The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England and Matilda of Scotland




Husband Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England 1 2

            AKA: Henry I King of England, Henry I Beauclerc King of England
           Born: Between May 1068 and May 1069 - <Selby, Yorkshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Dec 1135 - St. Denis-le-Ferment, (Eure), Normandy, France
         Buried: 


         Father: William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy, King of England (Abt 1028-1087) 3 4
         Mother: Matilda of Flanders (Abt 1032-1083) 5 6


       Marriage: 11 Nov 1100 - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England

   Other Spouse: Adeliza of Louvain (Abt 1103-1151) 7 - 1120

   Other Spouse: Sybilla Corbet of Alcester (1077-After 1157) 2

   Other Spouse: Elizabeth de Beaumont (      -      ) 8

Events

• King of England: 1100-1135.




Wife Matilda of Scotland

            AKA: Edith of Scotland, Maud of Scotland
           Born: 1079 - Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 May 1118 - Westminster Palace, London, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots (Abt 1031-1093) 9 10
         Mother: Saint Margaret of Scotland (1045-1093) 11 12




Children
1 F Empress Matilda Countess of Anjou 13 14

            AKA: Mathilda of England, Empress Maud Countess of Anjou, Maude of England
           Born: Abt 7 Feb 1102
     Christened: 
           Died: 10 Sep 1167
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Henry V Holy Roman Emperor (1086-1125)
           Marr: 7 Jan 1114 - Worms, (Rhine-Palatinate, Germany)
         Spouse: Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy (1113-1151) 15 16 17
           Marr: 22 May 1128 - Le Mans, (Sarthe), Maine, (France)



2 M William Adelin Duke of Normandy 18

            AKA: William Ætheling Duke of Normandy, William III Duke of Normandy
           Born: 1103
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 Nov 1120
         Buried: 




Birth Notes: Husband - Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England

Ancestral Roots line 124-25 has b. 1070.


Research Notes: Husband - Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England

Fourth son of William the Conqueror.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

Henry I (c. 1068/1069 - 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror . He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose , to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties , which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta , which subjected the King to law.

The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury . He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship . His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda , but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy .

Early life
Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069, probably in Selby in Yorkshire . His mother, Queen Matilda , was descended from Alfred the Great (but not through the main West Saxon Royal line). Queen Matilda named the infant Prince Henry, after her uncle, Henry I of France . As the youngest son of the family, he was almost certainly expected to become a Bishop and was given rather more extensive schooling than was usual for a young nobleman of that time. The Chronicler William of Malmesbury asserts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate King was a crowned ass. He was certainly the first Norman ruler to be fluent in the English language .

William I's second son Richard was killed in a hunting accident in 1081, so William bequeathed his dominions to his three surviving sons in the following manner:
Robert received the Duchy of Normandy and became Duke Robert II
William Rufus received the Kingdom of England and became King William II
Henry Beauclerc received 5,000 pounds in silver

The Chronicler Orderic Vitalis reports that the old King had declared to Henry: "You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power."

Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other but eventually, wary of his devious manoeuvring, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. This sought to bar Prince Henry from both Thrones by stipulating that if either King William or Duke Robert died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.

Seizing the throne of England

When, on 2 August 1100 , William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the First Crusade . His absence allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at Winchester, Hampshire , where he buried his dead brother. There are suspicions that, on hearing that Robert was returning alive from his crusade with a new bride, Henry decided to act and arranged the murder of William by the French Vexin Walter Tirel .[1] Thus he succeeded to the throne of England, guaranteeing his succession in defiance of William and Robert's earlier agreement. Henry was accepted as King by the leading Barons and was crowned three days later on 5 August at Westminster Abbey . He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement: he issued a Charter of Liberties which is considered a forerunner of the Magna Carta .

First marriage

On 11 November 1100 Henry married Edith , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling and the great-granddaughter of Edward the Confessor 's paternal half-brother Edmund Ironside , the marriage united the Norman line with the old English line of Kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman Barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities Edith changed her name to Matilda upon becoming Queen. The other side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.

The chronicler William of Malmesbury described Henry thus: "He was of middle stature, greater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black and set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy."

Conquest of Normandy
In the following year, 1101, Robert Curthose , Henry's eldest brother, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton , Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King of England and return peacefully to Normandy , upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 silver marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.

In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and the drain on his fiscal resources from the annual payment, Henry led an expeditionary force across the English Channel .

Battle of Tinchebray
On the morning of 28 September 1106, exactly 40 years after William had made his way to England, the decisive battle between his two surviving sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. Henry and his army were marching south from Barfleur on their way to Domfront and Robert was marching with his army from Falaise on their way to Mortain. They met at the crossroads at Tinchebray and the running battle which ensued was spread out over several kilometres. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Towards evening Robert tried to retreat but was captured by Henry's men at a place three kilometres (just under two miles) north of Tinchebray where a farm named "Prise" (taken) stands today on the D22 road. The tombstones of three knights are nearby on the same road.

King of England and Ruler of Normandy
After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Robert, initially in the Tower of London , subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. One day whilst out riding Robert attempted to escape from Cardiff but his horse was bogged down in a swamp and he was recaptured. To prevent further escapes Henry had Robert's eyes burnt out. Henry appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of the Kingdom of England and reunited his father's dominions. Even after taking control of the Duchy of Normandy he didn't take the title of Duke, he chose to control it as the King of England.

In 1113, Henry attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, William Adelin , to the daughter of Fulk of Jerusalem (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. They were married in 1119. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momentous union was made between Henry's daughter, (the former Empress) Matilda and Fulk's son Geoffrey Plantagenet , which eventually resulted in the union of the two Realms under the Plantagenet Kings.


Activities as a King

Henry's need for finance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activities of centralized government. As King, Henry carried out social and judicial reforms, including:
issuing the Charter of Liberties
restoring the laws of Edward the Confessor .

Between 1103 and 1107 Henry was involved in a dispute with Anselm , the Archbishop of Canterbury , and Pope Paschal II in the investiture controversy , which was settled in the Concordat of London in 1107. It was a compromise. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. Employing the distinction, Henry gave up his right to invest his bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come and do homage for the "temporalities " (the landed properties tied to the episcopate), directly from his hand, after the bishop had sworn homage and feudal vassalage in the ceremony called commendatio, the commendation ceremony , like any secular vassal.

Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a treacherous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of Ivry , exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parley at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daughter and son-in-law.

Legitimate children
He had two children by Matilda (Edith), who died on 1 May 1118 at the palace of Westminster. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Matilda . (c. February 1102 - 10 September 1167 ). She married firstly Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor , and secondly, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou , having issue by the second.
William Adelin , (5 August 1103 - 25 November 1120 ). He married Matilda (d.1154), daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou .

Second marriage
On 29 January 1121 he married Adeliza , daughter of Godfrey I of Leuven , Duke of Lower Lotharingia and Landgrave of Brabant , but there were no children from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Matilda , widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor , as his heir.

Death and legacy

Henry visited Normandy in 1135 to see his young grandsons, the children of Matilda and Geoffrey. He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarrelled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.

Henry died on 1 December 1135 of food poisoning from eating "a surfeit of lampreys " (of which he was excessively fond) at Saint-Denis-en-Lyons (now Lyons-la-Forêt ) in Normandy. His remains were sewn into the hide of a bull to preserve them on the journey, and then taken back to England and were buried at Reading Abbey , which he had founded fourteen years before. The Abbey was destroyed during the Protestant Reformation . No trace of his tomb has survived, the probable site being covered by St James' School. Nearby is a small plaque and a large memorial cross stands in the adjoining Forbury Gardens .

Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their Queen, her gender and her remarriage into the House of Anjou , an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois , to come to England and claim the throne with popular support.

The struggle between the former Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as the Anarchy . The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's naming of Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet , as his heir in 1153.

Illegitimate children
King Henry is famed for holding the record for the largest number of acknowledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number being around 20 or 25. He had many mistresses, and identifying which mistress is the mother of which child is difficult. His illegitimate offspring for whom there is documentation are:
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester . Often, said to have been a son of Sybil Corbet.
Maud FitzRoy, married Conan III, Duke of Brittany
Constance FitzRoy, married Richard de Beaumont
Mabel FitzRoy, married William III Gouet
Aline FitzRoy, married Matthieu I of Montmorency
Gilbert FitzRoy, died after 1142. His mother may have been a sister of Walter de Gand.
Emma, born c. 1138; married Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. [Uncertain, born 2 years after Henry died.][2]

With Edith
Matilda, married in 1103 Count Rotrou II of Perche. She perished 25 Nov 1120 in the wreck of the White Ship . She left two daughters; Philippa who married Helie of Anjou (son of Fulk V) and Felice.

With Gieva de Tracy
William de Tracy

With Ansfride
Ansfride was born c. 1070. She was the wife of Anskill of Seacourt, at Wytham in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire ).
Juliane de Fontevrault (born c. 1090); married Eustace de Pacy in 1103. She tried to shoot her father with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughters to be blinded.
Fulk FitzRoy (born c. 1092); a monk at Abingdon .
Richard of Lincoln (c. 1094 - 25 November 1120 ); perished in the wreck of the White Ship .

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.
Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170.

With Edith FitzForne
Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton, (1093-1172) married Dame Maud d'Avranches du Sap. They had one daughter, Mary, who married Renaud, Sire of Courtenay (son of Miles, Sire of Courtenay and Ermengarde of Nevers).
Adeliza FitzEdith. Appears in charters with her brother Robert.

With Princess Nest
Nest ferch Rhys was born about 1073 at Dinefwr Castle , Carmarthenshire , the daughter of Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth and his wife, Gwladys ferch Rhywallon. She married, in 1095, to Gerald de Windsor (aka Geraldus FitzWalter) son of Walter FitzOther, Constable of Windsor Castle and Keeper of the Forests of Berkshire . She had several other liaisons - including one with Stephen of Cardigan, Constable of Cardigan (1136) - and subsequently other illegitimate children. The date of her death is unknown.
Henry FitzRoy , 1103-1158.

With Isabel de Beaumont
Isabel (Elizabeth) de Beaumont (after 1102 - after 1172), daughter of Robert de Beaumont , sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke , in 1130. She was also known as Isabella de Meulan.
Isabel Hedwig of England
Matilda FitzRoy , abbess of Montvilliers, also known as Montpiller 1 2


Birth Notes: Wife - Matilda of Scotland

Place name may be Dermfermline.


Research Notes: Wife - Matilda of Scotland

Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-22

From Wikipedia - Matilda of Scotland :

Matilda of Scotland[1] (born Edith; c. 1080 - 1 May 1118) was the first wife and queen consort of Henry I .

Matilda was born around 1080 in Dunfermline , the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret . She was christened Edith, and Robert Curthose stood as godfather at her christening - the English queen Matilda of Flanders was also present at the font and may have been her godmother.
When she was about six years old, Matilda (or Edith as she was then probably still called) and her sister Mary were sent to Romsey , where their aunt Cristina was abbess. During her stay at Romsey and Wilton , The Scottish princess was much sought-after as a bride; she turned down proposals from both William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , and Alan Rufus , Lord of Richmond. Hermann of Tournai even claims that William II Rufus considered marrying her. She was out of the monastery by 1093, when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury ordering that the daughter of the king of Scotland be returned to the monastery that she had left.

After the death of William II Rufus in August 1100, his brother Henry quickly seized the royal treasury and the royal crown. His next task was to marry, and Henry's choice fell on Matilda. Because Matilda had spent most of her life in a nunnery, there was some controversy over whether or not she had been veiled as a nun and would thus be ineligible for marriage. Henry sought permission for the marriage from Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , who returned to England in September 1100 after a long exile. Professing himself unwilling to decide so weighty a matter on his own, Anselm called a council of bishops in order to determine the legality of the proposed marriage. Matilda testified to the archbishop and the assembled bishops of the realm that she had never taken holy vows. She insisted that her parents had sent her and her sister to England for educational purposes, and that her aunt Cristina had veiled her only to protect her "from the lust of the Normans ." Matilda claimed she had pulled the veil off and stamped on it, and her aunt beat and scolded her most horribly for this. The council concluded that Matilda had never been a nun, nor had her parents intended that she become one, and gave their permission for the marriage.
Matilda and Henry seem to have known one another for some time before their marriage - William of Malmesbury states that Henry had "long been attached" to her, and Orderic Vitalis says that Henry had "long adored" Edith's character. Through her mother she was descended from Edmund Ironside and thus Alfred the Great and the old line of the kings of Wessex; this was very important as Henry wanted to help make himself more popular with the English people and Matilda represented the old English dynasty. In their children the Norman and Anglo-Saxon dynasties would be united. Another benefit of the marriage was that England and Scotland became politically closer; three of her brothers served as kings of Scotland and were unusually friendly to England during this period.

After Matilda and Henry were married on 11 November 1100 at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , she was crowned as "Matilda", a fashionable Norman name. She gave birth to a daughter, Matilda, in February 1102, and a son, William, in November 1103. As queen, she maintained her court primarily at Westminster , but accompanied her husband in his travels all across England, and, circa 1106-1107, probably visited Normandy with him. She also served in a vice-regal capacity when Henry was away from court. Her court was filled with musicians and poets; she commissioned a monk, probably Thurgot , to write a biography of her mother, Saint Margaret . She was an active queen, and like her mother was renowned for her devotion to religion and the poor. William of Malmesbury describes her as attending church barefoot at Lent , and washing the feet and kissing the hands of the sick. She also administered extensive dower properties and was known as a patron of the arts, especially music.

After Matilda died on 1 May 1118 at Westminster Palace , she was buried at Westminster Abbey . The death of her only son and Henry's failure to produce a legitimate son from his second marriage led to the succession crisis of The Anarchy .


Birth Notes: Child - Empress Matilda Countess of Anjou

Ancestral Roots Line 1-23 has b. abt. 1102-1104; Line 118-25 has b. 1104.
Some other source has b. Feb 1101


Research Notes: Child - Empress Matilda Countess of Anjou

From Wikipedia - Empress Matilda :

Empress Matilda, also known as Matilda of England or Maude (c. 7 February 1102 - 10 September 1167) was the daughter and heir of King Henry I of England . Matilda and her younger brother, William Adelin , were the only legitimate children of King Henry. Her brother died young in the White ship disaster , leaving Matilda as the last heir from the paternal line of her grandfather William the Conqueror .

As a child, Matilda was betrothed and later married to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor . From her marriage to Henry, she acquired the title Empress. The couple had no known children. When widowed, she was married to the much younger Geoffrey of Anjou , by whom she became the mother of three sons, the eldest of whom became King Henry II of England .

Matilda was the first female ruler of the Kingdom of England . However the length of her effective rule was quite brief - a few months in 1141 - and she was never crowned and failed to consolidate her rule (legally and politically). Because of this she is normally excluded from lists of English monarchs, and her rival (and cousin) Stephen of Blois is routinely listed as monarch for the period 1135-1154. Their warring rivalry for the throne led to years of unrest and civil war in England that have been called The Anarchy . She did secure her inheritance of the Duchy of Normandy - through the military feats of her husband Geoffrey - and she campaigned unstintingly for her oldest son's inheritance, living to see him ascend the throne in 1154.

(In Latin texts Matilda was sometimes called Maude . This is a modernised spelling of the Norman-French form of her name, Mahaut.)

Early life
Matilda was the firstborn of two children to Henry I of England and his wife Matilda of Scotland (also known as Edith). Her maternal grandparents were Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret of Scotland . Margaret was daughter of Edward the Exile and granddaughter of Edmund II of England . (Most historians believe Matilda was born at Winchester , but one, John Fletcher (1990), argues for the possibility of the royal palace at Sutton Courtenay in Oxfordshire .)

First marriage: Holy Roman Empress
When she was seven years old, Matilda was betrothed to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor ; at nine, she was sent to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany) to begin training for the life of Empress consort . The royal couple were married at Worms on January 7, 1114, and Matilda accompanied her husband on tours to Rome and Tuscany . After time, the young wife of the Emperor acted as regent , mainly in Italy, in his absence[1]. Emperor Henry died in 1125. The imperial couple had no surviving offspring, but Herman of Tournai states that Matilda bore a son who lived only a short while.

Despite being popularly known by the title "Empress " from her first marriage, Matilda's right to the title was dubious. She was never crowned Holy Roman Empress by a legitimate Pope - which ceremony was normally required to achieve the title; indeed, in later years she encouraged chroniclers to believe she had been crowned by the Pope. Contemporary, she was called German Queen by her husband's bishops, while her formal title was recorded as "Queen of the Romans". Still, "Empress" was arguably an appropriate courtesy title for the wife of an Emperor who had been crowned by the Pope.

In 1120 her brother William Adelin was drowned in the disastrous wreck of the White Ship , which left Matilda as the only legitimate child of her father King Henry . Like Matilda, her cousin Stephen of Blois was a grandchild of William (the Conqueror) of Normandy ; but her paternal line made her senior in right of succession to his maternal line.

Second marriage: Countess of Anjou
Matilda returned to England a young widow, age 23, and dowager "Empress" - a status of considerable pride to her. There Henry named her his heir to both the English throne and his Duchy of Normandy . Henry saw to it that the Anglo-Norman barons (including Stephen of Blois ) were sworn (several times) to accept Matilda as ruler if Henry died without a male heir.

Henry then arranged a second marriage for Matilda; as he aimed to achieve peace between the fractious barons of Normandy and Anjou. On 17 June 1128, Matilda, aged 26, was married to Geoffrey of Anjou , aged 15, who also was Count of Maine and heir apparent to (his father) the Count of Anjou - which title he soon acquired, and by which Matilda became Countess of Anjou. It was a title she rarely used. Geoffrey called himself "Plantagenet " from the broom flower (planta genista) he adopted as his personal emblem. So Plantagenet became the dynastic name of that powerful line of English kings who descended from Matilda and Geoffrey.

Matilda's marriage with Geoffrey was troubled; there were frequent long separations, but they had three sons and she survived him. The eldest son, Henry , was born on 5 March 1133. In 1134, she nearly died in childbirth, following the birth of her second son, Geoffrey, Count of Nantes . A third son, William X, Count of Poitou , was born in 1136.

When her father died in Normandy, on 1 December 1135, Matilda was with her husband, in Anjou ; and, crucially, too far away from events rapidly unfolding in England and Normandy. Stephen of Blois rushed to England upon learning of Henry's death; in London he moved quickly to grasp the crown of England from its appointed heir.

But Matilda was game to contest Stephen in both realms; she and her husband Geoffrey entered Normandy and began military campaigns to claim her inheritance. Progress was uneven at first, but she persevered; even so, it was not until 1139 that Matilda felt secure enough in Normandy to turn her attentions to invading England and fighting Stephen directly.
In Normandy, Geoffrey secured all fiefdoms west and south of the Seine by 1143; in January 1144, he crossed the Seine and took Rouen without resistance. He assumed the title Duke of Normandy , and Matilda became Duchess of Normandy. Geoffrey and Matilda held the duchy conjointly until 1149, then ceded it to their son, Henry, which event was soon ratified by King Louis VII of France .

Struggle for throne of England
On the death of her father, Henry I, in 1135, Matilda expected to succeed to the throne of England , but her cousin, Stephen of Blois , a nephew of Henry I, usurped the throne with the support of most of the barons, breaking the oath he had previously made to defend her rights. The civil war which followed was bitter and prolonged, with neither side gaining the ascendancy for long, but it was not until 1139 that Matilda could command the military strength necessary to challenge Stephen within his own realm. Stephen's wife, the Countess of Boulogne who was also named Matilda , was the Empress's maternal cousin. During the war, Matilda's most loyal and capable supporter was her illegitimate half-brother, Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester .

Matilda's greatest triumph came in April 1141, when her forces defeated and captured King Stephen at the Battle of Lincoln . He was made a prisoner and effectively deposed.

Her advantage lasted only a few months. When she marched on London , the city was ready to welcome her and support her coronation . She used the title of Lady of the English and planned to assume the title of queen upon coronation (the custom which was followed by her grandsons, Richard and John ).[2] However, she refused the citizens' request to have their taxes halved and, because of her own arrogance [2], she found the gates of London shut and the civil war reignited on 24 June 1141. By November, Stephen was free, having been exchanged for the captured Robert of Gloucester, and a year later, the tables were turned when Matilda was besieged at Oxford but escaped to Wallingford , supposedly by fleeing across the snow-covered land in a white cape. In 1141 she had escaped Devizes in a similarly clever manner, by disguising herself as a corpse and being carried out for burial. In 1148, Matilda and Henry returned to Normandy , following the death of Robert of Gloucester, and the reconquest of that county by her husband. Upon their arrival, Geoffrey turned Normandy over to his son, and retired to his own county of Anjou .

Later life
Matilda's first son, Henry , was showing signs of becoming a successful leader. Although the civil war had been decided in Stephen's favour, his reign was troubled. In 1153, the death of his son Eustace, combined with the arrival of a military expedition led by Henry, led him to acknowledge the latter as his heir by the Treaty of Wallingford .

Matilda retired to Rouen in Normandy during her last years, where she maintained her own court and presided over the government of the duchy in the absence of Henry. She intervened in the quarrels between her eldest son Henry and her second son Geoffrey, but peace between the brothers was brief. Geoffrey rebelled against Henry twice before his sudden death in 1158. Relations between Henry and his youngest brother, William X, Count of Poitou , were more cordial, and William was given vast estates in England. Archbishop Thomas Becket refused to allow William to marry the Countess of Surrey and the young man fled to Matilda's court at Rouen. William, who was his mother's favourite child, died there in January 1164, reportedly of disappointment and sorrow. She attempted to mediate in the quarrel between her son Henry and Becket, but was unsuccessful.

Although she gave up hope of being crowned in 1141, her name always preceded that of her son Henry, even after he became king. Matilda died at Notre Dame du Pré near Rouen and was buried in the Abbey church of Bec-Hellouin, Normandy. Her body was transferred to the Rouen Cathedral in 1847; her epitaph reads: "Great by Birth, Greater by Marriage, Greatest in her Offspring: Here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry." 13 14


Death Notes: Child - William Adelin Duke of Normandy

Died in the White Ship tragedy.


Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England




Husband Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England 1 2

            AKA: Henry I King of England, Henry I Beauclerc King of England
           Born: Between May 1068 and May 1069 - <Selby, Yorkshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Dec 1135 - St. Denis-le-Ferment, (Eure), Normandy, France
         Buried: 


         Father: William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy, King of England (Abt 1028-1087) 3 4
         Mother: Matilda of Flanders (Abt 1032-1083) 5 6


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Matilda of Scotland (1079-1118) - 11 Nov 1100 - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England

   Other Spouse: Adeliza of Louvain (Abt 1103-1151) 7 - 1120

   Other Spouse: Sybilla Corbet of Alcester (1077-After 1157) 2

   Other Spouse: Elizabeth de Beaumont (      -      ) 8

Events

• King of England: 1100-1135.




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Maud Princess of England 19

           Born: Abt 1091 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Conan III "le Gros" Duke of Bretagne (Abt 1096-1148) 19
           Marr: Mar 1113 - England




Birth Notes: Husband - Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England

Ancestral Roots line 124-25 has b. 1070.


Research Notes: Husband - Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England

Fourth son of William the Conqueror.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

Henry I (c. 1068/1069 - 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror . He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose , to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties , which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta , which subjected the King to law.

The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury . He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship . His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda , but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy .

Early life
Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069, probably in Selby in Yorkshire . His mother, Queen Matilda , was descended from Alfred the Great (but not through the main West Saxon Royal line). Queen Matilda named the infant Prince Henry, after her uncle, Henry I of France . As the youngest son of the family, he was almost certainly expected to become a Bishop and was given rather more extensive schooling than was usual for a young nobleman of that time. The Chronicler William of Malmesbury asserts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate King was a crowned ass. He was certainly the first Norman ruler to be fluent in the English language .

William I's second son Richard was killed in a hunting accident in 1081, so William bequeathed his dominions to his three surviving sons in the following manner:
Robert received the Duchy of Normandy and became Duke Robert II
William Rufus received the Kingdom of England and became King William II
Henry Beauclerc received 5,000 pounds in silver

The Chronicler Orderic Vitalis reports that the old King had declared to Henry: "You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power."

Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other but eventually, wary of his devious manoeuvring, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. This sought to bar Prince Henry from both Thrones by stipulating that if either King William or Duke Robert died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.

Seizing the throne of England

When, on 2 August 1100 , William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the First Crusade . His absence allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at Winchester, Hampshire , where he buried his dead brother. There are suspicions that, on hearing that Robert was returning alive from his crusade with a new bride, Henry decided to act and arranged the murder of William by the French Vexin Walter Tirel .[1] Thus he succeeded to the throne of England, guaranteeing his succession in defiance of William and Robert's earlier agreement. Henry was accepted as King by the leading Barons and was crowned three days later on 5 August at Westminster Abbey . He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement: he issued a Charter of Liberties which is considered a forerunner of the Magna Carta .

First marriage

On 11 November 1100 Henry married Edith , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling and the great-granddaughter of Edward the Confessor 's paternal half-brother Edmund Ironside , the marriage united the Norman line with the old English line of Kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman Barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities Edith changed her name to Matilda upon becoming Queen. The other side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.

The chronicler William of Malmesbury described Henry thus: "He was of middle stature, greater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black and set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy."

Conquest of Normandy
In the following year, 1101, Robert Curthose , Henry's eldest brother, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton , Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King of England and return peacefully to Normandy , upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 silver marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.

In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and the drain on his fiscal resources from the annual payment, Henry led an expeditionary force across the English Channel .

Battle of Tinchebray
On the morning of 28 September 1106, exactly 40 years after William had made his way to England, the decisive battle between his two surviving sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. Henry and his army were marching south from Barfleur on their way to Domfront and Robert was marching with his army from Falaise on their way to Mortain. They met at the crossroads at Tinchebray and the running battle which ensued was spread out over several kilometres. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Towards evening Robert tried to retreat but was captured by Henry's men at a place three kilometres (just under two miles) north of Tinchebray where a farm named "Prise" (taken) stands today on the D22 road. The tombstones of three knights are nearby on the same road.

King of England and Ruler of Normandy
After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Robert, initially in the Tower of London , subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. One day whilst out riding Robert attempted to escape from Cardiff but his horse was bogged down in a swamp and he was recaptured. To prevent further escapes Henry had Robert's eyes burnt out. Henry appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of the Kingdom of England and reunited his father's dominions. Even after taking control of the Duchy of Normandy he didn't take the title of Duke, he chose to control it as the King of England.

In 1113, Henry attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, William Adelin , to the daughter of Fulk of Jerusalem (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. They were married in 1119. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momentous union was made between Henry's daughter, (the former Empress) Matilda and Fulk's son Geoffrey Plantagenet , which eventually resulted in the union of the two Realms under the Plantagenet Kings.


Activities as a King

Henry's need for finance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activities of centralized government. As King, Henry carried out social and judicial reforms, including:
issuing the Charter of Liberties
restoring the laws of Edward the Confessor .

Between 1103 and 1107 Henry was involved in a dispute with Anselm , the Archbishop of Canterbury , and Pope Paschal II in the investiture controversy , which was settled in the Concordat of London in 1107. It was a compromise. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. Employing the distinction, Henry gave up his right to invest his bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come and do homage for the "temporalities " (the landed properties tied to the episcopate), directly from his hand, after the bishop had sworn homage and feudal vassalage in the ceremony called commendatio, the commendation ceremony , like any secular vassal.

Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a treacherous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of Ivry , exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parley at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daughter and son-in-law.

Legitimate children
He had two children by Matilda (Edith), who died on 1 May 1118 at the palace of Westminster. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Matilda . (c. February 1102 - 10 September 1167 ). She married firstly Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor , and secondly, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou , having issue by the second.
William Adelin , (5 August 1103 - 25 November 1120 ). He married Matilda (d.1154), daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou .

Second marriage
On 29 January 1121 he married Adeliza , daughter of Godfrey I of Leuven , Duke of Lower Lotharingia and Landgrave of Brabant , but there were no children from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Matilda , widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor , as his heir.

Death and legacy

Henry visited Normandy in 1135 to see his young grandsons, the children of Matilda and Geoffrey. He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarrelled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.

Henry died on 1 December 1135 of food poisoning from eating "a surfeit of lampreys " (of which he was excessively fond) at Saint-Denis-en-Lyons (now Lyons-la-Forêt ) in Normandy. His remains were sewn into the hide of a bull to preserve them on the journey, and then taken back to England and were buried at Reading Abbey , which he had founded fourteen years before. The Abbey was destroyed during the Protestant Reformation . No trace of his tomb has survived, the probable site being covered by St James' School. Nearby is a small plaque and a large memorial cross stands in the adjoining Forbury Gardens .

Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their Queen, her gender and her remarriage into the House of Anjou , an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois , to come to England and claim the throne with popular support.

The struggle between the former Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as the Anarchy . The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's naming of Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet , as his heir in 1153.

Illegitimate children
King Henry is famed for holding the record for the largest number of acknowledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number being around 20 or 25. He had many mistresses, and identifying which mistress is the mother of which child is difficult. His illegitimate offspring for whom there is documentation are:
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester . Often, said to have been a son of Sybil Corbet.
Maud FitzRoy, married Conan III, Duke of Brittany
Constance FitzRoy, married Richard de Beaumont
Mabel FitzRoy, married William III Gouet
Aline FitzRoy, married Matthieu I of Montmorency
Gilbert FitzRoy, died after 1142. His mother may have been a sister of Walter de Gand.
Emma, born c. 1138; married Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. [Uncertain, born 2 years after Henry died.][2]

With Edith
Matilda, married in 1103 Count Rotrou II of Perche. She perished 25 Nov 1120 in the wreck of the White Ship . She left two daughters; Philippa who married Helie of Anjou (son of Fulk V) and Felice.

With Gieva de Tracy
William de Tracy

With Ansfride
Ansfride was born c. 1070. She was the wife of Anskill of Seacourt, at Wytham in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire ).
Juliane de Fontevrault (born c. 1090); married Eustace de Pacy in 1103. She tried to shoot her father with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughters to be blinded.
Fulk FitzRoy (born c. 1092); a monk at Abingdon .
Richard of Lincoln (c. 1094 - 25 November 1120 ); perished in the wreck of the White Ship .

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.
Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170.

With Edith FitzForne
Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton, (1093-1172) married Dame Maud d'Avranches du Sap. They had one daughter, Mary, who married Renaud, Sire of Courtenay (son of Miles, Sire of Courtenay and Ermengarde of Nevers).
Adeliza FitzEdith. Appears in charters with her brother Robert.

With Princess Nest
Nest ferch Rhys was born about 1073 at Dinefwr Castle , Carmarthenshire , the daughter of Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth and his wife, Gwladys ferch Rhywallon. She married, in 1095, to Gerald de Windsor (aka Geraldus FitzWalter) son of Walter FitzOther, Constable of Windsor Castle and Keeper of the Forests of Berkshire . She had several other liaisons - including one with Stephen of Cardigan, Constable of Cardigan (1136) - and subsequently other illegitimate children. The date of her death is unknown.
Henry FitzRoy , 1103-1158.

With Isabel de Beaumont
Isabel (Elizabeth) de Beaumont (after 1102 - after 1172), daughter of Robert de Beaumont , sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke , in 1130. She was also known as Isabella de Meulan.
Isabel Hedwig of England
Matilda FitzRoy , abbess of Montvilliers, also known as Montpiller 1 2


Research Notes: Child - Maud Princess of England

Illegitimate daughter of Henry I. 19


Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England and Sybilla Corbet of Alcester




Husband Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England 1 2

            AKA: Henry I King of England, Henry I Beauclerc King of England
           Born: Between May 1068 and May 1069 - <Selby, Yorkshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Dec 1135 - St. Denis-le-Ferment, (Eure), Normandy, France
         Buried: 


         Father: William the Conqueror Duke of Normandy, King of England (Abt 1028-1087) 3 4
         Mother: Matilda of Flanders (Abt 1032-1083) 5 6


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Matilda of Scotland (1079-1118) - 11 Nov 1100 - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England

   Other Spouse: Adeliza of Louvain (Abt 1103-1151) 7 - 1120

   Other Spouse: Elizabeth de Beaumont (      -      ) 8

Events

• King of England: 1100-1135.




Wife Sybilla Corbet of Alcester 2

           Born: 1077 - Alcester, Warwickshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1157
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Robert de Caen 1st Earl of Gloucester 19 20 21

            AKA: Robert "the King's son" de Caen Earl of Gloucester, Robert de Caen "the Consul," Earl of Glouchester
           Born: Abt 1090 - <Caen, Normandy, France>
     Christened: 
           Died: 31 Oct 1147 - Bristol, Gloucestershire, England
         Buried:  - St. James Priory, Bristol, Gloucestershire, England
         Spouse: Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester (1090-1157) 19 22 23
           Marr: 1107
         Spouse: Elizabeth (      -      )
         Spouse: Maud (      -      )




Birth Notes: Husband - Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England

Ancestral Roots line 124-25 has b. 1070.


Research Notes: Husband - Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England

Fourth son of William the Conqueror.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

Henry I (c. 1068/1069 - 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I the Conqueror . He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose , to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties , which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta , which subjected the King to law.

The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury . He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship . His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda , but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy .

Early life
Henry was born between May 1068 and May 1069, probably in Selby in Yorkshire . His mother, Queen Matilda , was descended from Alfred the Great (but not through the main West Saxon Royal line). Queen Matilda named the infant Prince Henry, after her uncle, Henry I of France . As the youngest son of the family, he was almost certainly expected to become a Bishop and was given rather more extensive schooling than was usual for a young nobleman of that time. The Chronicler William of Malmesbury asserts that Henry once remarked that an illiterate King was a crowned ass. He was certainly the first Norman ruler to be fluent in the English language .

William I's second son Richard was killed in a hunting accident in 1081, so William bequeathed his dominions to his three surviving sons in the following manner:
Robert received the Duchy of Normandy and became Duke Robert II
William Rufus received the Kingdom of England and became King William II
Henry Beauclerc received 5,000 pounds in silver

The Chronicler Orderic Vitalis reports that the old King had declared to Henry: "You in your own time will have all the dominions I have acquired and be greater than both your brothers in wealth and power."

Henry tried to play his brothers off against each other but eventually, wary of his devious manoeuvring, they acted together and signed an Accession Treaty. This sought to bar Prince Henry from both Thrones by stipulating that if either King William or Duke Robert died without an heir, the two dominions of their father would be reunited under the surviving brother.

Seizing the throne of England

When, on 2 August 1100 , William II was killed by an arrow in yet another hunting accident in the New Forest, Duke Robert had not yet returned from the First Crusade . His absence allowed Prince Henry to seize the Royal Treasury at Winchester, Hampshire , where he buried his dead brother. There are suspicions that, on hearing that Robert was returning alive from his crusade with a new bride, Henry decided to act and arranged the murder of William by the French Vexin Walter Tirel .[1] Thus he succeeded to the throne of England, guaranteeing his succession in defiance of William and Robert's earlier agreement. Henry was accepted as King by the leading Barons and was crowned three days later on 5 August at Westminster Abbey . He secured his position among the nobles by an act of political appeasement: he issued a Charter of Liberties which is considered a forerunner of the Magna Carta .

First marriage

On 11 November 1100 Henry married Edith , daughter of King Malcolm III of Scotland. Since Edith was also the niece of Edgar Atheling and the great-granddaughter of Edward the Confessor 's paternal half-brother Edmund Ironside , the marriage united the Norman line with the old English line of Kings. The marriage greatly displeased the Norman Barons, however, and as a concession to their sensibilities Edith changed her name to Matilda upon becoming Queen. The other side of this coin, however, was that Henry, by dint of his marriage, became far more acceptable to the Anglo-Saxon populace.

The chronicler William of Malmesbury described Henry thus: "He was of middle stature, greater than the small, but exceeded by the very tall; his hair was black and set back upon the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy."

Conquest of Normandy
In the following year, 1101, Robert Curthose , Henry's eldest brother, attempted to seize the crown by invading England. In the Treaty of Alton , Robert agreed to recognise his brother Henry as King of England and return peacefully to Normandy , upon receipt of an annual sum of 2000 silver marks, which Henry proceeded to pay.

In 1105, to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and the drain on his fiscal resources from the annual payment, Henry led an expeditionary force across the English Channel .

Battle of Tinchebray
On the morning of 28 September 1106, exactly 40 years after William had made his way to England, the decisive battle between his two surviving sons, Robert Curthose and Henry Beauclerc, took place in the small village of Tinchebray. This combat was totally unexpected and unprepared. Henry and his army were marching south from Barfleur on their way to Domfront and Robert was marching with his army from Falaise on their way to Mortain. They met at the crossroads at Tinchebray and the running battle which ensued was spread out over several kilometres. The site where most of the fighting took place is the village playing field today. Towards evening Robert tried to retreat but was captured by Henry's men at a place three kilometres (just under two miles) north of Tinchebray where a farm named "Prise" (taken) stands today on the D22 road. The tombstones of three knights are nearby on the same road.

King of England and Ruler of Normandy
After Henry had defeated his brother's Norman army at Tinchebray he imprisoned Robert, initially in the Tower of London , subsequently at Devizes Castle and later at Cardiff. One day whilst out riding Robert attempted to escape from Cardiff but his horse was bogged down in a swamp and he was recaptured. To prevent further escapes Henry had Robert's eyes burnt out. Henry appropriated the Duchy of Normandy as a possession of the Kingdom of England and reunited his father's dominions. Even after taking control of the Duchy of Normandy he didn't take the title of Duke, he chose to control it as the King of England.

In 1113, Henry attempted to reduce difficulties in Normandy by betrothing his eldest son, William Adelin , to the daughter of Fulk of Jerusalem (also known as Fulk V), Count of Anjou, then a serious enemy. They were married in 1119. Eight years later, after William's untimely death, a much more momentous union was made between Henry's daughter, (the former Empress) Matilda and Fulk's son Geoffrey Plantagenet , which eventually resulted in the union of the two Realms under the Plantagenet Kings.


Activities as a King

Henry's need for finance to consolidate his position led to an increase in the activities of centralized government. As King, Henry carried out social and judicial reforms, including:
issuing the Charter of Liberties
restoring the laws of Edward the Confessor .

Between 1103 and 1107 Henry was involved in a dispute with Anselm , the Archbishop of Canterbury , and Pope Paschal II in the investiture controversy , which was settled in the Concordat of London in 1107. It was a compromise. In England, a distinction was made in the King's chancery between the secular and ecclesiastical powers of the prelates. Employing the distinction, Henry gave up his right to invest his bishops and abbots, but reserved the custom of requiring them to come and do homage for the "temporalities " (the landed properties tied to the episcopate), directly from his hand, after the bishop had sworn homage and feudal vassalage in the ceremony called commendatio, the commendation ceremony , like any secular vassal.

Henry was also known for some brutal acts. He once threw a treacherous burgher named Conan Pilatus from the tower of Rouen; the tower was known from then on as "Conan's Leap". In another instance that took place in 1119, Henry's son-in-law, Eustace de Pacy, and Ralph Harnec, the constable of Ivry , exchanged their children as hostages. When Eustace blinded Harnec's son, Harnec demanded vengeance. King Henry allowed Harnec to blind and mutilate Eustace's two daughters, who were also Henry's own grandchildren. Eustace and his wife, Juliane, were outraged and threatened to rebel. Henry arranged to meet his daughter at a parley at Breteuil, only for Juliane to draw a crossbow and attempt to assassinate her father. She was captured and confined to the castle, but escaped by leaping from a window into the moat below. Some years later Henry was reconciled with his daughter and son-in-law.

Legitimate children
He had two children by Matilda (Edith), who died on 1 May 1118 at the palace of Westminster. She was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Matilda . (c. February 1102 - 10 September 1167 ). She married firstly Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor , and secondly, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou , having issue by the second.
William Adelin , (5 August 1103 - 25 November 1120 ). He married Matilda (d.1154), daughter of Fulk V, Count of Anjou .

Second marriage
On 29 January 1121 he married Adeliza , daughter of Godfrey I of Leuven , Duke of Lower Lotharingia and Landgrave of Brabant , but there were no children from this marriage. Left without male heirs, Henry took the unprecedented step of making his barons swear to accept his daughter Empress Matilda , widow of Henry V, the Holy Roman Emperor , as his heir.

Death and legacy

Henry visited Normandy in 1135 to see his young grandsons, the children of Matilda and Geoffrey. He took great delight in his grandchildren, but soon quarrelled with his daughter and son-in-law and these disputes led him to tarry in Normandy far longer than he originally planned.

Henry died on 1 December 1135 of food poisoning from eating "a surfeit of lampreys " (of which he was excessively fond) at Saint-Denis-en-Lyons (now Lyons-la-Forêt ) in Normandy. His remains were sewn into the hide of a bull to preserve them on the journey, and then taken back to England and were buried at Reading Abbey , which he had founded fourteen years before. The Abbey was destroyed during the Protestant Reformation . No trace of his tomb has survived, the probable site being covered by St James' School. Nearby is a small plaque and a large memorial cross stands in the adjoining Forbury Gardens .

Although Henry's barons had sworn allegiance to his daughter as their Queen, her gender and her remarriage into the House of Anjou , an enemy of the Normans, allowed Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois , to come to England and claim the throne with popular support.

The struggle between the former Empress and Stephen resulted in a long civil war known as the Anarchy . The dispute was eventually settled by Stephen's naming of Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet , as his heir in 1153.

Illegitimate children
King Henry is famed for holding the record for the largest number of acknowledged illegitimate children born to any English king, with the number being around 20 or 25. He had many mistresses, and identifying which mistress is the mother of which child is difficult. His illegitimate offspring for whom there is documentation are:
Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester . Often, said to have been a son of Sybil Corbet.
Maud FitzRoy, married Conan III, Duke of Brittany
Constance FitzRoy, married Richard de Beaumont
Mabel FitzRoy, married William III Gouet
Aline FitzRoy, married Matthieu I of Montmorency
Gilbert FitzRoy, died after 1142. His mother may have been a sister of Walter de Gand.
Emma, born c. 1138; married Gui de Laval, Lord Laval. [Uncertain, born 2 years after Henry died.][2]

With Edith
Matilda, married in 1103 Count Rotrou II of Perche. She perished 25 Nov 1120 in the wreck of the White Ship . She left two daughters; Philippa who married Helie of Anjou (son of Fulk V) and Felice.

With Gieva de Tracy
William de Tracy

With Ansfride
Ansfride was born c. 1070. She was the wife of Anskill of Seacourt, at Wytham in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire ).
Juliane de Fontevrault (born c. 1090); married Eustace de Pacy in 1103. She tried to shoot her father with a crossbow after King Henry allowed her two young daughters to be blinded.
Fulk FitzRoy (born c. 1092); a monk at Abingdon .
Richard of Lincoln (c. 1094 - 25 November 1120 ); perished in the wreck of the White Ship .

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.
Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170.

With Edith FitzForne
Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton, (1093-1172) married Dame Maud d'Avranches du Sap. They had one daughter, Mary, who married Renaud, Sire of Courtenay (son of Miles, Sire of Courtenay and Ermengarde of Nevers).
Adeliza FitzEdith. Appears in charters with her brother Robert.

With Princess Nest
Nest ferch Rhys was born about 1073 at Dinefwr Castle , Carmarthenshire , the daughter of Prince Rhys ap Tewdwr of Deheubarth and his wife, Gwladys ferch Rhywallon. She married, in 1095, to Gerald de Windsor (aka Geraldus FitzWalter) son of Walter FitzOther, Constable of Windsor Castle and Keeper of the Forests of Berkshire . She had several other liaisons - including one with Stephen of Cardigan, Constable of Cardigan (1136) - and subsequently other illegitimate children. The date of her death is unknown.
Henry FitzRoy , 1103-1158.

With Isabel de Beaumont
Isabel (Elizabeth) de Beaumont (after 1102 - after 1172), daughter of Robert de Beaumont , sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester . She married Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke , in 1130. She was also known as Isabella de Meulan.
Isabel Hedwig of England
Matilda FitzRoy , abbess of Montvilliers, also known as Montpiller 1 2


Research Notes: Wife - Sybilla Corbet of Alcester

May not have been the mother of Robert de Caen.

From Wikipedia - Henry I of England :

With Sybil Corbet
Lady Sybilla Corbet of Alcester was born in 1077 in Alcester in Warwickshire . She married Herbert FitzHerbert, son of Herbert 'the Chamberlain' of Winchester and Emma de Blois. She died after 1157 and was also known as Adela (or Lucia) Corbet. Sybil was definitely mother of Sybil and Rainald, possibly also of William and Rohese. Some sources suggest that there was another daughter by this relationship, Gundred, but it appears that she was thought as such because she was a sister of Reginald de Dunstanville but it appears that that was another person of that name who was not related to this family.

Sybilla de Normandy , married Alexander I of Scotland .
William Constable, born before 1105. Married Alice (Constable); died after 1187.
Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall .
Gundred of England (1114-46), married 1130 Henry de la Pomeroy, son of Joscelin de la Pomerai.
Rohese of England, born 1114; married William de Tracy (b. 1040 in Normandy, France d. 1110 in Barnstaple, Devon, England)son of Turgisus de Tracy. They married in 1075. They had four children 1)Turgisus II de Tracy b. 1066, 2) Henry de Tracy b. 1068, 3) Gieva de Tracy b. 1068 d. 1100, 4)Henry of Barnstaple Tracy b. 1070 d.1170. 2


Research Notes: Child - Robert de Caen 1st Earl of Gloucester

Natural son of Henry I. Half-brother of Empress Matilda.

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 123-26:
"ROBERT DE CAEN, Earl of Gloucester, 1122-1147 (natural son of Henry I, prob. by a NN dau. of the Gay or Gayt family of N. Oxfordshire... b. abt 1090, d. Bristol, 31 Oct. 1147, called 'the Consul'; m. Maud Fitz Hamon, dau. and h. of Robert Fitz Hamon, d. 1107, seigneur of Crelly in Calvados, Normandy, Lord of Thoringni, etc., and Sybil de Montgomery, dau. of Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury."

Also line 63-26 (Hawise de Beaumont)
--------
From Wikipedia - Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester :

Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester (c. 1090 - October 31 , 1147 ) was an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England , and one of the dominant figures of the period of English history sometimes called The Anarchy . He is also known as Robert of Caen, and Robert "the Consul", though both names are used by later historians and have little contemporary justification, other than the fact that Robert's clerks made a practice of using the Latin word consul rather than the more common comes for his title of 'Earl'.

Early life
Robert was the eldest of Henry's many illegitimate children. He was born well before his father's accession to the English throne, probably in the late 1080s, as he had himself had a son by 1104. There are numerous references noting him to have been the son of Sybil Corbet , heiress to Robert Corbet, Lord of Alcester, whose family had land in both England and Normandy. He was born in Caen, Normandy and was the first of several children between Henry and his Mistress Sybil Corbet. [1]

Robert was acknowledged at birth, though in view of the vicissitudes of his father's career between 1087 and 1096 it is unlikely he was raised in his household. He was educated to a high standard, was literate in Latin and had a serious interest in both history and philosophy, which indicates that he was at least partly raised in a clerical household, a suggestion made all the more likely as his first known child, born around 1104, was born to a daughter of Samson, Bishop of Worcester (died 1112) who up till 1096 had been a Royal Chaplain and Treasurer of Bayeux . It may be significant that his next brother Richard was brought up in an episcopal household, that of Robert Bloet , bishop of Lincoln . Robert later received dedications from both Geoffrey of Monmouth and William of Malmesbury . William's 'Historia Novella' contains a flattering portrait of the Earl.

Robert appears at court in Normandy in 1113, and in 1107 he had married Mabel, eldest daughter and heir of Robert Fitzhamon , who brought him the substantial honour of Gloucester in England, Glamorgan in Wales and the honours of Sainte-Scholasse-sur-Sarthe and Évrecy in Normandy, as well as Creully . In 1121 or 1122 his father created him Earl of Gloucester . Through his marriage to Mabel he became second Lord of Glamorgan, and gained possession of Cardiff Castle , and was responsible for the building of the stone keep there, which remains as the best preserved Norman shell keep in Wales, and one of the best in the British Isles. Robert had considerable authority and autonomy, to the extent that he even minted his own coinage, today preserved in the British Museum .

Family and children
He married, around 1107, Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester (died 1156), daughter of Robert Fitzhamon and Sibyl de Montgomery . Their children were:
William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester , died 1183. He married Hawise (died 1197) daughter of Robert II, Earl of Leicester.
Roger , Bishop of Worcester , (died 9 August 1179 , Tours ).
Hamon, killed at the siege of Toulouse in 1159.
Robert. (died before 1157) Also called Robert of Ilchester in documents. He married Hawise, (died after 1210) daughter of Baldwin de Redvers and Adeliz. Their daughter Mabel married Jordan de Cambernon .
Maud , (died 1190), wife of Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester .
Philip, Castellan of Cricklade , (died after 1147). He took part in the Second Crusade .

Earl Robert had an illegitimate son, Richard, bishop of Bayeux (1135-1142), by Isabel de Douvres , sister of Richard de Douvres , bishop of Bayeux (1107-1133). 19 20 21


Henry I "the Fowler" Duke of Saxony, King of the Saxons and Mechtilde of Ringelheim




Husband Henry I "the Fowler" Duke of Saxony, King of the Saxons 19 24 25

            AKA: Heinrich I "the Fowler" Duke of Saxony
           Born: 876 - <Saxony, (Thuringia, Germany)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 2 Jul 936 - Memleben, Saxony (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany)
         Buried: 


         Father: Otto "the Illustrious" Duke of Saxony (Abt 0836-0912) 26 27
         Mother: Haduich (Abt 0856-0903) 28


       Marriage: 909

Events

• King of the Saxons: 912-936.

• Emperor of Germany:




Wife Mechtilde of Ringelheim 19 29

            AKA: Mathilda Countess of Ringleheim, Matilda Countess of Ringelheim
           Born: Between 890 and 896 - <Ringelheim, Saxony (Lower Saxony, Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 14 Mar 968 - Memleben, Saxony (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany)
         Buried: 


         Father: Dietrich Count of Ringelheim (      -      ) 29
         Mother: 




Children
1 F Hedwig of Saxony 30

           Born:  - <Saxony, (Germany)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 10 May aft 965
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Hugh Magnus Count of Paris (Abt 0895-0956) 31
           Marr: 938 - Mainz or Ingelheim, (Germany)



2 F Gerberga of Saxony 19 32 33

            AKA: Gerberge
           Born: Abt 914 - <Nordhausen, Saxony, (Thuringia, Germany)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 5 May 984 - Reims, (Marne), Champagne, France
         Buried:  - Reims, (Marne), Champagne, France
         Spouse: Giselbert Duke of Lorraine (Abt 0880-0939) 19 34 35
           Marr: 929
         Spouse: Louis IV d'Outre-Mer, King of the West Franks (0920-0954) 19 36
           Marr: 939 or 940




Research Notes: Husband - Henry I "the Fowler" Duke of Saxony, King of the Saxons

King of the Saxons 912-936

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 141-18 19 24 25


Birth Notes: Wife - Mechtilde of Ringelheim

http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f01/a0020133.htm has b. 878


Death Notes: Wife - Mechtilde of Ringelheim

FamilySearch has d. 14 May 968, Memleben, Saxony


Research Notes: Wife - Mechtilde of Ringelheim

2nd wife of Henry I

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 148-18 (Henry I "the Fowler") has b. abt 896, line 142-17 (Henry I) has b. abt 890 19 29


Death Notes: Child - Hedwig of Saxony

Ancestral Roots gives various death dates - aft. 958 or 10 May aft. 965


Research Notes: Child - Hedwig of Saxony

2nd or 3rd wife of Hugh Magnus.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 141-19 30


Research Notes: Child - Gerberga of Saxony

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 142-18 and 148-18 (Louis IV) 19 32 33


Henry II Count of Limbourg and Matilda of Saffenberg




Husband Henry II Count of Limbourg 37 38

            AKA: Henry II of Limburg
           Born: Abt 1111
     Christened: 
           Died: Aug 1167
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Imaine of Looz (      -      ) 37

Events

• Duke of Limburg: 1139-1167.

• Count of Arlon: 1147-1167.




Wife Matilda of Saffenberg

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Adolph Count of Saffenberg (      -      ) 37
         Mother: 




Children
1 F Margaret of Limbourg 37

            AKA: Margaret of Limburg
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1173
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Godfrey III Count of Louvain, Duke of Lorraine (1142-1190) 39 40
           Marr: 1158




Research Notes: Husband - Henry II Count of Limbourg

From Wikipedia - Henry II of Limburg :

Henry II (c. 1111 - August 1167) was the duke of Limburg from 1139 and count of Arlon from 1147 to his death. He was the son of Waleran, Duke of Lower Lorraine , and Jutta of Guelders. He succeeded his father in Limburg with the title of duke, but Conrad III refused grant him Lower Lorraine. He continued to style himself as duke nevertheless.
Henry refused at first to accept the loss of Lorraine and attacked the new duke, Godfrey VII . He was defeated. Godfrey died in 1142, but Henry was occupied with a war against the lord of Fauquemont and did not assert any claim to the duchy of Lower Lorraine.
In 1147, he inherited Arlon, his younger brother Waleran having died without children. Conrad confirmed this, for he had promised Henry a fief to compensate for the loss of Lorraine, and the duke and the king were reconciled. Henry did not take part in the Second Crusade that year, however. Henry attended the coronation of Conrad's successor, Frederick Barbarossa .
At that time, Henry was involved in a war with Henry IV of Luxembourg . The town of Andenne was taken and completely plundered and burned. Then Henry turned to Godfrey VIII , but they soon made peace in 1155. Henry's daughter Margaret married Godfrey.
Henry took part in Barbarossa's Italian campaigns, dying during the epidemic of 1167 at Rome . 37 38



Henry II Count of Limbourg and Imaine of Looz




Husband Henry II Count of Limbourg 37 38

            AKA: Henry II of Limburg
           Born: Abt 1111
     Christened: 
           Died: Aug 1167
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Matilda of Saffenberg (      -      )

Events

• Duke of Limburg: 1139-1167.

• Count of Arlon: 1147-1167.




Wife Imaine of Looz 37

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Louis I Count of Looz (      -      ) 37
         Mother: 




Children

Research Notes: Husband - Henry II Count of Limbourg

From Wikipedia - Henry II of Limburg :

Henry II (c. 1111 - August 1167) was the duke of Limburg from 1139 and count of Arlon from 1147 to his death. He was the son of Waleran, Duke of Lower Lorraine , and Jutta of Guelders. He succeeded his father in Limburg with the title of duke, but Conrad III refused grant him Lower Lorraine. He continued to style himself as duke nevertheless.
Henry refused at first to accept the loss of Lorraine and attacked the new duke, Godfrey VII . He was defeated. Godfrey died in 1142, but Henry was occupied with a war against the lord of Fauquemont and did not assert any claim to the duchy of Lower Lorraine.
In 1147, he inherited Arlon, his younger brother Waleran having died without children. Conrad confirmed this, for he had promised Henry a fief to compensate for the loss of Lorraine, and the duke and the king were reconciled. Henry did not take part in the Second Crusade that year, however. Henry attended the coronation of Conrad's successor, Frederick Barbarossa .
At that time, Henry was involved in a war with Henry IV of Luxembourg . The town of Andenne was taken and completely plundered and burned. Then Henry turned to Godfrey VIII , but they soon made peace in 1155. Henry's daughter Margaret married Godfrey.
Henry took part in Barbarossa's Italian campaigns, dying during the epidemic of 1167 at Rome . 37 38



Henry II Duke of Brabant and Marie of Hohenstaufen




Husband Henry II Duke of Brabant 41

            AKA: Hendrik II van Brabant, Henri II de Brabant
           Born: 1207
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Feb 1248 - Leuven, Brabant, (Flemish Brabant), Flanders, (Belgium)
         Buried: 


         Father: Henry I Duke of Lorraine, Louvain and Brabant (Abt 1165-1235) 42 43
         Mother: Mathilde of Flanders (      -Between 1210/1211) 44


       Marriage: Bef 22 Aug 1215



Wife Marie of Hohenstaufen 45 46

            AKA: Marie of Swabia, Mary of Hohenstaufen
           Born: 3 Apr 1201 - Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Mar 1235 - Leuven, Brabant, (Flemish Brabant), Flanders, (Belgium)
         Buried: 


         Father: Philip II of Swabia, King of Germany (1177-1208) 47 48
         Mother: Irene Angelina (1181-1208) 49




Children
1 F Matilda of Brabant 50 51

           Born: 1224
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Sep 1288
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Robert I "the Good" Count of Artois (1216-1250) 52
           Marr: 14 Jun 1237




Research Notes: Husband - Henry II Duke of Brabant

Duke of Brabant and Lothier.

From Wikipedia - Henry II, Duke of Brabant :

Henry II of Brabant (French: Henri II de Brabant, Dutch: Hendrik II van Brabant, 1207 - February 1 , 1248 in Leuven ) was Duke of Brabant and Lothier after the death of his father Henry I in 1235. His mother was Mathilde of Flanders
Henry II supported his sister Mathilde's son, William II, Count of Holland , in the latter's bid for election as German King.

Family and children
His first marriage was to Marie of Hohenstaufen (April 3 , 1201 -1235, Leuven), daughter of Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina . They had six children:
Henry III, Duke of Brabant (d. 1261)
Philip, died young
Matilda of Brabant (1224 - September 29 , 1288 ), married:
in Compiègne June 14 , 1237 to Robert I of Artois ;
before May 31 , 1254 to Guy II of Châtillon , Count of Saint Pol .
Beatrix (1225 - November 11 , 1288 ), married:
at Kreuzburg March 10 , 1241 Heinrich Raspe Landgrave of Thuringia ;
in Leuven November 1247 to William III of Dampierre, Count of Flanders (1224 - June 6 , 1251 ).
Marie of Brabant (c. 1226 - January 18 , 1256 , Donauwörth ), married Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria . She was beheaded by her husband on suspicion of infidelity.
Margaret (d. March 14 , 1277 ), Abbess of Herzogenthal .
His second marriage was to Sophie of Thuringia (March 20 , 1224 - May 29 , 1275 ), daughter of Ludwig IV of Thuringia and Elisabeth of Hungary by whom he had two children:
Henry (1244-1308, created Landgrave of Hesse in 1263.
Elizabeth (1243 - October 9 , 1261 ), married in Braunschweig July 13 , 1254 to Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 41


Death Notes: Wife - Marie of Hohenstaufen

Wikipedia has d. 29 March 1235. Ancestral Roots has d. abt 1240.


Research Notes: Wife - Marie of Hohenstaufen

First wife of Henry II.

From Wikipedia - Marie of Hohenstaufen :

Marie of Hohenstaufen, Duchess of Brabant (3 April 1201 - 29 March 1235 ) was a member of the powerful Hohenstaufen dynasty. She is also known as Maria of Swabia. She was the third daughter of Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina of Byzantium . Her husband was Henry II, Duke of Brabant .


Family
Marie of Hohenstaufen was born in Arezzo ,Tuscany , Italy on 3 April 1201. Her paternal grandparents were Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor and Beatrice I, Countess of Burgundy . Her maternal grandparents were Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos and his first wife Herina Tornikaina[1].
Emperor Frederick II was her first cousin.
In 1208, at the age of seven, Marie was left an orphan by the unexpected deaths of her parents. On 21 June , her father was murdered by Otto of Wittelsbach , and two months later her mother died after giving birth to a daughter, who did not live beyond early infancy. Marie had three surviving sisters.


Siblings
Beatrice of Hohenstaufen (1198-1212, married Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor . The marriage was childless.
Cunigunde of Hohenstaufen (1200-1248), married in 1228 King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia , by whom she had issue.
Elizabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203- 5 November 1235), married in 1219 King Ferdinand III of Castile , by whom she had issue, including King Alfonso X of Castile . She was his first wife. Ferdinand married his second wife Jeanne de Dammartin, Countess of Ponthieu before August 1237, by whom he had issue, including Eleanor of Castile , Queen consort of King Edward I of England .


Marriage and children
Sometime before 22 August 1215 , she married Henry II, Duke of Brabant in Brabant (present-day Belgium ). Marie was his first wife. They had six children, and through them, Marie is the ancestress of every royal house in Europe :
Matilda of Brabant (1224 - 29 September 1288 ), married firstly, Robert I of Artois , by whom she had two children, Robert II of Artois and Blanche of Artois ; she married secondly Guy III, Count of Saint-Pol , by whom she had six children.
Beatrix of Brabant (1225 - 11 November 1288 ), married firstly Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia , and secondly William III of Dampierre . She died childless.
Marie of Brabant (c. 1226 - 18 January 1256 ), married Louis II, Duke of Bavaria . She was beheaded by her husband on suspicion of infidelity.
Margaret of Brabant (d. 14 March 1277 ), Abbess of Herzogenthal.
Henry III, Duke of Brabant (c. 1230 - 28 February 1261 ), married Adelaide of Burgundy (c. 1233- 23 October 1273 , daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy , by whom he had issue, including Henry IV, Duke of Brabant , John I, Duke of Brabant , and Maria of Brabant , Queen consort of King Philip III of France .
Philip of Brabant, died young.

Death
Marie of Hohenstaufen died on 29 March 1235 in Leuven , Brabant, five days before her thirty-fourth birthday.
In 1240, Henry married his second wife, Sophie of Thuringia , the daughter of Ludwig IV of Thuringia and Elisabeth of Hungary . They had two children: Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse and Elizabeth of Brabant, who married Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg . 45 46



Birth Notes: Child - Matilda of Brabant

Wikipedia (Marie of Hohenstaufen) has b. 1224. Ancestral Roots has b. 1196.


Research Notes: Child - Matilda of Brabant

Wikipedia (Henry II, Duke of Brabant) 50 51


Henry II "Curtmantel" King of England and Ida de Tosny




Husband Henry II "Curtmantel" King of England

            AKA: King Henry II of England
           Born: 5 Mar 1132 - Le Mans, (Sarthe), Maine, (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 6 Jul 1189
         Buried:  - Fontévrault Abbey, (Fontevraud-l'Abbaye), (Maine-et-Loire), Anjou, France


         Father: Geoffrey V Plantagenet Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy (1113-1151) 15 16 17
         Mother: Empress Matilda Countess of Anjou (Abt 1102-1167) 13 14


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Eleanor of Aquitaine (Abt 1124-1204) - 18 May 1152 - Bordeaux, (Gironde), Aquitaine, France



Wife Ida de Tosny 53 54

            AKA: Ida de Toesny
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 

   Other Spouse: Roger Bigod Baron le Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk (Abt 1144-Bef 1221) 19 53 54 55 - Dec 1181


Children
1 M William Longspée 3rd Earl of Salisbury 19 56

            AKA: wILLIAM Longespée 3rd Earl of Salisbury
           Born: Abt 1176 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 Mar 1226 - Salisbury Castle, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
         Buried:  - Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
         Spouse: Ela Countess of Salisbury (1187-1261) 19 57
           Marr: 1196




Research Notes: Husband - Henry II "Curtmantel" King of England

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-24


Research Notes: Wife - Ida de Tosny

From Wikipedia - Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk :

Ida de Tosny was a royal ward and mistress of King Henry II, by whom she was mother of a young son William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury ) (b c. 1176 -March 7 , 1226 ). Ida was not the first English royal ward to be taken as mistress by a King who was her guardian; that honour probably belongs to Isabel de Beaumont (Elizabeth de Beaumont), daughter of Robert de Beaumont, who fought at the Battle of Hastings with the Conqueror. That king's youngest son made Beaumont's daughter his mistress. Ida's ancestry was unknown for many years, but a charter by her eldest (illegitimate) son refers to his mother as the "Countess Ida" which pins her down to the wife of Roger Bigod. For Ida's ancestry, see "Some corrections and additions to the Complete Peerage: Volume 9: Summary" and Marc Morris's The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century 53 54


Research Notes: Child - William Longspée 3rd Earl of Salisbury

Illegitimate son of Henry II, probably through Countess Ida.

From Wikipedia - William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury :

William Longespée, jure uxoris 3rd Earl of Salisbury (c. 1176 - 7 March 1226 ) was an English noble, primarily remembered for his command of the English forces at the Battle of Damme and for remaining loyal to King John .

He was an illegitimate son of Henry II of England . His mother was unknown for many years, until the discovery of a charter of William mentioning "Comitissa Ida, mater mea" (engl. "Countess Ida, my mother")[2] [3]


This Ida, a member of the prominent Tosny or Toesny family, later (1181) married Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk [4].

King Henry acknowledged William as his son and gave him the Honour of Appleby, Lincolnshire in 1188. Eight years later, his half-brother, King Richard I , married him to a great heiress, Ela, Countess of Salisbury in her own right, and daughter of William of Salisbury, 2nd Earl of Salisbury .

During the reign of King John, Salisbury was at court on several important ceremonial occasions, and held various offices: sheriff of Wiltshire , lieutenant of Gascony , constable of Dover and warden of the Cinque Ports , and later warden of the Welsh Marches . He was a commander in the king's Welsh and Irish expeditions of 1210-1212. The king also granted him the honour of Eye .

In 1213, Salisbury led a large fleet to Flanders , where he seized or destroyed a good part of a French invasion fleet anchored at or near Damme . This ended the invasion threat but not the conflicts between England and France . In 1214, Salisbury was sent to help Otto IV of Germany , an English ally, who was invading France. Salisbury commanded the right wing of the army at their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Bouvines , where he was captured.

By the time he returned to England, revolt was brewing amongst the barons. Salisbury was one of the few who remained loyal to John. In the civil war that took place the year after the signing of the Magna Carta , Salisbury was one of the leaders of the king's army in the south. However, after the French prince Louis (later Louis VIII ) landed as an ally of the rebels, Salisbury went over to his side. Presumably, he thought John's cause was lost.

After John's death and the departure of Louis, Salisbury, along with many other barons, joined the cause of John's young son, now Henry III of England . He held an influential place in the government during the king's minority and fought in Gascony to help secure the remaining part of the English continental possessions. Salisbury's ship was nearly lost in a storm while returning to England in 1225, and he spent some months in refuge at a monastery on the French island of Ré . He died not long after his return to England at Salisbury Castle . Roger of Wendover alleged that he was poisoned by Hubert de Burgh . He was buried at Salisbury Cathedral in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.

William Longespee's tomb was opened in 1791. Bizarrely, the well-preserved corpse of a rat which carried traces of arsenic [5], was found inside his skull. The rat is now on display in a case at the Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum.

Family
By his wife Ela, Countess of Salisbury , he had four sons and four daughters [6]:
William II Longespée (1212?-1250), who was sometimes called Earl of Salisbury but never legally bore the title because he died before his mother, Countess Ela, who held the earldom until her death in 1161;
Richard, a canon of Salisbury ;
Stephen (d. 1260), who was seneschal of Gascony;
Nicholas (d. 1297), bishop of Salisbury
Isabella, who married William de Vesey
Ella, married William d'Odingsels
Ela Longespée , who first married Thomas de Beaumont, 6th Earl of Warwick , and then married Philip Basset
Ida, who first married Ralph de Somery, and then William de Beauchamp 19 56


Henry III King of Navarre




Husband Henry III King of Navarre (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children


Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Isabel de Beaumont




Husband Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster 58

            AKA: Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke of Lancaster
           Born: Abt 1310
     Christened: 
           Died: 23 Mar 1361
         Buried: 


         Father: Henry 3rd Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester (Abt 1281-1345) 59 60
         Mother: Maud de Chaworth Countess of Lancaster & Countess of Leicester (1282-Bef 1322) 61 62 63


       Marriage: 1337 64



Wife Isabel de Beaumont 64

           Born: Abt 1320
     Christened: 
           Died: 1361
         Buried: 


         Father: Henry Beaumont 4th Earl of Buchan (Abt 1288-1340)
         Mother: Alice Comyn (1289-1349) 64




Children

Research Notes: Husband - Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster

From Wikipedia - Alice Comyn :

Isabel de Beaumont (c.1320- 1361), married in 1337 Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster , by whom she had two daughters, Maud, Countess of Leicester and Blanche of Lancaster .
-----
From Wikipedia - Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster :

Henry of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster[a] (c.1310 - 23 March 1361), also Earl of Derby and Leicester, was a member of the English nobility in the 14th century, and a prominent English diplomat , politician , and soldier . The son and heir of Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster and Maud Chaworth , he became one of Edward III 's most trusted Captains in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War , and distinguished himself with victory in the Battle of Auberoche . He was a founding member of the Order of the Garter , and in 1351 was promoted to the title of duke. Grosmont was also the author of the book Livre de seyntz medicines; a highly personal devotional treatise. He is remembered as one of the founders and early patrons of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge , which was established by two of the guilds of the town in 1352.

Family background and early life
Grosmont's uncle, Thomas of Lancaster , was the son and heir of Edward I 's brother Edmund Crouchback . Through his inheritance and a fortunate marriage, Thomas became the wealthiest peer in England, but constant quarrels with King Edward II led to his execution in 1322.[1] Having no heir, Thomas's possessions and titles went to his younger brother Henry - Grosmont's father. Earl Henry of Lancaster assented to the deposition of Edward II in 1327, but did not long stay in favour with the regency of Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer . When Edward III took personal control of the government in 1330, relations with the Crown got better, but by this time the older Henry was already struggling with poor health and blindness.[2]

Little is known of Grosmont's early years, but it seems clear that he was born at the castle of Grosmont in Monmouthshire , and that he was born c.1310, not around the turn of the century as previously held.[3] According to his own memoirs he was better at the martial arts than at academic subjects, and did not learn to read until later in life.[4] In 1330 he was knighted, and represented his father in parliament . The next year he is recorded as participating in a Royal tournament , at Cheapside .[3]

In 1333 he took part in Edward's Scottish campaign, though it is unclear whether he was present at the great English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill .[5] After further service in the north , he was appointed the King's lieutenant in Scotland in 1336.[3] The next year he was one of the six men Edward III promoted to the higher levels of the peerage. One of his father's lesser titles, that of Earl of Derby , was bestowed upon Grosmont.[6]


Service in France
With the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War in 1337, Grosmont's attention was turned towards France . He took part in several diplomatic missions and minor campaigns, and was present at the great English victory in the naval battle of Sluys in 1340.[7] Later the same year, he was required to commit himself as hostage in the Low Countries for the king's considerable debts. He remained hostage until the next year, and had to pay a large ransom for his own release.[8] On his return he was made the king's lieutenant in the north, and stayed at Roxburgh until 1342. The next years he spent in diplomatic negotiations in the Low Countries, Castile and Avignon .[3]

In 1345 Edward III was planning a major assault on France. A three-pronged attack would have the Earl of Northampton attacking from Brittany , the King himself from Flanders , while Grosmont was dispatched to Aquitaine to prepare a campaign in the south.[3] Moving rapidly through the country he confronted the comte d'Isle at Auberoche on 21 October , and here achieved a victory described as 'the greatest single achievement of Lancaster's entire military career'.[9] The ransom from the prisoners has been estimated at £50,000.[10] The next year, while Edward was carrying out his Crécy campaign, Grosmont laid siege to, and captured, Poitiers , before returning home to England in 1347.[3]


Duke of Lancaster
In 1345, while Grosmont was in France, his father died. The younger Henry was now Earl of Lancaster - the wealthiest and most powerful peer of the realm. After participating in the siege of Calais in 1347, the king honoured Lancaster by including him as a founding knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348.[11] A few years later, in 1351, Edward bestowed an even greater honour on Lancaster, when he created him Duke of Lancaster . The title of duke was of relatively new origin in England; only one other ducal title existed prior.[b] In addition to this, Lancaster was given palatinate status for the county of Lancashire , which entailed a separate administration independent of the crown.[12] This grant was quite exceptional in English history; only two other counties palatine existed: Durham , which was an ancient ecclesiastical palatinate, and Chester , which was crown property. It is a sign of Edward's high regard for Lancaster that he would bestow such extensive privileges on him. The two men were also second cousins, through their great-grandfather Henry III , and practically coeval (Edward was born in 1312), so it is natural to assume that a strong sense of camaraderie existed between them. Another factor that might have influenced the king's decision was the fact that Henry had no male heir, so the grant was made for the Earl's lifetime only, and not intended to be hereditary.[3]

Further prestige
Lancaster spent the 1350s intermittently campaigning and negotiating peace treaties with the French. In 1350 he was present at the naval victory at Winchelsea , where he allegedly saved the lives of the Black Prince and John of Gaunt .[13] The years 1351-2 he spent on crusade in Prussia . It was here that a quarrel with Otto, Duke of Brunswick , almost led to a duel between the two men, narrowly averted by the intervention of the French King, Jean II .[14] In the later half of the decade campaigning in France resumed. After a chevauchée in Normandy in 1356 and the siege of Rennes in 1358, Lancaster participated in the last great offensive of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War: the Rheims campaign of 1359-60. Then he was appointed principal negotiator for the treaty of Brétigny , where the English achieved very favourable terms.[3]

Returning to England in November 1360 he fell ill early the next year, and died at Leicester Castle on 23 March . It is likely that the cause of death was the plague , which that year was making a second visitation of England.[15]

Private life
Lancaster was married to Isabella, daughter of Henry, Lord Beaumont , in 1330. The two had no sons, but two daughters: Maude and Blanche . While Maude was married to the Duke of Bavaria , Blanche married Edward III's younger son, John of Gaunt . Gaunt ended up inheriting Lancaster's possessions and ducal title, but it was not until 1377, when the dying King Edward III was largely incapacitated, that he was able to restore the palatinate rights for the county of Lancaster. When Gaunt's son Henry of Bolingbroke usurped the crown in 1399 and became Henry IV, the vast Lancaster inheritance was merged with the crown as the Duchy of Lancaster .[16]

We know more of Lancaster's character than of most of his contemporaries, through his memoirs the Livre de seyntz medicines (Book of the Holy Doctors). This book is a highly personal treatise on matters of religion and piety, but it also contains details of historical interest. It is, among other things, revealed that Lancaster, at the age of 44 when he wrote the book in 1354, suffered from gout .[3] The book is primarily a devotional work though; it is organized around seven wounds which Henry claims to have, representing the seven sins. Lancaster confesses to his sins, explains various real and mythical medical remedies in terms of their theological symbolism, and exhorts the reader to greater morality.[17] 58



Research Notes: Wife - Isabel de Beaumont

10th child of Henry Beaumont and Alice Comyn. 64


Sources


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