedia.org, Beatrice of England.

60. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 17-28, 45-30 (Blanche of Artois).

61. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 45-30.

62. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 17-30 (Eleanor of Lancaster).

63. Wikipedia.org, Eleanor of Lancaster, Alice Comyn.

64. Wikipedia.org, Alice Comyn.

65. Wikipedia.org, Eleanor of Lancaster.

66. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 17-30.

67. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 17-29.

68. Wikipedia.org, Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster.

69. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 72-32, 17-29 (Henry "of Lancaster").

70. Wikipedia.org, Maud Chaworth.

71. Website:, Chaworth Family Genealogy by Albert Douglass Hart, Jr ("Our Folk").

72. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 60-32, 28-33.

73. Wikipedia.org, Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel.

74. Cambrian Archæological Association, Archæologia Cambrensis, the Journal of the Cambrian Archæological Association. (Vol. 7, 6th series. London: Chas. J. Clark, 1907.), pp. 11-12.


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70 Wikipedia.org, Maud Chaworth.

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73 Wikipedia.org, Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel.

74 Cambrian Archæological Association, Archæologia Cambrensis, the Journal of the Cambrian Archæological Association. (Vol. 7, 6th series. London: Chas. J. Clark, 1907.), pp. 11-12.


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