The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Iorwerth Vychan ap Ieuaf of Llwynon, co. Denbig and Mali




Husband Iorwerth Vychan ap Ieuaf of Llwynon, co. Denbig

            AKA: Iorwerth ap Ieuaf of Llwynonn
           Born:  - Denbighshire, Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Ieuaf ap Ninniau (      -      )
         Mother: Efa verch Einion ap Howel (      -      )


       Marriage: 



Wife Mali

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         Father: Baron of Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion (      -      )
         Mother: 




Children
1 M Hwfa ap Iorwerth of Hafod-y-Wern

           Born:  - Maelor, Gymraeg, Denbighshire, Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Margaret verch Llewelyn ap Ynyr O'Ial (      -      )



2 M Griffith ap Iorwerth of Llwynon

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 M Iorwerth Vychan ap Iorwerth

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Iorwerth Vychan ap Ieuaf of Llwynon, co. Denbig

Source: http://www.varrall.net/pafg57.htm#1150

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656


Research Notes: Wife - Mali

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656:
"Mali, widow of David ap Rhys, v. Baron of Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion, co. Merioneth, ancestor of the Hughes's of Gwerclas, Barons of Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion and 3rd dau. of Ievan, living 6 HEN. VI., son of Einion ap Griffith, of Cos-y-Gedol, co. Merioneth (See WYNNE OF PENIARTH.)"


Research Notes: Child - Hwfa ap Iorwerth of Hafod-y-Wern

Youngest son of Iorwerth ap Ieuaf of Llwynonn.

Source: http://www.varrall.net/pafg57.htm#1149

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656

From History of the Town of Wrexham, Its Houses, Streets, Fields, and Old Families by Alfred Neobard Palmer (Wrexham, 1893), p. 137:
"The Hafod y wern estate, lying between what I take to be the old Common Pasture of Wrexham and the lord's demesne of Glyn Park, suggests the probability of its having been carved out of one or the other, and granted by the lord of the commote to the first holder of it for services rendered. Indeed the very name of the house shows that it must have been built on land more or less waste, 'Hafod y wern' meaning 'Summer Shieling of the alder marsh,' and 'hafodau' or 'summer shielings' being merely temporary dwellings, erected for the convenience of those who tended the sheep and cattle at their summer pastures. However, this may have been Hafod y wern was in 1620, and long before, the principal free estate in the manor. The first holder of it who actually lived there, appears to have been Hwfa ap Iorwerth, youngest son of Iorwerth ap Ieuaf of Llwynonn."


Research Notes: Child - Griffith ap Iorwerth of Llwynon

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656


Research Notes: Child - Iorwerth Vychan ap Iorwerth

Source: A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Great Britain & Ireland" by John Burke & John Bernard Burke, vol. I (London, 1847), p. 656


Malusha




Husband

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       Marriage: 



Wife Malusha

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         Buried: 

   Other Spouse: Sviatoslav I of Kiev (Abt 0942-0972) 1


Children

Research Notes: Wife - Malusha

Source: Wikipedia - Vladimir I of Kiev


Sviatoslav I of Kiev and Malusha




Husband Sviatoslav I of Kiev 1




           Born: Abt 942
     Christened: 


           Died: Mar 972
         Buried: 


         Father: Igor Grand Prince of Kiev (      -0945)
         Mother: Olga of Kiev (Abt 0890-0969)


       Marriage: 



Wife Malusha

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Vladimir I of Kiev 2 3




            AKA: Saint Vladimir of Kiev, Vladimir the Great, Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great
           Born: Abt 958


     Christened: 
           Died: 15 Jul 1015 - Berestovo, Berestove, Kiev, Ukraine
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Sviatoslav I of Kiev

From Wikipedia - Sviatoslav I of Kiev :

Sviatoslav I of Kiev (Old East Slavic : ([1] (Sventoslav Igorevich), Russian : Ukrainian : Bulgarian : Greek : (Sfendoslavos) ) (c. 942 - March 972) was a warrior prince of Kievan Rus' . The son of Igor of Kiev and Olga , Sviatoslav is famous for his incessant campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe-Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire ; he also subdued the Volga Bulgars , the Alans , and numerous East Slavic tribes, and at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars . His decade-long reign over Rus' was marked by rapid expansion into the Volga River valley, the Pontic steppe and the Balkans . By the end of his short life, Sviatoslav carved out for himself the largest state in Europe , eventually moving his capital from Kiev to Pereyaslavets on the Danube in 969. In contrast with his mother's conversion to Christianity , Sviatoslav remained a staunch pagan all of his life. Due to his abrupt death in combat, Sviatoslav's conquests, for the most part, were not consolidated into a functioning empire, while his failure to establish a stable succession led to civil war among his successors.

Sviatoslav was the first ruler of Kievan Rus' whose name is indisputably Slavic in origin (as opposed to his predecessors, whose names are ultimately derived from Old Norse ). This name is not recorded in other medieval Slavic countries. Even in Rus', it was attested only among the members of the house of Rurik , as were the names of Sviatoslav's immediate successors: Vladimir , Yaroslav , Mstislav ).[2] Some scholars speculate that the name of Sviatoslav, composed of the Slavic roots for "holy" and "glory", was an artificial derivation combining those of his predecessors Oleg and Rurik (they mean "holy" and "glorious" in Old Norse, respectively).[3]

Virtually nothing is known about his childhood and youth, which he spent reigning in Novgorod . Sviatoslav's father, Igor , was killed by the Drevlians around 942 and his mother, Olga , ruled as regent in Kiev until Sviatoslav's majority (ca. 963).[4] His tutor was a Varangian named Asmud . "Quick as a leopard,"[5] Sviatoslav appears to have had little patience for administration. His life was spent with his druzhina (roughly, "troops") in permanent warfare against neighboring states. According to the Primary Chronicle .

" Upon his expeditions he carried with him neither wagons nor kettles, and boiled no meat, but cut off small strips of horseflesh, game or beef, and ate it after roasting it on the coals. Nor did he have a tent, but he spread out a horse-blanket under him, and set his saddle under his head, and all his retinue did likewise.[6] " Sviatoslav was noted by Leo the Deacon to be of average height and build. He shaved his head and his beard (or possibly just had a wispy beard) but wore a bushy mustache and a one or two sidelocks as a sign of his nobility. He preferred to dress in white, and it was noted that his garments were much cleaner than those of his men. He wore a single large gold earring bearing a ruby and two pearls .[7] [8]

His mother converted to Christianity at the court of Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in 945 or 957. However,[9] Sviatoslav continued to worship Perun , Veles , Svarog and the other gods and goddesses of the Slavic pantheon . He remained a stubborn pagan for all of his life; according to the Primary Chronicle, he believed that his warriors would lose respect for him and mock him if he became a Christian.[10] The allegiance of his warriors was of paramount importance in his conquest of an empire that stretched from the Volga to the Danube.

Family

Very little is known of Sviatoslav's family life. It is possible that Sviatoslav was not the only (and the eldest) son of his parents. The Russo-Byzantine treaty of 945 mentions a certain Predslava, Volodislav's wife, as the noblest of the Rus' women after Olga. George Vernadsky was among many historians to speculate that Volodislav was Igor's eldest son and heir who died at some point during Olga's regency. At the time of Igor's death, Sviatoslav was still a child and he was raised by his mother or at her instructions. Her influence, however, did not extend to his religious observance.

Sviatoslav, had several children, but the origin of his wives is not specified in the chronicle. By his wives, he had Yaropolk and Oleg .[11] By Malusha , a woman of indeterminate origins,[12] Sviatoslav had Vladimir , who would ultimately break with his father's paganism and convert Rus to Christianity . John Skylitzes reported that Vladimir had a brother named Sfengus ; whether this Sfengus was a son of Sviatoslav, a son of Malusha by a prior or subsequent husband, or an unrelated Rus' nobleman is unclear.[13]
When Sviatoslav went on campaign he left his various relations as regents in the main cities of his realm: his mother Olga and later Yaropolk in Kiev, Vladimir in Novgorod, and Oleg over the Drevlians...

Death and aftermath

Fearing that the peace with Sviatoslav would not endure, the Byzantine emperor induced the Pecheneg khan Kurya to kill Sviatoslav before he reached Kiev. This was in line with the policy outlined by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus in De Administrando Imperio of fomenting strife between the Rus' and the Pechenegs.[35] According to the Slavic chronicle, Sveneld attempted to warn Sviatoslav to avoid the Dnieper cataracts , but the prince slighted his wise advice and was ambushed and slain by the Pechenegs when he tried to cross the cataracts near Khortitsa early in 972. The Primary Chronicle reports that his skull was made into a chalice by the Pecheneg khan, Kurya.[36]

Following Sviatoslav's death, tensions between his sons grew. A war broke out between Sviatoslav's legitimate sons, Oleg and Yaropolk , in 976, at the conclusion of which Oleg was killed. In 977 Vladimir fled Novgorod to escape Oleg's fate and went to Scandinavia , where he raised an army of Varangians and returned in 980. Yaropolk was killed and Vladimir became the sole ruler of Kievan Rus'.

Notes
^ E.g. in the Primary Chronicle under year 970
^ X-XVI [Choice of personal names for the Russian princes of the 10th-16th centuries.] Moscow: Indrik, 2006. ISBN 5-85759-339-5 . Page 43.
^ See in (Moscow, 1970).
^ If Olga was indeed born in 879, as the Primary Chronicle seems to imply, she should have been about 65 at the time of Svyatoslav's birth. There are clearly some problems with chronology.
^ Primary Chronicle entry for 968
^ Cross and Sherbowitz-Wetzor, Primary Chronicle, p. 84.
^ Vernadsky 276-277. The sidelock is reminiscent of Turkic hairstyles and practices and was later mimicked by Cossacks .
^ For the alternative translations of the same passage of the Greek original that say that Sviatoslav may have not shaven but wispy beard and not one but two sidelocks on each side of his head, see eg. Ian Heath "The Vikings (Elite 3)", Osprey Publishing 1985; ISBN: 9780850455656, p.60 or David Nicolle "Armies of Medieval Russia 750-1250 (Men-at-Arms 333)" Osprey Publishing 1999; ISBN: 9781855328488, p.44
^ Based on his analysis of De Ceremoniis Alexander Nazarenko hypothesizes that Olga hoped to orchestrate a marriage between Svyatoslav and a Byzantine princess. If her proposal was peremptorily declined (as it most certainly would have been), it is hardly surprising that Sviatoslav would look at Byzantium and her Christian culture with suspicion. Nazarenko 302.
^ Primary Chronicle _____.
^ Whether Yaropolk and Oleg were whole or half brothers, and who their mother or mothers were, is a matter hotly debated by historians.
^ She is traditionally identified in Russian historiography as Dobrynya 's sister; for other theories on her identity, see here .
^ Indeed, Franklin and Shepard advanced the hypothesis that Sfengus was identical with Mstislav of Tmutarakan . Franklin and Shepard 200-201.
^ "Rus", Encyclopaedia of Islam
^ Christian 345. It is disputed whether Svyatoslav invaded the land of Vyatichs that year. The only campaign against the Vyatichs explicitly mentioned in the Primary Chronicle is dated to 966.
^ Russian Primary Chronicle ( - 2. - 1908, ) for year 6472. The chronicler may have wished to contrast Sviatoslav's open declaration of war to stealthy tactics employed by many other early medieval conquerors.
^ For Sviatoslav's reliance on nomad cavalry, see, e.g., Franklin and Shepard 149; Christian 298; Pletneva 18.
^ Christian 298. The Primary Chronicle is very succinct about the whole campaign against Khazars, saying only that Sviatoslav "took their city and Belaya Vezha".
^ The town was an important trade center located near the portage between the Volga and Don Rivers . By the early 12th century, however, it had been destroyed by the Kipchaks .
^ See, generally Christian 297-298; Dunlop passim.
^ Logan (1992), p. 202
^ Artamonov 428; Christian 298.
^ The campaign against Ossetians is attested in the Primary Chronicle. The Novgorod First Chronicle specifies that Sviatoslav resettled the Ossetians near Kiev, but Sakharov finds this claim dubitable.
^ The Mandgelis Document refers to a Khazar potentate in the Taman Peninsula around 985, long after Sviatoslav's death. Kedrenos reported that the Byzantines and Rus' collaborated in the conquest of a Khazar kingdom in the Crimea in 1016 and still later, Ibn al-Athir reported an unsuccessful attack by al-Fadl ibn Muhammad against the Khazars in the Caucasus in 1030. For more information on these and other references, see Khazars#Late references to the Khazars .
^ Christian 298.
^ Most historians believe the Greeks were interested in the destruction of Khazaria. Another school of thought essentializes Yahya of Antioch 's report that, prior to the Danube campaign, the Byzantines and the Rus' were at war. See Sakharov, chapter I.
^ The exact date of Sviatoslav's Bulgarian campaign, which likely did not commence until the conclusion of his Khazar campaign, is unknown.
^ Mikhail Tikhomirov and Vladimir Pashuto, among others, assume that the Emperor was interested primarily in diverting Sviatoslav's attention from Chersonesos , a Byzantine possession in the Crimea . Indeed, Leo the Deacon three times mentions that Svyatoslav and his father Igor controlled Cimmerian Bosporus . If so, a conflict of interests in the Crimea was inevitable. The Suzdal Chronicle, though a rather late source, also mentions Sviatoslav's war against Chersonesos. In the peace treaty of 971 , Sviatoslav promised not to wage wars against either Constantinople or Chersonesos. Byzantine sources also report that Kalokyros attempted to persuade Sviatoslav to support Kalokyros in a coup against the reigning Byzantine emperor. As a remuneration for his help, Sviatoslav was supposed to retain a permanent hold on Bulgaria. Modern historians, however, assign little historical importance to this story. Kendrick 157.
^ All figures in this article, including the numbers of Svyatoslav's troops, are based on the reports of Byzantine sources, which may differ from those of the Slavonic chronicles. Greek sources report Khazars and "Turks" in Sviatoslav's army as well as Pechenegs. As used in such Byzantine writings as Constantine Porphyrogenitus' De Administrando Imperio , "Turks" refers to Magyars . The Rus'-Magyar alliance resulted in the Hungarian expedition against the second largest city of the empire, Thessalonika , in 968.
^ Boris II was captured by the Byzantines in 971 and carried off to Constantinople as a prisoner.
^ Kendrick 158
^ Simultaneously, Otto I attacked Byzantine possessions in the south of Italy. This remarkable coincidence may be interpreted as an evidence of the anti-Byzantine German-Russian alliance. See: Manteuffel 41.
^ Grekov 445-446. The Byzantine sources report the enemy casualties to be as high as 20,000, the figure modern historians find to be highly improbable.
^ Franklin and Shepard 149-150
^ Constantine VII pointed out that, by virtue of their controlling the Dnieper cataracts, the Pechenegs may easily attack and destroy the Rus' vessels sailing along the river.
^ The use of a defeated enemy's skull as a drinking vessel is reported by numerous authors through history among various steppe peoples, such as the Scythians . Kurya likely intended this as a compliment to Sviatoslav; sources report that Kurya and his wife drank from the skull and prayed for a son as brave as the deceased Rus' warlord. Christian 344; Pletneva 19; Cross and Sherbowitz-Wetzor 90.
^ E. A Lanceray. "Svyatoslav on the way to Tsargrad .", The Russian History in the Mirror of the Fine Arts (Russian)
^ Cooke, Raymond Cooke. Velimir Khlebnikov: A Critical Study. Cambridge University Press, 1987. Pages 122-123
^ London: Shapiro, Vallentine, 1926
^ (Moscow: Det. lit., 1989).
^
^ "The Federation of Jewish Communities protests against the presence of a Star of David in a new sculpture in Belgorod" , Interfax, November 21, 2005; Kozhevnikova, Galina, "Radical nationalism and efforts to oppose it in Russia in 2005" ; "FJC Russia Appeal Clarifies Situation Over Potentially Anti-Semitic Monument" (Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS Press Release), November 23, 2005; Dahan, David, "Jews protest trampled Star of David statue", European Jewish Press, November 22, 2005

References
Artamonov, Mikhail Istoriya Khazar. Leningrad , 1962.
Barthold, W. . "Khazar". Encyclopaedia of Islam (Brill Online). Eds.: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 1996.
Chertkov A. D. Opisanie voin velikago kniazya Svyatoslava Igorevicha. Moscow, 1843.
Chlenov, A.M. ( "K Voprosu ob Imeni Sviatoslava." Lichnye Imena v proshlom, Nastoyaschem i Buduschem Antroponomiki (" ) (Moscow, 1970).
Christian, David . A History of Russia, Mongolia and Central Asia. Blackwell, 1999.
Cross, S. H., and O.P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor. The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text. Cambridge, Mass.: Medieval Academy of America, 1953.
Dunlop, D.M. History of the Jewish Khazars. Princeton Univ. Press, 1954.
Golden, P.B. "Rus." Encyclopaedia of Islam (Brill Online). Eds.: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2006.
Grekov, Boris . Kiev Rus. tr. Sdobnikov, Y., ed. Ogden, Denis. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959
Kendrick, Thomas D. A History of the Vikings. Courier Dover Publications, 2004. ISBN 0-486-43396-X
Logan, Donald F. The Vikings in History 2nd ed. Routledge, 1992. ISBN 0-415-08396-6
Manteuffel Th. "Les tentatives d'entrainement de la Russie de Kiev dans la sphere d'influence latin". Acta Poloniae Historica. Warsaw, t. 22, 1970.
Nazarenko, A.N. ( Drevniaya Rus' na Mezhdunarodnykh Putiakh ( ). Moscow, Russian Academy of Sciences, World History Institute, 2001. ISBN 5-7859-0085-8 .
Pletneva, Svetlana . Polovtsy Moscow: Nauka, 1990.
Sakharov, Andrey . The Diplomacy of Svyatoslav. Moscow: Nauka , 1982. (online )
Subtelny, Orest . Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6
Vernadsky, G.V. The Origins of Russia. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959. 1




Research Notes: Wife - Malusha

Source: Wikipedia - Vladimir I of Kiev


Research Notes: Child - Vladimir I of Kiev

From Wikipedia - Vladimir I of Kiev

Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. 958 - 15 July 1015 , Berestovo ) was the grand prince of Kiev who converted to Christianity in 988, and proceeded to baptise the whole Kievan Rus . His name may be spelled in different ways: in Old East Slavic as Volodimir (), in modern Ukrainian as Volodymyr (), in Old Church Slavonic and modern Russian as Vladimir (), in Old Norse as Valdamarr and the modern Scandinavian languages as Valdemar.

Way to the throne

Vladimir was the youngest son of Sviatoslav I of Kiev by his housekeeper Malusha , described in the Norse sagas as a prophetess who lived to the age of 100 and was brought from her cave to the palace to predict the future. Malusha's brother Dobrynya was Vladimir's tutor and most trusted advisor. Hagiographic tradition of dubious authenticity also connects his childhood with the name of his grandmother, Olga Prekrasa , who was Christian and governed the capital during Sviatoslav's frequent military campaigns.

Transferring his capital to Preslavets in 969, Sviatoslav designated Vladimir ruler of Novgorod the Great but gave Kiev to his legitimate son Yaropolk . After Sviatoslav's death (972), a fratricidal war erupted (976) between Yaropolk and his younger brother Oleg , ruler of the Drevlians . In 977 Vladimir fled to his kinsmen Haakon Sigurdsson , ruler of Norway in Scandinavia , collecting as many of the Viking warriors as he could to assist him to recover Novgorod, and on his return the next year marched against Yaropolk.

On his way to Kiev he sent ambassadors to Rogvolod (Norse: Ragnvald), prince of Polotsk , to sue for the hand of his daughter Rogneda (Norse: Ragnhild). The well-born princess refused to affiance herself to the son of a bondswoman, but Vladimir attacked Polotsk, slew Rogvolod, and took Ragnhild by force. Actually, Polotsk was a key fortress on the way to Kiev, and the capture of Polotsk and Smolensk facilitated the taking of Kiev (980), where he slew Yaropolk by treachery, and was proclaimed konung , or kagan , of all Kievan Rus .

Years of pagan rule
In addition to his father's extensive domain, Vladimir continued to expand his territories. In 981 he conquered the Cherven cities, the modern Galicia ; in 983 he subdued the Yatvingians , whose territories lay between Lithuania and Poland ; in 985 he led a fleet along the central rivers of Russia to conquer the Bulgars of the Kama , planting numerous fortresses and colonies on his way.

Though Christianity had won many converts since Olga's rule, Vladimir had remained a thorough going pagan, taking eight hundred concubines (besides numerous wives) and erecting pagan statues and shrines to gods. It is argued that he attempted to reform Slavic paganism by establishing thunder-god Perun as a supreme deity.

Baptism of Rus

The Primary Chronicle reports that in the year 987 , as the result of a consultation with his boyars , Vladimir sent envoys to study the religions of the various neighboring nations whose representatives had been urging him to embrace their respective faiths. The result is amusingly described by the chronicler Nestor . Of the Muslim Bulgarians of the Volga the envoys reported there is no gladness among them; only sorrow and a great stench, and that their religion was undesirable due to its taboo against alcoholic beverages and pork ; supposedly, Vladimir said on that occasion: "Drinking is the joy of the Rus'." Russian sources also describe Vladimir consulting with Jewish envoys (who may or may not have been Khazars ), and questioning them about their religion but ultimately rejecting it, saying that their loss of Jerusalem was evidence of their having been abandoned by God . Ultimately Vladimir settled on Christianity . In the churches of the Germans his emissaries saw no beauty; but at Constantinople , where the full festival ritual of the Byzantine Church was set in motion to impress them, they found their ideal: "We no longer knew whether we were in heaven or on earth," they reported, describing a majestic Divine Liturgy in Hagia Sophia , "nor such beauty, and we know not how to tell of it." If Vladimir was impressed by this account of his envoys, he was yet more so by political gains of the Byzantine alliance.

In 988 , having taken the town of Chersonesos in Crimea , he boldly negotiated for the hand of the emperor Basil II 's sister, Anna. Never had a Greek imperial princess, and one "born-in-the-purple" at that, married a barbarian before, as matrimonial offers of French kings and German emperors had been peremptorily rejected. In short, to marry the 27-year-old princess off to a pagan Slav seemed impossible. Vladimir, however, was baptized at Cherson, taking the Christian name of Basil out of compliment to his imperial brother-in-law; the sacrament was followed by his wedding with Anna . Returning to Kiev in triumph, he destroyed pagan monuments and established many churches, starting with the splendid Church of the Tithes (989) and monasteries on Mt. Athos .

Arab sources, both Muslim and Christian, present a different story of Vladimir's conversion. Yahya of Antioch , al-Rudhrawari , al-Makin , al-Dimashki , and ibn al-Athir [1] all give essentially the same account. In 987, Bardas Sclerus and Bardas Phocas revolted against the Byzantine emperor Basil II . Both rebels briefly joined forces, but then Bardas Phocas proclaimed himself emperor on September 14 , 987 . Basil II turned to the Kievan Rus' for assistance, even though they were considered enemies at that time. Vladimir agreed, in exchange for a marital tie; he also agreed to accept Orthodox Christianity as his religion and bring his people to the new faith. When the wedding arrangements were settled, Vladimir dispatched 6,000 troops to the Byzantine Empire and they helped to put down the revolt.[2]


Christian reign
He now formed a great council out of his boyars, and set his twelve sons over his subject principalities. With his neighbors he lived at peace, the incursions of the Pechenegs alone disturbing his tranquillity. After Anna's death, he married again, most likely to a granddaughter of Otto the Great .
He died at Berestovo, near Kiev, while on his way to chastise the insolence of his son, Prince Yaroslav of Novgorod . The various parts of his dismembered body were distributed among his numerous sacred foundations and were venerated as relics . One of the largest Kievan cathedrals is dedicated to him. The University of Kiev was named after the man who both civilized and Christianized Kievan Rus. There is the Order of St. Vladimir in Russia and Saint Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary in the United States . The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches celebrate the feast day of St. Vladimir on 15 July .

His memory was also kept alive by innumerable Russian folk ballads and legends, which refer to him as Krasno Solnyshko, that is, the Fair Sun. With him the Varangian period of Eastern Slavic history ceases and the Christian period begins.

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From Wikipedia - Family life and children of Vladimir I :

Until his baptism, Vladimir I of Kiev (c.958 -1015 ) was described by Thietmar of Merseburg as a great profligate (Latin : fornicator maximus). He had a few hundred concubines in Kiev and in the country residence of Berestovo . He also had official pagan wives, the most famous being Rogneda of Polotsk . His other wives are mentioned in the Primary Chronicle , with various children assigned to various wives in the different versions of the document. Hence, speculations abound.

Norse wife
Norse sagas mention that, while ruling in Novgorod in his early days, Vladimir had a Varangian wife named Olava or Allogia. This unusual name is probably a feminine form of Olaf . According to Snorri Sturluson the runaway Olaf Tryggvason was sheltered by Allogia in her house; she also paid a large fine for him.

Several authorities, notably Rydzevskaya ("Ancient Rus and Scandinavia in 9-14 cent.", 1978), hold that later skalds confused Vladimir's wife Olava with his grandmother and tutor Olga , with Allogia being the distorted form of Olga's name. Others postulate Olava was a real person and the mother of Vysheslav, the first of Vladimir's sons to reign in Novgorod, as behooves the eldest son and heir. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the tradition of sending the eldest son of Kievan monarch to Novgorod existed at such an early date.

Those scholars who believe that this early Norse wife was not fictitious, suppose that Vladimir could have married her during his famous exile in Scandinavia in the late 970s. They usually refer an account in Ingvars saga (in a part called Eymund's saga ) which tells that Eric VI of Sweden married his daughter to a 'konung of fjord lying to the East from Holmgard '. This prince may have been Vladimir the Great.

Polotsk wife
Main article: Rogneda of Polotsk
Rogneda of Polotsk is the best known of Vladimir's pagan wives, although her ancestry has fuelled the drollest speculations. See this article for extensive but tenuous arguments for her Yngling royal descent.
The Primary Chronicle mentions three of Rogneda's sons - Izyaslav of Polotsk (+1001), Vsevolod of Volhynia (+ca 995), and Yaroslav the Wise . Following an old Yngling tradition, Izyaslav inherited the lands of his maternal grandfather, i.e., Polotsk . According to the Kievan succession law, his progeny forfeited their rights to the Kievan throne, because their forefather had never ruled in Kiev supreme. They, however, retained the principality of Polotsk and formed a dynasty of local rulers, of which Vseslav the Sorcerer was the most notable.

Greek wife
During his unruly youth, Vladimir begot his eldest son, Sviatopolk , relations with whom would cloud his declining years. His mother was a Greek nun captured by Svyatoslav I in Bulgaria and married to his lawful heir Yaropolk I . Russian historian Vasily Tatischev , invariably erring in the matters of onomastics, gives her the fanciful Roman name of Julia. When Yaropolk was murdered by Vladimir's agents, the new sovereign raped his wife and she soon (some would say, too soon) gave birth to a child. Thus, Sviatopolk was probably the eldest of Vladimir's sons, although the issue of his parentage has been questioned and he has been known in the family as "the son of two fathers".

Bohemian wife
Vladimir apparently had a Czech wife, whose name is given by Vasily Tatishchev as Malfrida. Historians have gone to extremes in order to provide a political rationale behind such an alliance, as the Czech princes are assumed to have backed up Vladimir's brother Yaropolk rather than Vladimir. His children by these marriage were probably Svyatoslav of Smolensk, killed during the 1015 internecine war, and Mstislav of Chernigov . Some chronicles, however, report that Rogneda was Mstislav's mother.

Bulgarian wife
Another wife was a Bulgarian lady, whose name is given by Tatishchev as Adela. Historians have disagreed as to whether she came from Volga Bulgaria or from Bulgaria on the Danube . According to the Primary Chronicle , both Boris and Gleb were her children. This tradition, however, is viewed by most scholars as a product of later hagiographical tendency to merge the identity of both saints. Actually, they were of different age and their names point to different cultural traditions. Judging by his Oriental name, Boris could have been Adela's only offspring.

Anna Porphyrogeneta
Anna Porphyrogeneta, daughter of Emperor Romanos II and Theophano , was the only princess of the Makedones to have been married to a foreigner. The Byzantine emperors regarded the Franks and Russians as barbarians, refusing Hugues Capet 's proposals to marry Anna to his son Robert I , so the Baptism of Kievan Rus was a prerequisite for this marriage. Following the wedding, Vladimir is said to have divorced all his pagan wives, although this claim is disputed. Regarded by later Russians as a saint, Anna was interred with her husband in the Church of the Tithes .

Anna is not known to have had any children. Either her possible barrenness or the Byzantine house rule could account for this. Had she had any progeny, the prestigious and much sought imperial parentage would have certainly been advertised by her descendants. Hagiographic sources, contrary to the Primary Chronicle , posit Boris and Gleb as her offspring, on the understanding that holy brothers should have had a holy mother.

German wife
Anna is known to have predeceased Vladimir by four years. Thietmar of Merseburg , writing from contemporary accounts, mentions that Boleslaw I of Poland captured Vladimir's widow during his raid on Kiev in 1018 . The historians long had no clue as to identity of this wife. The emigre historian Nicholas Baumgarten, however, pointed to the controversial record of the "Genealogia Welforum" and the "Historia Welforum Weingartensis" that one daughter of Count Kuno von Oenningen (future Duke Konrad of Swabia ) by "filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris" (Otto the Great 's daughter; possibly Rechlinda Otona [Regelindis], claimed by some as illegitimate daughter and by others legitimate, born from his first marriage with Edith of Wessex) married "rex Rugorum" (king of Russia). He interpreted this evidence as pertaining to Vladimir's last wife.

It is believed that the only child of this alliance was Dobronega, or Maria, who married Casimir I of Poland between 1038 and 1042 . As her father Vladimir died about 25 years before that marriage and she was still young enough to bear at least five children, including two future Polish dukes (Boleslaw II of Poland , who later became a king, and Wladyslaw Herman ), it is thought probable that she was Vladimir's daughter by the last marriage.

Some sources claimed Agatha , the wife of Edward the Exile of England, was another daughter of this marriage and full-sister of Dobronegra. Their marriage took place by the same time of Dobronegra's wedding (the date of birth of her first child support this) and this maybe because was double wedding of both sisters. This can resolve the question about the conection between Agatha and the Holy Roman Empire claimed by several medieval sources.

Yaroslav's parentage
There is also a case for Yaroslav 's descent from Anna. According to this theory, Nestor the Chronicler deliberately represented Yaroslav as Rogneda's son, because he systematically removed all information concerning Kievan ties with Byzantium , spawning pro-Varangian bias (see Normanist theory for details). Proponents allege that Yaroslav's true age was falsified by Nestor, who attempted to represent him as 10 years older than he actually had been, in order to justify Yaroslav's seizure of the throne at the expense of his older brothers.

The Primary Chronicle , for instance, states that Yaroslav died at the age of 76 in 1054 (thus putting his birth at 978 ), while dating Vladimir's encounter and marriage to Yaroslav's purported mother, Rogneda, to 980 . Elsewhere, speaking about Yaroslav's rule in Novgorod (1016), Nestor says that Yaroslav was 28, thus putting his birth at 988 . The forensic analysis of Yaroslav's skeleton seems to have confirmed these suspicions, estimating Yaroslav's birth at ca. 988-990, after both the Baptism of Kievan Rus and Vladimir's divorce of Rogneda. Consequently, it is assumed that Yaroslav was either Vladimir's natural son born after the latter's baptism or his son by Anna.

Had Yaroslav an imperial Byzantine descent, he likely would not have stinted to advertise it. Some have seen the willingness of European kings to marry Yaroslav's daughters as an indication of this imperial descent. Subsequent Polish chroniclers and historians, in particular, were eager to view Yaroslav as Anna's son. Recent proponents envoke onomastic arguments, which have often proven decisive in the matters of medieval prosopography . It is curious that Yaroslav named his elder son Vladimir (after his own father) and his eldest daughter Anna (as if after his own mother). Also, there is a certain pattern in his sons having Slavic names (as Vladimir), and his daughters having Greek names only (as Anna). However, in the absence of better sources, Anna's maternity remains a pure speculation.

Obscure offspring
Vladimir had several children whose maternity cannot be established with certainty. These include two sons, Stanislav of Smolensk and Sudislav of Pskov, the latter outliving all of his siblings. There is also one daughter, named Predslava, who was captured by Boleslaw I in Kiev and taken with him to Poland as a concubine. Another daughter, Premyslava, is attested in numerous (though rather late) Hungarian sources as the wife of Duke Ladislaus, one of the early Arpadians . 2 3



Chris Bynum and Mamie




Husband Chris Bynum (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Barney Bynum
         Mother: Ardis Johnson


       Marriage: 



Wife Mamie (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
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           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Jill Suzanne Bynum (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
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           Died: 
         Buried: 





Manasses Count of Guînes




Husband Manasses Count of Guînes 4 5

           Born: Abt 1012 - Guînes, (Pas-de-Calais), Flanders (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Raoul Count of Guînes (Abt 0978-1036) 6
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Sibilla Manasses de Guînes 7 8 9

            AKA: Sebilla de Guines, Sibblla Manasses
           Born: Abt 1038 - Guînes, (Pas-de-Calais), Flanders (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Henry Castellan de Gand (Abt 1005-      ) 8 10 11
           Marr: Abt 1036 - Castellane, Basse Alps, France




Research Notes: Husband - Manasses Count of Guînes

4 5


Marcomir III King of the Franks




Husband Marcomir III King of the Franks 12

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 0050
         Buried: 


         Father: Clodius II King of the Franks (      -0020) 13
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
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           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Clodomir III King of the Franks 14

           Born: 0003
     Christened: 
           Died: 0063
         Buried: 





Marcus Maecilius Avitus of Rome




Husband Marcus Maecilius Avitus of Rome 15

           Born: Abt 400 - Rome, Latium, (Italy)
     Christened: 
           Died: Oct 456
         Buried: 


         Father: Agricola Consul of Rome (Abt 0375-      ) 16
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Papinilla Avitus of Rome 17

           Born: Abt 415 - Rome, Latium, (Italy)
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Tonantius Ferreolus of Moselle (      -After 0475) 18





Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots and Saint Margaret of Scotland




Husband Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots 19 20




            AKA: Malcolm III King of Scotland, Malcolm III "Canmore" King of Scots, Máel Coluim mac Donnchada
           Born: Abt 1031
     Christened: 


           Died: 13 Nov 1093 - Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Duncan I MacCrinan King of Scots (      -1040) 21
         Mother: < > [Daughter of Siward, Danish Earl of Northumbria] (      -      ) 22


       Marriage: 1068 or 1069 - Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland

   Other Spouse: Ingibiorg (      -      ) 23 - 1059

Events

• Crowned: King of Scots, 17 Mar 1057 or 1058, Scone, (Perth and Kinross), Scotland.




Wife Saint Margaret of Scotland 24 25

            AKA: Margaret of Scotland


           Born: 1045 - Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd, Southern Transdanubia, Hungary
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Nov 1093 - St Margaret's Chapel in Edinburgh Castle, Midlothian, Scotland


         Buried:  - Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland


         Father: Edward "the Exile" Saxon Prince of England (1016-1057) 26 27
         Mother: Agatha (Abt 1020-After 1070) 28 29




Children
1 F Matilda of Scotland

            AKA: Edith of Scotland, Maud of Scotland
           Born: 1079 - Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 May 1118 - Westminster Palace, London, England
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Henry I "Beauclerc" King of England (Between 1068/1069-1135) 30 31
           Marr: 11 Nov 1100 - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England



2 M David I "The Saint" King of Scots 32 33




            AKA: Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim
           Born: Abt 1083
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 May 1153 - Carlisle
         Buried:  - Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland
         Spouse: Maud of Huntingdon (Abt 1074-1131) 34 35 36
           Marr: 1113 or 1114



3 F Mary of Scotland 37

            AKA: Marie of Scotland
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Apr 1118
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Eustace III Count of Boulogne and Lens (      -After 1125) 38 39
           Marr: 1102




Death Notes: Husband - Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots

Slain while besieging Alnwick Castle.


Research Notes: Husband - Malcolm III Canmore King of Scots

From Wikipedia - Malcolm III of Scotland :

Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (Modern Gaelic : Maol Chaluim mac Dhonnchaidh),[1] called in most Anglicised regnal lists Malcolm III, and in later centuries nicknamed Canmore, "Big Head"[2][3] or Long-neck [4] (died 13 November 1093), was King of Scots . It has also been argued recently that the real "Malcolm Canmore" was this Malcolm's great-grandson Malcolm IV , who is given this name in the contemporary notice of his death.[5] He was the eldest son of King Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin). Malcolm's long reign, lasting 35 years, preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age.

Malcolm's Kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland : the north and west of Scotland remained in Scandinavian , Norse-Gael and Gaelic control, and the areas under the control of the Kings of Scots would not advance much beyond the limits set by Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) until the 12th century. Malcolm III fought a succession of wars against the Kingdom of England , which may have had as their goal the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria . However, these wars did not result in any significant advances southwards. Malcolm's main achievement is to have continued a line which would rule Scotland for many years,[6] although his role as "founder of a dynasty" has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David, and his descendants, than with any historical reality.[7]

Malcolm's second wife, Saint Margaret of Scotland , was later beatified and is Scotland's only royal saint. However, Malcolm himself gained no reputation for piety. With the notable exception of Dunfermline Abbey he is not definitely associated with major religious establishments or ecclesiastical reforms.

Background
Malcolm's father Duncan I (Donnchad mac Crínáin) became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda), Duncan's maternal grandfather. According to John of Fordun , whose account is the original source of part at least of William Shakespeare 's Macbeth , Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria ,[8][9] but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen.[10]

Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed by Macbeth (Mac Bethad mac Findlaích) on 15 August 1040. Although Shakespeare's Macbeth presents Malcolm as a grown man and his father as an old one, it appears that Duncan was still young in 1040,[11] and Malcolm and his brother Donalbane (Domnall Bán) were children.[12] Malcolm's family did attempt to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt.[13]

Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety - exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm (then aged about 9) was sent to England, and his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles.[14][15] Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeth's seventeen year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor .[16][17]
According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson , Earl of Orkney , an enemy of Macbeth's family, and perhaps Duncan's kinsman by marriage.[18]

An English invasion in 1054, with Earl Siward in command, had as its goal the installation of Máel Coluim , "son of the King of the Cumbrians (i.e. of Strathclyde )". This Máel Coluim, perhaps a son of Owen the Bald , disappears from history after this brief mention. He has been confused with King Malcolm III.[19][20] In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolm's hand, on 15 August 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire .[21][22] Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach , who was crowned at Scone , probably on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by treachery",[23] near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm became king, perhaps being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this.[24]

Malcolm and Ingibiorg

If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as King may have been to travel south to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret , who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary .[25] If he did visit the English court, he was the first reigning King of Scots to do so in more than eighty years. If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, however, it was not kept, and this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered.[26] Equally, Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, which was under Malcolm's control by 1070.[27]

The Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg , a daughter of Finn Arnesson .[28] Although Ingibiorg is generally assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058.[29] The Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II (Donnchad mac Maíl Coluim), who was later king.[4] Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury , claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim .[30] Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Saga. He is assumed to have been born to Ingibiorg.[31]

Malcolm's marriage to Ingibiorg secured him peace in the north and west. The Heimskringla tells that her father Finn had been an adviser to Harald Hardraade and, after falling out with Harald, was then made an Earl by Sweyn Estridsson , King of Denmark , which may have been another recommendation for the match.[32] Malcolm enjoyed a peaceful relationship with the Earldom of Orkney , ruled jointly by his stepsons, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson . The Orkneyinga Saga reports strife with Norway but this is probably misplaced as it associates this with Magnus Barefoot , who became king of Norway only in 1093, the year of Malcolm's death.[33]

Malcolm and Margaret

Although he had given sanctuary to Tostig Godwinson when the Northumbrians drove him out, Malcolm was not directly involved in the ill-fated invasion of England by Harald Hardraade and Tostig in 1066, which ended in defeat and death at the battle of Stamford Bridge .[34] In 1068, he granted asylum to a group of English exiles fleeing from William of Normandy , among them Agatha , widow of Edward the Confessor's nephew Edward the Exile , and her children: Edgar Ætheling and his sisters Margaret and Cristina . They were accompanied by Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria . The exiles were disappointed, however, if they had expected immediate assistance from the Scots.[35]

In 1069 the exiles returned to England, to join a spreading revolt in the north. Even though Gospatric and Siward's son Waltheof submitted by the end of the year, the arrival of a Danish army under Sweyn Estridsson seemed to ensure that William's position remained weak. Malcolm decided on war, and took his army south into Cumbria and across the Pennines , wasting Teesdale and Cleveland then marching north, loaded with loot, to Wearmouth . There Malcolm met Edgar and his family, who were invited to return with him, but did not. As Sweyn had by now been bought off with a large Danegeld , Malcolm took his army home. In reprisal, William sent Gospatric to raid Scotland through Cumbria. In return, the Scots fleet raided the Northumbrian coast where Gospatric's possessions were concentrated.[36] Late in the year, perhaps shipwrecked on their way to a European exile, Edgar and his family again arrived in Scotland, this time to remain. By the end of 1070, Malcolm had married Edgar's sister Margaret, the future Saint Margaret of Scotland .[37]

The naming of their children represented a break with the traditional Scots Regal names such as Malcolm, Cináed and Áed. The point of naming Margaret's sons, Edward after her father Edward the Exile , Edmund for her grandfather Edmund Ironside , Ethelred for her great-grandfather Ethelred the Unready and Edgar for her great-great-grandfather Edgar was unlikely to be missed in England, where William of Normandy's grasp on power was far from secure.[38] Whether the adoption of the classical Alexander for the future Alexander I of Scotland (either for Pope Alexander II or for Alexander the Great ) and the biblical David for the future David I of Scotland represented a recognition that William of Normandy would not be easily removed, or was due to the repetition of Anglo-Saxon Royal name-another Edmund had preceded Edgar-is not known.[39] Margaret also gave Malcolm two daughters, Edith , who married Henry I of England , and Mary, who married Eustace III of Boulogne .

In 1072, with the Harrying of the North completed and his position again secure, William of Normandy came north with an army and a fleet. Malcolm met William at Abernethy and, in the words of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle "became his man" and handed over his eldest son Duncan as a hostage and arranged peace between William and Edgar.[40] Accepting the overlordship of the king of the English was no novelty, previous kings had done so without result. The same was true of Malcolm; his agreement with the English king was followed by further raids into Northumbria, which led to further trouble in the earldom and the killing of Bishop William Walcher at Gateshead . In 1080, William sent his son Robert Curthose north with an army while his brother Odo punished the Northumbrians. Malcolm again made peace, and this time kept it for over a decade.[41]

Malcolm faced little recorded internal opposition, with the exception of Lulach's son Máel Snechtai . In an unusual entry, for the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains little on Scotland, it says that in 1078:
" Malcholom [Máel Coluim] seized the mother of Mælslæhtan [Máel Snechtai] ... and all his treasures, and his cattle; and he himself escaped with difficulty.[42] " Whatever provoked this strife, Máel Snechtai survived until 1085.[43]

Malcolm and William Rufus

When William Rufus became king of England after his father's death, Malcolm did not intervene in the rebellions by supporters of Robert Curthose which followed. In 1091, however, William Rufus confiscated Edgar Ætheling's lands in England, and Edgar fled north to Scotland. In May, Malcolm marched south, not to raid and take slaves and plunder, but to besiege Newcastle , built by Robert Curthose in 1080. This appears to have been an attempt to advance the frontier south from the River Tweed to the River Tees . The threat was enough to bring the English king back from Normandy , where he had been fighting Robert Curthose. In September, learning of William Rufus's approaching army, Malcolm withdrew north and the English followed. Unlike in 1072, Malcolm was prepared to fight, but a peace was arranged by Edgar Ætheling and Robert Curthose whereby Malcolm again acknowledged the overlordship of the English king.[44]

In 1092, the peace began to break down. Based on the idea that the Scots controlled much of modern Cumbria , it had been supposed that William Rufus's new castle at Carlisle and his settlement of English peasants in the surrounds was the cause. However, it is unlikely that Malcolm did control Cumbria, and the dispute instead concerned the estates granted to Malcolm by William Rufus's father in 1072 for his maintenance when visiting England. Malcolm sent messengers to discuss the question and William Rufus agreed to a meeting. Malcolm travelled south to Gloucester , stopping at Wilton Abbey to visit his daughter Edith and sister-in-law Cristina. Malcolm arrived there on 24 August 1093 to find that William Rufus refused to negotiate, insisting that the dispute be judged by the English barons. This Malcolm refused to accept, and returned immediately to Scotland.[45]


It does not appear that William Rufus intended to provoke a war,[46] but, as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports, war came:
" For this reason therefore they parted with great dissatisfaction, and the King Malcolm returned to Scotland. And soon after he came home, he gathered his army, and came harrowing into England with more hostility than behoved him ... " Malcolm was accompanied by Edward, his eldest son by Margaret and probable heir-designate (or tánaiste), and by Edgar.[47] Even by the standards of the time, the ravaging of Northumbria by the Scots was seen as harsh.[48]

Death
While marching north again, Malcolm was ambushed by Robert de Mowbray , Earl of Northumbria, whose lands he had devastated, near Alnwick on 13 November 1093. There he was killed by Arkil Morel, steward of Bamburgh Castle . The conflict became known as the Battle of Alnwick .[49] Edward was mortally wounded in the same fight. Margaret, it is said, died soon after receiving the news of their deaths from Edgar.[50] The Annals of Ulster say:

" Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French i.e. in Inber Alda in England. His queen, Margaret, moreover, died of sorrow for him within nine days.[51] " Malcolm's body was taken to Tynemouth Priory for burial, where it remains to this day. A body of a local farmer was sent north for burial in Dunfermline Abbey in the reign of his son Alexander or perhaps on Iona .[52]

On 19 June 1250, following the canonisation of Malcolm's wife Margaret by Pope Innocent IV , Margaret's remains were disinterred and placed in a reliquary. Tradition has it that as the reliquary was carried to the high altar of Dunfermline Abbey , past Malcolm's grave, it became too heavy to move. As a result, Malcolm's remains were also disinterred, and buried next to Margaret beside the altar.[53]

Issue
Malcolm and Ingebjorg had a son:
Duncan II of Scotland , suceeded his father as King of Scotland

Malcolm and Margaret had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
Edward, killed 1093.
Edmund of Scotland
Ethelred , abbot of Dunkeld
King Edgar of Scotland
King Alexander I of Scotland
King David I of Scotland
Edith of Scotland , also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
Mary of Scotland , married Eustace III of Boulogne 19 20



Research Notes: Wife - Saint Margaret of Scotland

From Wikipedia - Saint Margaret of Scotland :
Saint Margaret (c. 1045 - 16 November 1093), was the sister of Edgar Ætheling , the short-ruling and uncrowned Anglo-Saxon King of England . She married Malcolm III , King of Scots , becoming his Queen consort .

Early life
Saint Margaret was the daughter of the English prince Edward the Exile , son of Edmund Ironside . She was probably born at Castle Réka, Mecseknádasd , in the region of Southern Transdanubia , Hungary .[citation needed ] The provenance of her mother, Agatha , is disputed.

Margaret had one brother Edgar and one sister Christina.

When her uncle, Saint Edward the Confessor , the French-speaking Anglo-Saxon King of England , died in 1066, she was living in England where her brother, Edgar Ætheling , had decided to make a claim to the vacant throne.

According to tradition, after the conquest of the Kingdom of England by the Normans , the widowed Agatha decided to leave Northumberland with her children and return to the Continent. A storm drove their ship to Scotland , where they sought the protection of King Malcolm III . The spot where she is said to have landed is known today as St. Margaret's Hope, near the village of North Queensferry .

Malcolm was probably a widower , and was no doubt attracted by the prospect of marrying one of the few remaining members of the Anglo-Saxon royal family. The marriage of Malcolm and Margaret soon took place. Malcolm followed it with several invasions of Northumberland by the Scottish king, probably in support of the claims of his brother-in-law Edgar. These, however, had little result beyond the devastation of the province.

Family
Margaret and Malcolm had eight children, six sons and two daughters:
Edward, killed 1093.
Edmund of Scotland
Ethelred , abbot of Dunkeld
King Edgar of Scotland
King Alexander I of Scotland
King David I of Scotland
Edith of Scotland , also called Matilda, married King Henry I of England
Mary of Scotland , married Eustace III of Boulogne

Her husband, Malcolm III, and their eldest son, Edward, were killed in a fight against the English at Alnwick Castle on 13 November 1093. Her son Edmund was left with the task of telling his mother of their deaths. Margaret was ill, and she died on 16 November 1093, three days after the deaths of her husband and eldest son.

Veneration
Saint Margaret was canonised in the year 1250 by Pope Innocent IV in recognition of her personal holiness, fidelity to the Church, work for religious reform, and charity. She attended to charitable works, and personally served orphans and the poor every day before she ate. She rose at midnight to attend church services every night. She was known for her work for religious reform. She was considered to be an exemplar of the "just ruler", and also influenced her husband and children to be just and holy rulers.

The Roman Catholic Church formerly marked the feast of Saint Margaret of Scotland on June 10 , because the feast of "Saint Gertrude, Virgin" was already celebrated on November 16 . In Scotland, she was venerated on November 16, the day of her death.

Per the revision of the Roman Catholic calendar of saints in 1969, the Church transferred her feast day to November 16, the actual day of her death.[1] Traditional Roman Catholics continue to celebrate the feast day of "St Margaret, Queen of Scots, Widow" on June 10 as a Semi-Double feast, or a 3rd Class feast.

Queen Margaret University (founded in 1875), Queen Margaret College (Glasgow) , Queen Margaret Union , Queen Margaret Hospital (just outside Dunfermline ), North Queensferry , South Queensferry , Queen Margaret Academy (Ayr), Queen Margaret College (Wellington) and several streets in Scotland are named after her.

She is also venerated as a saint in the Anglican Church . 24 25


Notes: Marriage

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 170-21 (Malcolm III Canmore) has m. 1068/9 in Dunfermline. St. Margaret was Malcolm's 2nd wife.


Birth Notes: Child - Matilda of Scotland

Place name may be Dermfermline.


Research Notes: Child - Matilda of Scotland

Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford)

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-22

From Wikipedia - Matilda of Scotland :

Matilda of Scotland[1] (born Edith; c. 1080 - 1 May 1118) was the first wife and queen consort of Henry I .

Matilda was born around 1080 in Dunfermline , the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and Saint Margaret . She was christened Edith, and Robert Curthose stood as godfather at her christening - the English queen Matilda of Flanders was also present at the font and may have been her godmother.
When she was about six years old, Matilda (or Edith as she was then probably still called) and her sister Mary were sent to Romsey , where their aunt Cristina was abbess. During her stay at Romsey and Wilton , The Scottish princess was much sought-after as a bride; she turned down proposals from both William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey , and Alan Rufus , Lord of Richmond. Hermann of Tournai even claims that William II Rufus considered marrying her. She was out of the monastery by 1093, when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury ordering that the daughter of the king of Scotland be returned to the monastery that she had left.

After the death of William II Rufus in August 1100, his brother Henry quickly seized the royal treasury and the royal crown. His next task was to marry, and Henry's choice fell on Matilda. Because Matilda had spent most of her life in a nunnery, there was some controversy over whether or not she had been veiled as a nun and would thus be ineligible for marriage. Henry sought permission for the marriage from Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , who returned to England in September 1100 after a long exile. Professing himself unwilling to decide so weighty a matter on his own, Anselm called a council of bishops in order to determine the legality of the proposed marriage. Matilda testified to the archbishop and the assembled bishops of the realm that she had never taken holy vows. She insisted that her parents had sent her and her sister to England for educational purposes, and that her aunt Cristina had veiled her only to protect her "from the lust of the Normans ." Matilda claimed she had pulled the veil off and stamped on it, and her aunt beat and scolded her most horribly for this. The council concluded that Matilda had never been a nun, nor had her parents intended that she become one, and gave their permission for the marriage.
Matilda and Henry seem to have known one another for some time before their marriage - William of Malmesbury states that Henry had "long been attached" to her, and Orderic Vitalis says that Henry had "long adored" Edith's character. Through her mother she was descended from Edmund Ironside and thus Alfred the Great and the old line of the kings of Wessex; this was very important as Henry wanted to help make himself more popular with the English people and Matilda represented the old English dynasty. In their children the Norman and Anglo-Saxon dynasties would be united. Another benefit of the marriage was that England and Scotland became politically closer; three of her brothers served as kings of Scotland and were unusually friendly to England during this period.

After Matilda and Henry were married on 11 November 1100 at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury , she was crowned as "Matilda", a fashionable Norman name. She gave birth to a daughter, Matilda, in February 1102, and a son, William, in November 1103. As queen, she maintained her court primarily at Westminster , but accompanied her husband in his travels all across England, and, circa 1106-1107, probably visited Normandy with him. She also served in a vice-regal capacity when Henry was away from court. Her court was filled with musicians and poets; she commissioned a monk, probably Thurgot , to write a biography of her mother, Saint Margaret . She was an active queen, and like her mother was renowned for her devotion to religion and the poor. William of Malmesbury describes her as attending church barefoot at Lent , and washing the feet and kissing the hands of the sick. She also administered extensive dower properties and was known as a patron of the arts, especially music.

After Matilda died on 1 May 1118 at Westminster Palace , she was buried at Westminster Abbey . The death of her only son and Henry's failure to produce a legitimate son from his second marriage led to the succession crisis of The Anarchy .


Research Notes: Child - David I "The Saint" King of Scots

From Wikipedia - David I of Scotland :

David I or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern : Daibhidh I mac [Mhaoil] Chaluim;[1] 1083 x 1085 - 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians (1113-1124) and later King of the Scots (1124-1153). The youngest son of Malcolm III and Margaret , David spent most of his childhood in Scotland , but was exiled to England temporarily in 1093. Perhaps after 1100, he became a dependent at the court of King Henry I . There he was influenced by the Norman and Anglo-French culture of the court.

When David's brother Alexander I of Scotland died in 1124, David chose, with the backing of Henry I, to take the Kingdom of Scotland (Alba ) for himself. He was forced to engage in warfare against his rival and nephew, Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair . Subduing the latter seems to have taken David ten years, a struggle that involved the destruction of Óengus , Mormaer of Moray . David's victory allowed expansion of control over more distant regions theoretically part of his Kingdom. After the death of his former patron Henry I, David supported the claims of Henry's daughter and his own niece, the former Empress-consort, Matilda , to the throne of England. In the process, he came into conflict with King Stephen and was able to expand his power in northern England, despite his defeat at the Battle of the Standard in 1138.

The term "Davidian Revolution " is used by many scholars to summarise the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during his reign. These included his foundation of burghs , implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform , foundation of monasteries , Normanisation of the Scottish government, and the introduction of feudalism through immigrant French and Anglo-French knights.

Childhood and flight to England
David was born at an unknown point between 1083 and 1085.[2] He was probably the eighth son of King Malcolm III , and certainly the sixth and youngest produced by Malcolm's second marriage to Queen Margaret .[3]

In 1093 King Malcolm and David's brother Edward were killed at the river Aln during an invasion of Northumberland .[4] David and his two brothers Alexander and Edgar , both future kings of Scotland, were probably present when their mother died shortly afterwards.[5] According to later medieval tradition, the three brothers were in Edinburgh when they were besieged by their uncle, Donald Bane .[6]


Donald became King of Scotland.[7] It is not certain what happened next, but an insertion in the Chronicle of Melrose states that Donald forced his three nephews into exile, although he was allied with another of his nephews, Edmund .[8] John of Fordun wrote, centuries later, that an escort into England was arranged for them by their maternal uncle Edgar Ætheling .[9]


Intervention of William Rufus and English exile
William Rufus , King of the English, opposed Donald's accession to the northerly kingdom. He sent the eldest son of Malcolm III, David's half-brother Donnchad , into Scotland with an army. Donnchad was killed within the year,[10] and so in 1097 William sent Donnchad's half-brother Edgar into Scotland. The latter was more successful, and was crowned King by the end of 1097.[11]

During the power struggle of 1093-97, David was in England. In 1093, was probably about nine years old.[12] From 1093 until 1103 David's presence cannot be accounted for in detail, but he appears to have been in Scotland for the remainder of the 1090s. When William Rufus was killed, his brother Henry Beauclerc seized power and married David's sister, Matilda . The marriage made David the brother-in-law of the ruler of England. From that point onwards, David was probably an important figure at the English court.[13] Despite his Gaelic background, by the end of his stay in England, David had become a full-fledged Normanised prince. William of Malmesbury wrote that it was in this period that David "rubbed off all tarnish of Scottish barbarity through being polished by intercourse and friendship with us".[14]

Prince of the Cumbrians, 1113-1124

David's time as Prince of the Cumbrians marks the beginning of his life as a great territorial lord. The year of these beginnings was probably 1113, when Henry I arranged David's marriage to Matilda, Countess of Huntingdon , who was the heiress to the Huntingdon-Northampton lordship. As her husband David used the title of Earl , and there was the prospect that David's children by her would inherit all the honours borne by Matilda's father Waltheof . 1113 is the year when David, for the first time, can be found in possession of territory in what is now Scotland.

Obtaining the inheritance
David's brother, King Edgar, had visited William Rufus in May 1099 and bequeathed to David extensive territory to the south of the river Forth .[15] On 8 January 1107, Edgar died. It has been assumed that David took control of his inheritance , the southern lands bequeathed by Edgar, soon after the latter's death.[16] However, it cannot be shown that he possessed his inheritance until his foundation of Selkirk Abbey late in 1113.[17] According to Richard Oram , it was only in 1113, when Henry returned to England from Normandy, that David was at last in a position to claim his inheritance in southern "Scotland".[18]

King Henry's backing seems to have been enough to force King Alexander to recognise his younger brother's claims. This probably occurred without bloodshed, but through threat of force nonetheless.[19] David's aggression seems to have inspired resentment amongst some native Scots. A Gaelic quatrain from this period complains that:
Olc a ndearna mac Mael Colaim, It's bad what Máel Coluim's son has done;, ar cosaid re hAlaxandir, dividing us from Alexander; do-ní le gach mac rígh romhaind, he causes, like each king's son before; foghail ar faras Albain. the plunder of stable Alba. [20] If "divided from" is anything to go by, this quatrain may have been written in David's new territories in southern "Scotland".[21]

The lands in question consisted of the pre-1975 counties of Roxburghshire , Selkirkshire , Berwickshire , Peeblesshire and Lanarkshire . David, moreover, gained the title princeps Cumbrensis, "Prince of the Cumbrians ", as attested in David's charters from this era.[22] Although this was a large slice of Scotland south of the river Forth, the region of Galloway-proper was entirely outside David's control.[23]

David may perhaps have had varying degrees of overlordship in parts of Dumfriesshire , Ayrshire , Dunbartonshire and Renfrewshire .[24] In the lands between Galloway and the Principality of Cumbria, David eventually set up large-scale marcher lordships, such as Annandale for Robert de Brus, Cunningham for Hugh de Morville, and possibly Strathgryfe for Walter Fitzalan .[25]

In England

In the later part of 1113, King Henry gave David the hand of Matilda of Huntingdon, daughter and heiress of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland . The marriage brought with it the "Honour of Huntingdon", a lordship scattered through the shires of Northampton , Huntingdon , and Bedford ; within a few years, Matilda de Senlis bore a son, whom David named Henry after his patron.[26]

The new territories which David controlled were a valuable supplement to his income and manpower, increasing his status as one of the most powerful magnates in the Kingdom of the English. Moreover, Matilda's father Waltheof had been Earl of Northumberland , a defunct lordship which had covered the far north of England and included Cumberland and Westmorland , Northumberland -proper, as well as overlordship of the bishopric of Durham. After King Henry's death, David would revive the claim to this earldom for his son Henry.[27]

David's activities and whereabouts after 1114 are not always easy to trace. He spent much of his time outside his principality, in England and in Normandy. Despite the death of his sister on 1 May 1118, David still possessed the favour of King Henry when his brother Alexander died in 1124, leaving Scotland without a king.[28]


Political and military events in Scotland during David's kingship

Michael Lynch and Richard Oram portray David as having little initial connection with the culture and society of the Scots;[29] but both likewise argue that David became increasingly re-Gaelicised in the later stages of his reign.[30] Whatever the case, David's claim to be heir to the Scottish kingdom was doubtful. David was the youngest of eight sons of the fifth from last king. Two more recent kings had produced sons. William fitz Duncan , son of King Donnchad II, and Máel Coluim , son of the last king Alexander, both preceded David in terms of the slowly emerging principles of primogeniture . However, unlike David, neither William nor Máel Coluim had the support of Henry. So when Alexander died in 1124, the aristocracy of Scotland could either accept David as King, or face war with both David and Henry I.[31]

Coronation and struggle for the kingdom

Alexander's son Máel Coluim chose war. Orderic Vitalis reported that Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair "affected to snatch the kingdom from [David], and fought against him two sufficiently fierce battles; but David, who was loftier in understanding and in power and wealth, conquered him and his followers".[32] Máel Coluim escaped unharmed into areas of Scotland not yet under David's control, and in those areas gained shelter and aid.[33]

In either April or May of the same year David was crowned King of Scotland (Gaelic : rí(gh) Alban; Latin : rex Scottorum )[34] at Scone . If later Scottish and Irish evidence can be taken as evidence, the ceremony of coronation was a series of elaborate traditional rituals,[35] of the kind infamous in the Anglo-French world of the 12th century for their "unchristian" elements.[36] Ailred of Rievaulx, friend and one time member of David's court, reported that David "so abhorred those acts of homage which are offered by the Scottish nation in the manner of their fathers upon the recent promotion of their kings, that he was with difficulty compelled by the bishops to receive them".[37]

Outside his "Cumbrian" principality and the southern fringe of Scotland-proper, David exercised little power in the 1120s, and in the words of Richard Oram, was "king of Scots in little more than name".[38] He was probably in that part of Scotland he did rule for most of the time between late 1127 and 1130.[39] However, he was at the court of Henry in 1126 and in early 1127,[40] and returned to Henry's court in 1130, serving as a judge at Woodstock for the treason trial of Geoffrey de Clinton .[39] It was in this year that David's wife, Matilda of Huntingdon, died. Possibly as a result of this,[41] and while David was still in southern England,[42] Scotland-proper rose up in arms against him.

The instigator was, again, his nephew Máel Coluim, who now had the support of Óengus of Moray . King Óengus was David's most powerful "vassal", a man who, as grandson of King Lulach of Scotland , even had his own claim to the kingdom. The rebel Scots had advanced into Angus , where they were met by David's Mercian constable , Edward ; a battle took place at Stracathro near Brechin . According to the Annals of Ulster , 1000 of Edward's army, and 4000 of Óengus' army, including Óengus himself, died.[43]

According to Orderic Vitalis, Edward followed up the killing of Óengus by marching north into Moray itself, which, in Orderic's words, "lacked a defender and lord"; and so Edward, "with God's help obtained the entire duchy of that extensive district".[44] However, this was far from the end of it. Máel Coluim escaped, and four years of continuing "civil war" followed; for David this period was quite simply a "struggle for survival".[45]

It appears that David asked for and obtained extensive military aid from his patron, King Henry. Ailred of Rievaulx related that at this point a large fleet and a large army of Norman knights, including Walter l'Espec, were sent by Henry to Carlisle in order to assist David's attempt to root out his Scottish enemies.[46] The fleet seems to have been used in the Irish Sea , the Firth of Clyde and the entire Argyll coast, where Máel Coluim was probably at large among supporters. In 1134 Máel Coluim was captured and imprisoned in Roxburgh Castle .[47] Since modern historians no longer confuse him with Malcolm MacHeth , it is clear that nothing more is ever heard of Máel Coluim mac Alaxadair, except perhaps that his sons were later allied with Somerled .[48]

Pacification of the west and north
Richard Oram puts forward the suggestion that it was during this period that David granted Walter fitz Alan the kadrez of Strathgryfe , with northern Kyle and the area around Renfrew , forming what would become the "Stewart" lordship of Strathgryfe; he also suggests that Hugh de Morville may have gained the kadrez of Cunningham and the settlement of "Strathyrewen" (i.e. Irvine ). This would indicate that the 1130-34 campaign had resulted in the acquisition of these territories.[49]

How long it took to pacify Moray is not known, but in this period David appointed his nephew William fitz Duncan to succeed Óengus, perhaps in compensation for the exclusion from the succession to the Scottish throne caused by the coming of age of David's son Henry . William may have been given the daughter of Óengus in marriage, cementing his authority in the region. The burghs of Elgin and Forres may have been founded at this point, consolidating royal authority in Moray.[50] David also founded Urquhart Priory , possibly as a "victory monastery", and assigned to it a percentage of his cain (tribute) from Argyll.[51]

During this period too, a marriage was arranged between the son of Matad, Mormaer of Atholl , and the daughter of Haakon Paulsson , Earl of Orkney . The marriage temporarily secured the northern frontier of the Kingdom, and held out the prospect that a son of one of David's Mormaers could gain Orkney and Caithness for the Kingdom of Scotland. Thus, by the time Henry I died on 1 December 1135, David had more of Scotland under his control than ever before.[52]

Dominating the north

While fighting King Stephen and attempting to dominate northern England in the years following 1136, David was continuing his drive for control of the far north of Scotland. In 1139, his cousin, the five year old Harald Maddadsson , was given the title of "Earl" and half the lands of the earldom of Orkney , in addition to Scottish Caithness. Throughout the 1140s Caithness and Sutherland were brought back under the Scottish zone of control.[53] Sometime before 1146 David appointed a native Scot called Aindréas to be the first Bishop of Caithness , a bishopric which was based at Halkirk , near Thurso , in an area which was ethnically Scandinavian.[54]

In 1150, it looked like Caithness and the whole earldom of Orkney were going to come under permanent Scottish control. However, David's plans for the north soon began to encounter problems. In 1151, King Eystein II of Norway put a spanner in the works by sailing through the waterways of Orkney with a large fleet and catching the young Harald unawares in his residence at Thurso. Eystein forced Harald to pay fealty as a condition of his release. Later in the year David hastily responded by supporting the claims to the Orkney earldom of Harald's rival Erlend Haraldsson , granting him half of Caithness in opposition to Harald. King Eystein responded in turn by making a similar grant to this same Erlend, cancelling the effect of David's grant. David's weakness in Orkney was that the Norwegian kings were not prepared to stand back and let him reduce their power.[55]

England

David's relationship with England and the English crown in these years is usually interpreted in two ways. Firstly, his actions are understood in relation to his connections with the King of England. No historian is likely to deny that David's early career was largely manufactured by King Henry I of England. David was the latter's "greatest protégé",[56] one of Henry's "new men".[57] His hostility to Stephen can be interpreted as an effort to uphold the intended inheritance of Henry I, the succession of his daughter, Matilda , the former Empress of the Holy Roman Empire. David carried out his wars in her name, joined her when she arrived in England, and later knighted her son, the future Henry II .[58]

However, David's policy towards England can be interpreted in an additional way. David was the independence-loving king trying to build a "Scoto-Northumbrian" realm by seizing the most northerly parts of the English kingdom. In this perspective, David's support for Matilda is used as a pretext for land-grabbing. David's maternal descent from the House of Wessex and his son Henry's maternal descent from the English Earls of Northumberland is thought to have further encouraged such a project, a project which only came to an end after Henry II ordered David's child successor Máel Coluim IV to hand over the most important of David's gains. It is clear that neither one of these interpretations can be taken without some weight being given to the other.[59]


Usurpation of Stephen and First Treaty of Durham
Henry I had arranged his inheritance to pass to his daughter Empress Matilda . Instead, Stephen , younger brother of Theobald II, Count of Blois , seized the throne.[60] David had been the first lay person to take the oath to uphold the succession of Matilda in 1127, and when Stephen was crowned on 22 December 1135, David decided to make war.[61]

Before December was over, David marched into northern England, and by the end of January he had occupied the castles of Carlisle , Wark , Alnwick , Norham and Newcastle . By February David was at Durham, but an army led by King Stephen met him there. Rather than fight a pitched battle, a treaty was agreed whereby David would retain Carlisle, while David's son Henry was re-granted the title and half the lands of the earldom of Huntingdon, territory which had been confiscated during David's revolt. On Stephen's side he received back the other castles; and while David would do no homage, Stephen was to receive the homage of Henry for both Carlisle and the other English territories. Stephen also gave the rather worthless but for David face-saving promise that if he ever chose to resurrect the defunct earldom of Northumberland, Henry would be given first consideration. Importantly, the issue of Matilda was not mentioned. However, the first Durham treaty quickly broke down after David took insult at the treatment of his son Henry at Stephen's court.[62]


Renewal of war and Clitheroe
When the winter of 1136-37 was over, David again invaded England. The King of the Scots confronted a northern English army waiting for him at Newcastle. Once more pitched battle was avoided, and instead a truce was agreed until November. When November fell, David demanded that Stephen hand over the whole of the old earldom of Northumberland. Stephen's refusal led to David's third invasion, this time in January 1138.[63]

The army which invaded England in the January and February 1138 shocked the English chroniclers. Richard of Hexham called it "an execrable army, savager than any race of heathen yielding honour to neither God nor man" and that it "harried the whole province and slaughtered everywhere folk of either sex, of every age and condition, destroying, pillaging and burning the vills, churches and houses".[64] Several doubtful stories of cannibalism were recorded by chroniclers, and these same chroniclers paint a picture of routine enslavings, as well as killings of churchmen, women and infants.[65]

By February King Stephen marched north to deal with David. The two armies avoided each other, and Stephen was soon on the road south. In the summer David split his army into two forces, sending William fitz Duncan to march into Lancashire , where he harried Furness and Craven . On 10 June, William fitz Duncan met a force of knights and men-at-arms. A pitched battle took place, the battle of Clitheroe , and the English army was routed.[66]


Battle of the Standard and Second Treaty of Durham
By later July, 1138, the two Scottish armies had reunited in "St Cuthbert's land", that is, in the lands controlled by the Bishop of Durham , on the far side of the river Tyne . Another English army had mustered to meet the Scots, this time led by William, Earl of Aumale . The victory at Clitheroe was probably what inspired David to risk battle. David's force, apparently 26,000 strong and several times larger than the English army, met the English on 22 August at Cowdon Moor near Northallerton , North Yorkshire .[67]

The Battle of the Standard , as the encounter came to be called, was unsuccessful for the Scots. Afterwards, David and his surviving notables retired to Carlisle. Although the result was a defeat, it was not by any means decisive. David retained the bulk of his army and thus the power to go on the offensive again. The siege of Wark, for instance, which had been going on since January, continued until it was captured in November. David continued to occupy Cumberland as well as much of Northumberland .[68]

On 26 September Cardinal Alberic , Bishop of Ostia , arrived at Carlisle where David had called together his kingdom's nobles, abbots and bishops. Alberic was there to investigate the controversy over the issue of the Bishop of Glasgow's allegiance or non-allegiance to the Archbishop of York. Alberic played the role of peace-broker, and David agreed to a six week truce which excluded the siege of Wark. On 9 April David and Stephen's wife Matilda of Boulogne met each other at Durham and agreed a settlement. David's son Henry was given the earldom of Northumberland and was restored to the earldom of Huntingdon and lordship of Doncaster ; David himself was allowed to keep Carlisle and Cumberland. King Stephen was to retain possession of the strategically vital castles of Bamburgh and Newcastle. This effectively fulfilled all of David's war aims.[68]

Arrival of Matilda and the renewal of conflict
The settlement with Stephen was not set to last long. The arrival in England of the Empress Matilda gave David an opportunity to renew the conflict with Stephen. In either May or June, David travelled to the south of England and entered Matilda's company; he was present for her expected coronation at Westminster Abbey , though this never took place. David was there until September, when the Empress found herself surrounded at Winchester .[69]

This civil war, or "the Anarchy " as it was later called, enabled David to strengthen his own position in northern England. While David consolidated his hold on his own and his son's newly acquired lands, he also sought to expand his influence. The castles at Newcastle and Bamburgh were again brought under his control, and he attained dominion over all of England north-west of the river Ribble and Pennines , while holding the north-east as far south as the river Tyne, on the borders of the core territory of the bishopric of Durham. While his son brought all the senior barons of Northumberland into his entourage, David rebuilt the fortress of Carlisle. Carlisle quickly replaced Roxburgh as his favoured residence. David's acquisition of the mines at Alston on the South Tyne enabled him to begin minting the Kingdom of Scotland 's first silver coinage. David, meanwhile, issued charters to Shrewsbury Abbey in respect to their lands in Lancashire .[70]


Bishopric of Durham and the Archbishopric of York
However, David's successes were in many ways balanced by his failures. David's greatest disappointment during this time was his inability to ensure control of the bishopric of Durham and the archbishopric of York. David had attempted to appoint his chancellor, William Comyn, to the bishopric of Durham, which had been vacant since the death of Bishop Geoffrey Rufus in 1140. Between 1141 and 1143, Comyn was the de facto bishop, and had control of the bishop's castle; but he was resented by the chapter . Despite controlling the town of Durham, David's only hope of ensuring his election and consecration was gaining the support of the Papal legate, Henry of Blois , Bishop of Winchester and brother of King Stephen. Despite obtaining the support of the Empress Matilda, David was unsuccessful and had given up by the time William de St Barbara was elected to the see in 1143.[71]

David also attempted to interfere in the succession to the archbishopric of York. William FitzHerbert , nephew of King Stephen, found his position undermined by the collapsing political fortune of Stephen in the north of England, and was deposed by the Pope. David used his Cistercian connections to build a bond with Henry Murdac , the new archbishop. Despite the support of Pope Eugenius III , supporters of King Stephen and William FitzHerbert managed to prevent Henry taking up his post at York. In 1149, Henry had sought the support of David. David seized on the opportunity to bring the archdiocese under his control, and marched on the city. However, Stephen's supporters became aware of David's intentions, and informed King Stephen. Stephen therefore marched to the city and installed a new garrison. David decided not to risk such an engagement and withdrew.[72] Richard Oram has conjectured that David's ultimate aim was to bring the whole of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria into his dominion. For Oram, this event was the turning point, "the chance to radically redraw the political map of the British Isles lost forever".[73]

Scottish Church

Historical treatment of David I and the Scottish church usually emphasises David's pioneering role as the instrument of diocesan reorganisation and Norman penetration, beginning with the bishopric of Glasgow while David was Prince of the Cumbrians, and continuing further north after David acceded to the throne of Scotland. Focus too is usually given to his role as the defender of the Scottish church's independence from claims of overlordship by the Archbishop of York and the Archbishop of Canterbury .

Ecclesiastical disputes
One of the first problems David had to deal with as king was an ecclesiastical dispute with the English church. The problem with the English church concerned the subordination of Scottish sees to the archbishops of York and/or Canterbury, an issue which since his election in 1124 had prevented Robert of Scone from being consecrated to the see of St Andrews (Cell Ríghmonaidh). It is likely that since the 11th century the bishopric of St Andrews functioned as a de facto archbishopric. The title of "Archbishop" is accorded in Scottish and Irish sources to Bishop Giric [82] and Bishop Fothad II .[83]

The problem was that this archiepiscopal status had not been cleared with the papacy, opening the way for English archbishops to claim overlordship of the whole Scottish church. The man responsible was the new aggressively assertive Archbishop of York, Thurstan . His easiest target was the bishopric of Glasgow, which being south of the river Forth was not regarded as part of Scotland nor the jurisdiction of St Andrews. In 1125, Pope Honorius II wrote to John, Bishop of Glasgow ordering him to submit to the archbishopric of York.[84] David ordered Bishop John of Glasgow to travel to the Apostolic See in order to secure a pallium which would elevate the bishopric of St Andrews to an archbishopric with jurisdiction over Glasgow.[85]

Thurstan travelled to Rome, as did the Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil , and both presumably opposed David's request. David however gained the support of King Henry, and the Archbishop of York agreed to a year's postponement of the issue and to consecrate Robert of Scone without making an issue of subordination.[86] York's claim over bishops north of the Forth were in practice abandoned for the rest of David's reign, although York maintained her more credible claims over Glasgow.[87]

In 1151, David again requested a pallium for the Archbishop of St Andrews. Cardinal John Paparo met David at his residence of Carlisle in September 1151. Tantalisingly for David, the Cardinal was on his way to Ireland with four pallia to create four new Irish archbishoprics. When the Cardinal returned to Carlisle, David made the request. In David's plan, the new archdiocese would include all the bishoprics in David's Scottish territory, as well as bishopric of Orkney and the bishopric of the Isles . Unfortunately for David, the Cardinal does not appear to have brought the issue up with the papacy. In the following year the papacy dealt David another blow by creating the archbishopric of Trondheim, a new Norwegian archbishopric embracing the bishoprics of the Isles and Orkney.[88]

Succession and death

Perhaps the greatest blow to David's plans came on 12 July 1152 when Henry, Earl of Northumberland, David's only son and successor, died. He had probably been suffering from some kind of illness for a long time. David had under a year to live, and he may have known that he was not going to be alive much longer. David quickly arranged for his grandson Máel Coluim to be made his successor, and for his younger grandson William to be made Earl of Northumberland. Donnchad I, Mormaer of Fife , the senior magnate in Scotland-proper, was appointed as rector, or regent , and took the 11 year-old Máel Coluim around Scotland-proper on a tour to meet and gain the homage of his future Gaelic subjects. David's health began to fail seriously in the Spring of 1153, and on 24 May 1153, David died.[89] In his obituary in the Annals of Tigernach , he is called Dabíd mac Mail Colaim, rí Alban & Saxan, "David, son of Máel Coluim, King of Scotland and England", a title which acknowledged the importance of the new English part of David's realm.[90]

Monastic patronage
David was one of medieval Scotland's greatest monastic patrons. In 1113, in perhaps David's first act as Prince of the Cumbrians, he founded Selkirk Abbey for the Tironensians .[118] David founded more than a dozen new monasteries in his reign, patronising various new monastic orders.[119]

Not only were such monasteries an expression of David's undoubted piety, but they also functioned to transform Scottish society. Monasteries became centres of foreign influence,, and provided sources of literate men, able to serve the crown's growing administrative needs.[120] These new monasteries, and the Cistercian ones in particular, introduced new agricultural practices.[121] Cistercian labour, for instance, transformed southern Scotland into one of northern Europe's most important sources of sheep wool.[122] 32 33


William H. Wallace Jr. and Margaret




Husband William H. Wallace Jr. (details suppressed for this person)

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Children
1 M Bill Wallace (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 





Geoffrey de Dutton and Margaret




Husband Geoffrey de Dutton

            AKA: Geoffrey de Dutton
           Born: Abt 1207 - Nether Tabley, Bucklow, Cheshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1296 - Dutton, Runcorn, Cheshire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Geoffrey de Dutton (Abt 1184-      )
         Mother: Agnes de Massey (Abt 1188-      ) 41


       Marriage: 



Wife Margaret 42

           Born: Abt 1212 - Cheshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Peter de Warburton 43

           Born: Abt 1236 - Dutton, Runcorn, Cheshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Sources


1 Wikipedia.org, Sviatoslav I of Kiev.

2 Wikipedia.org, Vladimir I of Kiev.

3 Wikipedia.org, Family life and children of Vladimir I.

4 Website - Genealogy, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874441.

5 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874441.

6 Website - Genealogy, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874984.

7 Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019556.htm.

8 http://www.familysearch.org.

9 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874440.

10 Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f95/a0019555.htm.

11 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874439.

12 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99040 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

13 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99041 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

14 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99039 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

15 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #140507 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

16 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #320455 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

17 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #140486 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

18 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #140488.

19 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-21, 171-21.

20 http://www.familysearch.org, (Kevin Bradford).

21 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-20.

22 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), ine 170-20 (Duncan I MacCrinan).

23 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 171-21 (Malcolm III Canmore).

24 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-21, 158-23 (Eustace III).

25 Wikipedia.org, Saint Margaret of Scotland.

26 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-20.

27 Wikipedia.org, Edward the Exile.

28 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 241-6, , 1-20 (Edward the Exile), 158-23 (Eustace III).

29 Wikipedia.org, Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile.

30 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 121-25, 121B-26 (Elizabeth).

31 Wikipedia.org, Henry I of England.

32 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-22.

33 Wikipedia.org, David I of Scotland.

34 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 130-26.

35 Lloyd, Jacob Youde William, The History of the Princes, the Lords Marcher, and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fadog, and the Ancient Lords of Arwystli, Cedewen, and Meirionydd. (Vol. 5. London: Whiting & Co., 1885.), p. 413.

36 Wikipedia.org, Maud, Countess of Huntingdon.

37 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 158-23 (Eustace III).

38 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 158-23.

39 Wikipedia.org, Eustace III, Count of Boulogne.

40 Personal Documents, Lorna D. Wallace (Johnson) family documents & photographs.

41 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650877.

42 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650872.

43 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3143362&id=I653650869.


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