The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Odin [Mythological] and Freya [Mythological]




Husband Odin [Mythological] 1 2

            AKA: Woden, Wotan, Woutan
           Born: Abt 215 - <Asgard or Asia or East Europe>
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         Father: Frithuwald [Mythological] (Abt 0190-      ) 3
         Mother: Beltsa [Mythological] (Abt 0194-      ) 4


       Marriage: 



Wife Freya [Mythological] 5 6

            AKA: Frea, Freia, Freyja, Friege
           Born: Abt 219 - <Asgard or Asia or East Europe>
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Children
1 M Skjöldr King of Denmark [Legendary] 7 8

            AKA: Skioldus, Skjold King of the Danes
           Born: Abt 237 - <Hleithra, Denmark>
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         Spouse: Gefion (      -      ) 9




Research Notes: Husband - Odin [Mythological]

The Norse god Odin.

From Wikipedia - Odin :

Odin (pronounced /'o?d?n/ from Old Norse Óđinn), is considered the chief god in Norse paganism . Homologous with the Anglo-Saxon Woden and the Old High German Wotan , it is descended from Proto-Germanic *Wodinaz or *W. The name Odin is generally accepted as the modern translation; although, in some cases, older translations of his name may be used or preferred. His name is related to ođr , meaning "fury, excitation", besides "mind", or "poetry". His role, like many of the Norse gods, is complex. He is associated with wisdom , war , battle, and death, and also magic , poetry , prophecy , victory, and the hunt.

Origins
Worship of Odin may date to Proto-Germanic paganism . The Roman historian Tacitus may refer to Odin when he talks of Mercury . The reason is that, like Mercury, Odin was regarded as Psychopompos ,"the leader of souls."

As Odin is closely connected with a horse and spear, and transformation/shape shifting into animal shapes, an alternative theory of origin contends that Odin, or at least some of his key characteristics, may have arisen just prior to the sixth century as a nightmareish horse god (Echwaz), later signified by the eight-legged Sleipnir . Some support for Odin as a late comer to the Scandinavian Norse pantheon can be found in the Sagas where, for example, at one time he is thrown out of Asgard by the other gods - a seemingly unlikely tale for a well established "all father". Scholars who have linked Odin with the "Death God" template include E. A. Ebbinghaus , Jan de Vries and Thor Templin . The later two also link Loki and Odin as being one-and-the-same until the early Norse Period. Odin only has one eye.

Scandinavian Óđinn emerged from Proto-Norse *W during the Migration period , artwork of this time (on gold bracteates ) depicting the earliest scenes that can be aligned with the High Medieval Norse mythological texts. The context of the new elites emerging in this period aligns with Snorri 's tale of the indigenous Vanir who were eventually replaced by the Ćsir , intruders from the Continent.[1]


Parallels between Odin and Celtic Lugus have often been pointed out: both are intellectual gods, commanding magic and poetry. Both have ravens and a spear as their attributes, and both are one-eyed. Julius Caesar (de bello Gallico, 6.17.1) mentions Mercury as the chief god of Celtic religion . A likely context of the diffusion of elements of Celtic ritual into Germanic culture is that of the Chatti , who lived at the Celtic-Germanic boundary in Hesse during the final centuries before the Common Era. (It must be remembered that Odin in his Proto-Germanic form was not the chief god, but that he only gradually replaced Týr during the Migration period .)

Prose Edda

Odin had three residences in Asgard. First was Gladsheim , a vast hall where he presided over the twelve Diar or Judges, whom he had appointed to regulate the affairs of Asgard. Second, Valaskjálf , built of solid silver , in which there was an elevated place, Hlidskjalf , from his throne on which he could perceive all that passed throughout the whole earth. Third was Valhalla (the hall of the fallen), where Odin received the souls of the warriors killed in battle, called the Einherjar . The souls of women warriors, and those strong and beautiful women whom Odin favored, became Valkyries , who gather the souls of warriors fallen in battle (the Einherjar ), as these would be needed to fight for him in the battle of Ragnarök . They took the souls of the warriors to Valhalla. Valhalla has five hundred and forty gates, and a vast hall of gold , hung around with golden shields, and spears and coats of mail.

Odin has a number of magical artifacts associated with him: the spear Gungnir , which never misses its target; a magical gold ring (Draupnir ), from which every ninth night eight new rings appear; and two ravens Huginn and Muninn (Thought and Memory ), who fly around Earth daily and report the happenings of the world to Odin in Valhalla at night. He also owned Sleipnir , an octopedal horse , who was given to Odin by Loki , and the severed head of Mímir , which foretold the future. He also commands a pair of wolves named Geri and Freki , to whom he gives his food in Valhalla since he consumes nothing but mead or wine. From his throne, Hlidskjalf (located in Valaskjalf ), Odin could see everything that occurred in the universe . The Valknut (slain warrior's knot) is a symbol associated with Odin. It consists of three interlaced triangles.

Odin is an ambivalent deity. Old Norse (Viking Age ) connotations of Odin lie with "poetry, inspiration" as well as with "fury, madness and the wanderer." Odin sacrificed his eye (which eye he sacrificed is unclear) at Mímir 's spring in order to gain the Wisdom of Ages. Odin gives to worthy poets the mead of inspiration, made by the dwarfs, from the vessel Óđ-rśrir.[2]


Odin is associated with the concept of the Wild Hunt , a noisy, bellowing movement across the sky, leading a host of slain warriors.

Consistent with this, Snorri Sturluson 's Prose Edda depicts Odin as welcoming the great, dead warriors who have died in battle into his hall, Valhalla , which, when literally interpreted, signifies the hall of the slain. The fallen, the einherjar , are assembled and entertained by Odin in order that they in return might fight for, and support, the gods in the final battle of the end of Earth, Ragnarök . Snorri also wrote that Freyja receives half of the fallen in her hall Folkvang .

He is also a god of war, appearing throughout Norse myth as the bringer of victory.[citations needed ] In the Norse sagas , Odin sometimes acts as the instigator of wars, and is said to have been able to start wars by simply throwing down his spear Gungnir , and/or sending his valkyries , to influence the battle toward the end that he desires. The Valkyries are Odin's beautiful battle maidens that went out to the fields of war to select and collect the worthy men who died in battle to come and sit at Odin's table in Valhalla, feasting and battling until they had to fight in the final battle, Ragnarök . Odin would also appear on the battle-field, sitting upon his eight-legged horse Sleipnir , with his two ravens, one on each shoulder, Hugin (Thought) and Munin (Memory) , and two wolves (Geri and Freki ) on each side of him.

Odin is also associated with trickery, cunning , and deception. Most sagas have tales of Odin using his cunning to overcome adversaries and achieve his goals, such as swindling the blood of Kvasir from the dwarves . 1 2



Research Notes: Wife - Freya [Mythological]

Mythological wife of Odin.

From Wikipedia - Freyja :

Freyja (sometimes anglicized as Freya), cognate to Sanskrit Priya , is a major goddess in Norse Paganism , a subset of Germanic Paganism . Because the documented source of this religious tradition, the Norse Mythology , was transmitted and altered by Christian medieval historians,[1][2][3] the actual role, heathen practices and worship of the goddess are uncertain.

In the Eddas , Freya is portrayed as a goddess of love [4], beauty [4], and fertility [4]. Blonde,[5] blue-eyed,[6] and beautiful,[4] Freyja is described as the fairest of all goddesses,[7] and people prayed to her for happiness in love.[8] She was also called on to assist childbirths[9] and prayed to for good seasons.[10]

Freyja was also associated with war , battle , death , magic , prophecy , and wealth . She is cited as receiving half of the dead lost in battle in her hall Fólkvangr , whereas Odin would receive the other half at Valhalla .[11] The origin of Seid was ascribed to Freyja.[12][13]

Frigg and Freyja are the two principal goddesses in Norse religion,[14] and described as the highest amongst the Asynjur .[15] Freyja is the goddess most honoured after or along with Frigg, and her worship seems to have been even the more prevalent and important of the two.[16] In the Droplaugarsona Saga , it is described that in a temple at Ölvusvatn, Iceland , statues of Frigg and Freyja have been seated upon higher thrones opposite those of Thor and Freyr. These statues were arrayed in drapery and ornaments of gold and silver.

In Heimskringla , Freyja is also presented as a mythological Princess of Sweden . Her father Njörđr is seen as the second mythological King of Sweden , and her brother Freyr is the third. Freyr and Freyja's mother is Njörđr's sister (who has been often linked to the ancient Germanic goddess Nerthus [17]), as it is a custom of the Vanir and allowed by their laws.[12]
Further in Heimskringla, it is written that many temples and statues of native pagan gods and goddesses were raided and destroyed by Olaf Tryggvason and Saint Olaf during the gradual and violent process of the Christianization of Scandinavia . During and after the extent that the process of Christianization was complete, Freyja and many things associated with her were demonized [18] by the growing influence of Christian missionaries. After Christian influence was cemented in law, traces of belief went increasingly underground into mainly rural areas, surviving into modern times in Germanic folklore and most recently reconstructed to varying degrees in Germanic neopaganism .

Etymology
The names Freyr and Freyja come from Germanic words meaning "the Lord" and "the Lady" respectively (Germanic cognates include Gothic Fráuja "lord, master", Fráujo "lady, mistress", Old Norse Frú "mistress, lady, woman", Danish Frue, Swedish Fru, German Frau "miss, woman, wife", Old High German Frouwa, Dutch Vrouw "woman", Frisian Frou "woman", Anglo-Saxon Freo, Frea).[16] Like the French word "Dame" (from Latin "domina"), whose masculine form (Latin "dominus") had perished, the meaning of "Lord" is also no longer in use, while the title "Frau" still survives today in many Germanic languages.

Appearances in Myths
Freyja appears in many myths recorded in the Prose Edda.

Divine twins born after the war of the gods: The war between the Ćsir and the Vanir was ignited by the ill treatments of the Ćsir to Gullveig, as written in Völuspá . The war ended in a peace treaty, and both sides exchanged hostages. Njörđr was chosen by the Vanir, and sent from Vanaheim to Asgard where he later begot two fair children, as written in Gylfaginning (23 & 24):

The feast of the Ćsir : When Ćgir came to Asgard, the Ćsir invited him in to their banquet. Many gods and goddesses are mentioned here: "And in the high-seats sat them down those twelve Ćsir who were appointed to be judges; these were their names: Thor , Njörđr, Freyr, Týr , Heimdallr, Bragi , Vidar , Váli , Ullr , Hśnir , Forseti , Loki; and in like manner the Asynjur: Frigg, Freyja, Gefjun , Iđunn , Gerd , Sigyn , Fulla, Nanna ... The man seated next to Ćgir was Bragi, and they took part together in drinking and in converse: Bragi told Ćgir of many things which had come to pass among the Ćsir." (Skáldskaparmál (1))

The robbery of Brísingamen : The skaldic poem Húsdrápa partially preserved in Skáldskaparmál relates the story of the theft of Brísingamen by Loki: "One day when Freyja wakes up and finds Brísingamen missing, she enlists the help of Heimdallr to help her search for it. Eventually they find the thief, who turns out to be Loki who has transformed himself into a seal. Heimdallr turns into a seal as well and fights Loki. After a lengthy battle at Singasteinn , Heimdallr wins and returns Brísingamen to Freyja." The rivalry of Loki and Heimdallr for Brísingamen is an important event, as they are destined to fight again and slay each other at the end of Ragnarök . Snorri quoted this poem, saying that because of that legend, Heimdallr is called "Seeker of Brísingamen" and Loki is called "Thief of Brísingamen": "How should one periphrase Heimdallr ? By calling him Son of Nine Mothers, or Watchman of the Gods [...] or White God, Foe of Loki, Seeker of Freyja's Necklace [...] Heimdallr is the Possessor of Gulltoppr; he is also Frequenter of Vágasker and Singasteinn, where he contended with Loki for the Necklace Brísingamen, he is also called Vindlér." (Skáldskaparmál (8)) "How should one periphrase Loki ? [...] Thief of the Giants, of the Goat, of Brísingamen, and of Iđunn's Apples, Kinsman of Sleipnir, Husband of Sigyn, Foe of the Gods, Harmer of Sif's Hair, Forger of Evil, the Sly God." (Skáldskaparmál (16))

This myth, which takes place at the sea, is maybe related to the origin of Freyja's name "Mardöll" (Sea-Bright), the bright here is maybe the glittering of the stolen Brísingamen (brísinga means "glittering, twinkling, flaming"). In Heimdallr 's name, the word dallr (light) is masculine of döll, and heim means "earth" or "land" (cf. Vanaheim , Alfheim ). This is maybe one of the lost tales of Freyja's journey in search for her husband (as Snorri wrote: "She has a great variety of names, for having gone over many countries in search of Óđr , each people gave her a different name".)[21] In Gesta Danorum is another story of a beautiful woman named Sýr (Latinized as Syritha) seeking for Óđr/Óttar (Latinized as Otharus).[16][21]

The owner of Svadilfari : This giant came to offer to build a citidel for the gods in three seasons. He demanded to marry fair Freyja, also the sun and the moon as his rewards. Following Loki's ill advice, the gods accepted the deal, but they later urged Loki to deceive the giant to protect Freyja. Loki turned into a mare and seduced Svadilfari, the huge steed of the giant. Without his horse, the giant could not complete his job, he was enraged, insulted the gods, and eventually got slain by Thor before the deal was completed. Loki's prank ultimately backfired on him, and he bore the son of the horse Svadilfari, Sleipnir . (Gylfaginning (42))

The abduction of Iđunn : The giant Thjazi captured Loki and forced him to lure Iđunn out to kidnap her along with the golden apples. Without the apples of youth, the gods grew old and they soon found out that Iđunn was missing. She was last seen going with Loki, so they cornered the giant and threathened to slay him. Loki had to borrow the hawk's plumage of Freyja to go and free Iđunn. Thjazi chased after them in eagle form, but he was roasted by the gods' fire. Thjazi is father of Skađi , who later became Freyr and Freyja's stepmother. Skađi's march to Asgard for vengeance ended in a marriage with Njörđr. (Skáldskaparmál (1))

Thor 's duel: After his race with Odin, which he lost, the champion of the giants, Hrungnir , came to Asgard. Thor is absent, so he boasted that he would destroy Valhalla , slay all the gods, and take Freyja and Sif home with him. Of all goddesses, Freyja alone was brave enough to stand and pour ale for the giant to waste time while Thor is summoned. The god of thunder, with the help of his clever servant Ţjálfi , later slew Hrungnir in a duel, but Thor himself was struck by the giant's horn and also wounded. This is one of the reasons why the Hill Giants are amongst the gods' enemies at the final battle. (Skáldskaparmál (17))

Baldur 's funeral: Baldur, the best of the Ćsir, can not be harmed by anything. Loki turned himself into a woman to trick Frigg into revealing that Baldur can only be hurt by the mistletoes. Loki then tricked the blind god Hödr to shoot his brother with a mistletoe twig, thus Baldur was murdered by the evil giant Loki's trickery. "People of many races visited this burning. First is to be told of Odin, how Frigg and the Valkyries went with him, and his ravens; but Freyr drove in his chariot with the boar called Gold-Mane, or Fearful-Tusk, and Heimdallr rode the horse called Gold-Top, and Freyja drove in her chariot drawn by cats..." (Gylfaginning (49))

Homologues
It has been proposed that Freyja may be the most direct mythological descendant from Nerthus .[17] Nerthus, a goddess associated with a number of Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus in the 1 AD in his work Germania , is sometimes identified with Njörđr through etymological connections. The first name is the exact older linguistical stage of the latter. Njörđr married his sister; they have a son, Freyr, and a daughter, Freyja. This secondary pair of deities may be an "emanation" of the first.[54] Like Freyja's chariot, the early Germanic goddess Nerthus was also often described as riding a wagon.

Britt-Mari Näsström posits in her "Freyja: the Great Goddess of the North" that there is a tenable connection from Freyja to other goddesses worshiped along the migration path of the Indo-Europeans who consistently appeared with either one or two cats/lions as companions, usually in the war goddess aspect but occasionally also as a love goddess. These would include: Durga , Ereshkegal , Sekhmet , Menhit , Bast , Anat , Asherah , Nana , Cybele , Rhea , and others.[55] 5 6



Research Notes: Child - Skjöldr King of Denmark [Legendary]

First legendary Danish king, supposedly the son of Odin and Friege.

From Wikipedia - Skjöldr :

Skjöldr (Latinized as Skioldus, sometimes Anglicized as Skjold or Skiold) was among the first legendary Danish kings . He is mentioned in the Prose Edda , in Ynglinga saga , in Chronicon Lethrense , in Sven Aggesen 's history, in Arngrímur Jónsson 's Latin abstract of the lost Skjöldunga saga and in Saxo Grammaticus ' Gesta Danorum . Under the name Scyld he also appears in the Old English poem Beowulf . The various accounts have little in common.
In the Skjöldunga and the Ynglinga sagas , Odin came from Asia and conquered Northern Europe. He gave Sweden to his son Yngvi and Denmark to his son Skjöldr. Since then the kings of Sweden were called Ynglings and those of Denmark Skjöldungs (Scyldings ). 7 8



Frithugar




Husband Frithugar 10

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1 M Frowin Governor of Schleswig [Legendary] 10

            AKA: Freawine Governor of Schleswig [Legendary]
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Research Notes: Child - Frowin Governor of Schleswig [Legendary]

From Wikipedia - Freawine :

Freawine, Frowin or Frowinus figures as a governor of Schleswig in Gesta Danorum and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as an ancestor of the kings of Wessex , but the latter source only tells that he was the son of Frithugar and the father of Wig .

In the Gesta Danorum , Frowin was the father-in-law of Offa of Angel (presented as a prince and later king of Denmark), whose father king Wermund liked both Frowin and his sons Ket and Wig.

Frowin was challenged to combat by the Swedish king Athisl , and killed. He would later be avenged by his two sons Ket and Wig. However, the two sons fought against Athisl two against one, a national disgrace that was redeemed by their brother-in-law Offa, when he killed two Saxons at the same time, in "single combat". This event is referred to in Widsith as a duel against Myrgings . 10


Frosti




Husband Frosti 11

           Born: Abt 402 - <Finland>
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Children
1 F Skjalf Frostasson 12

           Born: Abt 428 - Finland
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         Spouse: Agni Dagsson (Abt 0424-      ) 13





Frosti King in Finland




Husband Frosti King in Finland 14 15

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Children
1 F Skjálf Frostadotter 14 15

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         Spouse: Agne Dagsson King in Sweden [Mythological] (      -      ) 14 15





Frowin Governor of Schleswig [Legendary]




Husband Frowin Governor of Schleswig [Legendary] 10

            AKA: Freawine Governor of Schleswig [Legendary]
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         Father: Frithugar (      -      ) 10
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Children
1 M Wig [Legendary] 16 17

           Born: Abt 369
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Research Notes: Husband - Frowin Governor of Schleswig [Legendary]

From Wikipedia - Freawine :

Freawine, Frowin or Frowinus figures as a governor of Schleswig in Gesta Danorum and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as an ancestor of the kings of Wessex , but the latter source only tells that he was the son of Frithugar and the father of Wig .

In the Gesta Danorum , Frowin was the father-in-law of Offa of Angel (presented as a prince and later king of Denmark), whose father king Wermund liked both Frowin and his sons Ket and Wig.

Frowin was challenged to combat by the Swedish king Athisl , and killed. He would later be avenged by his two sons Ket and Wig. However, the two sons fought against Athisl two against one, a national disgrace that was redeemed by their brother-in-law Offa, when he killed two Saxons at the same time, in "single combat". This event is referred to in Widsith as a duel against Myrgings . 10


Research Notes: Child - Wig [Legendary]

Regarded as legendary.

From Wikipedia - Ket and Wig :

Ket and Wig appear in the Gesta Danorum (book 4) as the sons of Frowin , the governor of Schleswig . Wig also appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as the son of Freawine (Frowin), and an early Northumbrian genealogical collection makes him father of Bernic, ancestor of the kings of Bernicia . This pedigree is thought to have been borrowed, replacing Bernic of the Bernicians with a supposed son Gewis , eponymous ancestor of the kings of Wessex .

Their father Frowin/Freawine was challenged to combat by the Swedish king Athisl , and killed. King Wermund who liked their father subsequently raised Ket and Wig as his own. They later avenged their father, but they fought against Athisl two against one, a national disgrace that was redeemed by their brother-in-law, King Wermund's son Offa , when he killed two Saxons at the same time, in "single combat". This event is referred to in Widsith as a duel against Myrgings . 16 17


Fulk de Carbonia




Husband Fulk de Carbonia 18

           Born: Abt 1025 - Carbonia, Sardinia, Italy
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Children
1 F Helvise de Carbonia 19

           Born: Abt 1050 - Carbonia, Sardinia, Italy
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         Spouse: Geoffrey de Mortaigne (1045-1100) 20
           Marr: Abt 1069 - Mortagne, Orne, France





Fulk Count of Provence




Husband Fulk Count of Provence 21

            AKA: Bertrand Count of Provence
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1 F Gerberga of Provence, Countess of Arles 15 21

           Born: Abt 1057 - <Provence>, France
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         Spouse: Gilbert Count of Gevaudan (Abt 1055-After 1107) 15 21





Fulk III "the Black" of Maine, Count of Anjou and Hildegarde




Husband Fulk III "the Black" of Maine, Count of Anjou 22

            AKA: Fulk III Nerra
           Born: 21 Jul 987
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           Died: 21 Jun 1040
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         Father: Geoffroi Comté d'Anjou (Abt 0938-0987) 23 24
         Mother: Adelaide of Vermandois (0950-0975/0978) 25


       Marriage: After 1000



Wife Hildegarde 26

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           Died: 1 Apr 1040 - Jerusalem, Palestine
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Children
1 F Ermengarde of Anjou 27

           Born: Abt 1018 - <Anjou, France>
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           Died: 21 Mar 1076
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         Spouse: Aubri-Geoffrey Count of the Gâtinais (Abt 1013-1046) 28 29
           Marr: Abt 1035




Research Notes: Wife - Hildegarde

Second wife of Fulk III 26


Fulk IV "le Réchin" Count of Anjou and Hildegarde of Baugency




Husband Fulk IV "le Réchin" Count of Anjou 30 31 32

           Born: 1043 - Anjou, (France)
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           Died: 14 Apr 1109
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         Father: Aubri-Geoffrey Count of the Gâtinais (Abt 1013-1046) 28 29
         Mother: Ermengarde of Anjou (Abt 1018-1076) 27


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   Other Spouse: Bertrade de Montfort (Abt 1070-1117) 33 - 1089

Events

• Count of Anjou: 1068-1109.




Wife Hildegarde of Baugency 34

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           Died: Bef 1070
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Research Notes: Husband - Fulk IV "le Réchin" Count of Anjou

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871918 :

Count of Anjou and chronicler. Having inhereted the right to Touraine and Chateau-Landon, half of the Angevin inheritance, from his uncle, Geoffrey Martel I, Fulk went to war against his brother Geoffrey, captured and imprisoned him in 1066 and took Anjou and Saintonge, Geoffrey's half of the inheritance, into his domains. The Chronicle of the Counts of Anjou tells that his wife eloped with Philip I of France (RIN # 1332) in 1107. Fulk himself was the initiator of this work in the 1090's, chronicling his forbearers. (This reference is not to his first wife Hildegard, RIN #1763)
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 20,30,33-7

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From Wikipedia - Fulk IV, Count of Anjou :

Fulk IV (1043-1109), called le Réchin, was the Count of Anjou from 1068 until his death. The nickname by which he is usually referred has no certain translation. Philologists have made numerous very different suggestions, including "quarreler", "sullen", and "heroic".

Biography
He was the younger son of Geoffrey, Count of Gâtinais (sometimes known as Aubri), and Ermengarde of Anjou , a daughter of Fulk the Black , count of Anjou, and sister of Geoffrey Martel , also count of Anjou.

When Geoffrey Martel died without direct heirs he left Anjou to his nephew Geoffrey III of Anjou , Fulk le Réchin's older brother.

Fulk fought with his brother, whose rule was deemed incompetent, and captured him in 1067. Under pressure from the Church he released Geoffrey. The two brothers soon fell to fighting again, and the next year Geoffrey was again imprisoned by Fulk, this time for good.

Substantial territory was lost to Angevin control due to the difficulties resulting from Geoffrey's poor rule and the subsequent civil war. Saintonge was lost, and Fulk had to give the Gâtinais to Philip I of France to placate the king.

Much of Fulk's rule was devoted to regaining control over the Angevin baronage, and to a complex struggle with Normandy for influence in Maine and Brittany .

In 1096 Fulk wrote an incomplete history of Anjou and its rulers titled Fragmentum historiae Andegavensis or "History of Anjou", though the authorship and authenticity of this work is disputed. Only the first part of the history, describing Fulk's ancestry, is extant. The second part, supposedly describing Fulk's own rule, has not been recovered. If he did write it, it is one of the first medieval works of history written by a layman.[1]

Fulk may have married as many as five times; there is some doubt regarding two of the marriages.
His first wife was Hildegarde of Baugency . After her death, before 1070, he married Ermengarde de Borbon , and then possibly Orengarde de Châtellailon . Both these were repudiated (Ermengarde de Borbon in 1075 and Orengarde de Chatellailon in 1080), possibly on grounds of consanguinity.

By 1080 he may have married Mantie , daughter of Walter I of Brienne . This marriage also ended in divorce, in 1087. Finally, he married Bertrade de Montfort , who was apparently "abducted" by King Philip I of France in 1092.

He had two sons. The eldest (a son of Ermengarde de Borbon), Geoffrey IV Martel , ruled jointly with him for some time, but died in 1106. The younger (a son of Bertrade de Montfort) succeeded him as Fulk V .

He also had a daughter by Hildegarde of Baugency, Ermengarde , who married firstly with William IX , count of Poitou and duke of Aquitaine and secondly with Alan IV, Duke of Brittany . 30 31 32


Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem and Melisende de Rethel




Husband Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem 35 36 37

            AKA: Fulk of Jerusalem, Fulk V Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem
           Born: 1092 - Angers, (Maine-et-Loire), Anjou, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 10 Nov 1144 - Acre, Palestine (Israel)
         Buried: 


         Father: Fulk IV "le Réchin" Count of Anjou (1043-1109) 30 31 32
         Mother: Bertrade de Montfort (Abt 1070-1117) 33


       Marriage: 2 Jun 1129

   Other Spouse: Erembourg Countess of Maine (      -1126) 38 39 - 1110

Events

• Count of Anjou: 1109-1129.

• King of Jerusalem: 1131-1144.




Wife Melisende de Rethel 40

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 11 Sep 1161
         Buried: 


         Father: Baldwin II Count of Edessa, King of Jerusalem (      -1131) 41
         Mother: 




Children

Birth Notes: Husband - Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem

May have been born in Anjou.


Death Notes: Husband - Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem

May have died in Jerusalem.


Research Notes: Husband - Fulk V "the Young" Count of Anjou, King of Jerusalem

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871915 :

Count of Anjou; King of Jerusalem (1131-1143). Fulk married the only daughter of Helias, Count of Maine, thereby uniting Anjou and Maine. In 1120 he went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In 1128 a delegation from Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem (RIN # 4676), arrived in France, asking Louis VII to choose one of the French nobility to marry his daughter Melisande and become heir to the throne of Jerusalem. Fulk, by then a widower, was chosen. He married Melisande in 1129 and succeeded as King of Jerusalem in 1131. To defend the holy city from the Muslim champion, Zengi, Fulk allied with the emir of Damascus and the emperor of Constantinople during the early 1130's. Turkish raiders took him prisoner in 1137, but then freed him.
!The Plantagenet Chronicles: 19,37-9,46-8,60-1

----
From Wikipedia - Fulk of Jerusalem :

Fulk (1089/1092 in Angers - November 13, 1143 in Acre ), also known as Fulk the Younger, was Count of Anjou (as Fulk V) from 1109 to 1129, and King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. He was also the paternal grandfather of Henry II of England .

Count of Anjou
Fulk was born in Angers between 1089 and 1092, the son of Count Fulk IV of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort . In 1092, Bertrade deserted her husband and bigamously married King Philip I of France .

He became count of Anjou upon his father's death in 1109, at the age of approximately twenty. In that year, he married Erembourg of Maine , cementing Angevin control over the County of Maine .

He was originally an opponent of King Henry I of England and a supporter of King Louis VI of France , but in 1127 he allied with Henry when Henry arranged for his daughter Matilda to marry Fulk's son Geoffrey of Anjou . Fulk went on crusade in 1120, and became a close friend of the Knights Templar . After his return he began to subsidize the Templars, and maintained two knights in the Holy Land for a year.

Crusader and King
By 1127 Fulk was preparing to return to Anjou when he received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem . Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him. Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughter's inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord. Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a frontier state always in the grip of war.

However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen; he wanted to be king alongside Melisende. Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulk's fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk abdicated his county seat of Anjou to his son Geoffery and left for Jerusalem , where he married Melisende on June 2, 1129. Later Baldwin II bolstered Melisende's position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III , born in 1130.

Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin II's death. From the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility. The other crusader states to the north feared that Fulk would attempt to impose the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them, as Baldwin II had done; but as Fulk was far less powerful than his deceased father-in-law, the northern states rejected his authority. Melisende's sister Alice of Antioch , exiled from the Principality by Baldwin II, took control of Antioch once more after the death of her father. She allied with Pons of Tripoli and Joscelin II of Edessa to prevent Fulk from marching north in 1132; Fulk and Pons fought a brief battle before peace was made and Alice was exiled again.

In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the second generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These "natives" focused on Melisende's cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset , count of Jaffa , who was devotedly loyal to the Queen. Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and it did not help matters when Hugh's own stepson accused him of disloyalty. In 1134, in order to expose Hugh, Fulk accused him of infidelity with Melisende. Hugh rebelled in protest. Hugh secured himself to Jaffa, and allied himself with the Muslims of Ascalon . He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, but this situation could not hold. The Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence.

However, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh. Fulk, or his supporters, were commonly believed responsible, though direct proof never surfaced. The scandal was all that was needed for the queen's party to take over the government in what amounted to a palace coup. Author and historian Bernard Hamilton wrote that the Fulk's supporters "went in terror of their lives" in the palace. Contemporary author and historian William of Tyre wrote of Fulk "he never attempted to take the initiative, even in trivial matters, without (Melisende's) consent". The result was that Melisende held direct and unquestioned control over the government from 1136 onwards. Sometime before 1136 Fulk reconciled with his wife, and a second son, Amalric was born.

Securing the borders
Jerusalem's northern border was of great concern. Fulk had been appointed regent of the Principality of Antioch by Baldwin II. As regent he had Raymund of Poitou marry the infant Constance of Antioch , daughter of Bohemund II and Alice of Antioch , and niece to Melisende. However, the greatest concern during Fulk's reign was the rise of Atabeg Zengi of Mosul .

In 1137 Fulk was defeated in battle near Barin but allied with Mu'in ad-Din Unur , the vizier of Damascus . Damascus was also threatened by Zengi. Fulk captured the fort of Banias , to the north of Lake Tiberias and thus secured the northern frontier.

Fulk also strengthened the kingdom's southern border. His butler Paganus built the fortress of Kerak to the south of the Dead Sea , and to help give the kingdom access to the Red Sea , Fulk had Blanche Garde , Ibelin , and other forts built in the south-west to overpower the Egyptian fortress at Ascalon. This city was a base from which the Egyptian Fatimids launched frequent raids on the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Fulk sought to neutralise this threat.

In 1137 and 1142, Byzantine emperor John II Comnenus arrived in Syria attempting to impose Byzantine control over the crusader states . John's arrival was ignored by Fulk, who declined an invitation to meet the emperor in Jerusalem.

Death
In 1143, while the king and queen were on holiday in Acre , Fulk was killed in a hunting accident. His horse stumbled, fell, and Fulk's skull was crushed by the saddle, "and his brains gushed forth from both ears and nostrils", as William of Tyre describes. He was carried back to Acre, where he lay unconscious for three days before he died. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Though their marriage started in conflict, Melisende mourned for him privately as well as publicly. Fulk was survived by his son Geoffrey of Anjou by his first wife, and Baldwin III and Amalric I by Melisende.

According to William, Fulk was "a ruddy man, like David... faithful and gentle, affable and kind... an experienced warrior full of patience and wisdom in military affairs." His chief fault was an inability to remember names and faces.

William of Tyre described Fulk as a capable soldier and able politician, but observed that Fulk did not adequately attend to the defense of the crusader states to the north. Ibn al-Qalanisi (who calls him al-Kund Anjur, an Arabic rendering of "Count of Anjou") says that "he was not sound in his judgment nor was he successful in his administration." The Zengids continued their march on the crusader states, culminating in the fall of the County of Edessa in 1144, which led to the Second Crusade (see Siege of Edessa ).

Family
In 1110, Fulk married Ermengarde of Maine (died 1126), the daughter of Elias I of Maine . Their four children were:
Geoffrey V of Anjou , father of Henry II of England .
Sibylla of Anjou (1112-1165, Bethlehem ), married in 1123 William Clito (div. 1124), married in 1134 Thierry, Count of Flanders .
Alice (or Isabella ) (1107-1154, Fontevrault), married William Adelin ; after his death in the White Ship she became a nun and later Abbess of Fontevrault .
Elias II of Maine (died 1151)

His second wife was Melisende , Queen of Jerusalem
Baldwin III of Jerusalem
Amalric I of Jerusalem 35 36 37


Research Notes: Wife - Melisende de Rethel

Second wife of Fulk V. Eldest daughter of Baldwin II, Count of Rethel. 40


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38 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 129-24 (Fulk V).

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41 Wikipedia.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_II_of_Jerusalem.


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