The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom and Hildegard of Vinzgouw




Husband Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom 1 2 3 4




            AKA: Carolus Magnus, Charles I Holy Roman Emperor, Charles the Great
           Born: 2 Apr 747 - Ingelheim, Rheinhessen (Rhineland-Palatinate), Hesse-Darmstadt, Austrasia (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 28 Jan 814 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)
         Buried:  - Notre-Dame d'Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)


         Father: Pepin III "the Short" King of the Franks (0714-0768) 5 6 7 8
         Mother: Berthe of Laon (      -0783) 9


       Marriage: Bef 30 Apr 771 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)

   Other Spouse: Himiltrude (      -      )

   Other Spouse: Desiderata (      -      ) - 770

   Other Spouse: Fastrade (      -0794) - 784

   Other Spouse: Luitgard (      -      ) - 794

Events

• Acceded: as Emperor of the West & King of Franks, 768.

• Acceded: as King of the Lombards, 774.

• Crowned: Holy Roman Emperor, 25 Dec 800.




Wife Hildegard of Vinzgouw 8 10 11 12

            AKA: Hildegard "the Swabian" of Vinzgau, Hildegarde of Swabia, Hildegarde of Savoy
           Born: Abt 758 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 Apr 783 - Thionville, (Moselle, Lorraine), Austrasia (France)
         Buried:  - Abbaye de St. Arnoul, Metz, (Moselle, Lorraine), Austrasia (France)


         Father: Gerold of Swabia, Count in Linzgau, Prefect in Bavaria (Abt 0725-0799) 13 14
         Mother: Emma of Allemania (Abt 0735-Abt 0785) 15 16 17




Children
1 M Charles "Karl" von Ingelheim Duke of Ingelheim 18

           Born: 772
     Christened: 
           Died: 811
         Buried: 



2 M Pepin King of Italy and Lombardy 19 20

           Born: Apr 773
     Christened: 12 Apr 781 - Rome, (Italy)
           Died: 8 Jul 810 - Milan, Italy
         Buried: 
         Spouse: < > [Daughter of Duke Bernard] (      -      ) 21
         Spouse: Bertha (      -      )
           Marr: Bef 800


3 M Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks 22 23 24 25




            AKA: Louis I "the Fair" Holy Roman Emperor, Louis the Debonaire Holy Roman Emperor, Louis the Pious Holy Roman Emperor
           Born: 16 Apr 778 - <Villa Cassinogilum (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou), (Poitou-Charentes)>, Aquitaine (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 20 Jun 840 - Ingelheim Kaiserpfalz, (Ingelheim am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany)
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Ermengarde of Hesbaye (Abt 0778-0818) 26 27 28
           Marr: Between 794 and 795 - Garonne, France
         Spouse: Judith of Bavaria (Abt 0798-0843) 29 30 31
           Marr: Feb 819



Research Notes: Husband - Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-13 has b. 2 Apr 747, d. Aix la Chapelle, 28 Jan 813/4, King of France 768-814, crowned Holy Roman Emperor 25 Dec. 800.

From Wikipedia - Charlemagne :

Charlemagne (Latin : Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (742 /747 - 28 January 814 ) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople . His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance , a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church . Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages . He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France , Germany , and the Holy Roman Empire .

The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon , he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I . The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens , who menaced his realm from Spain . It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at Roncesvalles (778). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons , and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty .

Today he is not only regarded as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity..,

Date and place of birth
Charlemagne is traditionally believed to have been born on April 2 , 742; however, several factors have led to a reconsideration of this date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than from attestation in primary sources. Another date is given in the Annales Petarienses , April 1 , 747. In that year, April 1 was at Easter . The birth of an emperor at eastertime is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, but there was no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect that the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that his birth was one year later, in 748. At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include April 1 , 747, after April 15 , 747, or April 1 , 748, in Herstal (where his father was born, a city close to Liège in modern day Belgium ), the region from where both the Merovingian and Carolingian families originate. He went to live in his father's villa in Jupille when he was around seven, which caused Jupille to be listed as a possible place of birth in almost every history book. Other cities have been suggested, including, Prüm , Düren , Gauting and Aachen ...

Early life
Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 - 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 - 12 July 783 ), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne . Records name only Carloman , Gisela , and a short-lived child named Pippin as his younger siblings. The semi-mythical Redburga , wife of King Egbert of Wessex , is sometimes claimed to be his sister (or sister-in-law or niece), and the legendary material makes him Roland 's maternal uncle through a lady Bertha.

Much of what is known of Charlemagne's life comes from his biographer, Einhard , who wrote a Vita Caroli Magni (or Vita Karoli Magni), the Life of Charlemagne...

Charles and his children
During the first peace of any substantial length (780-782), Charles began to appoint his sons to positions of authority within the realm, in the tradition of the kings and mayors of the past. In 781 he made his two younger sons kings, having them crowned by the Pope. The elder of these two, Carloman , was made king of Italy , taking the Iron Crown which his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pippin". The younger of the two, Louis , became king of Aquitaine . He ordered Pippin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their subkingdoms, but real power was always in his hands, though he intended each to inherit their realm some day. Nor did he tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished his eldest, though illegitimate, son, Pippin the Hunchback , to the monastery of Prüm, because the young man had joined a rebellion against him.

The sons fought many wars on behalf of their father when they came of age. Charles was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down, but he was also sent against the Saxons on multiple occasions. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia ) to deal with the Slavs living there (Czechs ). He subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the valley of the Elbe, forcing a tribute on them. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders, but also fought the Slavs to his north. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire when finally that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. Finally, Louis was in charge of the Spanish March and also went to southern Italy to fight the duke of Benevento on at least one occasion. He took Barcelona in a great siege in the year 797 (see below).
Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters has been the subject of much discussion. He kept them at home with him, and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages - possibly to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria - yet he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands, and treasured the bastard grandchildren they produced for him. He also, apparently, refused to believe stories of their wild behaviour. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert , a member of Charlemagne's court circle...

Death
In 813, Charlemagne called Louis the Pious , king of Aquitaine , his only surviving legitimate son, to his court. There he crowned him with his own hands as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. He then spent the autumn hunting before returning to Aachen on 1 November . In January, he fell ill with pleurisy (Einhard 59). He took to his bed on 21 January and as Einhard tells it:
He died January twenty-eighth, the seventh day from the time that he took to his bed, at nine o'clock in the morning, after partaking of the Holy Communion , in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh of his reign.

He was buried on the day of his death, in Aachen Cathedral , although the cold weather and the nature of his illness made such a hurried burial unnecessary. A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen in the time of Otto III , would claim that he and Emperor Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: the emperor, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. The story was proved false by Frederick I , who discovered the remains of the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the chapel.[7]


Charlemagne's death greatly affected many of his subjects, particularly those of the literary clique who had surrounded him at Aachen...

Marriages and heirs
Charlemagne had seventeen children over the course of his life with eight of his ten known wives or concubinues.

His first relationship was with Himiltrude . The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage , a legal marriage or as a Friedelehe .[12] Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata. The union produced two children:
Amaudru, a daughter[13]
Pippin the Hunchback (c. 769-811)
After her, his first wife was Desiderata , daughter of Desiderius , king of the Lombards , married in 770, annulled in 771

His second wife was Hildegard (757 or 758-783), married 771, died 783. By her he had nine children:
Charles the Younger (c.772-4 December 811 ), Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800
Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 773-8 July 810 ), King of Italy
Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons
Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775-6 June 810 )
Louis (778-20 June 840 ), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814
Lothair (778 -6 February 779 /780 ), twin of Louis, he died in infancy[14]
Bertha (779-826)
Gisela (781-808)
Hildegarde (782-783)

His third wife was Fastrada , married 784, died 794. By her he had:
Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil
Hiltrude (b.787)
His fourth wife was Luitgard , married 794, died childless

Concubinages and illegitimate children
His first known concubine was Gersuinda . By her he had:
Adaltrude (b.774)
His second known concubine was Madelgard . By her he had:
Ruodhaid (775-810), abbess of Faremoutiers
His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne . By her he had:
Alpaida (b.794)
His fourth known concubine was Regina . By her he had:
Drogo (801-855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey
Hugh (802-844), archchancellor of the Empire
His fifth known concubine was Ethelind . By her he had:
Richbod (805-844), Abbott of Saint-Riquier
Theodoric (b. 807)


Research Notes: Wife - Hildegard of Vinzgouw

Charlemagne's second wife.

From Wikipedia - Hildegard of Vinzgouw :
(758 -30 April 783 ) was the daughter of Count Gerold of Vinzgouw and Emma of Alamannia , daughter of Hnabi , Duke of Alamannia .

Marriage and issue
Hildegard was the second wife of Charlemagne [1], who married her about 771 . They had the following children:
Charles , (772 or 773-811), Count of Maine from 781, joint King of the Franks with Charlemagne from 800
Adelaide (773-773 or 774-774)
Pippin (773 or 777-810), born Carloman and later renamed at baptism, king of Italy from 781
Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (777-810)
Louis the Pious , king of Aquitaine from 781 , emperor from 813 (sole Emperor from 814) until 840
Lothair, twin brother of Louis, died young in 780
Bertha (779-823?)
Gisela (781-808?)
Hildegarde (782-783?)
References
1 As described by historians such as Pierre Riché (The Carolingians, p.86.), Lewis Thorpe (Two Lives of Charlemagne, p.216) and others. Other historians list Himiltrude, described by Einhard as a concubine, as Charlemagne's first wife, and reorder his subsequent wives; accordingly Hildegard is sometimes numbered as his third wife. See Dieter Hägemann (Karl der Große. Herrscher des Abendlands, Ullstein 2003, p. 82f.), Collins (Charlemagne, p. 40.).


Christening Notes: Child - Pepin King of Italy and Lombardy

Baptized at Rome, 12 Apr. 781, by Pope Adrian I


Research Notes: Child - Pepin King of Italy and Lombardy

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-14

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) has b. Apr 777.

Wikipedia has b. April 773.

From Wikipedia - Pepin of Italy :

Pepin (April 773 - 8 July 810 ) was the son of Charlemagne and king of Italy (781 -810) under the authority of his father.

Pepin was the third son of Charlemagne , and the second with his wife Hildegard . He was born Carloman, but when his brother Pepin the Hunchback betrayed their father, the royal name Pepin passed to him. He was made king of Italy after his father's conquest of the Lombards , in 781, and crowned by Pope Hadrian I with the Iron Crown of Lombardy .

He was active as ruler of Italy and worked to expand the Frankish empire. In 791 , he marched a Lombard army into the Drava valley and ravaged Pannonia , while his father marched along the Danube into Avar territory. Charlemagne left the campaigning to deal with a Saxon revolt in 792 . Pepin and Duke Eric of Friuli continued, however, to assault the Avars' ring-shaped strongholds. The great Ring of the Avars, their capital fortress, was taken twice. The booty was sent to Charlemagne in Aachen and redistributed to all his followers and even to foreign rulers, including King Offa of Mercia .

His activities included a long, but unsuccessful siege of Venice in 810. The siege lasted six months and Pepin's army was ravaged by the diseases of the local swamps and was forced to withdraw. A few months later Pepin died.
He married Bertha, daughter of William of Gellone , count of Toulouse , and had five daughters with her (Adelaide , married Lambert I of Nantes ; Atala; Gundrada; Bertha; and Tetrada), all of whom but the eldest were born between 800 and Pepin's death and died before their grandfather's death in 814 . Pepin also had an illegitimate son Bernard . Pepin was expected to inherit a third of his father's empire, but he predeceased him. The Italian crown passed on to his son Bernard, but the empire went to Pepin's younger brother Louis the Pious .


Death Notes: Child - Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks

Near Mainz


Research Notes: Child - Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks

Holy Roman Emperor 814-840

King of the Franks, Crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rheims 816-840. Louis began the partitioning of his father's empire.

-------------
From Wikipedia - Louis the Pious :

Louis the Pious (also known as Louis I, Louis the Fair, and Louis the Debonaire, German : Ludwig der Fromme, French : Louis le Pieux or Louis le Débonnaire, Italian : Luigi il Pio or Ludovico il Pio, Spanish : Luis el Piadoso or Ludovico Pío) (778 - 20 June 840 ) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks from 814 to his death in 840 .

Birth and Rule in Aquitaine
Louis was born while his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain, at the Carolingian villa of Cassinogilum, according to Einhard and the anonymous chronicler called Astronomus ; the place is usually identified with Chasseneuil , near Poitiers.[1] He was the third son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard .

Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine as a child in 781 and sent there with regents and a court. Charlemagne constituted the sub-kingdom in order to secure the border of his kingdom after his devastating defeat at the hands of Basques in Roncesvalles in (778).

In 794, Charlemagne settled four former Gallo-Roman villas on Louis, in the thought that he would take in each in turn as winter residence: Doué-la-Fontaine in today's Anjou , Ebreuil in Allier , Angeac-Charente , and the disputed Cassinogilum. Charlemagne's intention was to see all his sons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing the national costume of the region and ruling by the local customs. Thus were the children sent to their respective realms at so young an age. Each kingdom had its importance in keeping some frontier, Louis's was the Spanish March . In 797 , Barcelona , the greatest city of the Marca, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799 . However, Louis marched the entire army of his kingdom, including Gascons with their duke Sancho I of Gascony , Provençals under Leibulf , and Goths under Bera , over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801 , when it capitulated. The sons were not given independence from central authority, however, and Charlemagne ingrained in them the concepts of empire and unity by sending them on military expeditions far from their home bases. Louis campaigned in the Mezzogiorno against the Beneventans at least once.

Louis was one of Charlemagne's three legitimate sons to survive infancy, and, according to Frankish custom, Louis had expected to share his inheritance with his brothers, Charles the Younger , King of Neustria , and Pepin , King of Italy . In the Divisio Regnorum of 806 , Charlemagne had slated Charles the Younger as his successor as emperor and chief king, ruling over the Frankish heartland of Neustria and Austrasia , while giving Pepin the Iron Crown of Lombardy , which Charlemagne possessed by conquest. To Louis's kingdom of Aquitaine, he added Septimania , Provence , and part of Burgundy .

But in the event, Charlemagne's other legitimate sons died - Pepin in 810 and Charles in 811 - and Louis alone remained to be crowned co-emperor with Charlemagne in 813 . On his father's death in 814 , he inherited the entire Frankish kingdom and all its possessions (with the sole exception of Italy, which remained within Louis's empire, but under the direct rule of Bernard , Pepin's son).

Emperor
He was in his villa of Doué-la-Fontaine , Anjou , when he received news of his father's passing. Hurrying to Aachen , he crowned himself and was proclaimed by the nobles with shouts of Vivat Imperator Ludovicus.
In his first coinage type, minted from the start of his reign, he imitated his father Charlemagne's portrait coinage, giving an image of imperial power and prestige in an echo of Roman glory [2]. He quickly enacted a "moral purge", in which he sent all of his unmarried sisters to nunneries, forgoing their diplomatic use as hostage brides in favour of the security of avoiding the entanglements that powerful brothers-in-law might bring. He spared his illegitimate half-brothers and tonsured his father's cousins, Adalard and Wala, son of Bernard , shutting them up in Noirmoutier and Corbie , respectively, despite the latter's initial loyalty.

His chief councillors were Bernat, margrave of Septimania , and Ebbo , whom, born a serf, Louis would raise to the archbishopric of Rheims but who would ungratefully betray him later. He retained some of his father's ministers, such as Elisachar , abbot of St Maximin near Trier , and Hildebold, Archbishop of Cologne . Later he replaced Elisachar with Hildwin, abbot of many monasteries.

He also used Benedict of Aniane (the Second Benedict), a Septimanian Visigoth and monastic founder, to help him reform the Frankish church. One of Benedict's primary reforms was to ensure that all religious houses in Louis' realm adhered to the Rule of St Benedict , named for its creator, the First Benedict, Benedict of Nursia (480 -550 ).

In 816 , Pope Stephen V , who had succeeded Leo III , visited Rheims and again crowned Louis. The Emperor thereby strengthened the papacy by recognising the importance of the pope in imperial coronations.

Ordinatio imperii
On Maundy Thursday 817 , Louis and his court were crossing a wooden gallery from the cathedral to the palace in Aachen when the gallery collapsed, killing many. Louis, having barely survived and feeling the imminent danger of death, began planning for his succession; three months later he issued an Ordinatio Imperii, an imperial decree that laid out plans for an orderly succession. In 815 , he had already given his two eldest sons a share in the government, when he had sent his elder sons Lothair and Pepin to govern Bavaria and Aquitaine respectively, though without the royal titles. Now, he proceeded to divide the empire among his three sons and his nephew Bernard of Italy :

Lothair was proclaimed and crowned co-emperor in Aix-la-Chapelle by his father. He was promised the succession to most of the Frankish dominions (excluding the exceptions below), and would be the overlord of his brothers and cousin.

Bernard, the son of Charlemagne's son Pippin of Italy , was confirmed as King of Italy, a title he had been allowed to inherit from his father by Charlemagne.

Pepin was proclaimed King of Aquitaine, his territory including Gascony, the march around Toulouse, and the counties of Carcassonnne, Autun, Avallon and Nevers.

Louis , the youngest son, was proclaimed King of Bavaria and the neighbouring marches.

If one of the subordinate kings died, he was to be succeeded by his sons. If he died childless, Lothar would inherit his kingdom. In the event of Lothar dying without sons, one of Louis the Pious' younger sons would be chosen to replace him by "the people". Above all, the Empire would not be divided: the Emperor would rule supreme over the subordinate kings, whose obedience to him was mandatory.

With this settlement, Louis tried to combine his sense for the Empire's unity, supported by the clergy, while at the same time providing positions for all of his sons. Instead of treating his sons equally in status and land, he elevated his first-born son Lothair above his younger brothers and gave him the largest part of the Empire as his share.

Bernard's rebellion and Louis's penance
The ordinatio imperii of Aachen left Bernard of Italy in an uncertain and subordinate position as king of Italy, and he began plotting to declare independence upon hearing of it. Louis immediately directed his army towards Italy, and betook himself to Chalon-sur-Saône . Intimidated by the emperor's swift action, Bernard met his uncle at Chalon, under invitation, and surrendered. He was taken to Aix-la-Chapelle by Louis, who there had him tried and condemned to death for treason. Louis had the sentence commuted to blinding, which was duly carried out; Bernard did not survive the ordeal, however, dying after two days of agony. Others also suffered: Theodulf of Orleans , in eclipse since the death of Charlemagne, was accused of having supported the rebellion, and was thrown into a monastic prison, where he died soon after - poisoned, it was rumoured.[3] The fate of his nephew deeply marked Louis's conscience for the rest of his life.


In 822, as a deeply religious man, Louis performed penance for causing Bernard's death, at his palace of Attigny near Vouziers in the Ardennes , before Pope Paschal I , and a council of ecclesiastics and nobles of the realm that had been convened for the reconciliation of Louis with his three younger half-brothers, Hugo whom he soon made abbot of St-Quentin, Drogo whom he soon made Bishop of Metz , and Theodoric. This act of contrition, partly in emulation of Theodosius I , had the effect of greatly reducing his prestige as a Frankish ruler, for he also recited a list of minor offences about which no secular ruler of the time would have taken any notice. He also made the egregious error of releasing Wala and Adalard from their monastic confinements, placing the former in a position of power in the court of Lothair and the latter in a position in his own house.

Frontier wars
At the start of Louis's reign, the many tribes - Danes , Obotrites , Slovenes , Bretons , Basques - which inhabited his frontierlands were still in awe of the Frankish emperor's power and dared not stir up any trouble. In 816, however, the Sorbs rebelled and were quickly followed by Slavomir, chief of the Obotrites, who was captured and abandoned by his own people, being replaced by Ceadrag in 818. Soon, Ceadrag too had turned against the Franks and allied with the Danes, who were to become the greatest menace of the Franks in a short time.

A greater Slavic menace was gathering on the southeast. There, Ljudevit Posavski , duke of Pannonia , was harassing the border at the Drava and Sava rivers. The margrave of Friuli , Cadolah , was sent out against him, but he died on campaign and, in 820, his margarvate was invaded by Slovenes. In 821, an alliance was made with Borna , duke of the Dalmatia , and Ljudevit was brought to heel. Peace continued until 827, when the younger Louis had to deal with a Bulgar horde descending on Pannonia.

On the far southern edge of his great realm, Louis had to control the Lombard princes of Benevento whom Charlemagne had never subjugated. He extracted promises from Princes Grimoald IV and Sico , but to no effect.
On the southwestern frontier, problems commenced early when, in 815, Séguin , duke of Gascony , revolted. He was defeated and replaced by Lupus III , who was dispossessed in 818 by the emperor. In 820 an assembly at Quierzy-sur-Oise decided to send an expedition against the Cordoban caliphate. The counts in charge of the army, Hugh , count of Tours , and Matfrid , count of Orléans , were slow in acting and the expedition came to naught.

First civil war
In 818, as Louis was returning from a campaign to Brittany , he was greeted by news of the death of his wife, Ermengarde . Ermengarde was the daughter of Ingerman , the duke of Hesbaye. Louis had been close to his wife, who had been involved in policymaking. It was rumoured that she had played a part in her nephew's death and Louis himself believed her own death was divine retribution for that event. It took many months for his courtiers and advisors to convince him to remarry, but eventually he did, in 820, to Judith , daughter of Welf , count of Altdorf . In 823 Judith gave birth to a son, who was named Charles .

The birth of this son damaged the Partition of Aachen, as Louis's attempts to provide for his fourth son met with stiff resistance from his older sons, and the last two decades of his reign were marked by civil war.

At Worms in 829, Louis gave Charles Alemannia with the title of king or duke (historians differ on this), thus enraging his son and co-emperor Lothair,[4] whose promised share was thereby diminished. An insurrection was soon at hand. With the urging of the vengeful Wala and the cooperation of his brothers, Lothair accused Judith of having committed adultery with Bernard of Septimania, even suggesting Bernard to be the true father of Charles. Ebbo and Hildwin abandoned the emperor at that point, Bernard having risen to greater heights than either of them. Agobard , Archbishop of Lyon , and Jesse , bishop of Amiens , too, opposed the redivision of the empire and lent their episcopal prestige to the rebels.

In 830, at Wala's insistence that Bernard of Septimania was plotting against him, Pepin of Aquitaine led an army of Gascons , with the support of the Neustrian magnates, all the way to Paris . At Verberie , Louis the German joined him. At that time, the emperor returned from another campaign in Brittany to find his empire at war with itself. He marched as far as Compiègne , an ancient royal town, before being surrounded by Pepin's forces and captured. Judith was incarcerated at Poitiers and Bernard fled to Barcelona.

Then Lothair finally set out with a large Lombard army, but Louis had promised his sons Louis the German and Pepin of Aquitaine greater shares of the inheritance, prompting them to shift loyalties in favour of their father. When Lothair tried to call a general council of the realm in Nijmegen , in the heart of Austrasia , the Austrasians and Rhinelanders came with a following of armed retainers, and the disloyal sons were forced to free their father and bow at his feet (831). Lothair was pardoned, but disgraced and banished to Italy. Pepin returned to Aquitaine and Judith - after being forced to humiliate herself with a solemn oath of innocence - to Louis's court. Only Wala was severely dealt with, making his way to a secluded monastery on the shores of Lake Geneva . Though Hilduin , abbot of Saint Denis , was exiled to Paderborn and Elisachar and Matfrid were deprived of their honours north of the Alps; they did not lose their freedom.

Second civil war
The next revolt occurred a mere two years later (832). The disaffected Pepin was summoned to his father's court, where he was so poorly received he left against his father's orders. Immediately, fearing that Pepin would be stirred up to revolt by his nobles and desiring to reform his morals, Louis the Pious summoned all his forces to meet in Aquitaine in preparation of an uprising, but Louis the German garnered an army of Slav allies and conquered Swabia before the emperor could react. Once again the elder Louis divided his vast realm. At Jonac , he declared Charles king of Aquitaine and deprived Pepin (he was less harsh with the younger Louis), restoring the whole rest of the empire to Lothair, not yet involved in the civil war. Lothair was, however, interested in usurping his father's authority. His ministers had been in contact with Pepin and may have convinced him and Louis the German to rebel, promising him Alemannia, the kingdom of Charles.

Soon Lothair, with the support of Pope Gregory IV , whom he had confirmed in office without his father's support, joined the revolt in 833. While Louis was at Worms gathering a new force, Lothair marched north. Louis marched south. The armies met on the plains of the Rothfeld. There, Gregory met the emperor and may have tried to sow dissension amongst his ranks. Soon much of Louis's army had evaporated before his eyes, and he ordered his few remaining followers to go, because "it would be a pity if any man lost his life or limb on my account." The resigned emperor was taken to Saint Médard at Soissons , his son Charles to Prüm , and the queen to Tortona . The despicable show of disloyalty and disingenuousness earned the site the name Field of Lies, or Lügenfeld, or Campus Mendacii, ubi plurimorum fidelitas exstincta est[5]


On November 13 , 833 , Ebbo of Rheims presided over a synod in the Church of Saint Mary in Soissons which deposed Louis and forced him to publicly confess many crimes, none of which he had, in fact, committed. In return, Lothair gave Ebbo the Abbey of Saint Vaast. Men like Rabanus Maurus , Louis' younger half-brothers Drogo and Hugh, and Emma, Judith's sister and Louis the German's new wife, worked on the younger Louis to make peace with his father, for the sake of unity of the empire. The humiliation to which Louis was then subjected at Notre Dame in Compiègne turned the loyal barons of Austrasia and Saxony against Lothair, and the usurper fled to Burgundy , skirmishing with loyalists near Châlons-sur-Saône . Louis was restored the next year, on 1 March 834 .

On Lothair's return to Italy, Wala, Jesse, and Matfrid, formerly count of Orléans, died of a pestilence and, on 2 February 835 , the Synod of Thionville deposed Ebbo, Agobard, Bernard , Bishop of Vienne , and Bartholomew , Archbishop of Narbonne . Lothair himself fell ill; events had turned completely in Louis favour once again.

In 836, however, the family made peace and Louis restored Pepin and Louis, deprived Lothair of all save Italy, and gave it to Charles in a new division, given at the diet of Crémieux . At about that time, the Vikings terrorised and sacked Utrecht and Antwerp . In 837, they went up the Rhine as far as Nijmegen, and their king, Rorik , demanded the wergild of some of his followers killed on previous expeditions before Louis the Pious mustered a massive force and marched against them. They fled, but it would not be the last time they harried the northern coasts. In 838, they even claimed sovereignty over Frisia , but a treaty was confirmed between them and the Franks in 839. Louis the Pious ordered the construction of a North Sea fleet and the sending of missi dominici into Frisia to establish Frankish sovereignty there.

Third civil war
In 837, Louis crowned Charles king over all of Alemannia and Burgundy and gave him a portion of his brother Louis's land. Louis the German promptly rose in revolt, and the emperor redivided his realm again at Quierzy-sur-Oise , giving all of the young king of Bavaria's lands, save Bavaria itself, to Charles. Emperor Louis did not stop there, however. His devotion to Charles knew no bounds. When Pepin died in 838, Louis declared Charles the new king of Aquitaine. The nobles, however, elected Pepin's son Pepin II . When Louis threatened invasion, the third great civil war of his reign broke out. In the spring of 839, Louis the German invaded Swabia, Pepin II and his Gascon subjects fought all the way to the Loire , and the Danes returned to ravage the Frisian coast (sacking Dorstad for a second time).

Lothair, for the first time in a long time, allied with his father and pledged support at Worms in exchange for a redivision of the inheritance. By a final placitum issued there, Louis gave Bavaria to Louis the German and disinherited Pepin II, leaving the entire remainder of the empire to be divided roughly into an eastern part and a western. Lothair was given the choice of which partition he would inherit and he chose the eastern, including Italy, leaving the western for Charles. The emperor quickly subjugated Aquitaine and had Charles recognised by the nobles and clergy at Clermont-en-Auvergne in 840. Louis then, in a final flash of glory, rushed into Bavaria and forced the younger Louis into the Ostmark . The empire now settled as he had declared it at Worms, he returned in July to Frankfurt am Main , where he disbanded the army. The final civil war of his reign was over.

Death
Louis fell ill soon after his final victorious campaigns and went to his summer hunting lodge on an island in the Rhine, by his palace at Ingelheim . On 20 June 840 , he died, in the presence of many bishops and clerics and in the arms of his half-brother Drogo, though Charles and Judith were absent in Poitiers. Soon dispute plunged the surviving brothers into a civil war that was only settled in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun , which split the Frankish realm into three parts, to become the kernels of France and Germany , with Burgundy and the Low Countries between them. The dispute over the kingship of Aquitaine was not fully settled until 860.

Louis the Pious, along with his half-brother Drogo, were buried in Saint Pierre aux Nonnains Basilica in Metz .

Marriage and issue
By his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye (married ca 794-98), he had three sons and three daughters:
Lothair (795 -855 ), king of Middle Francia
Pepin (797 -838 ), king of Aquitaine
Adelaide (b. c. 799 ), perhaps married Robert the Strong
Rotrude (b. 800 ), married Gerard
Hildegard (or Matilda) (b. c. 802 ), married Gerard , Count of Auvergne
Louis the German (c. 805 -875 ), king of East Francia
By his second wife, Judith of Bavaria , he had a daughter and a son:
Gisela , married Eberhard I of Friuli
Charles the Bald , king of West Francia
By Theodelinde of Sens[citation needed ], he had two illegitimate children:
Arnulf of Sens
Alpais
-------
From Wikipedia - Chasseneuil-du-Poitou :

The town, then simply the villa Cassinogilum, was a royal residence of first the Merovingian , and then Carolingian dynasties in France.[8] Louis the Pious , later King of Aquitaine and King of the Franks was born in the villa on 16 April 778 , when his mother, Hildegard of Vinzgouw was staying in the villa whilst his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain .


Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom and Himiltrude




Husband Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom 1 2 3 4




            AKA: Carolus Magnus, Charles I Holy Roman Emperor, Charles the Great
           Born: 2 Apr 747 - Ingelheim, Rheinhessen (Rhineland-Palatinate), Hesse-Darmstadt, Austrasia (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 28 Jan 814 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)
         Buried:  - Notre-Dame d'Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)


         Father: Pepin III "the Short" King of the Franks (0714-0768) 5 6 7 8
         Mother: Berthe of Laon (      -0783) 9


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Hildegard of Vinzgouw (Abt 0758-0783) 8 10 11 12 - Bef 30 Apr 771 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)

   Other Spouse: Desiderata (      -      ) - 770

   Other Spouse: Fastrade (      -0794) - 784

   Other Spouse: Luitgard (      -      ) - 794

Events

• Acceded: as Emperor of the West & King of Franks, 768.

• Acceded: as King of the Lombards, 774.

• Crowned: Holy Roman Emperor, 25 Dec 800.




Wife Himiltrude

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-13 has b. 2 Apr 747, d. Aix la Chapelle, 28 Jan 813/4, King of France 768-814, crowned Holy Roman Emperor 25 Dec. 800.

From Wikipedia - Charlemagne :

Charlemagne (Latin : Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (742 /747 - 28 January 814 ) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople . His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance , a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church . Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages . He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France , Germany , and the Holy Roman Empire .

The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon , he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I . The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens , who menaced his realm from Spain . It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at Roncesvalles (778). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons , and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty .

Today he is not only regarded as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity..,

Date and place of birth
Charlemagne is traditionally believed to have been born on April 2 , 742; however, several factors have led to a reconsideration of this date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than from attestation in primary sources. Another date is given in the Annales Petarienses , April 1 , 747. In that year, April 1 was at Easter . The birth of an emperor at eastertime is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, but there was no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect that the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that his birth was one year later, in 748. At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include April 1 , 747, after April 15 , 747, or April 1 , 748, in Herstal (where his father was born, a city close to Liège in modern day Belgium ), the region from where both the Merovingian and Carolingian families originate. He went to live in his father's villa in Jupille when he was around seven, which caused Jupille to be listed as a possible place of birth in almost every history book. Other cities have been suggested, including, Prüm , Düren , Gauting and Aachen ...

Early life
Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 - 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 - 12 July 783 ), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne . Records name only Carloman , Gisela , and a short-lived child named Pippin as his younger siblings. The semi-mythical Redburga , wife of King Egbert of Wessex , is sometimes claimed to be his sister (or sister-in-law or niece), and the legendary material makes him Roland 's maternal uncle through a lady Bertha.

Much of what is known of Charlemagne's life comes from his biographer, Einhard , who wrote a Vita Caroli Magni (or Vita Karoli Magni), the Life of Charlemagne...

Charles and his children
During the first peace of any substantial length (780-782), Charles began to appoint his sons to positions of authority within the realm, in the tradition of the kings and mayors of the past. In 781 he made his two younger sons kings, having them crowned by the Pope. The elder of these two, Carloman , was made king of Italy , taking the Iron Crown which his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pippin". The younger of the two, Louis , became king of Aquitaine . He ordered Pippin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their subkingdoms, but real power was always in his hands, though he intended each to inherit their realm some day. Nor did he tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished his eldest, though illegitimate, son, Pippin the Hunchback , to the monastery of Prüm, because the young man had joined a rebellion against him.

The sons fought many wars on behalf of their father when they came of age. Charles was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down, but he was also sent against the Saxons on multiple occasions. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia ) to deal with the Slavs living there (Czechs ). He subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the valley of the Elbe, forcing a tribute on them. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders, but also fought the Slavs to his north. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire when finally that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. Finally, Louis was in charge of the Spanish March and also went to southern Italy to fight the duke of Benevento on at least one occasion. He took Barcelona in a great siege in the year 797 (see below).
Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters has been the subject of much discussion. He kept them at home with him, and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages - possibly to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria - yet he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands, and treasured the bastard grandchildren they produced for him. He also, apparently, refused to believe stories of their wild behaviour. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert , a member of Charlemagne's court circle...

Death
In 813, Charlemagne called Louis the Pious , king of Aquitaine , his only surviving legitimate son, to his court. There he crowned him with his own hands as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. He then spent the autumn hunting before returning to Aachen on 1 November . In January, he fell ill with pleurisy (Einhard 59). He took to his bed on 21 January and as Einhard tells it:
He died January twenty-eighth, the seventh day from the time that he took to his bed, at nine o'clock in the morning, after partaking of the Holy Communion , in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh of his reign.

He was buried on the day of his death, in Aachen Cathedral , although the cold weather and the nature of his illness made such a hurried burial unnecessary. A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen in the time of Otto III , would claim that he and Emperor Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: the emperor, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. The story was proved false by Frederick I , who discovered the remains of the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the chapel.[7]


Charlemagne's death greatly affected many of his subjects, particularly those of the literary clique who had surrounded him at Aachen...

Marriages and heirs
Charlemagne had seventeen children over the course of his life with eight of his ten known wives or concubinues.

His first relationship was with Himiltrude . The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage , a legal marriage or as a Friedelehe .[12] Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata. The union produced two children:
Amaudru, a daughter[13]
Pippin the Hunchback (c. 769-811)
After her, his first wife was Desiderata , daughter of Desiderius , king of the Lombards , married in 770, annulled in 771

His second wife was Hildegard (757 or 758-783), married 771, died 783. By her he had nine children:
Charles the Younger (c.772-4 December 811 ), Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800
Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 773-8 July 810 ), King of Italy
Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons
Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775-6 June 810 )
Louis (778-20 June 840 ), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814
Lothair (778 -6 February 779 /780 ), twin of Louis, he died in infancy[14]
Bertha (779-826)
Gisela (781-808)
Hildegarde (782-783)

His third wife was Fastrada , married 784, died 794. By her he had:
Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil
Hiltrude (b.787)
His fourth wife was Luitgard , married 794, died childless

Concubinages and illegitimate children
His first known concubine was Gersuinda . By her he had:
Adaltrude (b.774)
His second known concubine was Madelgard . By her he had:
Ruodhaid (775-810), abbess of Faremoutiers
His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne . By her he had:
Alpaida (b.794)
His fourth known concubine was Regina . By her he had:
Drogo (801-855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey
Hugh (802-844), archchancellor of the Empire
His fifth known concubine was Ethelind . By her he had:
Richbod (805-844), Abbott of Saint-Riquier
Theodoric (b. 807)


Research Notes: Wife - Himiltrude

Source: Wikipedia - Charlemagne


Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom and Desiderata




Husband Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom 1 2 3 4




            AKA: Carolus Magnus, Charles I Holy Roman Emperor, Charles the Great
           Born: 2 Apr 747 - Ingelheim, Rheinhessen (Rhineland-Palatinate), Hesse-Darmstadt, Austrasia (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 28 Jan 814 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)
         Buried:  - Notre-Dame d'Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)


         Father: Pepin III "the Short" King of the Franks (0714-0768) 5 6 7 8
         Mother: Berthe of Laon (      -0783) 9


       Marriage: 770

   Other Spouse: Hildegard of Vinzgouw (Abt 0758-0783) 8 10 11 12 - Bef 30 Apr 771 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)

   Other Spouse: Himiltrude (      -      )

   Other Spouse: Fastrade (      -0794) - 784

   Other Spouse: Luitgard (      -      ) - 794

Events

• Acceded: as Emperor of the West & King of Franks, 768.

• Acceded: as King of the Lombards, 774.

• Crowned: Holy Roman Emperor, 25 Dec 800.




Wife Desiderata

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-13 has b. 2 Apr 747, d. Aix la Chapelle, 28 Jan 813/4, King of France 768-814, crowned Holy Roman Emperor 25 Dec. 800.

From Wikipedia - Charlemagne :

Charlemagne (Latin : Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (742 /747 - 28 January 814 ) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople . His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance , a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church . Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages . He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France , Germany , and the Holy Roman Empire .

The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon , he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I . The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens , who menaced his realm from Spain . It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at Roncesvalles (778). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons , and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty .

Today he is not only regarded as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity..,

Date and place of birth
Charlemagne is traditionally believed to have been born on April 2 , 742; however, several factors have led to a reconsideration of this date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than from attestation in primary sources. Another date is given in the Annales Petarienses , April 1 , 747. In that year, April 1 was at Easter . The birth of an emperor at eastertime is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, but there was no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect that the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that his birth was one year later, in 748. At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include April 1 , 747, after April 15 , 747, or April 1 , 748, in Herstal (where his father was born, a city close to Liège in modern day Belgium ), the region from where both the Merovingian and Carolingian families originate. He went to live in his father's villa in Jupille when he was around seven, which caused Jupille to be listed as a possible place of birth in almost every history book. Other cities have been suggested, including, Prüm , Düren , Gauting and Aachen ...

Early life
Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 - 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 - 12 July 783 ), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne . Records name only Carloman , Gisela , and a short-lived child named Pippin as his younger siblings. The semi-mythical Redburga , wife of King Egbert of Wessex , is sometimes claimed to be his sister (or sister-in-law or niece), and the legendary material makes him Roland 's maternal uncle through a lady Bertha.

Much of what is known of Charlemagne's life comes from his biographer, Einhard , who wrote a Vita Caroli Magni (or Vita Karoli Magni), the Life of Charlemagne...

Charles and his children
During the first peace of any substantial length (780-782), Charles began to appoint his sons to positions of authority within the realm, in the tradition of the kings and mayors of the past. In 781 he made his two younger sons kings, having them crowned by the Pope. The elder of these two, Carloman , was made king of Italy , taking the Iron Crown which his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pippin". The younger of the two, Louis , became king of Aquitaine . He ordered Pippin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their subkingdoms, but real power was always in his hands, though he intended each to inherit their realm some day. Nor did he tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished his eldest, though illegitimate, son, Pippin the Hunchback , to the monastery of Prüm, because the young man had joined a rebellion against him.

The sons fought many wars on behalf of their father when they came of age. Charles was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down, but he was also sent against the Saxons on multiple occasions. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia ) to deal with the Slavs living there (Czechs ). He subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the valley of the Elbe, forcing a tribute on them. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders, but also fought the Slavs to his north. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire when finally that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. Finally, Louis was in charge of the Spanish March and also went to southern Italy to fight the duke of Benevento on at least one occasion. He took Barcelona in a great siege in the year 797 (see below).
Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters has been the subject of much discussion. He kept them at home with him, and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages - possibly to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria - yet he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands, and treasured the bastard grandchildren they produced for him. He also, apparently, refused to believe stories of their wild behaviour. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert , a member of Charlemagne's court circle...

Death
In 813, Charlemagne called Louis the Pious , king of Aquitaine , his only surviving legitimate son, to his court. There he crowned him with his own hands as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. He then spent the autumn hunting before returning to Aachen on 1 November . In January, he fell ill with pleurisy (Einhard 59). He took to his bed on 21 January and as Einhard tells it:
He died January twenty-eighth, the seventh day from the time that he took to his bed, at nine o'clock in the morning, after partaking of the Holy Communion , in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh of his reign.

He was buried on the day of his death, in Aachen Cathedral , although the cold weather and the nature of his illness made such a hurried burial unnecessary. A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen in the time of Otto III , would claim that he and Emperor Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: the emperor, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. The story was proved false by Frederick I , who discovered the remains of the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the chapel.[7]


Charlemagne's death greatly affected many of his subjects, particularly those of the literary clique who had surrounded him at Aachen...

Marriages and heirs
Charlemagne had seventeen children over the course of his life with eight of his ten known wives or concubinues.

His first relationship was with Himiltrude . The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage , a legal marriage or as a Friedelehe .[12] Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata. The union produced two children:
Amaudru, a daughter[13]
Pippin the Hunchback (c. 769-811)
After her, his first wife was Desiderata , daughter of Desiderius , king of the Lombards , married in 770, annulled in 771

His second wife was Hildegard (757 or 758-783), married 771, died 783. By her he had nine children:
Charles the Younger (c.772-4 December 811 ), Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800
Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 773-8 July 810 ), King of Italy
Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons
Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775-6 June 810 )
Louis (778-20 June 840 ), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814
Lothair (778 -6 February 779 /780 ), twin of Louis, he died in infancy[14]
Bertha (779-826)
Gisela (781-808)
Hildegarde (782-783)

His third wife was Fastrada , married 784, died 794. By her he had:
Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil
Hiltrude (b.787)
His fourth wife was Luitgard , married 794, died childless

Concubinages and illegitimate children
His first known concubine was Gersuinda . By her he had:
Adaltrude (b.774)
His second known concubine was Madelgard . By her he had:
Ruodhaid (775-810), abbess of Faremoutiers
His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne . By her he had:
Alpaida (b.794)
His fourth known concubine was Regina . By her he had:
Drogo (801-855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey
Hugh (802-844), archchancellor of the Empire
His fifth known concubine was Ethelind . By her he had:
Richbod (805-844), Abbott of Saint-Riquier
Theodoric (b. 807)


Research Notes: Wife - Desiderata

Source: Wikipedia - Charlemagne. Marriage annulled in 771


Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom and Fastrade




Husband Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom 1 2 3 4




            AKA: Carolus Magnus, Charles I Holy Roman Emperor, Charles the Great
           Born: 2 Apr 747 - Ingelheim, Rheinhessen (Rhineland-Palatinate), Hesse-Darmstadt, Austrasia (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 28 Jan 814 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)
         Buried:  - Notre-Dame d'Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)


         Father: Pepin III "the Short" King of the Franks (0714-0768) 5 6 7 8
         Mother: Berthe of Laon (      -0783) 9


       Marriage: 784

   Other Spouse: Hildegard of Vinzgouw (Abt 0758-0783) 8 10 11 12 - Bef 30 Apr 771 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)

   Other Spouse: Himiltrude (      -      )

   Other Spouse: Desiderata (      -      ) - 770

   Other Spouse: Luitgard (      -      ) - 794

Events

• Acceded: as Emperor of the West & King of Franks, 768.

• Acceded: as King of the Lombards, 774.

• Crowned: Holy Roman Emperor, 25 Dec 800.




Wife Fastrade

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 794
         Buried: 


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-13 has b. 2 Apr 747, d. Aix la Chapelle, 28 Jan 813/4, King of France 768-814, crowned Holy Roman Emperor 25 Dec. 800.

From Wikipedia - Charlemagne :

Charlemagne (Latin : Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (742 /747 - 28 January 814 ) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople . His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance , a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church . Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages . He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France , Germany , and the Holy Roman Empire .

The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon , he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I . The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens , who menaced his realm from Spain . It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at Roncesvalles (778). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons , and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty .

Today he is not only regarded as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity..,

Date and place of birth
Charlemagne is traditionally believed to have been born on April 2 , 742; however, several factors have led to a reconsideration of this date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than from attestation in primary sources. Another date is given in the Annales Petarienses , April 1 , 747. In that year, April 1 was at Easter . The birth of an emperor at eastertime is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, but there was no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect that the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that his birth was one year later, in 748. At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include April 1 , 747, after April 15 , 747, or April 1 , 748, in Herstal (where his father was born, a city close to Liège in modern day Belgium ), the region from where both the Merovingian and Carolingian families originate. He went to live in his father's villa in Jupille when he was around seven, which caused Jupille to be listed as a possible place of birth in almost every history book. Other cities have been suggested, including, Prüm , Düren , Gauting and Aachen ...

Early life
Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 - 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 - 12 July 783 ), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne . Records name only Carloman , Gisela , and a short-lived child named Pippin as his younger siblings. The semi-mythical Redburga , wife of King Egbert of Wessex , is sometimes claimed to be his sister (or sister-in-law or niece), and the legendary material makes him Roland 's maternal uncle through a lady Bertha.

Much of what is known of Charlemagne's life comes from his biographer, Einhard , who wrote a Vita Caroli Magni (or Vita Karoli Magni), the Life of Charlemagne...

Charles and his children
During the first peace of any substantial length (780-782), Charles began to appoint his sons to positions of authority within the realm, in the tradition of the kings and mayors of the past. In 781 he made his two younger sons kings, having them crowned by the Pope. The elder of these two, Carloman , was made king of Italy , taking the Iron Crown which his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pippin". The younger of the two, Louis , became king of Aquitaine . He ordered Pippin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their subkingdoms, but real power was always in his hands, though he intended each to inherit their realm some day. Nor did he tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished his eldest, though illegitimate, son, Pippin the Hunchback , to the monastery of Prüm, because the young man had joined a rebellion against him.

The sons fought many wars on behalf of their father when they came of age. Charles was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down, but he was also sent against the Saxons on multiple occasions. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia ) to deal with the Slavs living there (Czechs ). He subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the valley of the Elbe, forcing a tribute on them. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders, but also fought the Slavs to his north. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire when finally that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. Finally, Louis was in charge of the Spanish March and also went to southern Italy to fight the duke of Benevento on at least one occasion. He took Barcelona in a great siege in the year 797 (see below).
Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters has been the subject of much discussion. He kept them at home with him, and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages - possibly to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria - yet he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands, and treasured the bastard grandchildren they produced for him. He also, apparently, refused to believe stories of their wild behaviour. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert , a member of Charlemagne's court circle...

Death
In 813, Charlemagne called Louis the Pious , king of Aquitaine , his only surviving legitimate son, to his court. There he crowned him with his own hands as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. He then spent the autumn hunting before returning to Aachen on 1 November . In January, he fell ill with pleurisy (Einhard 59). He took to his bed on 21 January and as Einhard tells it:
He died January twenty-eighth, the seventh day from the time that he took to his bed, at nine o'clock in the morning, after partaking of the Holy Communion , in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh of his reign.

He was buried on the day of his death, in Aachen Cathedral , although the cold weather and the nature of his illness made such a hurried burial unnecessary. A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen in the time of Otto III , would claim that he and Emperor Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: the emperor, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. The story was proved false by Frederick I , who discovered the remains of the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the chapel.[7]


Charlemagne's death greatly affected many of his subjects, particularly those of the literary clique who had surrounded him at Aachen...

Marriages and heirs
Charlemagne had seventeen children over the course of his life with eight of his ten known wives or concubinues.

His first relationship was with Himiltrude . The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage , a legal marriage or as a Friedelehe .[12] Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata. The union produced two children:
Amaudru, a daughter[13]
Pippin the Hunchback (c. 769-811)
After her, his first wife was Desiderata , daughter of Desiderius , king of the Lombards , married in 770, annulled in 771

His second wife was Hildegard (757 or 758-783), married 771, died 783. By her he had nine children:
Charles the Younger (c.772-4 December 811 ), Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800
Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 773-8 July 810 ), King of Italy
Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons
Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775-6 June 810 )
Louis (778-20 June 840 ), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814
Lothair (778 -6 February 779 /780 ), twin of Louis, he died in infancy[14]
Bertha (779-826)
Gisela (781-808)
Hildegarde (782-783)

His third wife was Fastrada , married 784, died 794. By her he had:
Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil
Hiltrude (b.787)
His fourth wife was Luitgard , married 794, died childless

Concubinages and illegitimate children
His first known concubine was Gersuinda . By her he had:
Adaltrude (b.774)
His second known concubine was Madelgard . By her he had:
Ruodhaid (775-810), abbess of Faremoutiers
His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne . By her he had:
Alpaida (b.794)
His fourth known concubine was Regina . By her he had:
Drogo (801-855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey
Hugh (802-844), archchancellor of the Empire
His fifth known concubine was Ethelind . By her he had:
Richbod (805-844), Abbott of Saint-Riquier
Theodoric (b. 807)


Research Notes: Wife - Fastrade

Source: Wikipedia - Charlemagne


Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom and Luitgard




Husband Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom 1 2 3 4




            AKA: Carolus Magnus, Charles I Holy Roman Emperor, Charles the Great
           Born: 2 Apr 747 - Ingelheim, Rheinhessen (Rhineland-Palatinate), Hesse-Darmstadt, Austrasia (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 28 Jan 814 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)
         Buried:  - Notre-Dame d'Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)


         Father: Pepin III "the Short" King of the Franks (0714-0768) 5 6 7 8
         Mother: Berthe of Laon (      -0783) 9


       Marriage: 794

   Other Spouse: Hildegard of Vinzgouw (Abt 0758-0783) 8 10 11 12 - Bef 30 Apr 771 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Rhineland, Prussia (Germany)

   Other Spouse: Himiltrude (      -      )

   Other Spouse: Desiderata (      -      ) - 770

   Other Spouse: Fastrade (      -0794) - 784

Events

• Acceded: as Emperor of the West & King of Franks, 768.

• Acceded: as King of the Lombards, 774.

• Crowned: Holy Roman Emperor, 25 Dec 800.




Wife Luitgard

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 50-13 has b. 2 Apr 747, d. Aix la Chapelle, 28 Jan 813/4, King of France 768-814, crowned Holy Roman Emperor 25 Dec. 800.

From Wikipedia - Charlemagne :

Charlemagne (Latin : Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (742 /747 - 28 January 814 ) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800 as a rival of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople . His rule is also associated with the Carolingian Renaissance , a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church . Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne helped define both Western Europe and the Middle Ages . He is numbered as Charles I in the regnal lists of France , Germany , and the Holy Roman Empire .

The son of King Pippin the Short and Bertrada of Laon , he succeeded his father and co-ruled with his brother Carloman I . The latter got on badly with Charlemagne, but war was prevented by the sudden death of Carloman in 771. Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the Saracens , who menaced his realm from Spain . It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at Roncesvalles (778). He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons , and after a protracted war subjected them to his rule. By forcibly converting them to Christianity, he integrated them into his realm and thus paved the way for the later Ottonian dynasty .

Today he is not only regarded as the founding father of both French and German monarchies, but as the father of Europe: his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity..,

Date and place of birth
Charlemagne is traditionally believed to have been born on April 2 , 742; however, several factors have led to a reconsideration of this date. First, the year 742 was calculated from his age given at death, rather than from attestation in primary sources. Another date is given in the Annales Petarienses , April 1 , 747. In that year, April 1 was at Easter . The birth of an emperor at eastertime is a coincidence likely to provoke comment, but there was no such comment documented in 747, leading some to suspect that the Easter birthday was a pious fiction concocted as a way of honoring the Emperor. Other commentators weighing the primary records have suggested that his birth was one year later, in 748. At present, it is impossible to be certain of the date of the birth of Charlemagne. The best guesses include April 1 , 747, after April 15 , 747, or April 1 , 748, in Herstal (where his father was born, a city close to Liège in modern day Belgium ), the region from where both the Merovingian and Carolingian families originate. He went to live in his father's villa in Jupille when he was around seven, which caused Jupille to be listed as a possible place of birth in almost every history book. Other cities have been suggested, including, Prüm , Düren , Gauting and Aachen ...

Early life
Charlemagne was the eldest child of Pippin the Short (714 - 24 September 768, reigned from 751) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720 - 12 July 783 ), daughter of Caribert of Laon and Bertrada of Cologne . Records name only Carloman , Gisela , and a short-lived child named Pippin as his younger siblings. The semi-mythical Redburga , wife of King Egbert of Wessex , is sometimes claimed to be his sister (or sister-in-law or niece), and the legendary material makes him Roland 's maternal uncle through a lady Bertha.

Much of what is known of Charlemagne's life comes from his biographer, Einhard , who wrote a Vita Caroli Magni (or Vita Karoli Magni), the Life of Charlemagne...

Charles and his children
During the first peace of any substantial length (780-782), Charles began to appoint his sons to positions of authority within the realm, in the tradition of the kings and mayors of the past. In 781 he made his two younger sons kings, having them crowned by the Pope. The elder of these two, Carloman , was made king of Italy , taking the Iron Crown which his father had first worn in 774, and in the same ceremony was renamed "Pippin". The younger of the two, Louis , became king of Aquitaine . He ordered Pippin and Louis to be raised in the customs of their kingdoms, and he gave their regents some control of their subkingdoms, but real power was always in his hands, though he intended each to inherit their realm some day. Nor did he tolerate insubordination in his sons: in 792, he banished his eldest, though illegitimate, son, Pippin the Hunchback , to the monastery of Prüm, because the young man had joined a rebellion against him.

The sons fought many wars on behalf of their father when they came of age. Charles was mostly preoccupied with the Bretons, whose border he shared and who insurrected on at least two occasions and were easily put down, but he was also sent against the Saxons on multiple occasions. In 805 and 806, he was sent into the Böhmerwald (modern Bohemia ) to deal with the Slavs living there (Czechs ). He subjected them to Frankish authority and devastated the valley of the Elbe, forcing a tribute on them. Pippin had to hold the Avar and Beneventan borders, but also fought the Slavs to his north. He was uniquely poised to fight the Byzantine Empire when finally that conflict arose after Charlemagne's imperial coronation and a Venetian rebellion. Finally, Louis was in charge of the Spanish March and also went to southern Italy to fight the duke of Benevento on at least one occasion. He took Barcelona in a great siege in the year 797 (see below).
Charlemagne's attitude toward his daughters has been the subject of much discussion. He kept them at home with him, and refused to allow them to contract sacramental marriages - possibly to prevent the creation of cadet branches of the family to challenge the main line, as had been the case with Tassilo of Bavaria - yet he tolerated their extramarital relationships, even rewarding their common-law husbands, and treasured the bastard grandchildren they produced for him. He also, apparently, refused to believe stories of their wild behaviour. After his death the surviving daughters were banished from the court by their brother, the pious Louis, to take up residence in the convents they had been bequeathed by their father. At least one of them, Bertha, had a recognised relationship, if not a marriage, with Angilbert , a member of Charlemagne's court circle...

Death
In 813, Charlemagne called Louis the Pious , king of Aquitaine , his only surviving legitimate son, to his court. There he crowned him with his own hands as co-emperor and sent him back to Aquitaine. He then spent the autumn hunting before returning to Aachen on 1 November . In January, he fell ill with pleurisy (Einhard 59). He took to his bed on 21 January and as Einhard tells it:
He died January twenty-eighth, the seventh day from the time that he took to his bed, at nine o'clock in the morning, after partaking of the Holy Communion , in the seventy-second year of his age and the forty-seventh of his reign.

He was buried on the day of his death, in Aachen Cathedral , although the cold weather and the nature of his illness made such a hurried burial unnecessary. A later story, told by Otho of Lomello, Count of the Palace at Aachen in the time of Otto III , would claim that he and Emperor Otto had discovered Charlemagne's tomb: the emperor, they claimed, was seated upon a throne, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre, his flesh almost entirely incorrupt. The story was proved false by Frederick I , who discovered the remains of the emperor in a sarcophagus beneath the floor of the chapel.[7]


Charlemagne's death greatly affected many of his subjects, particularly those of the literary clique who had surrounded him at Aachen...

Marriages and heirs
Charlemagne had seventeen children over the course of his life with eight of his ten known wives or concubinues.

His first relationship was with Himiltrude . The nature of this relationship is variously described as concubinage , a legal marriage or as a Friedelehe .[12] Charlemagne put her aside when he married Desiderata. The union produced two children:
Amaudru, a daughter[13]
Pippin the Hunchback (c. 769-811)
After her, his first wife was Desiderata , daughter of Desiderius , king of the Lombards , married in 770, annulled in 771

His second wife was Hildegard (757 or 758-783), married 771, died 783. By her he had nine children:
Charles the Younger (c.772-4 December 811 ), Duke of Maine, and crowned King of the Franks on 25 December 800
Carloman, renamed Pippin (April 773-8 July 810 ), King of Italy
Adalhaid (774), who was born whilst her parents were on campaign in Italy. She was sent back to Francia, but died before reaching Lyons
Rotrude (or Hruodrud) (775-6 June 810 )
Louis (778-20 June 840 ), twin of Lothair, King of Aquitaine since 781, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 813, senior Emperor from 814
Lothair (778 -6 February 779 /780 ), twin of Louis, he died in infancy[14]
Bertha (779-826)
Gisela (781-808)
Hildegarde (782-783)

His third wife was Fastrada , married 784, died 794. By her he had:
Theodrada (b.784), abbess of Argenteuil
Hiltrude (b.787)
His fourth wife was Luitgard , married 794, died childless

Concubinages and illegitimate children
His first known concubine was Gersuinda . By her he had:
Adaltrude (b.774)
His second known concubine was Madelgard . By her he had:
Ruodhaid (775-810), abbess of Faremoutiers
His third known concubine was Amaltrud of Vienne . By her he had:
Alpaida (b.794)
His fourth known concubine was Regina . By her he had:
Drogo (801-855), Bishop of Metz from 823 and abbot of Luxeuil Abbey
Hugh (802-844), archchancellor of the Empire
His fifth known concubine was Ethelind . By her he had:
Richbod (805-844), Abbott of Saint-Riquier
Theodoric (b. 807)


Research Notes: Wife - Luitgard

Source: Wikipedia - Charlemagne


Charles of France, Count of Valois




Husband Charles of France, Count of Valois

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Joan

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: William Count of Hainaut, Holland & Zeeland (      -      )



Research Notes: Husband - Charles of France, Count of Valois

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 1-29 (Edward III)


Research Notes: Child - Joan

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 1-29 (Edward III)


Charles Count of Brabant and Itta




Husband Charles Count of Brabant

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Itta

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Carolman Major Domus

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 615
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Charles Count of Brabant

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)


Research Notes: Wife - Itta

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)


Research Notes: Child - Carolman Major Domus

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)


Charles "Karl" von Ingelheim Duke of Ingelheim




Husband Charles "Karl" von Ingelheim Duke of Ingelheim 18

           Born: 772
     Christened: 
           Died: 811
         Buried: 


         Father: Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom (0747-0814) 1 2 3 4
         Mother: Hildegard of Vinzgouw (Abt 0758-0783) 8 10 11 12


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Rowland de Burgh (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 





Charles Constantine Count of Vienne and Teutberg




Husband Charles Constantine Count of Vienne 32

           Born: Abt 901
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt Jan 962
         Buried: 


         Father: Louis III "the Blind" King of Provence and Italy (Abt 0883-0928) 33
         Mother: Anna of Byzantium (Between 0886/0888-Abt 0914) 34


       Marriage: 



Wife Teutberg 35

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 960
         Buried: 


         Father: Garnier de Troyes, Viscount of Sens (      -      ) 36
         Mother: 




Children
1 F Constance of Provence 37

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Between 961 and 965
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Boso II Count of Provence, Avignon & Arles (      -Between 0965/0967) 38
           Marr: Abt 930




Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor and Ermentrude of Orléans




Husband Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor 39 40




            AKA: Charles the Bald King of West Francia and Holy Roman Emperor
           Born: 13 Jun 823 - Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia (Germany)
     Christened: 


           Died: 5 Oct 877 - Mont Cenis, Brides-les-Bains, Bourgogne, (France)
         Buried:  - Church of Saint Peter, Abbey of Nantua, (Ain, Rhône-Alpes), Burgundy, (France)


         Father: Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks (0778-0840) 22 23 24 25
         Mother: Judith of Bavaria (Abt 0798-0843) 29 30 31


       Marriage: 14 Dec 842 - Crécy, (Somme), Picardy, France

   Other Spouse: Richildis (      -      )

Events

• King of the Franks: 840-877.

• King of Western Francia: 843-877.

• Holy Roman Emperor: 25 Dec 875-5 Oct 877.




Wife Ermentrude of Orléans 41 42 43

            AKA: Irmtrud
           Born: 27 Sep 830 - Orléans, Orléanais, (Loiret), Neustria (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 6 Oct 869
         Buried:  - Basilica of Saint-Denis, Paris, Île-de-France, (France)


         Father: Eudes Count of Orléans (Abt 0789-      ) 44
         Mother: Engeltrude (      -      ) 42 43




Children
1 F Judith Princess of France 45 46 47

            AKA: Judith of Flanders
           Born: Oct 844 - France
     Christened: 
           Died: After 870
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Æthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent (Between 0795/0800-0858) 48 49
           Marr: 1 Oct 856 - Verberie-sur-Oise, (Oise), France
         Spouse: Æthelbald King of Wessex (      -0860) 50
           Marr: After 13 Jan 858
         Spouse: Baldwin I Count of Flanders (Abt 0836-0879) 41 51 52 53
           Marr: Jan 862 - <Flanders (Belgium)>


2 M Louis II "the Stammerer" King of West Francia 41 54 55

            AKA: Louis "the Stammerer"
           Born: 1 Nov 846 - West Francia (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 10 Apr 879 - Compeigne, (Oise, Picardy), West Francia (France)
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Adelaide of Paris (Abt 0855-After 0901) 41 56
           Marr: Between 868 and 870


3 M Hersent

           Born: Abt 862 - France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Death Notes: Husband - Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor

Died near Mont Cenis in the Alps on 5 or 6 October 877.


Burial Notes: Husband - Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor

From Wikipedia: "According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body. He was to have been buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis and may have been transferred there later. It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there that was melted down at the Revolution."


Research Notes: Husband - Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor

Name Suffix: Holy Roman Emperor
Also Known As: King of Lorraine
REFN: 831
King of France 843-877, King of Lorraine 869-877, crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome 25 December 875. In 840, Charles joined with his half-brother Louis in opposing their brother Lothair who attempted to secure the empire for himself upon the death of their father Louis.
----------
From Wikipedia - Charles the Bald :

Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Empire ) (French : Charles le Chauve; 13 June 823 - 6 October 877 ), Holy Roman Emperor (875 -877 ) and King of West Francia (840 -877 ), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious , by his second wife Judith .

Struggle against his brothers
He was born on 13 June 823 in Frankfurt , when his elder brothers were already adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia and then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (in 832, after the rising of Pepin I of Aquitaine ) were unsuccessful. The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious Lothair and Pepin, as well as their brother Louis the German , King of Bavaria , made Charles's share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land which was once Gaul and would eventually be France. At a diet near Crémieux in 837, Louis the Pious bade the nobles do homage to Charles as his heir. This led to the final rising of his sons against him and Pepin of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles received that kingdom, finally once and for all. Pepin's son Pepin II would be a perpetual thorn in his side.

The death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the new emperor Lothair I, and the two allies defeated Lothair at the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye on June 25 , 841 . In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg . The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the West Franks, which he had been up till then governing and which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse , the Saône , and the Rhône , with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro . Louis received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire , known as the East Francia and later Germany . Lothair retained the imperial title and the Iron Crown of Lombardy . He also received the central regions from Flanders through the Rhineland and Burgundy as king of Middle Francia .

Reign in the West

The first years of Charles's reign, up to the death of Lothair I in 855 , were comparatively peaceful. During these years the three brothers continued the system of "confraternal government", meeting repeatedly with one another, at Koblenz (848 ), at Meerssen (851 ), and at Attigny (854 ). In 858 , Louis the German, invited by disaffected nobles eager to oust Charles, invaded the West Frankish kingdom. Charles was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, and he fled to Burgundy . He was saved only by the support of the bishops, who refused to crown Louis king, and by the fidelity of the Welfs , who were related to his mother, Judith. In 860 , he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence , but was repulsed. On the death of his nephew Lothair II in 869 , Charles tried to seize Lothair's dominions, but by the Treaty of Mersen (870 ) was compelled to share them with Louis the German.

Besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against repeated rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons . Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë , who defeated the king at Ballon (845 ) and Juvardeil (851 ), the Bretons were successful in obtaining a de facto independence. Charles also fought against the Vikings , who devastated the country of the north, the valleys of the Seine and Loire , and even up to the borders of Aquitaine. Several times Charles was forced to purchase their retreat at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders and, by the Edict of Pistres of 864 , made the army more mobile by providing for a cavalry element, the predecessor of the French chivalry so famous during the next 600 years. By the same edict, he ordered fortified bridges to be put up at all rivers to block the Viking incursions. Two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during its siege of 885-886 .

Emperor

In 875 , after the death of the Emperor Louis II (son of his half-brother Lothair), Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII , traveled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on December 29 . Louis the German, also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to Francia . After the death of Louis the German (28 August 876 ), Charles in his turn attempted to seize Louis's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at Andernach on October 8 , 876 . In the meantime, John VIII, menaced by the Saracens , was urging Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps , but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by his regent in Lombardy , Boso , and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman , son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bain , on 6 October 877 .

According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body. He was to have been buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis and may have been transferred there later. It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there that was melted down at the Revolution.

Legacy
Charles was succeeded by his son, Louis . Charles seems to have been a prince of education and letters, a friend of the church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens , who betrayed him, and of Hincmar of Reims .
It has been suggested that Charles was not in fact bald, but that his epithet was applied ironically - that, in fact, he was extremely hairy. In support of this idea is the fact that none of his enemies commented on what would be an easy target. However, none of the voluble members of his court comments on his being hairy; and the Genealogy of Frankish Kings, a text from Fontanell dating from possibly as early as 869, and a text without a trace of irony, names him as Karolus Caluus ("Charles the Bald"). Certainly, by the end of the 10th century, Richier of Reims and Adhemar of Chabannes refer to him in all seriousness as "Charles the Bald".[2]

Family
Charles married Ermentrude , daughter of Odo I, Count of Orléans , in 842 . She died in 869 . In 870 , Charles married Richilde of Provence , who was descended from a noble family of Lorraine , but none of the children he had with her played a part of any importance.

With Ermentrude :
Judith (844 -870 ), married firstly with Ethelwulf of Wessex , secondly with Ethelbald of Wessex (her stepson) and thirdly with Baldwin I of Flanders
Louis the Stammerer (846 -879 )
Charles the Child (847 -866 )
Lothar (848 -865 ), monk in 861 , became Abbot of Saint-Germain
Carloman (849 -876 )
Rotrud (852 -912 ), a nun, Abbess of Saint-Radegunde
Ermentrud (854 -877 ), a nun, Abbess of Hasnon
Hildegard (born 856 , died young)
Gisela (857 -874 )
With Richilde:
Rothild (871 -929 ), married firstly with Hugues, Count of Bourges and secondly with Roger, Count of Maine
Drogo (872 -873 )
Pippin (873 -874 )
a son (born and died 875 )
Charles (876 -877 ) 41


Birth Notes: Wife - Ermentrude of Orléans

Ancestral Roots has b. 830. Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871986 has b. abt 825. FamilySearch has b. 27 Sep 830.


Research Notes: Wife - Ermentrude of Orléans

Eldest daughter of Eudes and Engletrude.



Research Notes: Child - Judith Princess of France

Baldwin I was her third husband.

From Wikipedia - Judith of Flanders :

Judith of Flanders (844 - 870 ) was a daughter of the Frankish king Charles the Bald . Through her marriage to two kings of Wessex she was first a queen, then later through her third marriage to Baldwin, she became Countess of Flanders .

Judith was born in October of 844, the daughter of Charles the Bald , King of the Franks , and Ermentrude .

Her father gave her in marriage to Ethelwulf , King of Wessex on October 1 , 856 at Verberie sur Oise , France. Soon after, Ethelwulf's son Ethelbald forced his father to abdicate. Following Ethelwulf's death on January 13 , 858 , Ethelbald married his widowed stepmother. However, the marriage was annulled in 860 on the grounds of consanguinity .

Elopement
Judith eloped with Baldwin in January 862 . They were likely married at the monastery of Senlis before they eloped. The couple was in hiding from Judith's father, King Charles the Bald, until October after which they went to her uncle Lothair II for protection. From there they fled to Pope Nicholas I . The pope took diplomatic action and asked Judith's father to accept the union as legally binding and welcome the young couple into his circle - which ultimately he did. The couple then returned to France and were officially married at Auxerre .

Baldwin was accepted as son-in-law and was given the land directly south of the Scheldt to ward off Viking attacks. Although it is disputed among historians as to whether King Charles did this in the hope that Baldwin would be killed in the ensuing battles with the Vikings, Baldwin managed the situation remarkably well. Baldwin succeeded in quelling the Viking threat, expanded both his army and his territory quickly, and became one of the most faithful supporters of King Charles. The March of Baldwin came to be known as the County of Flanders and was for a long time the most powerful principality of France.

Succession
Judith and Baldwin had a son, Baldwin II , Count of Flanders, born in 864 . Judith died in 870.


Research Notes: Child - Louis II "the Stammerer" King of West Francia

King of the Franks 877-879

From Wikipedia - Louis the Stammerer :

Louis the Stammerer (November 1 , 846 - April 10 , 879 ; French : Louis le Bègue), was the King of Aquitaine and later King of West Francia . He was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans . He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor .

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy , had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France , and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865-884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes .

With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris , he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875-914) - who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau ; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg -, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple , who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar , archbishop of Rheims , and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona , Gerona , and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy . His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe . He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.


Research Notes: Child - Hersent

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871898


Sources


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33. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A-17 (Anna of Byzantium).

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36. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A-18 (Charles Constantine).

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38. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A (Constance of Provence).

39. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-15, 162-16 (Judith).

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33 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A-17 (Anna of Byzantium).

34 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A-17.

35 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A (Charles Constantine).

36 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A-18 (Charles Constantine).

37 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A-19.

38 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 141A (Constance of Provence).

39 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-15, 162-16 (Judith).

40 Wikipedia.org, Charles the Bald.

41 http://www.familysearch.org.

42 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-15 (Charles II).

43 Wikipedia.org, Odo I, Count of Orléans.

44 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871987.

45 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871945.

46 Wikipedia.org, Judith of Flanders.

47 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13 (AEthelwulf).

48 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13.

49 Wikipedia.org, Æthelwulf of Wessex.

50 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874489.

51 Wikipedia.org, Baldwin I, Count of Flanders.

52 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 162-16 (Judith).

53 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871946.

54 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-16.

55 Wikipedia.org, Louis the Stammerer.

56 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-16 (Louis II), 143-16 (Louis II).


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