The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Iorwerth Vychan ap Ieuaf of Llwynon, co. Denbig and Mali




Husband Iorwerth Vychan ap Ieuaf of Llwynon, co. Denbig

            AKA: Iorwerth ap Ieuaf of Llwynonn
           Born:  - Denbighshire, Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Ieuaf ap Ninniau (      -      )
         Mother: Efa verch Einion ap Howel (      -      )


       Marriage: 



Wife Mali

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         Father: Baron of Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion (      -      )
         Mother: 




Children
1 M Hwfa ap Iorwerth of Hafod-y-Wern

           Born:  - Maelor, Gymraeg, Denbighshire, Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Margaret verch Llewelyn ap Ynyr O'Ial (      -      )


2 M Griffith ap Iorwerth of Llwynon

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 M Iorwerth Vychan ap Iorwerth

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Iorwerth Vychan ap Ieuaf of Llwynon, co. Denbig

Source: http://www.varrall.net/pafg57.htm#1150

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656


Research Notes: Wife - Mali

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656:
"Mali, widow of David ap Rhys, v. Baron of Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion, co. Merioneth, ancestor of the Hughes's of Gwerclas, Barons of Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion and 3rd dau. of Ievan, living 6 HEN. VI., son of Einion ap Griffith, of Cos-y-Gedol, co. Merioneth (See WYNNE OF PENIARTH.)"


Research Notes: Child - Hwfa ap Iorwerth of Hafod-y-Wern

Youngest son of Iorwerth ap Ieuaf of Llwynonn.

Source: http://www.varrall.net/pafg57.htm#1149

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656

From History of the Town of Wrexham, Its Houses, Streets, Fields, and Old Families by Alfred Neobard Palmer (Wrexham, 1893), p. 137:
"The Hafod y wern estate, lying between what I take to be the old Common Pasture of Wrexham and the lord's demesne of Glyn Park, suggests the probability of its having been carved out of one or the other, and granted by the lord of the commote to the first holder of it for services rendered. Indeed the very name of the house shows that it must have been built on land more or less waste, 'Hafod y wern' meaning 'Summer Shieling of the alder marsh,' and 'hafodau' or 'summer shielings' being merely temporary dwellings, erected for the convenience of those who tended the sheep and cattle at their summer pastures. However, this may have been Hafod y wern was in 1620, and long before, the principal free estate in the manor. The first holder of it who actually lived there, appears to have been Hwfa ap Iorwerth, youngest son of Iorwerth ap Ieuaf of Llwynonn."


Research Notes: Child - Griffith ap Iorwerth of Llwynon

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656


Research Notes: Child - Iorwerth Vychan ap Iorwerth

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656


Malusha




Husband

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       Marriage: 



Wife Malusha

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   Other Spouse: Sviatoslav I of Kiev (Abt 0942-0972) 1


Children

Research Notes: Wife - Malusha

Source: Wikipedia - Vladimir I of Kiev


Sviatoslav I of Kiev and Malusha




Husband Sviatoslav I of Kiev 1




           Born: Abt 942
     Christened: 


           Died: Mar 972
         Buried: 


         Father: Igor Grand Prince of Kiev (      -0945)
         Mother: Olga of Kiev (Abt 0890-0969)


       Marriage: 



Wife Malusha

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Vladimir I of Kiev 2 3




            AKA: Saint Vladimir of Kiev, Vladimir the Great, Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great
           Born: Abt 958


     Christened: 
           Died: 15 Jul 1015 - Berestovo, Berestove, Kiev, Ukraine
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Sviatoslav I of Kiev

From Wikipedia - Sviatoslav I of Kiev :

Sviatoslav I of Kiev (Old East Slavic : ([1] (Sventoslav Igorevich), Russian : Ukrainian : Bulgarian : Greek : (Sfendoslavos) ) (c. 942 - March 972) was a warrior prince of Kievan Rus' . The son of Igor of Kiev and Olga , Sviatoslav is famous for his incessant campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe-Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire ; he also subdued the Volga Bulgars , the Alans , and numerous East Slavic tribes, and at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars . His decade-long reign over Rus' was marked by rapid expansion into the Volga River valley, the Pontic steppe and the Balkans . By the end of his short life, Sviatoslav carved out for himself the largest state in Europe , eventually moving his capital from Kiev to Pereyaslavets on the Danube in 969. In contrast with his mother's conversion to Christianity , Sviatoslav remained a staunch pagan all of his life. Due to his abrupt death in combat, Sviatoslav's conquests, for the most part, were not consolidated into a functioning empire, while his failure to establish a stable succession led to civil war among his successors.

Sviatoslav was the first ruler of Kievan Rus' whose name is indisputably Slavic in origin (as opposed to his predecessors, whose names are ultimately derived from Old Norse ). This name is not recorded in other medieval Slavic countries. Even in Rus', it was attested only among the members of the house of Rurik , as were the names of Sviatoslav's immediate successors: Vladimir , Yaroslav , Mstislav ).[2] Some scholars speculate that the name of Sviatoslav, composed of the Slavic roots for "holy" and "glory", was an artificial derivation combining those of his predecessors Oleg and Rurik (they mean "holy" and "glorious" in Old Norse, respectively).[3]

Virtually nothing is known about his childhood and youth, which he spent reigning in Novgorod . Sviatoslav's father, Igor , was killed by the Drevlians around 942 and his mother, Olga , ruled as regent in Kiev until Sviatoslav's majority (ca. 963).[4] His tutor was a Varangian named Asmud . "Quick as a leopard,"[5] Sviatoslav appears to have had little patience for administration. His life was spent with his druzhina (roughly, "troops") in permanent warfare against neighboring states. According to the Primary Chronicle .

" Upon his expeditions he carried with him neither wagons nor kettles, and boiled no meat, but cut off small strips of horseflesh, game or beef, and ate it after roasting it on the coals. Nor did he have a tent, but he spread out a horse-blanket under him, and set his saddle under his head, and all his retinue did likewise.[6] " Sviatoslav was noted by Leo the Deacon to be of average height and build. He shaved his head and his beard (or possibly just had a wispy beard) but wore a bushy mustache and a one or two sidelocks as a sign of his nobility. He preferred to dress in white, and it was noted that his garments were much cleaner than those of his men. He wore a single large gold earring bearing a ruby and two pearls .[7] [8]

His mother converted to Christianity at the court of Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in 945 or 957. However,[9] Sviatoslav continued to worship Perun , Veles , Svarog and the other gods and goddesses of the Slavic pantheon . He remained a stubborn pagan for all of his life; according to the Primary Chronicle, he believed that his warriors would lose respect for him and mock him if he became a Christian.[10] The allegiance of his warriors was of paramount importance in his conquest of an empire that stretched from the Volga to the Danube.

Family

Very little is known of Sviatoslav's family life. It is possible that Sviatoslav was not the only (and the eldest) son of his parents. The Russo-Byzantine treaty of 945 mentions a certain Predslava, Volodislav's wife, as the noblest of the Rus' women after Olga. George Vernadsky was among many historians to speculate that Volodislav was Igor's eldest son and heir who died at some point during Olga's regency. At the time of Igor's death, Sviatoslav was still a child and he was raised by his mother or at her instructions. Her influence, however, did not extend to his religious observance.

Sviatoslav, had several children, but the origin of his wives is not specified in the chronicle. By his wives, he had Yaropolk and Oleg .[11] By Malusha , a woman of indeterminate origins,[12] Sviatoslav had Vladimir , who would ultimately break with his father's paganism and convert Rus to Christianity . John Skylitzes reported that Vladimir had a brother named Sfengus ; whether this Sfengus was a son of Sviatoslav, a son of Malusha by a prior or subsequent husband, or an unrelated Rus' nobleman is unclear.[13]
When Sviatoslav went on campaign he left his various relations as regents in the main cities of his realm: his mother Olga and later Yaropolk in Kiev, Vladimir in Novgorod, and Oleg over the Drevlians...

Death and aftermath

Fearing that the peace with Sviatoslav would not endure, the Byzantine emperor induced the Pecheneg khan Kurya to kill Sviatoslav before he reached Kiev. This was in line with the policy outlined by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in De Administrando Imperio of fomenting strife between the Rus' and the Pechenegs.[35] According to the Slavic chronicle, Sveneld attempted to warn Sviatoslav to avoid the Dnieper cataracts , but the prince slighted his wise advice and was ambushed and slain by the Pechenegs when he tried to cross the cataracts near Khortitsa early in 972. The Primary Chronicle reports that his skull was made into a chalice by the Pecheneg khan, Kurya.[36]

Following Sviatoslav's death, tensions between his sons grew. A war broke out between Sviatoslav's legitimate sons, Oleg and Yaropolk , in 976, at the conclusion of which Oleg was killed. In 977 Vladimir fled Novgorod to escape Oleg's fate and went to Scandinavia , where he raised an army of Varangians and returned in 980. Yaropolk was killed and Vladimir became the sole ruler of Kievan Rus'.

Notes
^ E.g. in the Primary Chronicle under year 970
^ X-XVI [Choice of personal names for the Russian princes of the 10th-16th centuries.] Moscow: Indrik, 2006. ISBN 5-85759-339-5 . Page 43.
^ See in (Moscow, 1970).
^ If Olga was indeed born in 879, as the Primary Chronicle seems to imply, she should have been about 65 at the time of Svyatoslav's birth. There are clearly some problems with chronology.
^ Primary Chronicle entry for 968
^ Cross and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Primary Chronicle, p. 84.
^ Vernadsky 276-277. The sidelock is reminiscent of Turkic hairstyles and practices and was later mimicked by Cossacks .
^ For the alternative translations of the same passage of the Greek original that say that Sviatoslav may have not shaven but wispy beard and not one but two sidelocks on each side of his head, see eg. Ian Heath "The Vikings (Elite 3)", Osprey Publishing 1985; ISBN: 9780850455656, p.60 or David Nicolle "Armies of Medieval Russia 750-1250 (Men-at-Arms 333)" Osprey Publishing 1999; ISBN: 9781855328488, p.44
^ Based on his analysis of De Ceremoniis Alexander Nazarenko hypothesizes that Olga hoped to orchestrate a marriage between Svyatoslav and a Byzantine princess. If her proposal was peremptorily declined (as it most certainly would have been), it is hardly surprising that Sviatoslav would look at Byzantium and her Christian culture with suspicion. Nazarenko 302.
^ Primary Chronicle _____.
^ Whether Yaropolk and Oleg were whole or half brothers, and who their mother or mothers were, is a matter hotly debated by historians.
^ She is traditionally identified in Russian historiography as Dobrynya 's sister; for other theories on her identity, see here .
^ Indeed, Franklin and Shepard advanced the hypothesis that Sfengus was identical with Mstislav of Tmutarakan . Franklin and Shepard 200-201.
^ "Rus", Encyclopaedia of Islam
^ Christian 345. It is disputed whether Svyatoslav invaded the land of Vyatichs that year. The only campaign against the Vyatichs explicitly mentioned in the Primary Chronicle is dated to 966.
^ Russian Primary Chronicle ( - 2. - 1908, ) for year 6472. The chronicler may have wished to contrast Sviatoslav's open declaration of war to stealthy tactics employed by many other early medieval conquerors.
^ For Sviatoslav's reliance on nomad cavalry, see, e.g., Franklin and Shepard 149; Christian 298; Pletneva 18.
^ Christian 298. The Primary Chronicle is very succinct about the whole campaign against Khazars, saying only that Sviatoslav "took their city and Belaya Vezha".
^ The town was an important trade center located near the portage between the Volga and Don Rivers . By the early 12th century, however, it had been destroyed by the Kipchaks .
^ See, generally Christian 297-298; Dunlop passim.
^ Logan (1992), p. 202
^ Artamonov 428; Christian 298.
^ The campaign against Ossetians is attested in the Primary Chronicle. The Novgorod First Chronicle specifies that Sviatoslav resettled the Ossetians near Kiev, but Sakharov finds this claim dubitable.
^ The Mandgelis Document refers to a Khazar potentate in the Taman Peninsula around 985, long after Sviatoslav's death. Kedrenos reported that the Byzantines and Rus' collaborated in the conquest of a Khazar kingdom in the Crimea in 1016 and still later, Ibn al-Athir reported an unsuccessful attack by al-Fadl ibn Muhammad against the Khazars in the Caucasus in 1030. For more information on these and other references, see Khazars#Late references to the Khazars .
^ Christian 298.
^ Most historians believe the Greeks were interested in the destruction of Khazaria. Another school of thought essentializes Yahya of Antioch 's report that, prior to the Danube campaign, the Byzantines and the Rus' were at war. See Sakharov, chapter I.
^ The exact date of Sviatoslav's Bulgarian campaign, which likely did not commence until the conclusion of his Khazar campaign, is unknown.
^ Mikhail Tikhomirov and Vladimir Pashuto, among others, assume that the Emperor was interested primarily in diverting Sviatoslav's attention from Chersonesos , a Byzantine possession in the Crimea . Indeed, Leo the Deacon three times mentions that Svyatoslav and his father Igor controlled Cimmerian Bosporus . If so, a conflict of interests in the Crimea was inevitable. The Suzdal Chronicle, though a rather late source, also mentions Sviatoslav's war against Chersonesos. In the peace treaty of 971 , Sviatoslav promised not to wage wars against either Constantinople or Chersonesos. Byzantine sources also report that Kalokyros attempted to persuade Sviatoslav to support Kalokyros in a coup against the reigning Byzantine emperor. As a remuneration for his help, Sviatoslav was supposed to retain a permanent hold on Bulgaria. Modern historians, however, assign little historical importance to this story. Kendrick 157.
^ All figures in this article, including the numbers of Svyatoslav's troops, are based on the reports of Byzantine sources, which may differ from those of the Slavonic chronicles. Greek sources report Khazars and "Turks" in Sviatoslav's army as well as Pechenegs. As used in such Byzantine writings as Constantine Porphyrogenitus' De Administrando Imperio , "Turks" refers to Magyars . The Rus'-Magyar alliance resulted in the Hungarian expedition against the second largest city of the empire, Thessalonika , in 968.
^ Boris II was captured by the Byzantines in 971 and carried off to Constantinople as a prisoner.
^ Kendrick 158
^ Simultaneously, Otto I attacked Byzantine possessions in the south of Italy. This remarkable coincidence may be interpreted as an evidence of the anti-Byzantine German-Russian alliance. See: Manteuffel 41.
^ Grekov 445-446. The Byzantine sources report the enemy casualties to be as high as 20,000, the figure modern historians find to be highly improbable.
^ Franklin and Shepard 149-150
^ Constantine VII pointed out that, by virtue of their controlling the Dnieper cataracts, the Pechenegs may easily attack and destroy the Rus' vessels sailing along the river.
^ The use of a defeated enemy's skull as a drinking vessel is reported by numerous authors through history among various steppe peoples, such as the Scythians . Kurya likely intended this as a compliment to Sviatoslav; sources report that Kurya and his wife drank from the skull and prayed for a son as brave as the deceased Rus' warlord. Christian 344; Pletneva 19; Cross and Sherbowitz-Wetzor 90.
^ E. A Lanceray. "Svyatoslav on the way to Tsargrad .", The Russian History in the Mirror of the Fine Arts (Russian)
^ Cooke, Raymond Cooke. Velimir Khlebnikov: A Critical Study. Cambridge University Press, 1987. Pages 122-123
^ London: Shapiro, Vallentine, 1926
^ (Moscow: Det. lit., 1989).
^
^ "The Federation of Jewish Communities protests against the presence of a Star of David in a new sculpture in Belgorod" , Interfax, November 21, 2005; Kozhevnikova, Galina, "Radical nationalism and efforts to oppose it in Russia in 2005" ; "FJC Russia Appeal Clarifies Situation Over Potentially Anti-Semitic Monument" (Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS Press Release), November 23, 2005; Dahan, David, "Jews protest trampled Star of David statue", European Jewish Press, November 22, 2005

References
Artamonov, Mikhail Istoriya Khazar. Leningrad , 1962.
Barthold, W. . "Khazar". Encyclopaedia of Islam (Brill Online). Eds.: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 1996.
Chertkov A. D. Opisanie voin velikago kniazya Svyatoslava Igorevicha. Moscow, 1843.
Chlenov, A.M. ( "K Voprosu ob Imeni Sviatoslava." Lichnye Imena v proshlom, Nastoyaschem i Buduschem Antroponomiki (" ) (Moscow, 1970).
Christian, David . A History of Russia, Mongolia and Central Asia. Blackwell, 1999.
Cross, S. H., and O.P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor. The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text. Cambridge, Mass.: Medieval Academy of America, 1953.
Dunlop, D.M. History of the Jewish Khazars. Princeton Univ. Press, 1954.
Golden, P.B. "Rus." Encyclopaedia of Islam (Brill Online). Eds.: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2006.
Grekov, Boris . Kiev Rus. tr. Sdobnikov, Y., ed. Ogden, Denis. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959
Kendrick, Thomas D. A History of the Vikings. Courier Dover Publications, 2004. ISBN 0-486-43396-X
Logan, Donald F. The Vikings in History 2nd ed. Routledge, 1992. ISBN 0-415-08396-6
Manteuffel Th. "Les tentatives d'entrainement de la Russie de Kiev dans la sphere d'influence latin". Acta Poloniae Historica. Warsaw, t. 22, 1970.
Nazarenko, A.N. ( Drevniaya Rus' na Mezhdunarodnykh Putiakh ( ). Moscow, Russian Academy of Sciences, World History Institute, 2001. ISBN 5-7859-0085-8 .
Pletneva, Svetlana . Polovtsy Moscow: Nauka, 1990.
Sakharov, Andrey . The Diplomacy of Svyatoslav. Moscow: Nauka , 1982. (online )
Subtelny, Orest . Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6
Vernadsky, G.V. The Origins of Russia. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959.




Research Notes: Wife - Malusha

Source: Wikipedia - Vladimir I of Kiev


Research Notes: Child - Vladimir I of Kiev

From Wikipedia - Vladimir I of Kiev

Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. 958 - 15 July 1015 , Berestovo ) was the grand prince of Kiev who converted to Christianity in 988, and proceeded to baptise the whole Kievan Rus . His name may be spelled in different ways: in Old East Slavic as Volodimir (), in modern Ukrainian as Volodymyr (), in Old Church Slavonic and modern Russian as Vladimir (), in Old Norse as Valdamarr and the modern Scandinavian languages as Valdemar.

Way to the throne

Vladimir was the youngest son of Sviatoslav I of Kiev by his housekeeper Malusha , described in the Norse sagas as a prophetess who lived to the age of 100 and was brought from her cave to the palace to predict the future. Malusha's brother Dobrynya was Vladimir's tutor and most trusted advisor. Hagiographic tradition of dubious authenticity also connects his childhood with the name of his grandmother, Olga Prekrasa , who was Christian and governed the capital during Sviatoslav's frequent military campaigns.

Transferring his capital to Preslavets in 969, Sviatoslav designated Vladimir ruler of Novgorod the Great but gave Kiev to his legitimate son Yaropolk . After Sviatoslav's death (972), a fratricidal war erupted (976) between Yaropolk and his younger brother Oleg , ruler of the Drevlians . In 977 Vladimir fled to his kinsmen Haakon Sigurdsson , ruler of Norway in Scandinavia , collecting as many of the Viking warriors as he could to assist him to recover Novgorod, and on his return the next year marched against Yaropolk.

On his way to Kiev he sent ambassadors to Rogvolod (Norse: Ragnvald), prince of Polotsk , to sue for the hand of his daughter Rogneda (Norse: Ragnhild). The well-born princess refused to affiance herself to the son of a bondswoman, but Vladimir attacked Polotsk, slew Rogvolod, and took Ragnhild by force. Actually, Polotsk was a key fortress on the way to Kiev, and the capture of Polotsk and Smolensk facilitated the taking of Kiev (980), where he slew Yaropolk by treachery, and was proclaimed konung , or kagan , of all Kievan Rus .

Years of pagan rule
In addition to his father's extensive domain, Vladimir continued to expand his territories. In 981 he conquered the Cherven cities, the modern Galicia ; in 983 he subdued the Yatvingians , whose territories lay between Lithuania and Poland ; in 985 he led a fleet along the central rivers of Russia to conquer the Bulgars of the Kama , planting numerous fortresses and colonies on his way.

Though Christianity had won many converts since Olga's rule, Vladimir had remained a thorough going pagan, taking eight hundred concubines (besides numerous wives) and erecting pagan statues and shrines to gods. It is argued that he attempted to reform Slavic paganism by establishing thunder-god Perun as a supreme deity.

Baptism of Rus

The Primary Chronicle reports that in the year 987 , as the result of a consultation with his boyars , Vladimir sent envoys to study the religions of the various neighboring nations whose representatives had been urging him to embrace their respective faiths. The result is amusingly described by the chronicler Nestor . Of the Muslim Bulgarians of the Volga the envoys reported there is no gladness among them; only sorrow and a great stench, and that their religion was undesirable due to its taboo against alcoholic beverages and pork ; supposedly, Vladimir said on that occasion: "Drinking is the joy of the Rus'." Russian sources also describe Vladimir consulting with Jewish envoys (who may or may not have been Khazars ), and questioning them about their religion but ultimately rejecting it, saying that their loss of Jerusalem was evidence of their having been abandoned by God . Ultimately Vladimir settled on Christianity . In the churches of the Germans his emissaries saw no beauty; but at Constantinople , where the full festival ritual of the Byzantine Church was set in motion to impress them, they found their ideal: "We no longer knew whether we were in heaven or on earth," they reported, describing a majestic Divine Liturgy in Hagia Sophia , "nor such beauty, and we know not how to tell of it." If Vladimir was impressed by this account of his envoys, he was yet more so by political gains of the Byzantine alliance.

In 988 , having taken the town of Chersonesos in Crimea , he boldly negotiated for the hand of the emperor Basil II 's sister, Anna. Never had a Greek imperial princess, and one "born-in-the-purple" at that, married a barbarian before, as matrimonial offers of French kings and German emperors had been peremptorily rejected. In short, to marry the 27-year-old princess off to a pagan Slav seemed impossible. Vladimir, however, was baptized at Cherson, taking the Christian name of Basil out of compliment to his imperial brother-in-law; the sacrament was followed by his wedding with Anna . Returning to Kiev in triumph, he destroyed pagan monuments and established many churches, starting with the splendid Church of the Tithes (989) and monasteries on Mt. Athos .

Arab sources, both Muslim and Christian, present a different story of Vladimir's conversion. Yahya of Antioch , al-Rudhrawari , al-Makin , al-Dimashki , and ibn al-Athir [1] all give essentially the same account. In 987, Bardas Sclerus and Bardas Phocas revolted against the Byzantine emperor Basil II . Both rebels briefly joined forces, but then Bardas Phocas proclaimed himself emperor on September 14 , 987 . Basil II turned to the Kievan Rus' for assistance, even though they were considered enemies at that time. Vladimir agreed, in exchange for a marital tie; he also agreed to accept Orthodox Christianity as his religion and bring his people to the new faith. When the wedding arrangements were settled, Vladimir dispatched 6,000 troops to the Byzantine Empire and they helped to put down the revolt.[2]


Christian reign
He now formed a great council out of his boyars, and set his twelve sons over his subject principalities. With his neighbors he lived at peace, the incursions of the Pechenegs alone disturbing his tranquillity. After Anna's death, he married again, most likely to a granddaughter of Otto the Great .
He died at Berestovo, near Kiev, while on his way to chastise the insolence of his son, Prince Yaroslav of Novgorod . The various parts of his dismembered body were distributed among his numerous sacred foundations and were venerated as relics . One of the largest Kievan cathedrals is dedicated to him. The University of Kiev was named after the man who both civilized and Christianized Kievan Rus. There is the Order of St. Vladimir in Russia and Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary in the United States . The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches celebrate the feast day of St. Vladimir on 15 July .

His memory was also kept alive by innumerable Russian folk ballads and legends, which refer to him as Krasno Solnyshko, that is, the Fair Sun. With him the Varangian period of Eastern Slavic history ceases and the Christian period begins.

-------------

From Wikipedia - Family life and children of Vladimir I :

Until his baptism, Vladimir I of Kiev (c.958 -1015 ) was described by Thietmar of Merseburg as a great profligate (Latin : fornicator maximus). He had a few hundred concubines in Kiev and in the country residence of Berestovo . He also had official pagan wives, the most famous being Rogneda of Polotsk . His other wives are mentioned in the Primary Chronicle , with various children assigned to various wives in the different versions of the document. Hence, speculations abound.

Norse wife
Norse sagas mention that, while ruling in Novgorod in his early days, Vladimir had a Varangian wife named Olava or Allogia. This unusual name is probably a feminine form of Olaf . According to Snorri Sturluson the runaway Olaf Tryggvason was sheltered by Allogia in her house; she also paid a large fine for him.

Several authorities, notably Rydzevskaya ("Ancient Rus and Scandinavia in 9-14 cent.", 1978), hold that later skalds confused Vladimir's wife Olava with his grandmother and tutor Olga , with Allogia being the distorted form of Olga's name. Others postulate Olava was a real person and the mother of Vysheslav, the first of Vladimir's sons to reign in Novgorod, as behooves the eldest son and heir. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the tradition of sending the eldest son of Kievan monarch to Novgorod existed at such an early date.

Those scholars who believe that this early Norse wife was not fictitious, suppose that Vladimir could have married her during his famous exile in Scandinavia in the late 970s. They usually refer an account in Ingvars saga (in a part called Eymund's saga ) which tells that Eric VI of Sweden married his daughter to a 'konung of fjord lying to the East from Holmgard '. This prince may have been Vladimir the Great.

Polotsk wife
Main article: Rogneda of Polotsk
Rogneda of Polotsk is the best known of Vladimir's pagan wives, although her ancestry has fuelled the drollest speculations. See this article for extensive but tenuous arguments for her Yngling royal descent.
The Primary Chronicle mentions three of Rogneda's sons - Izyaslav of Polotsk (+1001), Vsevolod of Volhynia (+ca 995), and Yaroslav the Wise . Following an old Yngling tradition, Izyaslav inherited the lands of his maternal grandfather, i.e., Polotsk . According to the Kievan succession law, his progeny forfeited their rights to the Kievan throne, because their forefather had never ruled in Kiev supreme. They, however, retained the principality of Polotsk and formed a dynasty of local rulers, of which Vseslav the Sorcerer was the most notable.

Greek wife
During his unruly youth, Vladimir begot his eldest son, Sviatopolk , relations with whom would cloud his declining years. His mother was a Greek nun captured by Svyatoslav I in Bulgaria and married to his lawful heir Yaropolk I . Russian historian Vasily Tatischev , invariably erring in the matters of onomastics, gives her the fanciful Roman name of Julia. When Yaropolk was murdered by Vladimir's agents, the new sovereign raped his wife and she soon (some would say, too soon) gave birth to a child. Thus, Sviatopolk was probably the eldest of Vladimir's sons, although the issue of his parentage has been questioned and he has been known in the family as "the son of two fathers".

Bohemian wife
Vladimir apparently had a Czech wife, whose name is given by Vasily Tatishchev as Malfrida. Historians have gone to extremes in order to provide a political rationale behind such an alliance, as the Czech princes are assumed to have backed up Vladimir's brother Yaropolk rather than Vladimir. His children by these marriage were probably Svyatoslav of Smolensk, killed during the 1015 internecine war, and Mstislav of Chernigov . Some chronicles, however, report that Rogneda was Mstislav's mother.

Bulgarian wife
Another wife was a Bulgarian lady, whose name is given by Tatishchev as Adela. Historians have disagreed as to whether she came from Volga Bulgaria or from Bulgaria on the Danube . According to the Primary Chronicle , both Boris and Gleb were her children. This tradition, however, is viewed by most scholars as a product of later hagiographical tendency to merge the identity of both saints. Actually, they were of different age and their names point to different cultural traditions. Judging by his Oriental name, Boris could have been Adela's only offspring.

Anna Porphyrogeneta
Anna Porphyrogeneta, daughter of Emperor Romanos II and Theophano , was the only princess of the Makedones to have been married to a foreigner. The Byzantine emperors regarded the Franks and Russians as barbarians, refusing Hugues Capet 's proposals to marry Anna to his son Robert I , so the Baptism of Kievan Rus was a prerequisite for this marriage. Following the wedding, Vladimir is said to have divorced all his pagan wives, although this claim is disputed. Regarded by later Russians as a saint, Anna was interred with her husband in the Church of the Tithes .

Anna is not known to have had any children. Either her possible barrenness or the Byzantine house rule could account for this. Had she had any progeny, the prestigious and much sought imperial parentage would have certainly been advertised by her descendants. Hagiographic sources, contrary to the Primary Chronicle , posit Boris and Gleb as her offspring, on the understanding that holy brothers should have had a holy mother.

German wife
Anna is known to have predeceased Vladimir by four years. Thietmar of Merseburg , writing from contemporary accounts, mentions that Boleslaw I of Poland captured Vladimir's widow during his raid on Kiev in 1018 . The historians long had no clue as to identity of this wife. The emigre historian Nicholas Baumgarten, however, pointed to the controversial record of the "Genealogia Welforum" and the "Historia Welforum Weingartensis" that one daughter of Count Kuno von Oenningen (future Duke Konrad of Swabia ) by "filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris" (Otto the Great 's daughter; possibly Rechlinda Otona [Regelindis], claimed by some as illegitimate daughter and by others legitimate, born from his first marriage with Edith of Wessex) married "rex Rugorum" (king of Russia). He interpreted this evidence as pertaining to Vladimir's last wife.

It is believed that the only child of this alliance was Dobronega, or Maria, who married Casimir I of Poland between 1038 and 1042 . As her father Vladimir died about 25 years before that marriage and she was still young enough to bear at least five children, including two future Polish dukes (Boleslaw II of Poland , who later became a king, and Wladyslaw Herman ), it is thought probable that she was Vladimir's daughter by the last marriage.

Some sources claimed Agatha , the wife of Edward the Exile of England, was another daughter of this marriage and full-sister of Dobronegra. Their marriage took place by the same time of Dobronegra's wedding (the date of birth of her first child support this) and this maybe because was double wedding of both sisters. This can resolve the question about the conection between Agatha and the Holy Roman Empire claimed by several medieval sources.

Yaroslav's parentage
There is also a case for Yaroslav 's descent from Anna. According to this theory, Nestor the Chronicler deliberately represented Yaroslav as Rogneda's son, because he systematically removed all information concerning Kievan ties with Byzantium , spawning pro-Varangian bias (see Normanist theory for details). Proponents allege that Yaroslav's true age was falsified by Nestor, who attempted to represent him as 10 years older than he actually had been, in order to justify Yaroslav's seizure of the throne at the expense of his older brothers.

The Primary Chronicle , for instance, states that Yaroslav died at the age of 76 in 1054 (thus putting his birth at 978 ), while dating Vladimir's encounter and marriage to Yaroslav's purported mother, Rogneda, to 980 . Elsewhere, speaking about Yaroslav's rule in Novgorod (1016), Nestor says that Yaroslav was 28, thus putting his birth at 988 . The forensic analysis of Yaroslav's skeleton seems to have confirmed these suspicions, estimating Yaroslav's birth at ca. 988-990, after both the Baptism of Kievan Rus and Vladimir's divorce of Rogneda. Consequently, it is assumed that Yaroslav was either Vladimir's natural son born after the latter's baptism or his son by Anna.

Had Yaroslav an imperial Byzantine descent, he likely would not have stinted to advertise it. Some have seen the willingness of European kings to marry Yaroslav's daughters as an indication of this imperial descent. Subsequent Polish chroniclers and historians, in particular, were eager to view Yaroslav as Anna's son. Recent proponents envoke onomastic arguments, which have often proven decisive in the matters of medieval prosopography . It is curious that Yaroslav named his elder son Vladimir (after his own father) and his eldest daughter Anna (as if after his own mother). Also, there is a certain pattern in his sons having Slavic names (as Vladimir), and his daughters having Greek names only (as Anna). However, in the absence of better sources, Anna's maternity remains a pure speculation.

Obscure offspring
Vladimir had several children whose maternity cannot be established with certainty. These include two sons, Stanislav of Smolensk and Sudislav of Pskov, the latter outliving all of his siblings. There is also one daughter, named Predslava, who was captured by Boleslaw I in Kiev and taken with him to Poland as a concubine. Another daughter, Premyslava, is attested in numerous (though rather late) Hungarian sources as the wife of Duke Ladislaus, one of the early Arpadians .



Chris Bynum and Mamie




Husband Chris Bynum (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
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         Father: Barney Franklin Bynum Jr. (1922-2009)
         Mother: Ardis Patricia Johnson


       Marriage: 



Wife Mamie (details suppressed for this person)

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Children
1 F Jill Suzanne Bynum (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
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           Died: 
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Manasses Count of Guīnes




Husband Manasses Count of Guīnes 4 5

           Born: Abt 1012 - Guīnes, (Pas-de-Calais), Flanders (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Raoul Count of Guīnes (Abt 0978-1036) 6
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Sibilla Manasses de Guīnes 7 8 9

            AKA: Sebilla de Guines, Sibblla Manasses
           Born: Abt 1038 - Guīnes, (Pas-de-Calais), Flanders (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Henry Castellan de Gand (Abt 1005-      ) 8 10 11
           Marr: Abt 1036 - Castellane, Basse Alps, France



Research Notes: Husband - Manasses Count of Guīnes




Marcomir III King of the Franks




Husband Marcomir III King of the Franks 12

           Born: 
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           Died: 0050
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         Father: Clodius II King of the Franks (      -0020) 13
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
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Children
1 M Clodomir III King of the Franks 14

           Born: 0003
     Christened: 
           Died: 0063
         Buried: 





Marcus Maecilius Avitus of Rome




Husband Marcus Maecilius Avitus of Rome 15

           Born: Abt 400 - Rome, Latium, (Italy)
     Christened: 
           Died: Oct 456
         Buried: 


         Father: Agricola Consul of Rome (Abt 0375-      ) 16
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
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Children
1 F Papinilla Avitus of Rome 17

           Born: Abt 415 - Rome, Latium, (Italy)
     Christened: 
           Died: 
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         Spouse: Tonantius Ferreolus of Moselle (      -After 0475) 18




Walter de Goushill of Hoveringham and Margaret




Husband Walter de Goushill of Hoveringham 19

           Born: Abt 1265 - <Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England> 20
     Christened: 
           Died: 2 Oct 1328 - <Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England>
         Buried: 


         Father: John Goushill of Hoveringham (Abt 1241-After 1268) 20
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 

Events

• Sheriff of Nottinghamshire:




Wife Margaret 19

           Born: 
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Children
1 M Sir Thomas Goushill of Hoveringham 21

           Born: Abt 1296 - <Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England>
     Christened: 
           Died: 21 Dec 1371 - <Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire, England>
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Agnes (      -      ) 21



Research Notes: Husband - Walter de Goushill of Hoveringham

Campaigned in Scotland for more than five years.


William Cummings and Margaret




Husband William Cummings

           Born: 
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       Marriage: 



Wife Margaret

           Born: 
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           Died: 
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Children
1 F Mary Cummings 22

           Born: Abt 1751
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Apr 1806 - Frederick Co., Maryland, United States
         Buried:  - Dorsey-Mercer Cemetery, Unionville, Frederick Co., Maryland, United States
         Spouse: John Dorsey [son of "Patuxent" John] (Abt 1734-1815) 22 23 24 25



Research Notes: Husband - William Cummings

Source: The Dorsey Family by Maxwell J. Dorsey, Jean Muir Dorsey and Nannie Ball Nimmo,2006, p. 142.


Research Notes: Wife - Margaret

Source: The Dorsey Family by Maxwell J. Dorsey, Jean Muir Dorsey and Nannie Ball Nimmo,2006, p. 142.


William H. Wallace Jr. and Margaret




Husband William H. Wallace Jr. (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Margaret (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
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           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Bill Wallace (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
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           Died: 
         Buried: 





Sources


1. Wikipedia.org, Sviatoslav I of Kiev.

2. Wikipedia.org, Vladimir I of Kiev.

3. Wikipedia.org, Family life and children of Vladimir I.

4. Website - Genealogy, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874441.

5. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874441.

6. Website - Genealogy, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874984.

7. Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019556.htm.

8. http://www.familysearch.org.

9. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874440.

10. Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019555.htm.

11. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874439.

12. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99040 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

13. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99041 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

14. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99039 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

15. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #140507 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

16. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #320455 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

17. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #140486 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

18. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #140488.

19. Website - Genealogy, http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~vfarch/genealogy-data/wc23/wc23_076.html.

20. Website:, http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Plains/9004/Goushill.html.

21. Website - Genealogy, http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~vfarch/genealogy-data/wc23/wc23_075.html.

22. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mdannear/firstfam/dorsey/b17273.htm#P17273.

23. Dorsey, Maxwell Jay, Jean Muir Dorsey, Nannie Ball Nimmo, The Dorsey family: descendants of Edward Darcy-Dorsey of Virginia and Maryland for five generations, and allied families (Orig. Pub. M. J. Dorsey, 1946; reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997.), p. 142.

24. Peden, Henry C., Jr, Inhabitants of Baltimore County 1763-1774. (Westminster, MD: Family Line Publications, 1989.).

25. Peden, Henry C., Jr, Revolutionary Patriots of Anne Arundel County Maryland (Westminster, MD: Heritage Books, 2006.), p. 51.


Sources


1 Wikipedia.org, Sviatoslav I of Kiev.

2 Wikipedia.org, Vladimir I of Kiev.

3 Wikipedia.org, Family life and children of Vladimir I.

4 Website - Genealogy, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874441.

5 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874441.

6 Website - Genealogy, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874984.

7 Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019556.htm.

8 http://www.familysearch.org.

9 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874440.

10 Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019555.htm.

11 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874439.

12 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99040 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

13 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99041 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

14 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99039 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

15 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #140507 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

16 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #320455 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

17 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #140486 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

18 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #140488.

19 Website - Genealogy, http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~vfarch/genealogy-data/wc23/wc23_076.html.

20 Website:, http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Plains/9004/Goushill.html.

21 Website - Genealogy, http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~vfarch/genealogy-data/wc23/wc23_075.html.

22 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mdannear/firstfam/dorsey/b17273.htm#P17273.

23 Dorsey, Maxwell Jay, Jean Muir Dorsey, Nannie Ball Nimmo, The Dorsey family: descendants of Edward Darcy-Dorsey of Virginia and Maryland for five generations, and allied families (Orig. Pub. M. J. Dorsey, 1946; reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Co., 1997.), p. 142.

24 Peden, Henry C., Jr, Inhabitants of Baltimore County 1763-1774. (Westminster, MD: Family Line Publications, 1989.).

25 Peden, Henry C., Jr, Revolutionary Patriots of Anne Arundel County Maryland (Westminster, MD: Heritage Books, 2006.), p. 51.


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