The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Afonso IV "the Brave" King of Portugal and the Algarve and Beatrice of Castile




Husband Afonso IV "the Brave" King of Portugal and the Algarve 1




            AKA: Alphonso IV of Portugal
           Born: 8 Feb 1291 - Lisbon, Portugal
     Christened: 
           Died: 28 May 1357
         Buried: 


         Father: Dinis King of Portugal and the Algarve (1261-1325)
         Mother: St. Elizabeth of Aragon (      -      )


       Marriage: 12 Sep 1309



Wife Beatrice of Castile 2

           Born: 8 Mar 1293 - <Castile>, (Spain)
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 Oct 1359
         Buried: 


         Father: Sancho IV "El Bravo" of Castile (1258-1295) 3
         Mother: Mara de Molina (Abt 1265-1321) 4


Events

Infanta of Castile-Lon:


Children
1 F Maria of Portugal 1 5

           Born: 9 Feb 1313
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Jan 1357 - vora
         Buried:  - Seville Cathedral, Seville, Spain
         Spouse: Alfonso XI of Castile, King of Castile and Leon (1311-1350/1350)


2 M Peter I King of Portugal and the Algarve 6

            AKA: Pedro I King of Portugal and the Algarve, Peter "the Just" King of Portugal and the Algarve
           Born: 19 Apr 1320 - <Lisbon, Portugal>
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Jan 1367 - <Lisbon, Portugal>
         Buried:  - Alcobaa Monastery, Alcobaa, Portugal
         Spouse: Teresa Loureno (Abt 1330-      ) 6



Research Notes: Husband - Afonso IV "the Brave" King of Portugal and the Algarve

King of Portugal and the Algarve from 1325 until his death.

From Wikipedia - Afonso IV of Portugal :

Afonso IV[1] (pronounced [?'fsu] ; 8 February 1291 - 28 May 1357 ), called the Brave (Portuguese : o Bravo), was the seventh king of Portugal and the Algarve from 1325 until his death. He was the only legitimate son of Dinis of Portugal by his wife Elizabeth of Aragon .

Afonso, born in Lisbon , was the rightful heir to the Portuguese throne. However, he was not, according to several sources, Dinis' favourite son; his half-brother, the illegitimate Afonso Sanches , enjoyed full royal favour. From early in life, the notorious rivalry led to several outbreaks of civil war . On January 7 , 1325 , Afonso's father died and he became king, taking full revenge on his brother. His rival was sentenced to exile in Castile , and stripped of all the lands and fiefdoms donated by their common father. Afonso Sanches, however, did not sit still. From Castile, he orchestrated a series of attempts to usurp the crown for himself. After a few failed attempts at invasion, both brothers signed a peace treaty, arranged by the Afonso's mother Queen Elizabeth.

In 1309 , Afonso IV married Infanta Beatrice of Castile , daughter of King Sancho IV of Castile by his wife Maria de Molina . The first-born of this union, Infanta Maria of Portugal , married King Alfonso XI of Castile in 1328 , at the same time that Afonso IV's heir, Peter I of Portugal , was promised to another Castilian infanta, Constance of Penafiel . These arrangements were imperiled by the ill will of Alfonso XI of Castile, who was, at the time, publicly mistreating his wife. Afonso IV was not happy to see his daughter abused, and started a war against Castile. Peace arrived four years later, with the intervention of Infanta Maria herself. A peace treaty was signed in Seville in 1339 and, in the next year, Portuguese troops played an important role in the victory of the Battle of Rio Salado over the Marinid Moors in October 1340 .

The last part of Afonso IV's reign is marked not by open warfare against Castile, but by political intrigue. Civil war between King Pedro of Castile and his half-brother Henry of Trastamara led to the exile of many Castilian nobles to Portugal . These immigrants immediately created a faction among the Portuguese court, aiming at privileges and power that, somehow, could compensate what they lost at home. The faction grew in power, especially after Ins de Castro , daughter of an important nobleman and maid of the Crown Princess Constance , became the lover of her lady's husband: Peter , the heir of Portugal. Afonso IV was displeased with his son's choice of lovers, and hoped that the relationship would be a futile one. Unfortunately for internal politics, it was not. Peter was openly in love with Ines, recognized all the children she bore, and, worst of all, favoured the Castilians that surrounded her. Moreover, after his wife's death in 1349 , Peter refused the idea of marrying anyone other than Ines herself.
The situation became worse as the years passed and the aging Afonso lost control over his court. Peter's only male heir, future king Fernando of Portugal , was a sickly child, while the illegitimate children sired with Ines thrived. Worried about his legitimate grandson's life, and the growing power of Castile within Portugal's borders, Afonso ordered the murder of Ins de Castro in 1355 . He expected his son to give in, but the heir was not able to forgive him for the act. Enraged at the barbaric act, Peter put himself at the head of an army and devastated the country between the Douro and the Minho rivers before he was reconciled to his father in early 1357 . Afonso died almost immediately after, in Lisbon in May.

As king, Afonso IV is remembered as a soldier and a valiant general, hence the nickname the Brave. But perhaps his most important contribution was the importance he gave to the Portuguese navy . Afonso IV granted public funding to raise a proper commercial fleet and ordered the first maritime explorations. The Canary Islands (today a part of Spain ) were discovered during his reign.


Research Notes: Wife - Beatrice of Castile

From Wikipedia - Beatrice of Castile (1293-1359) :

Beatrice of Castile (8 March 1293 - 25 October 1359) was Queen of Portugal by marriage and Infanta of Castile -Len by birth. She was the wife of King Afonso IV of Portugal , and the youngest daughter of King Sancho IV of Castile and his Queen, Mara de Molina .

On 12 September 1309, Beatrice was married to the later Afonso IV of Portugal who was the only son of Denis of Portugal and Elizabeth of Aragon . They had the following children:


Princess Maria 1313 1357 Married to Alfonso XI of Castile

Prince Afonso 12 January 1315 12 January 1315

Prince Denis 12 January 1317 15 May 1318

Peter I 8 April 1320 18 January 1367 Succeeded him as 8th King of Portugal

Princess Isabel 21 December 1324 11 July 1326

Prince John 23 September 1326 21 June 1327

Princess Leonor 1328 1348 Married to Peter IV , King of Aragon


Burial Notes: Child - Maria of Portugal

Buried in the Chapel of the Kings.


Research Notes: Child - Maria of Portugal

From Wikipedia - Maria of Portugal :

Infanta Maria of Portugal (Portuguese pronunciation: [m?'?i?] ) was a Portuguese infanta (princess), first daughter of King Afonso IV of Portugal and his first wife Beatrice of Castile . Her maternal grandparents were Sancho IV of Castile and Mara de Molina .

She was born on 9 February 1313 and became Queen consort of Castile by marriage to Alfonso XI in 1328. She was the mother of Pedro of Castile .

She died in vora on 18 January 1357 and is buried in the Chapel of the Kings in the Seville Cathedral .


Research Notes: Child - Peter I King of Portugal and the Algarve

From Wikipedia - Peter I of Portugal :

Peter I (Portuguese : Pedro, pronounced ['ped?u] ; 19 April 1320 - 18 January 1367), called the Just (Portuguese: o Justiceiro), was the eighth King of Portugal and the Algarve from 1357 until his death. He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal and his wife, princess Beatrice of Castile .


Early life
Afonso IV married his daughter, Maria, to Alfonso XI of Castile, but quickly learned that she was being mistreated by her husband. Alfonso's cousin, Juan Manuel, Duke of Peafiel , had also been rebuffed by the king when his daughter Constanza was rejected in favor of the Portuguese princess. Feeling as though his daughter was being dishonored, Afonso was glad to enter into an alliance with Juan Manuel and married his son and heir, Pedro, to Constanza.

When Constanza arrived in Portugal, Ins de Castro , the daughter of an aristocratic Castilian land-owner, accompanied her as her lady-in-waiting. Pedro fell in love with Ins very quickly, and the two conducted an affair that lasted until Constanza's death in 1345. The scandal of this affair caused Afonso to banish Ins from court, but this did not end the relationship, and the two began living together in secret.

According to the chronicle of Ferno Lopes , during this period, Pedro began giving Ins's brothers important positions at court. This behavior alarmed Afonso and made him believe that upon his death, the Portuguese throne would fall to the Castilians. This is the official motive behind Afonso's next action: he sent three men to find Ins and murder her in 1355. Pedro's rage at the murder of his love is what allegedly sparked his revolt against his father. This revolt began in 1355 and lasted into 1356, when Afonso finally defeated his son. One year later Afonso died, and Pedro succeeded to the throne.

King of Portugal
Ferno Lopes labels Pedro as "the Just" and said that Pedro loved justice --especially the dispensing of it, which he enjoyed doing for himself. Ins' assassins received his harshest punishment: the three had escaped to Castile , but Pedro arranged for them to be exchanged for Castilian fugitives residing in Portugal with his nephew, the Castilian Pedro I. One man escaped, but the other two were brought to justice, and Lopes says that Pedro ripped their hearts out with his own hands.

It is possible that Pedro of Portugal has been confused with Pedro I of Castile: both have the same name, both lived at the same time, the two were closely related, and both are credited with committing violent acts towards their subjects. Despite his gruesome legacy, Pedro of Portugal did have a peaceful reign and managed to install a system of justice which was relatively fair for the times. He attempted this with his Beneplcito Rgio in 1361, which forbade any Papal Bulls to be published without his prior consent. This was a result of the number of fake papal documents that had been entering the country. He also began the "nationalization" of the military orders by placing his youngest son Joo (an illegitimate child born after Ins' death) as the Master of the Order of Avis. He claimed that he and Ins had been married and thus that their four children were legitimate, but nothing ever came of this. Pedro and Ins' children went to live in Castile.

Legend holds that Pedro later had Ins' body exhumed and placed upon a throne , dressed in rich robes and jewels, requiring all of his vassals to kiss the hand of the deceased "queen". This has never been proven, but what is known is that Pedro did have Ins' body removed from her resting place in Coimbra and taken to Alcobaa where her body was laid to rest in the monastery . Pedro had two tombs constructed in the monastery, one for each of them. These still exist today; they contain images of Pedro and Ins facing each other, with the words "At o fim do mundo..." or "Until the end of the world..." inscribed on the marble .

Pedro was also the father of Fernando I and Joo I . Joo was the Master of the military order of Avis, and he would become the founder of the Avis dynasty in 1385, after defeating an attempt by Juan I to usurp the Portuguese throne.


Renaud III Count of Burgundy and Agatha




Husband Renaud III Count of Burgundy

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1148
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Agatha 7

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Simon I Duke of Upper Lorraine (      -1138)
         Mother: 




Children
1 F Beatrix of Burgundy

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 15 Nov 1184 or 1185
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Frederick I Holy Roman Emperor (1122-1190)
           Marr: 1156



Research Notes: Husband - Renaud III Count of Burgundy

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 45-26 (Frederick III, Barbarossa)


Research Notes: Child - Beatrix of Burgundy

2nd wife of Frederick III "Barbarossa"

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 45-26 (Frederick III, Barbarossa)


Edward "the Exile" Saxon Prince of England and Agatha




Husband Edward "the Exile" Saxon Prince of England 8 9

            AKA: Edward "the Atheling" Saxon Prince of England
           Born: 1016 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: Feb 1057 - England
         Buried: 


         Father: Edmund II "Ironside" King of England (Abt 0989-1016) 10 11
         Mother: Ealdgyth (      -      ) 12 13


       Marriage: Abt 1040

Events

Exiled to Sweden: 1016.




Wife Agatha 14 15

            AKA: Agafiia
           Born: Abt 1020
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1070
         Buried: 


         Father: Yaroslav I of Kiev (Abt 0978-1054)
         Mother: Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden (Abt 1001-1050) 16 17




Children
1 F Saint Margaret of Scotland 18 19

            AKA: Margaret of Scotland


           Born: 1045 - Castle Rka, Mecsekndasd, Southern Transdanubia, Hungary
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Nov 1093 - St. Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, Midlothian, Scotland


         Buried:  - Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland
         Spouse: Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots (Abt 1031-1093) 20 21
           Marr: 1068 or 1069 - Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland



Research Notes: Husband - Edward "the Exile" Saxon Prince of England

From Wikipedia - Edward the Exile :

Edward the Exile (1016 - February 1057), also called Edward theling, son of King Edmund Ironside and of Ealdgyth , gained the name of "Exile" from his life spent mostly far from the England of his forefathers. After the Danish conquest of England in 1016 Canute had him and his brother, Edmund, exiled to the Continent. Edward was only a few months old when he was brought to the court of Olof Sktkonung , (who was either Canute's half-brother or stepbrother), with instructions to have the child murdered. Instead, Edmund was secretly sent to Kiev , where Olof's daughter Ingigerd was the Queen, and then made his way to Hungary , probably in the retinue of Ingigerd's son-in-law, King Andrs .

On hearing the news of his being alive, Edward the Confessor recalled him to England and made him his heir . Edward offered the last chance of an undisputed succession within the Saxon royal house . News of Edward's existence came at time when the old Anglo-Saxon Monarchy, restored after a long period of Danish domination, was heading for catastrophe. The Confessor, personally devout but politically weak, was unable to make an effective stand against the steady advance of the powerful and ambitious sons of Earl Godwin . From across the Channel William, Duke of Normandy also had an eye on the succession. Edward the Exile appeared at just the right time. Approved by both king and by the Witan , the Council of the Realm, he offered a way out of the impasse, a counter both to the Godwins and to William, and one with a legitimacy that could not be readily challenged.

Edward, who had been in the custody of Henry III , the Holy Roman Emperor, finally came back to England at the end of August 1057. But he died within two days of his arrival. The exact cause of Edward's death remains unclear, but he had many powerful enemies, and there is a strong possibility that he was murdered, although by whom it is not known with any certainty. It is known, though, that his access to the king was blocked soon after his arrival in England for some unexplained reason, at a time when the Godwins, in the person of Harold Godwinson , were once again in the ascendant. This turn of events left the throne of England to be disputed by Earl Harold and Duke William, ultimately leading to the Norman Conquest of England .

Edward's wife was a woman named Agatha , whose origins are disputed. Their children were Edgar theling , Saint Margaret of Scotland and Cristina . Edgar was nominated as heir apparent, but was too young to count for much, and was eventually swept aside by Harold Godwinson.



Research Notes: Wife - Agatha

Her origins are disputed.

From Wikipedia - Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile :

Agatha was the wife of Edward the Exile (heir to the throne of England ) and mother of Edgar theling , Saint Margaret of Scotland and Cristina of England . Her antecedents are unclear, and subject to much speculation.

Life
Nothing is known of her early life, and what speculation has appeared is inextricably linked to the contentious issue of Agatha's paternity, one of the unresolved questions of medieval genealogy . She came to England with her husband and children in 1057, but she was widowed shortly after her arrival. Following the Norman conquest of England , in 1067 she fled with her children to Scotland , finding refuge under her future son-in-law Malcolm III . While one modern source indicates that she spent her last years as a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne , dying before circa 1093 [1] , Simeon of Durham [1] carries what appears to be the last reference to her in 1070. [2]

Origin
Medieval sources
Agatha's origin is alluded to in numerous surviving medieval sources, but the information they provide is sometimes imprecise, often contradictory, and occasionally outright impossible. The earliest surviving source, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , along with Florence of Worcester 's Chronicon ex chronicis and Regalis prosapia Anglorum, Simeon of Durham and Ailred of Rievaulx describe Agatha as a kinswoman of "Emperor Henry" (thaes ceseres maga, filia germani imperatoris Henrici). In an earlier entry, the same Ailred of Rievaulx had called her daughter of emperor Henry, as do later sources of dubious credibility such as the Chronicle of Melrose Abbey , while Matthew of Paris calls her the emperor's sister (soror Henrici imperatoris Romani). Geoffrey Gaimar in Lestoire des Engles states that she was daughter of the Hungarian king and queen (Li reis sa fille), although he places the marriage at a time when Edward is thought still to have been in Kiev , while Orderic Vitalis in Historiae Ecclesiasticae is more specific, naming her father as king Solomon (filiam Salomonis Regis Hunorum), actually a contemporary of Agatha's children. William of Malmesbury in De Gestis Regis Anglorum states that Agatha's sister was a Queen of Hungary (reginae sororem) and is echoed in this by Alberic of Trois-Fontaines , while less precisely, Ailred says of Margaret that she was derived from English and Hungarian royal blood (de semine regio Anglorum et Hungariorum extitit oriunda). Finally, Roger of Howden and the anonymous Leges Edwardi Confessoris indicate that while Edward was a guest of Kievan "king Malesclodus" he married a woman of noble birth (nobili progenio), Leges adding that the mother of St. Margaret was of Rus royal blood (ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum).[3]

German and Hungarian theories
While various sources repeat the claims that Agatha was daughter or sister of either Emperor Henry, it seems unlikely that such a sibling or daughter would have been ignored by the German chroniclers.[4]

The description of Agatha as a blood relative of "Emperor Henry" may be applicable to a niece of either Henry II or Henry III , Holy Roman Emperors (although Florence, in Regalis prosapia Anglorum specifies Henry III). Early attempts at reconstructing the relationship focused on the former. Georgio Pray 1764, Annales Regum Hungariae), O.F. Suhm (1777, Geschichte Dnmarks, Norwegen und Holsteins) and Istvan Katona (1779, Historia Critica Regum Hungariae) each suggested that Agatha was daughter of Henry II's brother Bruno of Augsburg (an ecclesiastic described as beatae memoriae, with no known issue), while Daniel Cornides (1778, Regum Hungariae) tried to harmonise the German and Hungarian claims, making Agatha daughter of Henry II's sister Giselle of Bavaria , wife of Stephen I of Hungary .[5] This solution remained popular among scholars through a good part of twentieth century.[6]

As tempting as it may be to thus view St. Margaret as a granddaughter of another famous saint, Stephen of Hungary, this popular solution fails to explain why Stephen's death triggered a dynastic crisis in Hungary. If St. Stephen and Giselle were indeed Agatha's parents, her offspring might have succeeded to the Hungarian crown and the dynastic strife that followed Stephen's death could have been averted. Actually, there is no indication in Hungarian sources that any of Stephen's children outlived him. Likewise, all of the solutions involving Henry II would seem to make Agatha much older than her husband, and prohibitively old at the time of the birth of her son, Edgar.

Based on a more strict translation of the Latin description used by Florence and others as well as the supposition that Henry III was the Emperor designated in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, genealogist Szabolcs de Vajay popularised another idea first suggested in 1939. In that year, Joszef Herzog published an analysis suggesting that Agatha was daughter of one of the half-brothers of Henry III, born to his mother Gisela of Swabia by one of her earlier marriages to Ernest I of Swabia and Bruno of Brunswick , probably the former based on more favourable chronology.[7] De Vajay reevaluated the chronology of the marriages and children of Gisela and concluded that Agatha was the daughter of Henry III's elder (uterine) half-brother, Liudolf, Margrave of Frisia .[8] This theory saw broad acceptance for thirty years [9] until Ren Jett resurrected a Kievan solution to the problem,[10] since which time opinion has been divided among several competing possibilities.[11]

Kievan theory

Jett pointed out that William of Malmesbury in De Gestis Regis Anglorum and several later chronicles unambiguously state that Agatha's sister was a Queen of Hungary. From what we know about the biography of Edward the Exile , he loyally supported Andrew I of Hungary , following him from Kiev to Hungary in 1046 and staying at his court for many years. Andrew's wife and queen was Anastasia, a daughter of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev by Ingigerd of Sweden . Following Jett's logic, Edward's wife was another daughter of Yaroslav.

This theory accords with the seemingly incongruous statements of Geoffrey Gaimar and Roger of Howden that, while living in Kiev, Edward took a nativeborn wife "of noble parentage" or that his father-in-law was a "Rus king".[12]

Jett's theory seems to be supported by an onomastic argument.[13] Among the medieval royalty, Agatha's rare Greek name is first recorded in the Macedonian dynasty of Byzantium ; it was also one of the most frequent feminine names in the Kievan Rurikid dynasty.[14] After Anna of Byzantium married Yaroslav's father, he took the Christian name of the reigning emperor, Basil II , while some members of his family were named after other members of the imperial dynasty. Agatha could have been one of these.[15]

The names of Agatha's immediate descendants-Margaret, Cristina, David , Alexander -were likewise extraordinary for Anglo-Saxon Britain. They may provide a clue to Agatha's origin. The names Margaret and Cristina are today associated with Sweden, the native country of Yaroslav's wife Ingigerd.[16] The name of Margaret's son, David, obviously echoes that of Solomon , the son and heir of Andrew I.[17] Furthermore, the first saint of the Rus (canonized ca. 1073) was Yaroslav's brother Gleb , whose Christian name was David.

The name of Margaret's other son, Alexander, may point to a variety of traditions, both occidental and oriental: the biography of Alexander the Great was one of the most popular books in eleventh-century Kiev.

One inference from the Kievan theory is that Edgar Atheling and St. Margaret were, through their mother, first cousins of Philip I of France . The connection is too notable to be omitted from contemporary sources, yet we have no indication that medieval chroniclers were aware of it. The argumentum ex silentio leads critics of the Kievan theory to search for alternative explanations.

Bulgarian theory
In response to the recent flurry of activity on the subject, Ian Mladjov reevaluated the question and presented a completely novel solution.[18] He dismissed each of the prior theories in turn as insufficiently grounded and incompatible given the historical record, and further suggested that many of the proposed solutions would have resulted in later marriages that fell within the prohibited degrees of kinship. He argued that the documentary testimony of Agatha's origins is tainted or late, and concurred with Humphreys' evaluation that the names of the children and grandchildren of Agatha, so central to prior reevaluations, may have had non-family origins (for example, Pope Alexander II played a critical role in the marriage of Malcolm and Margaret). However, he then focused in on the name of Agatha as being critical to determining her origin. He concluded that of the few contemporary Agathas, only one could possibly have been an ancestor of the wife of Edward the Exile, Agatha,[19] wife of Samuel of Bulgaria . Some of the other names associated with Agatha and used to corroborate theories based in onomastics are also readily available within the Bulgarian ruling family at the time, including Mary and several Davids. Mladjov inferred that Agatha was daughter of Gavril Radomir , Tsar of Bulgaria , Agatha's son, by his first wife, a Hungarian princess thought to have been the daughter of Duke Gza of Hungary . This hypothesis has Agatha born in Hungary after her parents divorced, her mother being pregnant when she left Bulgaria, and naming her daughter after the mother of the prince who had expelled her. Traditional dates of this divorce would seem to preclude the suggested relationship, but the article re-examined some long-standing assumptions about the chronology of Gavril Radomir's marriage to the Hungarian princess, and concludes that its dating to the late 980s is unsupportable, and its dissolution belongs in c. 1009-1014. The argument is based almost exclusively on the onomastic precedent but is said to vindicate the intimate connection between Agatha and Hungary attested in the Medieval sources. Mladjov speculates further that the medieval testimony could largely be harmonized were one to posit that Agatha's mother was the same Hungarian princess who married Samuel Aba of Hungary , his family fleeing to Kiev after his downfall, thereby allowing a Russian marriage for Agatha.

This solution fails to conform with any of the relationships appearing in the primary record. It is inferred that the relative familiarity with Germany and unfamiliarity with Hungary partly distorted the depiction of Agatha in the English sources; her actual position would have been that of a daughter of the (unnamed) sister of the King of Hungary (Stephen I), himself the brother-in-law of the Holy Roman Emperor (Henry II, and therefore kinsman of Henry III).

Other theories
In 2002, in an article meant to refute the Kievan hypothesis, John Carmi Parsons suggested yet another possible origin. He made Agatha daughter of a documented count Cristinus (explaining the name Christina for Agatha's daughter) by Oda of Haldensleben, hypothesized to be maternal granddaughter of Vladimir I of Kiev by a German wife, kinswoman to Emperor Henry III. He also floated the possibility that Edward may have married twice, suggesting that the contradictory primary record may in part reflect the confusion between two distinct wives.[20] Recently, one additional theory has appeared. John P. Ravilious has proposed that she was daughter of Mieszko II Lambert of Poland by his German wife, making her kinswoman of both Emperors Henry, as well as sister of a Hungarian queen, the wife of Bla I .[21]


Research Notes: Child - Saint Margaret of Scotland

From Wikipedia - Saint Margaret of Scotland :
Saint Margaret (c. 1045 - 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar theling , the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England . She married Malcolm III , King of Scots , becoming his Queen consort .

Early life
Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile , son of Edmund Ironside . She was probably born at Castle Rka, Mecsekndasd , in the region of Southern Transdanubia , Hungary .[citation needed ] The provenance of her mother, Agatha , is disputed.

Margaret had one brother Edgar and one sister Christina.

When her uncle, Saint Edward the Confessor , the French-speaking Anglo-Saxon King of England , died in 1066, she was living in England where her brother, Edgar theling , had decided to make a claim to the vacant throne.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans , the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland , where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III . The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry .

Malcolm was probably a widower , and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.

Family
Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
Edward, killed 1093.
Edmund of Scotland
Ethelred , abbot of Dunkeld
King Edgar of Scotland
King Alexander I of Scotland
King David I of Scotland
Edith of Scotland , also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
Mary of Scotland , married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

Veneration
Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10 , because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16 . In Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death.

Per the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, the Church transferred her feast day to November 16, the actual day of her death.[1] Traditional Roman Catholics continue to celebrate the feast day of "St Margaret, Queen of Scots, Widow" on June 10 as a Semi-Double feast, or a 3rd Class feast.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow) , Queen Margaret Union , Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline ), North Queensferry , South Queensferry , Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church .



Michael le Fleming of Aldingham and Agatha of Ravensworth




Husband Michael le Fleming of Aldingham 22

            AKA: Michael Flandrensis
           Born: 1197 - Aldingham, Lancashire, England
     Christened: 
           Died:  - Aldingham, Lancashire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: William le Fleming (Abt 1150-1203) 23
         Mother: Ada of Workington (Abt 1160-      ) 24


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Agatha of Ravensworth (      -      )



Wife Agatha of Ravensworth 25

           Born: 1197 - Ravensworth, Richmond, North Riding, Yorkshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Ranulf Fitz Henry (      -Bef 1243) 26
         Mother: Alice de Staveley (      -      )




Children
1 M William le Fleming Lord of Aldingham 27

           Born:  - Aldingham, Lancashire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Michael le Fleming of Aldingham

From http://cybergata.com/roots/2221.htm :
Michael married Agatha, a daughter of Henry, Lord Ravensworth, and succeeded his father as lord of Aldingham. This Michael le Fleming did not get along with his religious neighbors who looked with longing eyes upon his possession, and to have whole peninsula of Furness. Shortly after the accession of Henry III, the abbot paying a fine of 400 marks to the King to have the confirmation of Stephen's charter, "and to have the homage and service of Michael le Fleming for all the land which he held of the King for ten pounds yearly." Michael le Fleming objected to the lowering of his social status from a tenant in capite to that of a vassal of the abbots of Furness so he petitioned the King. The king issued a writ to the sheriff to make inquiry into the circumstances, "because we have been given to understand by our faithful, that we have been deceived in the concession which we made to the abbot of Furness, of the homage and service of Michael Flandrensis."

~Families of Lancashire and Cheshire, pgs. 245-246


Research Notes: Child - William le Fleming Lord of Aldingham

From http://cybergata.com/roots/1177.htm :
The first Haverington appears to have owned lands in Lancashire was Robert de Haverington, or Haryngton, of Harrington, who in the latter half of the thirteenth century married Agnes, daughter of Sir. Richard Cancefield, lord of Cancefield, or Cantsfield with Farlton, in the parish of Tunstall, in Lonsdale Hundred, by his wife Alice, or Alina, daughter of William le Fleming, lord of Aldingham, an ancient Saxon manor in furness, on the western shore of Morecambe Bay, and who in 1273 acquired the lordship of Aldingham, which had come into his hands in right of his wife after the deaths of her two brothers, John and William Cancefield, both of whom died in their minority, and while in the ward of abbot of Furness.

~Families of Lancashire and Cheshire, pg. 242, 247-288


Michael le Fleming of Aldingham and Agatha of Ravensworth




Husband Michael le Fleming of Aldingham 22

            AKA: Michael Flandrensis
           Born: 1197 - Aldingham, Lancashire, England
     Christened: 
           Died:  - Aldingham, Lancashire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: William le Fleming (Abt 1150-1203) 23
         Mother: Ada of Workington (Abt 1160-      ) 24


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Agatha of Ravensworth (1197-      ) 25



Wife Agatha of Ravensworth

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Michael le Fleming of Aldingham

From http://cybergata.com/roots/2221.htm :
Michael married Agatha, a daughter of Henry, Lord Ravensworth, and succeeded his father as lord of Aldingham. This Michael le Fleming did not get along with his religious neighbors who looked with longing eyes upon his possession, and to have whole peninsula of Furness. Shortly after the accession of Henry III, the abbot paying a fine of 400 marks to the King to have the confirmation of Stephen's charter, "and to have the homage and service of Michael le Fleming for all the land which he held of the King for ten pounds yearly." Michael le Fleming objected to the lowering of his social status from a tenant in capite to that of a vassal of the abbots of Furness so he petitioned the King. The king issued a writ to the sheriff to make inquiry into the circumstances, "because we have been given to understand by our faithful, that we have been deceived in the concession which we made to the abbot of Furness, of the homage and service of Michael Flandrensis."

~Families of Lancashire and Cheshire, pgs. 245-246


Agilulf King of the Lombards and Theudelinde of Bavaria, Queen of the Lombards




Husband Agilulf King of the Lombards 28 29

            AKA: Agilulf 'the Thuringian' King of the Lombards
           Born: Abt 547 - <Italy>
     Christened: 
           Died: 616
         Buried: 


         Father: Ansvald of Turin (      -      ) 29
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 591

Events

Acceded: as King of the Lombards, 590.




Wife Theudelinde of Bavaria, Queen of the Lombards 30 31




            AKA: Theodelinda
           Born: 546 - Metz, (Moselle), Austrasia, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 625
         Buried: 


         Father: Garibald I Duke of Bavaria (Abt 0540-Abt 0591) 32 33
         Mother: Waldrada of Lombardy (      -      ) 34




Children
1 M Chrodoald of the Lombards 35 36 37

            AKA: Adaloald
           Born: Abt 575 - Bavaria, (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 624
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Chlodosindis (Abt 0577-After 0587) 38 39


2 F Gundiberga 29

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Agilulf King of the Lombards

From Wikipedia - Agilulf :

Agilulf, called the Thuringian, was the duke of Turin and king of the Lombards (590 - 616 ) in Italy , the cousin of his predecessor Authari and husband of his widow. Son of the Duke Ansvald of Turin, he was raised on the shield by the warriors in Milan in May 591 , on the advice, sought by the Lombard council, of the Catholic queen Theodelinda , whom he soon married himself.

He was baptised to appease his wife and his nation followed suit, though they adopted the Arian denomination, not the Roman faith. In 603 , under the influence of his wife, he abandoned Arianism for Catholicism, and had his son Adaloald baptised. He and his wife built and endowed the Basilica of Monza , where the Iron Crown of Lombardy is still preserved and where Agilulf's crown, dedicated to St John , exists, bearing the incription rex totius Italiae, meaning "king of all Italy", as Agilulf evidently saw himself.
His long reign was marked by the cessation of war with Francia , whose chief peacemaker Guntram , king of Burgundy , had died in 592 . Without him, the Franks descended into civil war which prevented a united assault on Lombardy throughout Agilulf's rule. A truce with the Papacy negotiated in 598 temporarily ended thirty years of Lombard terror in the Ducatus Romanus and he spent most of his warmaking energies on the Byzantine threat. In that year, he consolidated Lombard power, extending the dominion of his kingdom by taking Sutri and Perugia among other Umbrian cities from the exarchate of Ravenna , while maintaining good relations with the Bavarians . He fought the Avars and Slavs , and entered a truce with the Byzantine emperor Maurice in 598 with the aid of Pope Gregory the Great . The next year, Exarch Callinicus broke the truce by kidnapping the travelling daughter of the Lombard king. War erupted and, in 602 , the Byzantine emperor Phocas lost Padua , which Authari had cut off from Ravenna a decade prior. The loss of Padua in turn cut off Mantua and, before the year was out, that city too fell to Agilulf.

In 607 , Witteric , king of the Visigoths , initiated a quadruple alliance against Theuderic II of Burgundy involving Theudebert II of Austrasia , Clotaire II of Neustria , and Agilulf. Theuderic's grandmother and sister had murdered Theuderic's wife, the daughter of Witteric. The alliance does not seem to have had success. Nothing of any actual combat is known except that it took place, probably around Narbonne .

In 605 , he was recognized by the emperor Phocas, who paid a tribute and ceded Orvieto among other towns. The Persian Wars drew Byzantine attention to the Orient and gave respite to Agilulf's final decade on the throne. He had to put down some insurrections and the Avars did not decist from invading Friuli , where they slew its duke, Gisulf, in 610 . Otherwise, his reign ended peacefully and he died in 616 , after reigning for more than a quarter of a century. He was succeeded by Adaloald, his son by Theodelinda, who was still an adolescent , though he had been associated with the throne. He had a daughter Gundiberga who married Arioald who later became king.


Research Notes: Wife - Theudelinde of Bavaria, Queen of the Lombards

From Wikipedia - Theodelinda :

Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards , (c. 570 - 628 ) was the daughter of duke Garibald I of Bavaria .

She was married first in 588 to Authari , king of the Lombards, son of king Cleph . Authari died in 590 . Theodelinda was allowed to pick Agilulf as her next husband and Authari's successor in 591 . She thereafter exerted much influence in restoring Nicene Christianity (the mainstream, in 1054 split by the East-West Schism in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy ) to a position of primacy in Italy against its rival, Arian Christianity .

After the conversion of Authari to the Catholic faith, she started building churches in Lombardy and Tuscany , among them the cathedral of Monza and the first Baptistery of Florence. They were all dedicated to Saint John the Baptist .

The famous treasure of Monza contains the Iron Crown of Lombardy and the theca persica, enclosing a text from the Gospel of John , sent by Pope Gregory I (590-604) to her for her son Adaloald . Another of the gifts of this pope to the Lombard queen was a cruciform encolpion (reliquary) containing a portion of the True Cross .


Research Notes: Child - Chrodoald of the Lombards

From Wikipedia - Arnulf of Metz :

Chlothachar later made his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia and he ruled with the help of his advisor Arnulf. Not satisfied with his position, as a bishop he was involved in the murder of Chrodoald in 624 , an important leader of the Frankish Agilolfings -family and a protg of Dagobert.
---------
Wikipedia - Agilofings lists him:
Agilolfings in Austrasia
Chrodoald, nobleman at Dagobert I 's court, killed in 624
Fara, opponent to Sigebert III




David de Horton and Agnes




Husband David de Horton 40

            AKA: David De Horton
           Born: Abt 1351 - Chattenhall, Cheshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Maddock de Horton (Abt 1300-      ) 41
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife Agnes 40

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M John Horton 42

           Born: Abt 1397 - Cheshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 





Sir Thomas Goushill of Hoveringham and Agnes




Husband Sir Thomas Goushill of Hoveringham 43

           Born: Abt 1296 - <Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England>
     Christened: 
           Died: 21 Dec 1371 - <Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England>
         Buried: 


         Father: Walter de Goushill of Hoveringham (Abt 1265-1328) 44
         Mother: Margaret (      -      ) 44


       Marriage: 



Wife Agnes 43

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Sir Nicholas Goushill of Hoveringham 45 46

           Born: Abt 1316 - <Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England>
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Jan 1393 - <Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England>
         Buried:  - Hoveringham Church, Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England





Rutpert IV Count of Wormgau, Paris, Anjou & Blois and Agnes




Husband Rutpert IV Count of Wormgau, Paris, Anjou & Blois 47 48

            AKA: Robert "Fortis" Duke of France, Robert "the Strong" Count of Paris
           Born: Abt 817 - (Germany)
     Christened: 
           Died: 15 Sep 866 - <Anjou, France>
         Buried:  - St. Martin de Chteauneuf, < >, France


         Father: Rutpert III Count of Wormgau (Abt 0776-0834) 48 49 50 51
         Mother: Wiltrud of Orlans (Abt 0782-      )


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Adelaide of Tours and Alsace (Abt 0819-After 0866) 48 52 53 - Abt 864



Wife Agnes 47

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children

Birth Notes: Husband - Rutpert IV Count of Wormgau, Paris, Anjou & Blois

FamilySearch has b. abt 820 in France.


Death Notes: Husband - Rutpert IV Count of Wormgau, Paris, Anjou & Blois

FamilySearch has d. 25 Aug 866 in Anjou, France, the same as his burial date.


Research Notes: Husband - Rutpert IV Count of Wormgau, Paris, Anjou & Blois

Source: familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)
and
http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872394


Research Notes: Wife - Agnes

First wife of Robert the Strong.


Louis de Brienne Viscount of Beaumont and Agnes




Husband Louis de Brienne Viscount of Beaumont 54

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Agnes 54

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Henry Beaumont 4th Earl of Buchan

           Born: Abt 1288
     Christened: 
           Died: 1340
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Alice Comyn (1289-1349) 54
           Marr: Bef 14 Jul 1310



Research Notes: Child - Henry Beaumont 4th Earl of Buchan

Source: Wikipedia - Eleanor of Lancaster


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1. Website:, http://wiki.whitneygen.org/wrg/index.php/.

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7. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 45-26 (Frederick III, Barbarossa).

8. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-20.

9. Wikipedia.org, Edward the Exile.

10. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-19.

11. Wikipedia.org, Edmund Ironside.

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13. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-19 (Edmund II).

14. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 241-6, , 1-20 (Edward the Exile), 158-23 (Eustace III).

15. Wikipedia.org, Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile.

16. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-20 (Edward "the Atheling").

17. Wikipedia.org, Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden; Anne of Kiev.

18. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-21, 158-23 (Eustace III).

19. Wikipedia.org, Saint Margaret of Scotland.

20. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-21, 171-21.

21. http://www.familysearch.org, (Kevin Bradford).

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25. Website:, http://cybergata.com/roots/2222.htm.

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27. Website:, http://cybergata.com/roots/2220.htm.

28. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105714.

29. Wikipedia.org, Agilulf.

30. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105707.

31. Wikipedia.org, Theodelinda.

32. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105706.

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34. Wikipedia.org, Waldrada; Theudebald.

35. Wikipedia.org, Theodo of Bavaria; Agilofings; Arnulf of Metz.

36. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99002 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

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39. Wikipedia.org, Theodo of Bavaria.

40. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653268822.

41. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653268824.

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43. Website - Genealogy, http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~vfarch/genealogy-data/wc23/wc23_075.html.

44. Website - Genealogy, http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~vfarch/genealogy-data/wc23/wc23_076.html.

45. Website:, http://sites.google.com/site/goushilltomb/goushill-tomb/.

46. Website - Genealogy, http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~vfarch/genealogy-data/wc27/wc27_301.html.

47. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-17.

48. http://www.familysearch.org.

49. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-16.

50. Wikipedia.org, Robert III of Worms.

51. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871887.

52. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 181-6.

53. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872395.

54. Wikipedia.org, Alice Comyn.


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2 Wikipedia.org, .

3 Wikipedia.org, Sancho IV of Castile.

4 Wikipedia.org, Mara de Molina.

5 Wikipedia.org, Maria of Portugal.

6 Wikipedia.org, Peter I of Portugal.

7 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 45-26 (Frederick III, Barbarossa).

8 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-20.

9 Wikipedia.org, Edward the Exile.

10 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-19.

11 Wikipedia.org, Edmund Ironside.

12 Wikipedia.org, Ealdgyth (floruit 10151016).

13 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-19 (Edmund II).

14 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 241-6, , 1-20 (Edward the Exile), 158-23 (Eustace III).

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16 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-20 (Edward "the Atheling").

17 Wikipedia.org, Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden; Anne of Kiev.

18 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-21, 158-23 (Eustace III).

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20 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-21, 171-21.

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26 Website:, http://cybergata.com/roots/1287.htm.

27 Website:, http://cybergata.com/roots/2220.htm.

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38 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99003 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

39 Wikipedia.org, Theodo of Bavaria.

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45 Website:, http://sites.google.com/site/goushilltomb/goushill-tomb/.

46 Website - Genealogy, http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~vfarch/genealogy-data/wc27/wc27_301.html.

47 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-17.

48 http://www.familysearch.org.

49 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 48-16.

50 Wikipedia.org, Robert III of Worms.

51 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871887.

52 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 181-6.

53 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872395.

54 Wikipedia.org, Alice Comyn.


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