Cinaed King of Scots
Husband Cinaed King of Scots 1 2 3
AKA: Kenneth II King of Scots, Cináed mac Maíl Coluim King of Alba Born: Abt 932 - Scotland Christened: Died: 995 - <Fettercairn, (Aberdeenshire), Scotland> Buried: - Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland
Father: Malcolm I of Scotland (Abt 0897-0954) 3 4 5 Mother:
• Crowned: King of Scots, 971.
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Malcolm II King of Scots 3 6 7
AKA: Mael-Coluim King of Scots, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda King of Scots, Malcolm MacKenneth King of Scots, Melkolf MacKenneth King of Scotland Born: Abt 970 - Scotland Christened: Died: 25 Nov 1034 - Glamis, Forfarshire, Scotland Buried: - Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland
Birth Notes: Husband - Cinaed King of Scots
Born before 954.
Death Notes: Husband - Cinaed King of Scots
Killed by his own men.
Research Notes: Husband - Cinaed King of Scots
Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 170-17
From Wikipedia - Kenneth II of Scotland :
Cináed mac Maíl Coluim, (Modern Gaelic : Coinneach mac Mhaoil Chaluim) anglicised as Kenneth II, and nicknamed An Fionnghalach, "The Fratricide" (before 954-995) was King of Scotland (Alba ). The son of Malcolm I (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill), he succeeded King Cuilén (Cuilén mac Iduilb) on the latter's death at the hands of Amdarch of Strathclyde in 971.
Kenneth was killed in 995, the Annals of Ulster say "by deceit" and the Annals of Tigernach say "by his subjects". Some later sources, such as the Chronicle of Melrose , John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun provide more details, accurately or not. The simplest account is that he was killed by his own men in Fettercairn , through the treachery of Finnguala (also called Fimberhele), daughter of Cuncar , Mormaer of Angus , in revenge for the killing of her only son.
Kenneth's son Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) was later king of Alba. Kenneth may have had a second son, named either Dúngal or Gille Coemgáin. Sources differ as to whether Boite mac Cináeda should be counted a son of Kenneth II or of Kenneth III (Cináed mac Duib). 1 2 3
Death Notes: Child - Malcolm II King of Scots
Research Notes: Child - Malcolm II King of Scots
Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, line 170-18. "Fought a battle in 1008 at Carham with Uchtred (d. 1016), son of Waltheof, Earl of the Northumbrians, and overcame the Danes, 1017; published a code of laws; was murdered, 25 Nov. 1034."
From Wikipedia - Malcolm II of Scotland :
Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic : Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich), known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II (died 25 November 1034 ), was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. He was a son of Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim); the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".
To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Malcolm was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma , High King of Ireland , was not the only king in Ireland , Malcolm was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland : his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde , who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray . To the south, in the kingdom of England , the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria , whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the south-east.
Malcolm died in 1034, Marianus Scotus giving the date as 25 November 1034 . The king lists say that he died at Glamis , variously describing him as a "most glorious" or "most victorious" king. The Annals of Tigernach report that "Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, king of Scotland, the honour of all the west of Europe, died." The Prophecy of Berchán, perhaps the inspiration for John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun 's accounts where Malcolm is killed fighting bandits, says that he died by violence, fighting "the parricides", suggested to be the sons of Máel Brigte of Moray.
Perhaps the most notable feature of Malcolm's death is the account of Marianus, matched by the silence of the Irish annals, which tells us that Duncan I became king and ruled for five years and nine months. Given that his death in 1040 is described as being "at an immature age" in the Annals of Tigernach, he must have been a young man in 1034. The absence of any opposition suggests that Malcolm had dealt thoroughly with any likely opposition in his own lifetime.
On the question of Malcolm's putative pilgrimage, pilgrimages to Rome, or other long-distance journeys, were far from unusual. Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Canute and Macbeth have already been mentioned. Rognvald Kali Kolsson is known to have gone crusading in the Mediterranean in the 12th century. Nearer in time, Domnall mac Eógain of Strathclyde died on pilgrimage to Rome in 975 as did Máel Ruanaid uá Máele Doraid, King of the Cenél Conaill , in 1025.
Not a great deal is known of Malcolm's activities beyond the wars and killings. The Book of Deer records that Malcolm "gave a king's dues in Biffie and in Pett Meic-Gobraig, and two davochs" to the monastery of Old Deer . He was also probably not the founder of the Bishopric of Mortlach-Aberdeen. John of Fordun has a peculiar tale to tell, related to the supposed "Laws of Malcom MacKenneth", saying that Malcolm gave away all of Scotland, except for the Moot Hill at Scone , which is unlikely to have the least basis in fact. 3 6 7
Cináed King of the Picts
Husband Cináed King of the Picts 3 8 9
AKA: Kenneth I King of the Picts, Cináed mac Ailpín King of the Picts, Kenneth MacAlpin King of the Picts and Scots Born: Abt 810 - Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland Christened: Died: 13 Feb 858 - Cinnbelachoir [near Scone], Scotland Buried: - Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland
Father: Alpin (Abt 0778-Abt 0834) 10 Mother:
• Crowned: King of the Picts and Scots, 843.
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Constantine I King of the Picts 3 11 12
AKA: Causantín King of Scots, Constantine I King of Scotland, Constantín mac Cináeda King of the Picts Born: Abt 836 - Scotland Christened: Died: 877 - <Atholl> Buried: - Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland
2 M Áed mac Cináeda 13
Born: Christened: Died: 878 Buried:
Death Notes: Husband - Cináed King of the Picts
FamilySearch has 6 Feb 859
Research Notes: Husband - Cináed King of the Picts
From Ancestral Roots, line 710-13.
"This is the famous Kenneth MacAlpin, King of the Picts and Scots, 843-d. 858. (For more details on generations 1-13, see also H. Pirie-Gordon, "Succession of the Kingdom of Strathclyde,"The Armorial vol. I: 35-40, 79-87, 143-148, 192-196; vol. II: 9-14, 92-102 with cited authorities. This reference also provides the descent to Kenneth MacAlpin of the lines of the Kings of Strathclyde and of the Picts)."
From Wikipedia - Kenneth MacAlpin :
Cináed mac Ailpín (Modern Gaelic : Coinneach mac Ailpein), commonly Anglicised as Kenneth MacAlpin and known in most modern regnal lists as Kenneth I (born 810 died 13 February 858 ) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth , first king of Scots , earning him the posthumous nickname of An Ferbasach, "The Conqueror". Kenneth's undisputed legacy was to produce a dynasty of rulers who claimed descent from him. Even though he cannot be regarded as the father of Scotland, he was the founder of the dynasty which ruled that country for much of the medieval period.
Kenneth's origins are uncertain, as are his ties, if any, to previous kings of the Picts or Dál Riata. Among the genealogies contained in the Middle Irish Rawlinson B.502 manuscript, dating from around 1130, is the supposed descent of Malcolm II of Scotland . Medieval genealogies are unreliable sources, but some historians accept Kenneth's descent from the Cenél nGabrain of Dál Riata. The manuscript provides the following ancestry for Kenneth:
... Cináed mac Ailpín son of Eochaid son of Áed Find son of Domangart son of Domnall Brecc son of Eochaid Buide son of Áedán son of Gabrán son of Domangart son of Fergus Mór ...
Leaving aside the shadowy kings before Áedán son of Gabrán, the genealogy is certainly flawed insofar as Áed Find, who died c. 778, could not reasonably be the son of Domangart, who was killed c. 673. The conventional account would insert two generations between Áed Find and Domangart: Eochaid mac Echdach , father of Áed Find, who died c. 733, and his father Eochaid .
Although later traditions provided details of his reign and death, Kenneth's father Alpin is not listed as among the kings in the Duan Albanach , which provides the following sequence of kings leading up to Kenneth:
Naoi m-bliadhna Cusaintin chain, The nine years of Causantín the fair;, a naoi Aongusa ar Albain, The nine of Aongus over Alba; cethre bliadhna Aodha áin, The four years of Aodh the noble; is a tri déug Eoghanáin. And the thirteen of Eoghanán. Tríocha bliadhain Cionaoith chruaidh, The thirty years of Cionaoth the hardy, It is supposed that these kings are the Constantine son of Fergus and his brother Óengus II (Angus II), who have already been mentioned, Óengus's son Uen (Eóganán), as well as the obscure Áed mac Boanta , but this sequence is considered doubtful if the list is intended to represent kings of Dál Riata, as it should if Kenneth were king there.
The idea that Kenneth was a Gael is not entirely rejected, but modern historiography distinguishes between Kenneth as a Gael by culture, and perhaps in ancestry, and Kenneth as a king of Gaelic Dál Riata. Kenneth could well have been the first sort of Gael. Kings of the Picts before him, from Bridei son of Der-Ilei, his brother Nechtan as well as Óengus I (Angus I) son of Fergus and his presumed descendants were all at least partly Gaelicised. The idea that the Gaelic names of Pictish kings in Irish annals represented translations of Pictish ones was challenged by the discovery of the inscription Custantin filius Fircus(sa), the latinised name of the Pictish king Caustantín son of Fergus, on the Dupplin Cross .
Other evidence, such as that furnished by place-names, suggests the spread of Gaelic culture through western Pictland in the centuries before Kenneth. For example, Atholl , a name used in the Annals of Ulster for the year 739, has been thought to be "New Ireland ", and Argyll derives from Oir-Ghàidheal, the land of the "eastern Gaels".
Kenneth died from a tumour on 13 February, 858 at the palace of Cinnbelachoir, perhaps near Scone . The annals report the death as that of the "king of the Picts", not the "king of Alba". The title "king of Alba" is not used until the time of Kenneth's grandsons, Donald II (Domnall mac Causantín) and Constantine II (Constantín mac Áeda). The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland quote a verse lamenting Kenneth's death:
Because Cináed with many troops lives no longer
there is weeping in every house;
there is no king of his worth under heaven
as far as the borders of Rome.
Kenneth left at least two sons, Constantine and Áed , who were later kings, and at least two daughters. One daughter married Run , king of Strathclyde , Eochaid being the result of this marriage. Kenneth's daughter Máel Muire married two important Irish kings of the Uí Néill . Her first husband was Aed Finliath of the Cenél nEógain . Niall Glúndub , ancestor of the O'Neill , was the son of this marriage. Her second husband was Flann Sinna of Clann Cholmáin. As the wife and mother of kings, when Máel Muire died in 913, her death was reported by the Annals of Ulster, an unusual thing for the misogynistic chronicles of the age. 3 8 9
Death Notes: Child - Constantine I King of the Picts
Slain in battle by the Norse. FamilySearch has d. 877 in Inverdovat, Forgan, Fifeshire, Scotland
Research Notes: Child - Constantine I King of the Picts
From Wikipedia - Constantín mac Cináeda :
Causantín or Constantín mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic Còiseam mac Choinnich) (died 877) was a king of the Picts . A son of Cináed mac Ailpín ("Kenneth MacAlpin"), he succeeded his uncle Domnall mac Ailpín as Pictish king following the latter's death on 13 April 862. Reckoned Constantine I in 20th century lists of kings of Scots , near-contemporary sources described Constantín as a Pictish king. Constantín's reign witnessed increased activity by Vikings , based in Ireland and Northumbria , in northern Britain and he died fighting one such invasion.
Amlaíb and Ímar
Viking activity in northern Britain appears to have reached a peak during Constantín's reign. Viking armies were led by a small group of men who may have been kinsmen. Among those noted by the Irish annals, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle are Ívarr -Ímar in Irish sources-who was active from East Anglia to Ireland, Halfdán-Albdann in Irish, Healfdene in Old English- and Amlaíb or Óláfr. As well as these leaders, various others related to them appear in the surviving record.
Viking activity in Britain increased in 865 when the Great Heathen Army , probably a part of the forces which had been active in Francia , landed in East Anglia. The following year, having obtained tribute from the East Anglian King Edmund , the Great Army moved north, seizing York , chief city of the Northumbrians. The Great Army defeated an attack on York by the two rivals for the Northumbrian throne, Osberht and Ælla , who had put aside their differences in the face of a common enemy. Both would-be kings were killed in the failed assault, probably on 21 March 867. Following this, the leaders of the Great Army are said to have installed one Ecgberht as king of the Northumbrians. Their next target was Mercia where King Burgred , aided by his brother-in-law King Æthelred of Wessex , drove them off.
While the kingdoms of East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria were under attack, other Viking armies were active in the far north. Amlaíb and Auisle (Ásl or Auðgísl), said to be his brother, brought an army to Fortriu and obtained tribute and hostages in 866. Historians disagree as to whether the army returned to Ireland in 866, 867 or even in 869. Late sources of uncertain reliability state that Auisle was killed by Amlaíb in 867 in a dispute over Amlaíb's wife, the daughter of Cináed. It is unclear whether, if accurate, this woman should be identified as a daughter of Cináed mac Ailpín, and thus Constantín's sister, or as a daughter of Cináed mac Conaing , king of Brega . While Amlaíb and Auisle were in north Britain, the Annals of Ulster record that Áed Findliath , High King of Ireland , took advantage of their absence to destroy the longphorts along the northern coasts of Ireland. Áed Findliath was married to Constantín's sister Máel Muire. She later married Áed's successor Flann Sinna . Her death is recorded in 913.
In 870, Amlaíb and Ívarr attacked Dumbarton Rock , where the River Leven meets the River Clyde , the chief place of the kingdom of Alt Clut , south-western neighbour of Pictland. The siege lasted four months before the fortress fell to the Vikings who returned to Ireland with many prisoners, "Angles, Britons and Picts", in 871. Archaeological evidence suggests that Dumbarton Rock was largely abandoned and that Govan replaced it as the chief place of the kingdom of Strathclyde, as Alt Clut was later known. King Artgal of Alt Clut did not long survive these events, being killed "at the instigation" of Constantín son of Cináed two years later. Artgal's son and successor Run was married to a sister of Constantín.
Amlaíb disappears from Irish annals after his return to Ireland in 871. According to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba he was killed by Constantín either in 871 or 872 when he returned to Pictland to collect further tribute. His ally Ívarr died in 873.
Last days of the Pictish kingdom
In 875, the Chronicle and the Annals of Ulster again report a Viking army in Pictland. A battle, fought near Dollar , was a heavy defeat for the Picts; the Annals of Ulster say that "a great slaughter of the Picts resulted". Although there is agreement that Constantín was killed fighting Vikings in 877, it is not clear where this happened. Some believe he was beheaded on a Fife beach, following a battle at Fife Ness, near Crail. William Forbes Skene read the Chronicle as placing Constantín's death at Inverdovat (by Newport-on-Tay ), which appears to match the Prophecy of Berchán . The account in the Chronicle of Melrose names the place as the "Black Cave" and John of Fordun calls it the "Black Den". Constantín was buried on Iona .
Constantín's son Domnall and his descendants represented the main line of the kings of Alba and later Scotland . 3 11 12
Claudius Roman Emperor
Husband Claudius Roman Emperor 14
Born: 0009 B.C. Christened: Died: 13 Oct 0054 Buried:
Father: Drusus ( -0023) Mother: Anotonia "the Younger" ( - ) 15
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 F Venissa [Legendary] 16
Born: abt 0012 Christened: Died: Buried:Spouse: Arviragus Gweirgydd ap Cunobelin King of Siluria [Legendary] ( - ) 17 18 19 20
Research Notes: Child - Venissa [Legendary]
Source http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873366 considers legendary. 16
Geoffrey VI Vicomte of Châteaudun and Clemence
Husband Geoffrey VI Vicomte of Châteaudun 21
Born: Christened: Died: 1249 Buried:Marriage:
Wife Clemence 21
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
Father: William des Roches Seneschal of Anjou, Maine & Touraine ( -1222) 21 Mother: Marguerite de Sablé ( - )
1 F Jeanne de Châteaudun 3 21
Born: Abt 1223 Christened: Died: Buried:Spouse: Jean de Brienne of Acre (Abt 1217-1296) 3 22 Marr: 1251
Research Notes: Child - Jeanne de Châteaudun
Second wife of Jean de Brienne. 3 21
King John "Lackland" of England and Clemence
Husband King John "Lackland" of England 23 24
AKA: John King of England, John "Lackland" King of England Born: 24 Dec 1167 - Beaumont Palace, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Christened: Died: 19 Oct 1216 - Newark Castle, Lincolnshire, England Buried: - Worcester Cathedral, Worcester, Worcestershire, England
Father: Henry II "Curtmantel" King of England (1132-1189) Mother: Eleanor of Aquitaine (Abt 1124-1204)
Other Spouse: Isabella of Angoulême (Abt 1186-1246) - 10 May 1200
• Crowned: King of England, 1199.
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 F Joan Princess of Gwynedd 25 26 27
AKA: Joan Princess of North Wales, Joanna Lady of Wales, Siwan, Joan Plantagenet Princess of Gwynedd Born: Bef 1200 Christened: Died: Between 30 Mar 1236 and Feb 1237 Buried:Spouse: Llywelyn the Great Prince of Gwynedd (Abt 1173-1240) Marr: 1205
Research Notes: Husband - King John "Lackland" of England
From Wikipedia - John of England :
John (24 December 1166 - 19 October 1216 ) reigned as King of England from 6 April 1199 , until his death. He succeeded to the throne as the younger brother of King Richard I (known in later times as "Richard the Lionheart"). John acquired the nicknames of "Lackland" (French : Sans Terre) for his lack of an inheritance as the youngest son and for his loss of territory to France , and of "Soft-sword" for his alleged military ineptitude. He was a Plantagenet or Angevin king.
Apart from entering popular legend as the enemy of the fictional Robin Hood , he is also known for acquiescing to the nobility and signing Magna Carta , a document that limited his power and that is popularly regarded as an early first step in the evolution of modern democracy .
Born at Beaumont Palace , Oxford , John was the fifth son and last of eight children born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine . He was almost certainly born in 1166 instead of 1167, as is sometimes claimed.
He was a younger maternal half-brother of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France , his mother's children by her first marriage to Louis VII of France , which was later annulled. He was a younger brother of William, Count of Poitiers ; Henry the Young King ; Matilda, Duchess of Saxony ; Richard I of England ; Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany ; Leonora, Queen of Castile ; and Joan, Queen of Sicily
While John was his father's favourite son, as the youngest he could expect no inheritance . His family life was tumultuous, as his older brothers all became involved in repeated rebellions against Henry . Eleanor was imprisoned by Henry in 1173, when John was a small boy.
As a child, John was betrothed to Alys (pronounced 'Alice'), daughter and heiress of Humbert III of Savoy . It was hoped that by this marriage the Angevin dynasty would extend its influence beyond the Alps , because John was promised the inheritance of Savoy , the Piemonte , Maurienne , and the other possessions of Count Humbert. King Henry promised his young son castles in Normandy which had been previously promised to his brother Geoffrey, which was for some time a bone of contention between King Henry and his son Geoffrey. Alys made the trip over the Alps and joined Henry's court, but she died before being married.
Gerald of Wales relates that King Henry had a curious painting in a chamber of Winchester Castle , depicting an eagle being attacked by three of its chicks, while a fourth chick crouched, waiting for its chance to strike. When asked the meaning of this picture, King Henry said:
The four young ones of the eagle are my four sons, who will not cease persecuting me even unto death. And the youngest, whom I now embrace with such tender affection, will someday afflict me more grievously and perilously than all the others.
Before his accession, John had already acquired a reputation for treachery, having conspired sometimes with and sometimes against his elder brothers, Henry, Richard and Geoffrey. In 1184, John and Richard both claimed that they were the rightful heir to Aquitaine, one of many unfriendly encounters between the two. In 1185, John became the ruler of Ireland , whose people grew to despise him, causing John to leave after only eight months...
Retreating from the French invasion, John took a safe route around the marshy area of the Wash to avoid the rebel held area of East Anglia . His slow baggage train (including the Crown Jewels ), however, took a direct route across it and was lost to the unexpected incoming tide. This dealt John a terrible blow, which affected his health and state of mind. Succumbing to dysentery and moving from place to place, he stayed one night at Sleaford Castle before dying on 18 October (or possibly 19 October ) 1216 , at Newark Castle (then in Lincolnshire , now on Nottinghamshire 's border with that county). Numerous, possibly fictitious, accounts circulated soon after his death that he had been killed by poisoned ale, poisoned plums or a "surfeit of peaches".
He was buried in Worcester Cathedral in the city of Worcester .
His nine-year-old son succeeded him and became King Henry III of England (1216-72), and although Louis continued to claim the English throne, the barons switched their allegiance to the new king, forcing Louis to give up his claim and sign the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217.
King John's reign has been traditionally characterised as one of the most disastrous in English history: it began with defeats-he lost Normandy to Philip Augustus of France in his first five years on the throne-and ended with England torn by civil war and himself on the verge of being forced out of power. In 1213, he made England a papal fief to resolve a conflict with the Roman Catholic Church , and his rebellious barons forced him to sign Magna Carta in 1215, the act for which he is best remembered...
Marriage and issue
In 1189, John was married to Isabel of Gloucester , daughter and heiress of William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (she is given several alternative names by history, including Avisa, Hawise, Joan, and Eleanor). They had no children, and John had their marriage annulled on the grounds of consanguinity , some time before or shortly after his accession to the throne, which took place on 6 April 1199 , and she was never acknowledged as queen. (She then married Geoffrey FitzGeoffrey de Mandeville, 2nd Earl of Essex as her second husband and Hubert de Burgh as her third).
John remarried, on 24 August 1200 , Isabella of Angoulême , who was twenty years his junior. She was the daughter of Aymer Taillefer , Count of Angouleme. John had kidnapped her from her fiancé, Hugh X of Lusignan .
Isabella bore five children:
Henry III (1207-1272), King of England. Richard(1209-1272), 1st Earl of Cornwall. Joan(1210-1238), Queen Consort of Alexander II of Scotland . Isabella(1214-1241), Consort of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor . Eleanor(1215-1275), who married William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke , and later married Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester .
John is given a great taste for lechery by the chroniclers of his age, and even allowing some embellishment, he did have many illegitimate children. Matthew Paris accuses him of being envious of many of his barons and kinsfolk, and seducing their more attractive daughters and sisters. Roger of Wendover describes an incident that occurred when John became enamoured of Margaret, the wife of Eustace de Vesci and an illegitimate daughter of King William I of Scotland . Eustace substituted a prostitute in her place when the king came to Margaret's bed in the dark of night; the next morning, when John boasted to Vesci of how good his wife was in bed, Vesci confessed and fled.
John had the following illegitimate children:
Joan, Lady of Wales , the wife of Prince Llywelyn Fawr of Wales , (by a woman named Clemence) Richard Fitz Roy, (by his cousin, Adela, daughter of his uncle Hamelin de Warenne ) Oliver FitzRoy, (by a mistress named Hawise) who accompanied the papal legate Pelayo to Damietta in 1218, and never returned.
By an unknown mistress (or mistresses) John fathered:
Geoffrey FitzRoy, who went on expedition to Poitou in 1205 and died there. John FitzRoy, a clerk in 1201. Henry FitzRoy, who died in 1245. Osbert Gifford, who was given lands in Oxfordshire, Norfolk, Suffolk , and Sussex , and is last seen alive in 1216. Eudes FitzRoy, who accompanied his half-brother Richard on Crusade and died in the Holy Land in 1241. Bartholomew FitzRoy, a member of the order of Friars Preachers . Maud FitzRoy, Abbess of Barking , who died in 1252. Isabel FitzRoy, wife of Richard Fitz Ives . Philip FitzRoy, found living in 1263.
(The surname of FitzRoy is Norman-French for son of the king.) 23 24
Research Notes: Wife - Clemence
Source: Wikipedia - John of England
Research Notes: Child - Joan Princess of Gwynedd
Natural daughter of John, king of England. John had another, legitimate, daughter named Joan, who was Queen Consort of Alexander II of Scotland.
From Ancestral Roots, Line 29A-27:
"JOAN, (nat. dau. by unknown mistress [of John "Lackland"]), Princess of North Wales, b. well bef. 1200, d. 30 Mar. 1236 or Feb. 1237..."
Source - Wikipedia - John of England and Llywelyn the Great.
From Wikipedia - Llywelyn the Great:
"During Llywelyn's boyhood Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who had agreed to split the kingdom between them following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd , in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200, and made a treaty with King John of England the same year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's illegitimate daughter Joan , also known as Joanna, in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208 Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210 relations deteriorated and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all his lands east of the River Conwy, but was able to recover these lands the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216 he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes...
The identity of the mother of some of Llywelyn's children is uncertain. He was survived by nine children, two legitimate, one probably legitimate and six illegitimate. Elen ferch Llywelyn (c.1207-1253), his only certainly legitimate daughter, first married John de Scotia, Earl of Chester. This marriage was childless, and after John's death Elen married Sir Robert de Quincy , the brother of Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester . Llywelyn's only legitimate son, Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c.1208-1246), married Isabella de Braose, daughter of William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny , Lord of Abergavenny. William was the son of Reginald de Braose , who married another of Llywelyn's daughters. Dafydd and Isabella may have had one child together, Helen of Wales (1246-1295), but the marriage failed to produce a male heir.
Another daughter, Gwladus Ddu (c.1206-1251), was probably legitimate. Adam of Usk states that she was a legitimate daughter by Joan, although some sources claim that her mother was Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch. She first married Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny, but had no children by him. After Reginald's death she married Ralph de Mortimer of Wigmore and had several sons.
The mother of most of Llywelyn's illegitimate children is known or assumed to have been Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch (c.1168-1198). Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c.1196-1244) was Llywelyn's eldest son and is known to be the son of Tangwystl. He married Senena, daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas of Anglesey . Their four sons included Llywelyn ap Gruffydd , who for a period occupied a position in Wales comparable to that of his grandfather, and Dafydd ap Gruffydd who ruled Gwynedd briefly after his brother's death. Llywelyn had another son, Tegwared ap Llywelyn, by a woman known only as Crysten.
Marared ferch Llywelyn (c.1198-after 1263) married John de Braose of Gower, a nephew of Reginald de Braose, and after his death married Walter Clifford of Bronllys and Clifford. Other illegitimate daughters were Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, who married William de Lacey, and Angharad ferch Llywelyn, who married Maelgwn Fychan. Susanna ferch Llywelyn was sent to England as a hostage in 1228, but no further details are known." 25 26 27
Godefroi de Louvain Duc de Basse-Lorraine and Clementia of Burgundy
Husband Godefroi de Louvain Duc de Basse-Lorraine 28 29
AKA: Godfrey I of Brabant, Godfrey I Duke of Lower Lorraine, Count of Louvain, Godfrey I of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Bearded" of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Courageous" of Leuven, Godfrey I "the Great" of Leuven, Godfrey V or VI Duke of Lower Lorraine Born: Abt 1060 - <Lorraine, France> Christened: Died: 25 Jan 1139 - Affligem Abbey, Affligem, (Flemish Brabant), Flanders (Belgium) Buried: - Church of Affligem Abbey, Affligem, (Flemish Brabant, Flanders (Belgium)
Father: Henry II Count of Leuven and Brussels (Abt 1021-1079) 3 30 31 Mother: Adelheid Countess of Betuwe (Abt 1023-After 1086) 3 32
Marriage: Abt 1099 - Belgium
Other Spouse: Ida of Chiny and Namur (Abt 1083-Between 1117/1122) 29 33 - Between 1100 and 1105
Other Spouse: < > [Unknown mistress] ( - ) 29
• Count of Louvain:
• Duke of Lower Lorraine:
Wife Clementia of Burgundy 3 34
AKA: Clementia Countess of Namur Born: Abt 1078 - Namur, Namur, Belgium Christened: Died: Abt 1122 Buried:
Father: Albert III Count of Namur (Abt 1048-1102) 3 35 Mother: Ida of Saxony (Abt 1046- )
1 M Joscelin de Louvain 3 34
AKA: Joscelin of Leuven, Joscelin de Lorraine, Joscelin "Barbatus" de Louvain, Joscelyn de Louvain, Joscelin de Louvain de Percy, Joscelyn Percy Born: Abt 1121 - <Louvain [Leuven]>, Belgium Christened: Died: Bef 1180 - Egmanton, Nottinghamshire, England Buried: Bef 29 Sep 1180Spouse: Agnes de Percy (Abt 1134-Abt 1205) 3 34 36 Marr: Abt 1154 - Egmanton, Nottinghamshire, England
Research Notes: Husband - Godefroi de Louvain Duc de Basse-Lorraine
Duke of Lower Lorraine, Margrave of Antwerp, Count of Louvain
From Wikipedia - Godfrey I of Leuven :
Godfrey I (c. 1060-25 January 1139 ), called the Bearded, the Courageous, or the Great, was the landgrave of Brabant , and count of Brussels and Leuven (or Louvain) from 1095 to his death and duke of Lower Lorraine (as Godfrey V or VI) from 1106 to 1129. He was also margrave of Antwerp from 1106 to his death.
Godfrey was the son of Henry II of Leuven and a countess called Adela (origin unknown). He succeeded his brother Henry III in 1095. He first came into conflict with Otbert, Bishop of Liège , over the county of Brunengeruz that both claimed. In 1099, Emperor Henry IV allotted the county to the bishop, who entrusted it to Albert III, Count of Namur . Godfrey arbitrated a dispute between Henry III of Luxembourg and Arnold I, Count of Loon , over the appointment of the abbot of Sint-Truiden .
Godfrey was in favour with the emperor and defended his interests in Lorraine. In 1102, he stopped Robert II of Flanders , who was invading the Cambraisis . After the death of the emperor in 1106, his son and successor, Henry V , who had been in rebellion, decided to avenge himself on his father's partisans. Duke Henry of Lower Lorraine was imprisoned and his duchy confiscated and given to Godfrey. After Henry escaped from prison, he tried to retake his duchy and captured Aachen , but ultimately failed.
In 1114, during a rift between the emperor and Pope Paschal II , Godfrey led a revolt in Germany. In 1118, the emperor and the duke were reconciled. In 1119, Baldwin VII of Flanders died heirless and Flanders was contested between several claimants, of which William of Ypres had married a niece of Godfrey's second wife. Godfrey supported William, but could not enforce his claim against that of Charles the Good . Also dead in that year was Otbert. Two separate men were elected to replace him and Godfrey again sided with the loser.
By marrying his daughter Adeliza to Henry I of England , who was also the father-in-law of the emperor, he greatly increased his prestige. However, Henry V died in 1125 and Godfrey supported Conrad of Hohenstaufen , the duke of Franconia , against Lothair of Supplinburg . Lothair was elected. Lothair withdrew the duchy of Lower Lorraine and granted it to Waleran , the son of Henry, whom Henry V had deprived in 1106. Nonetheless, Godfrey maintained the margraviate of Antwerp and retained the ducal title (which would in 1183 become Duke of Brabant ).
After the assassination of Charles the Good in 1127, the Flemish succession was again in dispute. William Clito prevailed, but was soon fraught with revolts. Godfrey intervened on behalf of Thierry of Alsace , who prevailed against Clito. Godfrey continued to war against Liège and Namur .
Godfrey spent his last years in the abbey of Affligem . He died of old age on 25 January 1139 and was buried in the left aisle of the abbey church. He is sometimes said to have passed in 1140, but this is an error.
Family and children
He married Ida, daughter of Otto II of Chiny and Adelaide of Namur . They had several children:
Adeliza of Louvain (b. 1103-d. abbey of Affligem, April 23 , 1151 ) married Henry I, King of England and later William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel (1109-before 1151). Godfrey II of Leuven(b. 1107-d. June 13 , 1142 ), Duke of Lower Lotharingia, Landgrave of Brabant, Count of Brussels and Leuven. He married Lutgardis of Sulzbach , daughter of Berenger I of Sulzbach . Clarissa (d. 1140). Henry (d. in the abbey of Affligem , 1141), monk. Ida (d. 1162) married to Arnold II, count of Cleves (d. 1147).
Later, he married to Clementia of Bourgogne but had no issue.
He also had a son from an unknown mistress:
Joscelin (d. 1180); he accompanied his half-sister Adeliza to England and married Agnes, heiress of the Percy family, and took this surname. Probably the same as Gosuinus, mentioned in 1143 together with his sister Adeliza. Joscelin is an ancestor of U.S presidents Franklin Pierce and George W Bush 28 29
Research Notes: Child - Joscelin de Louvain
From Wikipedia - Joscelin of Leuven :
Joscelin of Leuven  (1121-1180) was a Brabantian nobleman who married an English heiress, Agnes de Percy , and settled in England. He took the name Percy.
He was given lands at Petworth , by William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel . William had married Adeliza of Louvain , Joscelin's half-sister, and widow of Henry I of England .
He was a son of Godfrey I of Leuven and Clementia of Burgundy .
Joscelin and Agnes had at least seven children:
Henry de Percy Richard de Percy, (d.1244), who was a Magna Carta surety Joscelin Radulph, went to France Eleanor Maud (b. c. 1164), married John de Daiville  Lucy
The Percy estate was divided between William, son of Henry, and Richard. 3 34
Clodius II King of the Franks
Husband Clodius II King of the Franks 37
Born: Christened: Died: 0020 Buried:
Father: Francus 1st King of the Franks ( -0011 B.C.) 38 Mother:
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Marcomir III King of the Franks 39
Born: Christened: Died: 0050 Buried:
Clodius III King of the Franks [Legendary or Fictional]
Husband Clodius III King of the Franks [Legendary or Fictional] 40 41
Born: Abt 200 Christened: Died: 298 Buried:
Father: Bertherus King of the Franks [Legendary or Fictional] (Abt 0180-0272) 42 43 Mother:
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Walther King of the Franks [Legendary or Fictional] 44 45
AKA: Walter King of the Franks Born: Abt 215 Christened: Died: 306 Buried:
Clodius IV Duke of the East Franks
Husband Clodius IV Duke of the East Franks 46 47
Born: Abt 324 - <Gallica Belgica (Belgium)> Christened: Died: 389 Buried:
Father: Dagobert II Duke of the East Franks [Legendary or Fictional] (Abt 0300-Abt 0379) 48 49 Mother:
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Marcomir Duke of the East Franks 50 51 52
AKA: Marcomer Dux of the East Franks, Marcomeres Duke of the East Franks Born: Abt 347 - <Alemannia (Germany)> Christened: Died: 404 Buried:Spouse: < > [Daughter of Boaz] ( - ) 53 Marr: Abt 369
Research Notes: Child - Marcomir Duke of the East Franks
From Wikipedia - Marcomer :
Marcomer (Marcomeres, Marchomer, Marchomir) was a Frankish leader (dux) in the late 4th century who invaded the Roman Empire in the year 388, when the usurper and leader of the whole of Roman Gaul , Magnus Maximus was surrounded in Aquileia by Theodosius I .
The invasion is documented by Gregory of Tours who cited the now lost work of Sulpicius Alexander . According to this account Marcomer, Sunno and Genobaud invaded the Roman provinces Germania and Belgia in Gaul. They broke through the limes , killed many people, destroyed the most fruitful lands and made the city Köln panic. After this raid the main body of the Franks moved back over the Rhine with their booty. Some of the Franks remained in the Belgian woods. When the Roman generals Magnus Maximus , Nanninus and Quintinus heard the news in Trier , they attacked those remaining Frankish forces and killed many of them. After this engagement Quintinus crossed the Rhine to punish the Franks in their own country, however his army was surrounded and beaten. Some Roman soldiers drowned in the marshes, others were killed by Franks, few made it back to their Empire.
Nanninus and Quintinus were replaced by Charietto and Syrus , who were again confronted by an attack of unindentified Franks.
Later, after the fall of Magnus Maximus, Marcomer and Sunno held a short meeting about the recent attacks with the Frank Arbogastes , who was a general (magister militum) in the Roman army. The Franks delivered hostages as usual, and Arbogastes returned to his winter quarters in Trier.
A couple of years later when Arbogastes had seized power and the West Roman army was nearly completely in the hands of Frankish mercenaries, he crossed the Rhine with a Roman army into Germania, because he hated his own kin. Marcomer was seen as leader with Chatti and Ampsivarii but the two did not engage.
Later we hear from the poet Claudian that Marcomer was arrested by Romans and banned to a villa in Tuscany. His brother Sunno crossed the Rhine and tried to settle himself as leader of the band of Marchomir, however he was killed by his own people.
According to the later Liber Historiae Francorum , Marcomer tried to unite the Franks after the death of Sunno. He proposed that the Franks should live under one king and proposed his own son Pharamond (whose earliest mention is in this work, and who is considered mythological by scholars) for the kingship. This source does not relate whether Marcomer succeeded, but from other later sources that recall the account of Liber Historiae Francorum, the impression may be gained that Pharamond was regarded as the first king of the Franks. However, modern scholars, such as Edward James, do not accept this account in the Liber Historiae Francorum as historical, because Marcomer is called the son of the Trojan king Priam , which is an obvious impossibility. Another difficulty with this account is that earlier sources such as Gregory of Tours make it crystal clear that a century after Marcomer there were still many Frankish kings, ruling over portions or separate tribes - indeed, it has been proposed that the word "ruler" may be more appropriate than "king", as there was at that time no one ruler over all the Frankish people. Clovis I , according to Gregory of Tours, had several other rulers or kings killed in order to manipulate control and increase his territory, and through his machinations dethroned other leaders such as the Frankish counts of Triër, but even he was not the single Frankish king, for tribes as the Thuringii , Chamavi and Bructeri continued their own structures. After Clovis' death, his empire was divided again amongst his sons who ruled simultaneously over different areas. 50 51 52
Clodomir III King of the Franks
Husband Clodomir III King of the Franks 54
Born: 0003 Christened: Died: 0063 Buried:
Father: Marcomir III King of the Franks ( -0050) 39 Mother:
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Antenor IV King of the Franks 55
Born: Abt 0050 Christened: Died: 0069 Buried:
1 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-17.
2 Wikipedia.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_II_of_Scotland.
4 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-16.
5 Wikipedia.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_I_of_Scotland.
6 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-18.
7 Wikipedia.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_II_of_Scotland.
8 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 710-13.
9 Wikipedia.org, Kenneth MacAlpin.
10 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-12.
11 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-14.
12 Wikipedia.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_I_of_Scotland.
13 Wikipedia.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81ed_of_Scotland.
14 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873367.
15 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873369.
16 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873366.
17 Wikipedia.org, Arvirargus.
18 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873365.
19 Davies, John, A History of Wales. (Rev. ed. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.), p. 26.
20 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #111888.
21 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 120-30 (Jean de Brienne).
22 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 120-30.
23 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Lines 1-25, 29A-26.
24 Wikipedia.org, Line 1-25.
25 Davies, John, A History of Wales. (Rev. ed. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_England.
26 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 29A-27.
27 Wikipedia.org, John of England; Llywelyn the Great.
28 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 155-23.
29 Wikipedia.org, Godfrey I of Leuven.
30 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 155-22.
31 Wikipedia.org, Godfrey I of Leuven, Henry III of Leuven.
32 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 155-22 (Henry II).
33 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 155-23 (Godfrey I).
34 Wikipedia.org, Joscelin of Leuven.
35 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 149-22.
36 Website - Genealogy, thepeerage.com.
37 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99041 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
38 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99042 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
39 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99040 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
40 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99028 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
41 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873352.
42 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99029 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
43 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873353.
44 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99027 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
45 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873351.
46 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99023 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
47 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873347.
48 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873348.
49 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #316370 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
50 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99022 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
51 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873346.
52 Wikipedia.org, Marcomer.
53 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #316476 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
54 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99039 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).
http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #99038 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).