The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Otto I "the Great" Holy Roman Emperor and Edith




Husband Otto I "the Great" Holy Roman Emperor 1

           Born: 23 Nov 912
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 May 973
         Buried: 
       Marriage: Sep 929



Wife Edith 2

            AKA: Eadgyth
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 26 Jan 946
         Buried: 


         Father: Edward I "the Elder" King of England (Between 0871/0875-0924/0925) 3 4 5
         Mother: Elfreda (Abt 0878-      ) 4 6 7




Children
1 F Luitgarde 8

           Born: Abt 931
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Nov 953
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Conrad "the Wise" Duke of Lorraine, Count in Wormsgau (      -0955) 9
           Marr: Abt 947




Research Notes: Wife - Edith

Source: Wikipedia - Edward the Elder 2


Gruffydd I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales and Edith




Husband Gruffydd I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales 6 10

            AKA: Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales
           Born: Abt 1011 - <Rhuddlan, Flintshire>, Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 5 Aug 1063
         Buried: 


         Father: Llywelyn ap Seisyll Prince of N Wales, King of Deheubarth & Gwynedd (Abt 0980-Abt 1023) 6 11 12
         Mother: Angharad verch Maredudd ap Owain (      -      ) 12 13 14 15


       Marriage: Abt 1057

Events

• King of Gwynedd & Powys: 1039.

• King of Deheubarth: 1055.




Wife Edith 6 16

            AKA: Aldgyth, Ealdgyth Queen of England
           Born: Abt 1034 - <Mercia>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1086
         Buried: 


         Father: Ælfgar Earl of Mercia (Abt 1002-After 1062) 6 17
         Mother: Ælfgifu (Abt 0997-      ) 6 18



   Other Spouse: Harold II King of England (Abt 1022-1066) 19 - Abt 1064


Children
1 F Nest verch Gruffydd 6 20

            AKA: Nesta of North Wales
           Born: Abt Jul 1055 - Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Osborn Fitz Richard of Richard's Castle, Hereford (Abt 1055-After 1100) 6 21




Death Notes: Husband - Gruffydd I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales

Slain


Birth Notes: Child - Nest verch Gruffydd

FamilySearch has b. abt 1059, Rhuddlan, Flintshire, Wales.


Harold II King of England and Edith




Husband Harold II King of England 19

            AKA: Harold II Godwinsson King of England
           Born: Abt 1022 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 14 Oct 1066 - Senlac, Sussex, England
         Buried:  - Waltham Abbey, Essex, England
       Marriage: Abt 1064



Wife Edith 6 16

            AKA: Aldgyth, Ealdgyth Queen of England
           Born: Abt 1034 - <Mercia>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1086
         Buried: 


         Father: Ælfgar Earl of Mercia (Abt 1002-After 1062) 6 17
         Mother: Ælfgifu (Abt 0997-      ) 6 18



   Other Spouse: Gruffydd I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales (Abt 1011-1063) 6 10 - Abt 1057


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Harold II King of England

Second husband of Edith, daughter of Aelfgar 19


Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York and Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York




Husband Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 22

           Born: 5 Jun 1341 - Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Aug 1402 - Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Edward III King of England (1312-1377) 22 23 24
         Mother: Philippa of Hainault (1311-1369) 22 25


       Marriage: 1372



Wife Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York 22

           Born: Abt 1355
     Christened: 
           Died: 23 Dec 1392 - Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England
         Buried:  - Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England


         Father: Peter I "the Cruel" King of Castile (1334-1369) 22 26
         Mother: Maria de Padilla (1334-1361) 22 26




Children
1 F Constance of York 22

           Born: Abt 1374
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Nov 1416
         Buried:  - Reading Abbey, Reading, Berkshire, England
         Spouse: Edmund Holland 4th Earl of Kent (1383-1407)




Research Notes: Husband - Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

22


Research Notes: Wife - Isabella of Castile, Duchess of York

22


Research Notes: Child - Constance of York

Married 1st husband, Thomas le Despenser (22 Sep 1373-16 Jan 1400) about 7 Nov 1379. He would eventually be beheaded at Bristol.

She was involved in an affair with Edmund Holland and had a daughter by him, Eleanor de Holand.

Her daughter Isabel le Despenser (by first husband) married Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick. They were parents to Henry de Beauchamp, 1st Duke of Warwick, and Anne Beauchamp.; 22


Ednowain




Husband Ednowain 6

           Born: Abt 913 - Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Seisyll ap Ednowain 6

           Born: Abt 938 - Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Prawst verch Elise (Abt 0940-      ) 6





Edulph and Elfwina of Mercia




Husband Edulph 6

           Born: Abt 921 - <Mercia>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Elfwina of Mercia 6

           Born: Abt 905 - <Mercia>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Ethelred Duke of Mercia (Abt 0865-0912) 6
         Mother: Ethelfleda Queen of Mercia (Abt 0877-0918) 6 27




Children
1 M Leofwine Earl of Mercia 6 28

           Born: Abt 950 - <Mercia>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1028
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Alwara (Abt 0955-      ) 6




Death Notes: Child - Leofwine Earl of Mercia

Ancestral Roots has d. by 1032.


Edward of Salisbury and Maud FitzHubert




Husband Edward of Salisbury 6

           Born: After 1060 - <Salisbury, Wiltshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 1130
         Buried: 


         Father: Walter de Ewrus (Abt 1033-      ) 6
         Mother: 


       Marriage: Abt 1090 - Salisbury, Wiltshire, England



Wife Maud FitzHubert 6

           Born: Abt 1070 - <Salisbury, Wiltshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Walter FitzEdward of Salisbury 6 29

            AKA: Walter of Salisbury, Sheriff of Wiltshire
           Born: Abt 1100 - <Salisbury, Wiltshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1147
         Buried:  - [near The Choir], Bradenstoke, Wiltshire, England
         Spouse: Sibyl de Chaworth (Abt 1112-Bef 1147) 6
           Marr: Abt 1132 - Salisbury, Wiltshire, England




Research Notes: Child - Walter FitzEdward of Salisbury

Walter of Salisbury, d. 1147, of Chitterne, co. Wilts, sheriff of Wiltshire, founder of Bradenstock Priory.

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 66-27 (Isabel de Clare) 6 29


King Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu




Husband King Edward I of England 30 31




            AKA: Edward I "Hammer of the Scots," Edward I "Longshanks" King of England


           Born: 17 Jun 1239 - Westminster Palace, London, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 Jul 1307 - Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland, England


         Buried:  - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England


         Father: King Henry III of England (1207-1272) 32 33
         Mother: Eleanor of Provence (Abt 1223-1291) 34 35


       Marriage: 18 Oct 1254 - Monastery of Las Huelgas

   Other Spouse: Marguerite of France (Abt 1275-1317/1318) 36 - 8 Sep 1299 - Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England

Events

• King of England: 1272-1307.




Wife Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu 37 38




            AKA: Alianor, Alienor, Leonor
           Born: 1241 - Castile, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 28 Nov 1290 - Harby, Nottinghamshire, England


         Buried:  - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England


         Father: Fernando III of Castile King of Castile and Leon (1199-1252) 39
         Mother: Jeanne de Dammartin (Abt 1220-1279) 40 41




Children
1 F Eleanor of England

            AKA: Eleanor Plantagenet
           Born: 18 Jun 1269
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Aug 1298
         Buried:  - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England
         Spouse: Henry III Count of Bar (1259-1302)
           Marr: 20 Sep 1283 - Bristol, England



2 F Joan of Acre 42 43

            AKA: Joanna of Acre
           Born: 1272 - Acre, Palestine (Israel)
     Christened: 
           Died: 23 Apr 1307
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Sir Gilbert de Clare 9th Earl of Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford (1243-1295) 6 44 45
           Marr: Abt 30 Apr 1290 - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England



3 F Margaret Plantagenet

           Born: 15 Mar 1275
     Christened: 
           Died: 1318
         Buried: 



4 F Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, Princess of England 46 47 48

            AKA: Elizabeth Princess of England, Elizabeth of England, Elizabeth Plantagenet of Rhuddlan


           Born: 7 Aug 1282 - Rhuddlan Castle, Rhuddlan, Denbighshire, Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 5 May 1316 - Quendon, Essex, England
         Buried:  - Waltham Abbey, Essex, England
         Spouse: John Count of Holland and Zealand (      -      )
         Spouse: Humphrey VIII de Bohun 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex (Abt 1276-1322) 49 50
           Marr: 14 Nov 1302 - Westminster Palace, London, England



5 M King Edward II of England 51 52




            AKA: Edward of Caenarvon


           Born: 25 Apr 1284 - Caernarfon Castle, Caernarfonshire, Gwynedd, Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 21 Sep 1327 - <Berkeley Castle, > [near Gloucester], Gloucestershire, England


         Buried:  - Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England
         Spouse: Isabella of France (Abt 1295-1358) 53 54
           Marr: 25 Jan 1308 - Boulogne-sur-Mer [Boulogne], (Pas-de-Calais), France




Research Notes: Husband - King Edward I of England

From Wikipedia - Edward I of England :

Edward I (17 June 1239 - 7 July 1307 ), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as "Edward the Lawgiver" or "the English Justinian" because of his legal reforms, and as "Hammer of the Scots",[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried (but failed) to do the same to Scotland . He reigned from 1272 to 1307, ascending the throne of England on 20 November 1272 after the death of his father, King Henry III . His mother was queen consort Eleanor of Provence .
As regnal post-nominal numbers were a Norman (as opposed to English) custom, Edward Longshanks is known as Edward I, even though he is the fourth King Edward, following Edward the Elder , Edward the Martyr , and Edward the Confessor ....

Childhood and marriage to Eleanor
Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the evening of 17 June 1239 .[3] He was an older brother of Beatrice of England , Margaret of England and Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster . He was named after Edward the Confessor . [4] From 1239 to 1246 Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard (the son of Godfrey Giffard ) and his wife, Sybil, who had been one of the midwives at Edward's birth. On Giffard's death in 1246, Bartholomew Pecche took over. Early grants of land to Edward included Gascony , but Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester had been appointed by Henry to seven years as royal lieutenant in Gascony in 1248, a year before the grant to Edward, so in practice Edward derived neither authority nor revenue from the province.
Edward's first marriage (age 15) was arranged in 1254 by his father and Alfonso X of Castile . Alfonso had insisted that Edward receive grants of land worth 15,000 marks a year and also asked to knight him; Henry had already planned a knighthood ceremony for Edward but conceded. Edward crossed the Channel in June, and was knighted by Alfonso and married to Eleanor of Castile (age 13) on 1 November 1254 in the monastery of Las Huelgas .
Eleanor and Edward would go on to have sixteen children, and her death in 1290 affected Edward deeply. He displayed his grief by erecting the Eleanor crosses , one at each place where her funeral cortège stopped for the night. His second marriage, (age 60) at Canterbury on September 10 , 1299 , to Marguerite of France , (age 17) (known as the "Pearl of France" by her English subjects), the daughter of King Philip III of France (Phillip the Bold) and Maria of Brabant , produced three children...

Welsh Wars

Edward I depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902 )
One of King Edward's early moves was the conquest of Wales . Under the 1267 Treaty of Montgomery , Llywelyn ap Gruffydd had extended Welsh territories southwards into what had been the lands of the English Marcher Lords , and gained the title of Prince of Wales although he still owed homage to the English monarch as overlord. King Edward refused to recognize this Treaty - which had been concluded by his father - and in 1275, pirates in King Edward's pay intercepted a ship carrying Eleanor de Montfort , Simon de Montfort's only daughter, from France to Wales , where she expected to marry Llywelyn. Edward then imprisoned her at Windsor . After Llywelyn repeatedly refused to pay homage to Edward in 1274-1275, Edward raised an army and launched his first campaign against the Welsh prince in 1276-1277. After this campaign, Llywelyn was forced to pay homage to Edward and was stripped of all but a rump of territory in Gwynedd . But Edward allowed Llywelyn to retain the title of Prince of Wales , and the marriage with Eleanor de Montfort went ahead.
Llywelyn's younger brother, Dafydd (who had briefly been an ally of the English) started another rebellion in 1282. But Edward quickly destroyed the remnants of resistance, capturing, brutally torturing, and executing Dafydd in the following year. To consolidate his conquest, he commenced the construction of a string of massive stone castles encircling the principality, of which Caernarfon Castle provides a notable surviving example.
Wales became incorporated into England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301, Edward dubbed his eldest son Edward first Prince of Wales , since which time the eldest son of most English monarchs have borne the same title, the only exception being Edward III .

Scottish Wars

Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As Duke of Aquitaine , Edward was a vassal to the French king.
Edward then turned his attentions to Scotland. He had planned to marry off his son and heir Edward , to the heiress Margaret, the Maid of Norway , but when Margaret died with no clear successor, the Scottish Guardians invited Edward's arbitration, to prevent the country from descending into dynastic war. Before the process got underway Edward insisted that he be recognized as Lord Paramount of Scotland, the feudal superior of the realm and, after some initial resistance, this precondition was finally accepted.
Edward presided over a feudal court held at the castle of Berwick-upon-Tweed in November 1292, where judgment was given in favour of John Balliol over other candidates . Balliol was chosen as the candidate with the strongest claim in feudal law, but Edward subsequently used the concessions he had gained to undermine the authority of the new king even summoning Balliol to do homage to him in Westminster in 1293. Edward also made it clear he expected John's military and financial support against France. This was too much for Balliol, who concluded a pact with France and prepared an army to invade England.
In response Edward gathered his largest army yet (25,000) and razed Berwick , massacring almost the whole population of 11,000 inhabitants. During the Scottish campaign, he made extensive use of a large trebuchet called the Warwolf .
After Berwick, he proceeded to Dunbar and Edinburgh , also removing the Stone of Destiny from Perth to Westminster Abbey. Balliol renounced the crown and was imprisoned in the Tower of London for three years before withdrawing to his estates in France. All freeholders in Scotland were required to swear an oath of homage to Edward, and he ruled Scotland like a province through English viceroys .
Opposition sprang up (see Wars of Scottish Independence ), and Edward executed the focus of discontent, William Wallace , on 23 August 1305 , having earlier defeated him at the Battle of Falkirk (1298) .
Edward was known to be fond of falconry and horse riding . The names of his horses have survived: Lyard, his war horse; Ferrault his hunting horse; and his favourite, Bayard. At the Siege of Berwick, Edward is said to have led the assault personally, using Bayard to leap over the earthen defences of the city.

Later career and death
Edward's later life was fraught with difficulty, as he lost his beloved first wife Eleanor and his heir failed to develop the expected kingly character.
Edward's plan to conquer Scotland never came to fruition during his lifetime, however, as he died in 1307 at Burgh-by-Sands , Cumberland on the Scottish border, while on his way to wage another campaign against the Scots under the leadership of Robert the Bruce . According to chroniclers, Edward desired to have his bones carried on Scottish military campaigns, and that his heart be taken to the Holy Land. Against his wishes, Edward was buried in Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb, which in later years was painted with the words Scottorum malleus, Latin for Hammer of the Scots.[7] He was buried in a lead casket wishing to be moved to the usual regal gold casket only when Scotland was fully conquered and part of the Kingdom of England.
On 2 January 1774 , the Society of Antiquaries opened the coffin and discovered that his body had been perfectly preserved for 467 years. His body was measured to be 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm).[8]
To this day he still lies in the lead casket - although the thrones of Scotland and England were united in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I and the accession of James VI of Scotland to the English throne, and the Kingdom of Great Britain was created in 1707 by the Acts of Union 1707 , uniting Scotland and England in an incorporating union, the conquest Edward envisaged was never completed. His son, King Edward II of England , succeeded him...

Issue
Children of Edward and Eleanor:
Eleanor , born ca. 17 June 1264 (or possibly as late as 1269, although the issue rolls of 1302 describe her as Edward's eldest daughter) and died 12 October 1298 . She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon , who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and on 20 September 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar .
Joan, born Summer 1265, either in Paris, or perhaps at Abbeville, Ponthieu. She died in France but was buried at Westminster Abbey before September 7 , 1265 .
John, born at either Windsor or Kenilworth Castle June or July 10 , 1266 , died August 1 or 1271 at Wallingford , in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall . Buried at Westminster Abbey .
Henry , born on July 13 1267/8 at Windsor Castle, died October 14 , 1274 either at Merton, Surrey, or at Guildford Castle.
Alice, born at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, but the date of her birth is unknown. May have died at the age of twelve. Sometimes identified with the child, Isabella, born in March 1279 , but this cannot be correct, as that infant's funeral took place during the same year.
Juliana (also known as Katherine) born at Acre, Palestine, in 1271, and died there on 28 May or 5 September 1271
Joan of Acre . Born at Acre in Spring 1272 and died at her manor of Clare, Suffolk on April 23 , 1307 and was buried in the priory church of the Austin friars, Clare, Suffolk. She married (1) Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , (2) Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer .
Alphonso, Earl of Chester , born either at Bayonne, at Bordeaux, Gascony or at Maine 24 November 1273 , died 14 or 19 August 1284 , at Windsor Castle, buried in Westminster Abbey .
Margaret , born September 11 , 1275 at Windsor Castle and died in 1318, being buried in the Collegiate Church of St. Gudule, Brussels. She married John II of Brabant .
Berengaria (also known as Berenice), born 1 May 1276 at Kempton Palace, Surrey and died on June 27 , 1278 , buried in Westminster Abbey .
Mary, born 11 March or 22 April 1278 at Windsor Castle and died 8 July 1332 , a nun in Amesbury , Wiltshire , England.
Isabella, born on 12 March 1279 , either at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, at Windsor Castle or at Marlbourgh Castle Wiltshire, she died in 1279, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan , born August 1282 at Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire, Wales, died c.5 May 1316 at Quendon, Essex, in childbirth, and was buried in Walden Abbey, Essex. She married (1) John I, Count of Holland , (2) Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex .
Edward II of England , also known as Edward of Caernarvon , born 25 April 1284 at Caernarvon Castle, Wales, murdered 21 September 1327 at Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, buried in Gloucester Cathedral. He married Isabella of France .
Beatrice born after 12 August 1286 either in Gascony or in Aquitaine. She died young.
Blanche born in 1289/90 and died young.
Children of Edward and Marguerite:
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk born 1 June 1300 at Brotherton, Yorkshire, died between the 4 August and 20 September 1338, was buried in the abbey of Bury-St.-Edmunds, married (1) Alice Hayles, with issue; (2) Mary Brewes, with issue.
Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent , 5 August 1301 at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, married Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell with issue. Executed by Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer on the 19 March 1330 following the overthrow of Edward II.
Eleanor, born 4 May 1306 at Winchester, died in 1311 at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, buried in Beaulieu Abbey, Hants.

References
Michael Prestwich , Edward I (London: Methuen, 1988, updated edition Yale University Press , 1997 ISBN 0-300-07209-0 )
Thomas B. Costain, The Three Edwards (Popular Library, 1958, 1962, ISBN 0-445-08513-4 )
The Times Kings & Queens of The British Isles, by Thomas Cussans (page 84, 86, 87) ISBN 0-0071-4195-5
GWS Barrow, Robert Bruce and the community of the realm of scotland 30 31




Research Notes: Wife - Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu

From Wikipedia - Eleanor of Castile :

Eleanor of Castile (1241 - 28 November 1290 ) was the first Queen consort of Edward I of England .

Birth
Eleanor was born in Castile , Spain , daughter of Fernando III , King of Castile and Leon and his second wife, Jeanne, Countess of Ponthieu . Her Castilian name, Leonor, became Alienor or Alianor in England, and Eleanor in modern English. She was the second of five children born to Fernando and Jeanne. Her elder brother Fernando was born in 1239/40, her younger brother Louis in 1242/43; two sons born after Louis died young. For the ceremonies in 1291 marking the first anniversary of Eleanor's death, 49 candlebearers were paid to walk in the public procession to commemorate each year of her life. This would date her birth to the year 1241. Since her parents were apart from each other for thirteen months while King Ferdinand conducted a military campaign in Andalusia from which he returned to the north of Spain only in February 1241, Eleanor was probably born toward the end of that year.

Prospective bride to Theobald II of Navarre
Eleanor's marriage in 1254 to the future Edward I of England was not the first marriage her family planned for her. The kings of Castile had long claimed to be paramount lords of the Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees , and from 1250 Ferdinand III and his heir, Eleanor's half-brother Alfonso X of Castile , hoped she would marry Theobald II of Navarre . To avoid Castilian control, Margaret of Bourbon (mother to Theobald II) in 1252 allied with James I of Aragon instead, and as part of that treaty solemnly promised that Theobald would never marry Eleanor.

Marriage
Then, in 1252, Alfonso X resurrected flimsy ancestral claims to the duchy of Gascony , in the south of Aquitaine , last possession of the Kings of England in France. Henry III of England swiftly countered Alfonso's claims with both diplomatic and military moves. Early in 1254 the two kings began to negotiate; after haggling over the financial provision for Eleanor, Henry and Alfonso agreed she would marry Henry's son Edward, and Alfonso would transfer his Gascon claims to Edward. Henry was so anxious for the marriage to take place that he willingly abandoned elaborate preparations already made for Edward's knighting in England, and agreed that Alfonso would knight Edward before the wedding took place.

The young couple married at the monastery of Las Huelgas , Burgos on 1 November 1254. Henry III took pride in resolving the Gascon crisis so decisively, but his English subjects feared that the marriage would bring Eleanor's kinfolk and countrymen to live off Henry's ruinous generosity. Several of her relatives did come to England soon after her marriage. She was too young to stop them or prevent Henry III paying for them, but she was blamed anyway and her marriage was unpopular...

Queen consort of England
Arranged royal marriages in the Middle Ages were not always happy, but available evidence indicates that Eleanor and Edward were devoted to each other. Edward is among the few medieval English kings not known to have conducted extramarital affairs or fathered children out of wedlock. The couple were rarely apart; she accompanied him on military campaigns in Wales , famously giving birth to their son Edward on 25 April 1284 in a temporary dwelling erected for her amid the construction of Caernarfon Castle .

Their household records witness incidents that imply a comfortable, even humorous, relationship. Each year on Easter Monday, Edward let Eleanor's ladies trap him in his bed and paid them a token ransom so he could go to her bedroom on the first day after Lent ; so important was this custom to him that in 1291, on the first Easter Monday after Eleanor's death, he gave her ladies the money he would have given them had she been alive. Edward disliked ceremonies and in 1290 refused to attend the marriage of Earl Marshal Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk ; Eleanor thoughtfully (or resignedly) paid minstrels to play for him while he sat alone during the wedding.

That Edward remained single until he wed Marguerite of France in 1299 is often cited to prove he cherished Eleanor's memory. In fact he considered a second marriage as early as 1293, but this does not mean he did not mourn Eleanor. Eloquent testimony is found in his letter to the abbot of Cluny in France (January 1291), seeking prayers for the soul of the wife "whom living we dearly cherished, and whom dead we cannot cease to love." In her memory, Edward ordered the construction of twelve elaborate stone crosses (of which three survive) between 1291 and 1294, marking the route of her funeral procession between Lincoln and London. (The story that the name "Charing" is from the French chère reine or "dear Queen" is mere legend, as is the name's supposed derivation from "char ring," allegedly referring to a circular roadway in which the nobles' carriages (chars) waited while their owners attended court. The name Charing is found for that part of London in the 1250s and probably existed long before that.)

However, only one of Eleanor's five sons survived childhood and, even before she died, Edward worried over the succession: if that son died, their daughters' husbands might cause a succession war. Despite personal grief, Edward faced his duty and married again. He delighted in the sons his new wife bore, but attended memorial services for Eleanor to the end of his life, Marguerite at his side on at least one occasion...

Death
Further information: Eleanor cross
In the autumn of 1290, news reached Edward that Margaret, the Maid of Norway , heiress of Scotland, had died. He had just held a parliament at Clipstone in Nottinghamshire , and continued to linger in those parts, presumably to await news of further developments in Scotland. Eleanor followed him at a leisurely pace as she was unwell with a feverish illness, probably a quartan fever first reported in 1287. After the couple left Clipstone they travelled slowly toward the city of Lincoln, a destination Eleanor would never reach.

Her condition worsened when they reached the village of Harby, Nottinghamshire , less than 10 miles (16 km) from Lincoln [citation needed ]). The journey was abandoned, and the queen was lodged in the house of Richard de Weston, the foundations of which can still be seen near Harby's parish church. After piously receiving the Church's last rites, she died there on the evening of the 28th of November 1290, aged 49 and after 36 years of marriage. Edward was at her bedside to hear her final requests...

Legacy
Eleanor of Castile's queenship is significant in English history for the evolution of a stable financial system for the king's wife, and for the honing this process gave the queen-consort's prerogatives. The estates Eleanor assembled became the nucleus for dower assignments made to later queens of England into the 15th century , and her involvement in this process solidly established a queen-consort's freedom to engage in such transactions. Few later queens exerted themselves in economic activity to the extent Eleanor did, but their ability to do so rested on the precedents settled in her lifetime...

Children of Queen Eleanor and King Edward I

The Northampton Cross
Daughter, stillborn in May 1255 in Bordeaux, France .
Katherine, (before June 17 , 1264 - September 5 , 1264 ) and buried at Westminster Abbey .
Joan, born January 1265, buried at Westminster Abbey before September 7 , 1265 .
John, (13 July 1266 - August 3 , 1271 ) at Wallingford , in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall . Buried at Westminster Abbey .
Henry of England , (before 6 May 1268 - October 16 , 1274 ).
Eleanor , (18 June 1269 - 29 August 1298 ). Buried 12 October 1298 . She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon , who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and in 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar , by whom she had one son and one daughter.
Daughter, (28 May 1271 Palestine - 5 September 1271 ). Some sources call her Juliana, but there is no contemporary evidence for her name.
Joan of Acre . (April 1272 - April 7 , 1307 ). She married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph Morthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer . She had four children by each marriage.
Alphonso, Earl of Chester , born 24 November 1273 , died 19 August 1284 , buried in Westminster Abbey .
Margaret Plantagenet , (15 March 1275 - after 1333). In 1290 she married John II of Brabant , who died in 1318. They had one son.
Berengaria, (1 May 1276 - before 27 June 1278 ), buried in Westminster Abbey .
Daughter, died shortly after birth at Westminster, on or about3 January 1278 . There is no contemporary evidence for her name.
Mary, (11 March 1279 - 29 May 1332 ), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury , Wiltshire (England), where she was probably buried.
A son, born in 1280 or 1281 who died very shortly after birth. There is no contemporary evidence for his name.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan , (7 August 1282 - 5 May 1316 ). She married (1)in 1297 John I, Count of Holland , (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex . The first marriage was childless; by Bohun, Elizabeth had ten children.
Edward II of England , also known as Edward of Caernarvon , (25 April 1284 - 21 September 1327 ). In 1308 he married Isabella of France . 37 38


Notes: Marriage

Wikipedia has m. 1 Nov 1254. Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 1-27 has m. 18 Oct 1254.


Research Notes: Child - Eleanor of England

From Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1269-1298) :

Eleanor of England (18 June 1269 - 29 August 1298 ), was the eldest surviving daughter of Edward I of England and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile .
For a long period she was betrothed to King Alphonso III of Aragon (d. 18 June 1291 ). However, Alphonso's death occurred before the marriage could take place.
Eleanor subsequently married the French nobleman, Henry III, Count of Bar in 1293, as a means of allying Bar and England against the Kings of France. Eleanor and Henry had three surviving children:
Edward I of Bar (1284-1336), comte de Bar
Eleanor (b. 1285), who married Llewelyn ap Owain
Jeanne (1295-1361), who married John de Warenne, 8th Earl of Surrey . The marriage was annulled 1315. Jeanne became regent of Bar from 1354
Eleanor pre-deceased her husband and was buried 12 October 1298 in Westminster Abbey .


Research Notes: Child - Joan of Acre

Second wife of Sir Gilbert de Clare.

From Wikipedia - Joan of Acre :
Joan of Acre (April 1272 - April 23 , 1307 ) was the daughter of King Edward I of England and Queen Eleanor . She is most notable for her marriage to Ralph de Monthermer and the claim that miracles have allegedly taken place at her grave. She is also notable for the multiple references of her in literature.

Birth and Childhood
Joan, or Joanna, of Acre as she is sometimes referred to, was born in the spring of 1272 in Syria, while her parents, King Edward I and Queen Eleanor of Castille, were on the crusade .[2] She was the only English princess to be born outside of her native land, in the city of Acre, where her name derives from.[3] Her parents departed from Acre shortly after her birth, traveling to Sicily and Spain[4] before leaving Joan with her grandmother in Ponthieu, France.[5] Joan lived for several years in France where she spent her time being educated by a bishop and "being thoroughly spoiled by an indulgent grandmother."[6] Joan was free to play among the "vine clad hills and sunny vales"[7] surrounding her grandmother's home, although she required "judicious surveillance."[8]

As Joan was growing up with her grandmother, her father was back in England, already arranging marriages for his daughter. He wanted to gain both political power and more wealth with his daughter, so he conducted the arrangement in a very "business like style".[9] He finally found a man suitable to marry Joan (aged 5 at the time), Hartman, son of King Rudoph I, of Germany. Edward then brought her home from France for the first time to meet him.[10] As she had spent her entire life away from Edward and Eleanor, when she returned she "stood in no awe of her parents"[11] and had a fairly distanced relationship with them.

Unfortunately for King Edward, his daughter's suitor died before he was able to meet or marry Joan. The news reported that Hartman had fallen through a patch of shallow ice while "amusing himself in skating" while a letter sent to the King himself stated that Hartman had set out on a boat to visit his father amidst a terrible fog and the boat had smashed into a rock, drowning him.[12]

First Marriage
Edward arranged a second marriage almost immediately after the death of Hartman.[13] Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester, who was almost thirty years older than Joan and newly divorced was his first choice.[14] The earl resigned his lands to Edward upon agreeing to get them back when he married Joan, as well as agreed on a dower of two thousand silver marks.[15] By the time all of these negotiations were finished, Joan was twelve years old.[16] Gilbert de Clare became very enamored with Joan, and even though she had to marry him regardless of how she felt, he still tried to woo her.[17] He bought her expensive gifts and clothing to try to win favor with her.[18] The couple were married on April 30th, 1290 at Westminster Abbey, and had four children together.[19]

They were:
Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Hertford
Eleanor de Clare
Margaret de Clare
Elizabeth de Clare
Joan's first husband, Gilbert de Clare died on December 7th, 1295.[20]

Secret Second Marriage
Joan had been a widow for only a little over a year when she caught the eye of Ralph de Monthermer , a squire in Joan's father's household.[21] Joan fell in love and convinced her father to have Monthermer knighted. It was unheard of in European royalty for one in power to even converse with a man who had not won or acquired importance in the household. However, in January during the year of 1297, the couple was secretly married.[22] Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer, and Joan of Acre blind-sided her father with this secret while he was already planning another marriage for his daughter to Amadeus V, Count of Savoy.[23] The arrangements for this marriage were quickly made through written letters. The date was to be March 16th, 1297. Joan of Acre was in dangerous predicament, as she was already a wedded wife, unbeknownst to her father. She sent her son and little daughters over to Edward I, their grandfather, in hopes that their sweetness would serve in her favor. However, her plan did not work.[24] He soon found out the intentions his daughter had, but did not realize she had already committed them.[25]
Upon finding out, he took all of Joan's lands into his own hands and continued on with his planning of the arranged marriage between Joan and Amadeus of Savoy.[26]
Soon after the seizure of her lands, Joan told her father of the official marriage between her and Monthermer. He was enraged and retaliated by immediately throwing Monthermer in prison at Bristol Castle .[27] The people of the land had differing opinions on the princess' matter, however, and has been argued that ones who were most upset were those who wanted Joan's hand in marriage.[28]

With regard to the matter, Joan famously said, "It is not considered ignominious, nor disgraceful for a great earl to take a poor and mean woman to wife; neither, on the other hand, is it worthy of blame, or too difficult a thing to promote to honor a gallant youth."[29] It is said that not only this claim, but the possibility of the appearance of a pregnant stomach seemed to soften Edward's attitude towards the situation.[30]
At last, her father relented for the sake of his daughter and released Monthermer from prison in August 1297.[31] Monthermer paid homage August 2nd and getting the title of Earl of Gloucester and Earl of Hertford , rose to favor with the King during Joan's lifetime. [32]. Monthermer and Joan had four children:

Mary de Monthermer, born October 1297. In 1306 her grandfather King Edward I arranged for her to wed Duncan Macduff, 8th Earl of Fife .
Joan de Monthermer, born 1299, became a nun at Amesbury .
Thomas de Monthermer , 2nd Baron Monthermer, born 1301.
Edward de Monthermer, born 1304 and died 1339.

Relationship With Family
Acre was the seventh child of Edward I and Eleanor's fourteen children. Most of her older siblings died before the age of seven, and many of her younger siblings died before adulthood.[33] Of the survivors, included were Joan, four of her sisters, and her younger brother, Edward (later Edward II , King of England). [34]

Acre, like her siblings, was raised outside her family's household. She lived with her grandmother while her parents were on the crusade.[35] Edward I did not have a close relationship with most of his children while they were growing up, yet "he seemed fonder of his daughters than his sons."[36] In fact, most of the children who made it to adulthood were Edward's daughters.[37]

However, Acre's independent nature caused numerous conflicts between her and her father. Her father disapproved of her leaving court after her marriage to the Earl of Gloucester, and in turn "seized seven robes that had been made for her."[38] He also strongly disapproved of her second marriage to Ralph de Monthermer, a squire in her household, even to the point of attempting to force her to marry someone else.[39][40] While Edward ultimately developed a cordial relationship with Monthermer, even giving him the title of Earl [41], there appears to have been a notable difference in the Edward's treatment of Joan as compared to the treatment of the rest of her siblings. For instance, her father famously paid messengers substantially when they brought news of the birth of grandchildren, but did not do this upon birth of Acre's daughter.[42]

In terms of her siblings, Acre kept a fairly tight bond. She and Monthermer both maintained a close relationship with her brother, Edward II, which was maintained through letters. After Edward II became estranged from his parents and lost his royal seal, "Joan offered to lend him her seal" instead.[43]

Death
Joan of Acre died on April 23, 1307.[44] The cause of her death remains unclear, though one popular theory is that she died during childbirth, a common cause of death at the time. However, historians have not confirmed this to be her cause of death.[45]

Less than four months after her death, Joan's father, Edward I died. Ralph de Monthermer was stripped of his title of Earl soon after the deaths of his wife and father in law, and the title was given to Joan's son from her first marriage, Gilbert.[46]
Joan's burial place has been the cause of some interest and debate. Allegedly, in 1357, Joan's daughter, Elizabeth De Burgh, claimed to have "inspected her mother's body and found the corpse to be intact,"[47]an indication of sanctity. Some sources claim that miracles have taken place at her tomb, from a cure of the toothache to the fever, which was often fatal at the time. [48] 42 43


Research Notes: Child - Margaret Plantagenet

Source: Wikipedia - Edward I of England


Birth Notes: Child - Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, Princess of England

Wikipedia or some other source has b. 7 Aug 1282 or 1281. Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry, Edited by Thomas Allen Glenn at the request of Howard Reifsnyder, privately printed, Philadelphia, 1902, provided by http://books.google.com, p. 31 has b. 1284.


Death Notes: Child - Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, Princess of England

Per Wikipedia, died in childbirth


Research Notes: Child - Elizabeth of Rhuddlan, Princess of England

From Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry, p. 49:

"I. THE PRINCESS ELIZABETH PLANTAGENET, daughter of Edward I by his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, was born at Rudlan Castle, in Flintshire, 1284. She married, first, in London, John, Earl of Holland, who died without issue two years after his marriage; and secondly, Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Lord High Constable of England. By her second husband she had a son: William de Bohun.
---------
From Wikipedia - Elizabeth of Rhuddlan :

Elizabeth of Rhuddlan (Elizabeth Plantagenet) (7 August 1282 Rhuddlan Castle - 5 May 1316 Quendon )

Born the eighth daughter of Edward I of England and Eleanor of Castile . Of all her siblings, she was closest to her younger brother Edward II of England , as they were only two years apart in age.

In April 1285 there were negotiations with Floris V for Elizabeth's betrothal to his son John I, Count of Holland . The offer was accepted and John was sent to England to be educated. On 8 January 1297 Elizabeth was married to John at Ipswich . In attendance at the marriage were Elizabeth's sister Margaret , her father, Edward I of England , her brother Edward , and Humphrey de Bohun . After the wedding Elizabeth was expected to go to Holland with her husband, but did not wish to go, leaving her husband to go alone.

After some time travelling England , it was decided Elizabeth should follow her husband. Her father accompanied her, travelling through Antwerp , Malines , Louvain and Brussels , before ending up in Ghent . There they remained for a few months, spending Christmas with her two sister's Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar and Margaret Plantagenet . On 10 November 1299 , John died of dysentery , though there were rumours of his being murdered. No children had been born from the marriage.

On her return trip to England , Elizabeth went through Brabant to see her sister Margaret. When she arrived in England , she met her step mother Margaret of France , whom Edward had married whilst she was in Holland . Reportedly, they became inseparable. On 14 November 1302 Elizabeth was married to Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford , 3rd of Essex, also Constable of England , at Westminster Abbey .

During Christmas 1315 Elizabeth, who was pregnant with her 10th child, was visited by her sister-in-law Isabella of France . This was a great honour, but the stress of it may have caused unknown health problems that later contributed to Elizabeth's death in childbirth. On 5 May 1316 she went into labour, giving birth to her daughter Isabella. Both Elizabeth and Isabella died shortly after the birthing, and were buried together in Waltham Abbey .

The children of Elizabeth and Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford are:
Hugh de Bohun (September 1303 - 1305 )
Eleanor de Bohun (October 1304 - 1363 ), married James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormonde and Thomas Dagworth , 1st Baron Dagworth.
Humphrey de Bohun (b&d 1305 )
John de Bohun, 5th Earl of Hereford (23 November 1306 - 1335 )
Agnes de Bohun, (November 1309 - ), married Robert de Ferrers, Earl of Chartley
Humphrey de Bohun, 6th Earl of Hereford (6 December about 1309 - 1361 )
Margaret de Bohun (3 April 1311 - 1391 ), married Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon
William de Bohun, 1st Earl of Northampton (1312 - 1360 ). Twin of Edward. Married Elizabeth de Badlesmere.
Edward de Bohun (1312 - 1334 ). Twin of William.
Eneas de Bohun, (1314 - after 1322 ), when he's mentioned in his father's will.
Isabel de Bohun (b&d 5 May 1316 ) 46 47 48


Research Notes: Child - King Edward II of England

From Wikipedia - Edward II of England :

Edward II, (April 25 , 1284 - September 21 , 1327 ) of Caernarfon , was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January 1327. His tendency to ignore his nobility in favour of low-born favourites led to constant political unrest and his eventual deposition. Edward is perhaps best remembered for his murder and his alleged homosexuality .
Edward II was the first monarch to establish colleges in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge ; he founded Cambridge's King's Hall in 1317 and gave Oxford's Oriel College its royal charter in 1326. Both colleges received the favour of Edward's son, Edward III , who confirmed Oriel's charter in 1327 and refounded King's Hall in 1337.

Prince of Wales
The fourth son of Edward I of England by his first wife Eleanor of Castile , Edward II was born at Caernarfon Castle . He was the first English prince to hold the title of the Prince of Wales , which was formalized by the Lincoln Parliament of February 7 , 1301 .
The story that his father presented Edward II as a newborn to the Welsh as their future native prince is unfounded (the Welsh would have asked the King to give them a prince that spoke Welsh , and he would have answered he would give them a prince that spoke no English at all); the story first appeared in the work of 16th century Welsh "antiquary " David Powel [citation needed ].
Edward became heir at just a few months old, following the death of his elder brother Alphonso . His father, a notable military leader, trained his heir in warfare and statecraft starting in his childhood, yet the young Edward preferred boating and craftsman work - activities thought beneath kings at the time...

On January 25 , 1308 , Edward married Isabella of France , the daughter of King Philip IV of France , "Philip the Fair," and sister to three French kings. The marriage was doomed to failure almost from the beginning. Isabella was frequently neglected by her husband, who spent much of his time conspiring with his favourites regarding how to limit the powers of the Peerage in order to consolidate his father's legacy for himself. Nevertheless, their marriage produced two sons, Edward (1312-1377), who would succeed his father on the throne as Edward III, and John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall (1316-1336), and two daughters, Eleanor (1318-1355) and Joanna (1321-1362), wife of David II of Scotland . Edward had also fathered at least one illegitimate son, Adam FitzRoy , who accompanied his father in the Scottish campaigns of 1322 and died on 18 September 1322 .

[edit ] War with the Barons
When Edward travelled to the northern French city of Boulogne to marry Isabella, he left his friend and counsellor Gaveston to act as regent. Gaveston also received the earldom of Cornwall and the hand of the king's niece, Margaret of Gloucester; these proved to be costly honours.
Various barons grew resentful of Gaveston, and insisted on his banishment through the Ordinances of 1311 . Edward recalled his friend, but in 1312, Gaveston was executed by the Earl of Lancaster and his allies, who claimed that Gaveston led the king to folly. (Gaveston was run through and beheaded on Blacklow Hill, outside the small village of Leek Wootton , where a monument called Gaveston's Cross still stands today).
Immediately following, Edward focused on the destruction of those who had betrayed him, while the barons themselves lost impetus (with Gaveston dead, they saw little need to continue). By mid-July, Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke was advising the king to make war on the barons who, unwilling to risk their lives, entered negotiations in September 1312. In October, the Earls of Lancaster, Warwick, Arundel and Hereford begged Edward's pardon.

[edit ] Conflict with Scotland
During this period, Robert the Bruce was steadily re-conquering Scotland . Each campaign begun by Edward, from 1307 to 1314, ended in Robert's clawing back more of the land that Edward I had taken during his long reign. Robert's military successes against Edward II were due to a number of factors, not the least of which was the Scottish King's strategy. He used small forces to trap an invading English army, he took castles by stealth to preserve his troops and he used the land itself as a weapon against Edward by attacking quickly and then disappearing into the hills before facing the superior numbers of the English. Castle by castle, Robert the Bruce rebuilt Scotland and united the country against its common enemy. Indeed, Robert is quoted as saying that he feared more the dead Edward I than the living Edward II. Thus, by June 1314, only Stirling Castle and Berwick remained under English control.
On 23 June 1314 , Edward and his army of 20,000 foot soldiers and 3000 cavalry faced Robert and his army of foot soldiers and farmers wielding 14 foot long pikes. Edward knew he had to keep the critical stronghold of Stirling Castle if there was to be any chance for English military success. The castle, however, was under a constant state of siege, and the English commander, Sir Phillip de Mowbray, had advised Edward that he would surrender the castle to the Scots unless Edward arrived by June 24 , 1314 , to relieve the siege. Edward could not afford to lose his last forward castle in Scotland. He decided therefore to gamble his entire army to break the siege and force the Scots to a final battle by putting its army into the field.
However, Edward had made a serious mistake in thinking that his vastly superior numbers alone would provide enough of a strategic advantage to defeat the Scots. Robert not only had the advantage of prior warning, as he knew the actual day that Edward would come north and fight, he also had the time to choose the field of battle most advantageous to the Scots and their style of combat. As Edward moved forward on the main road to Stirling, Robert placed his army on either side of the road north, one in the dense woods and the other placed on a bend on the river, a spot hard for the invading army to see. Robert also ordered his men to dig potholes and cover them with bracken in order to help break any cavalry charge.
By contrast, Edward did not issue his writs of service, calling upon 21,540 men, until May 27 , 1314 . Worse, his army was ill-disciplined and had seen little success in eight years of campaigns. On the eve of battle, he decided to move his entire army at night and placed it in a marshy area, with its cavalry laid out in nine squadrons in front of the foot soldiers. The following battle, the Battle of Bannockburn , is considered by contemporary scholars to be the worst defeat sustained by the English since the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
Tactics similar to Robert's were employed by victorious English armies against the French in later centuries, partly as a direct result of the enduring decisiveness of the Scots' victory. A young Henry V of England would use this exact tactic against French cavalry in a key battle on the fields of Agincourt in 1415, winning the day and the war against France.[citation needed ]...

[edit ] End of the Despensers
Reprisals against Edward's allies began immediately thereafter. The Earl of Arundel, an old enemy of Roger Mortimer, was beheaded; this was followed by the trial and execution of Despenser.
Despenser was brutally executed and a huge crowd gathered in anticipation at seeing him die. They dragged him from his horse, stripped him, and scrawled Biblical verses against corruption and arrogance on his skin. They then led him into the city, presenting him in the market square to Roger, Isabella, and the Lancastrians. He was then condemned to hang as a thief, be castrated , and then be drawn and quartered as a traitor, his quarters to be dispersed through England.

[edit ] Abdication
With the King imprisoned, Mortimer and the Queen faced the problem of what to do with him. The simplest solution would be execution: his titles would then pass to Edward of Windsor, whom Isabella could control, while it would also prevent the possibility of his being restored. Execution would require the King to be tried and convicted of treason: and while most Lords agreed that Edward had failed to show due attention to his country, several Prelates argued that, appointed by God, the King could not be legally deposed or executed; if this happened, they said, God would punish the country. Thus, at first, it was decided to have Edward imprisoned for life instead.
However, the fact remained that the legality of power still lay with the King. Isabella had been given the Great Seal, and was using it to rule in the names of the King, herself, and their son as appropriate; nonetheless, these actions were illegal, and could at any moment be challenged.
In these circumstances, Parliament chose to act as an authority above the King. Representatives of the House of Commons were summoned, and debates began. The Archbishop of York and others declared themselves fearful of the London mob, loyal to Roger Mortimer. Others wanted the King to speak in Parliament and openly abdicate , rather than be deposed by the Queen and her General. Mortimer responded by commanding the Mayor of London , Richard de Bethune, to write to Parliament, asking them to go to the Guildhall to swear an oath to protect the Queen and Prince Edward, and to depose the King. Mortimer then called the great lords to a secret meeting that night, at which they gave their unanimous support to the deposition of the King.
Eventually Parliament agreed to remove the King. However, for all that Parliament had agreed that the King should no longer rule, they had not deposed him. Rather, their decision made, Edward was asked to accept it.
On January 20, Edward II was informed at Kenilworth Castle of the charges brought against him. The King was guilty of incompetence; allowing others to govern him to the detriment of the people and Church; not listening to good advice and pursuing occupations unbecoming to a monarch; having lost Scotland and lands in Gascony and Ireland through failure of effective governance; damaging the Church , and imprisoning its representatives; allowing nobles to be killed, disinherited, imprisoned and exiled; failing to ensure fair justice, instead governing for profit and allowing others to do likewise; and of fleeing in the company of a notorious enemy of the realm, leaving it without government, and thereby losing the faith and trust of his people. Edward, profoundly shocked by this judgement, wept while listening. He was then offered a choice: he might abdicate in favour of his son; or he might resist, and relinquish the throne to one not of royal blood, but experienced in government - this, presumably, being Roger Mortimer. The King, lamenting that his people had so hated his rule, agreed that if the people would accept his son, he would abdicate in his favour. The lords, through the person of Sir William Trussel, then renounced their homage to him, and the reign of Edward II ended.
The abdication was announced and recorded in London on January 24, and the following day was proclaimed the first of the reign of Edward III - who, at 14, was still controlled by Isabella and Mortimer. The former King Edward remained imprisoned.

Death

Edward II's tomb at Gloucester Cathedral
The government of Isabella and Mortimer was so precarious that they dared not leave the deposed king in the hands of their political enemies. On April 3, Edward II was removed from Kenilworth and entrusted to the custody of two dependents of Mortimer, then later imprisoned at Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire where, it is generally believed, he was murdered by an agent of Isabella and Mortimer...

Following the public announcement of the king's death, the rule of Isabella and Mortimer did not last long. Mortimer and Isabella made peace with the Scots in the Treaty of Northampton , but this move was highly unpopular. Consequently, when Edward III came of age in 1330, he executed Roger Mortimer on fourteen charges of treason, most significantly the murder of Edward II (thereby removing any public doubt about his father's survival). Edward III spared his mother and gave her a generous allowance, but ensured that she retired from public life for several years. She died at Hertford on August 23 , 1358 . 51 52


King Edward I of England and Marguerite of France




Husband King Edward I of England 30 31




            AKA: Edward I "Hammer of the Scots," Edward I "Longshanks" King of England


           Born: 17 Jun 1239 - Westminster Palace, London, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 Jul 1307 - Burgh-by-Sands, Cumberland, England


         Buried:  - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, England


         Father: King Henry III of England (1207-1272) 32 33
         Mother: Eleanor of Provence (Abt 1223-1291) 34 35


       Marriage: 8 Sep 1299 - Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, Kent, England

   Other Spouse: Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu (1241-1290) 37 38 - 18 Oct 1254 - Monastery of Las Huelgas

Events

• King of England: 1272-1307.




Wife Marguerite of France 36

           Born: Abt 1275
     Christened: 
           Died: 14 Feb 1317-1318 - Marlborough Castle, Marlborough, Wiltshire, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Philip III "the Bold" King of France (1245-1285)
         Mother: Marie of Brabant (      -1321)




Children
1 M Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk

           Born: 1 Jun 1300
     Christened: 
           Died: 1338
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Alice Hales (      -After 1316)
           Marr: After 1316




Research Notes: Husband - King Edward I of England

From Wikipedia - Edward I of England :

Edward I (17 June 1239 - 7 July 1307 ), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as "Edward the Lawgiver" or "the English Justinian" because of his legal reforms, and as "Hammer of the Scots",[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried (but failed) to do the same to Scotland . He reigned from 1272 to 1307, ascending the throne of England on 20 November 1272 after the death of his father, King Henry III . His mother was queen consort Eleanor of Provence .
As regnal post-nominal numbers were a Norman (as opposed to English) custom, Edward Longshanks is known as Edward I, even though he is the fourth King Edward, following Edward the Elder , Edward the Martyr , and Edward the Confessor ....

Childhood and marriage to Eleanor
Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the evening of 17 June 1239 .[3] He was an older brother of Beatrice of England , Margaret of England and Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster . He was named after Edward the Confessor . [4] From 1239 to 1246 Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard (the son of Godfrey Giffard ) and his wife, Sybil, who had been one of the midwives at Edward's birth. On Giffard's death in 1246, Bartholomew Pecche took over. Early grants of land to Edward included Gascony , but Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester had been appointed by Henry to seven years as royal lieutenant in Gascony in 1248, a year before the grant to Edward, so in practice Edward derived neither authority nor revenue from the province.
Edward's first marriage (age 15) was arranged in 1254 by his father and Alfonso X of Castile . Alfonso had insisted that Edward receive grants of land worth 15,000 marks a year and also asked to knight him; Henry had already planned a knighthood ceremony for Edward but conceded. Edward crossed the Channel in June, and was knighted by Alfonso and married to Eleanor of Castile (age 13) on 1 November 1254 in the monastery of Las Huelgas .
Eleanor and Edward would go on to have sixteen children, and her death in 1290 affected Edward deeply. He displayed his grief by erecting the Eleanor crosses , one at each place where her funeral cortège stopped for the night. His second marriage, (age 60) at Canterbury on September 10 , 1299 , to Marguerite of France , (age 17) (known as the "Pearl of France" by her English subjects), the daughter of King Philip III of France (Phillip the Bold) and Maria of Brabant , produced three children...

Welsh Wars

Edward I depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902 )
One of King Edward's early moves was the conquest of Wales . Under the 1267 Treaty of Montgomery , Llywelyn ap Gruffydd had extended Welsh territories southwards into what had been the lands of the English Marcher Lords , and gained the title of Prince of Wales although he still owed homage to the English monarch as overlord. King Edward refused to recognize this Treaty - which had been concluded by his father - and in 1275, pirates in King Edward's pay intercepted a ship carrying Eleanor de Montfort , Simon de Montfort's only daughter, from France to Wales , where she expected to marry Llywelyn. Edward then imprisoned her at Windsor . After Llywelyn repeatedly refused to pay homage to Edward in 1274-1275, Edward raised an army and launched his first campaign against the Welsh prince in 1276-1277. After this campaign, Llywelyn was forced to pay homage to Edward and was stripped of all but a rump of territory in Gwynedd . But Edward allowed Llywelyn to retain the title of Prince of Wales , and the marriage with Eleanor de Montfort went ahead.
Llywelyn's younger brother, Dafydd (who had briefly been an ally of the English) started another rebellion in 1282. But Edward quickly destroyed the remnants of resistance, capturing, brutally torturing, and executing Dafydd in the following year. To consolidate his conquest, he commenced the construction of a string of massive stone castles encircling the principality, of which Caernarfon Castle provides a notable surviving example.
Wales became incorporated into England under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, and in 1301, Edward dubbed his eldest son Edward first Prince of Wales , since which time the eldest son of most English monarchs have borne the same title, the only exception being Edward III .

Scottish Wars

Hommage of Edward I (kneeling), to the Philippe le Bel (seated). As Duke of Aquitaine , Edward was a vassal to the French king.
Edward then turned his attentions to Scotland. He had planned to marry off his son and heir Edward , to the heiress Margaret, the Maid of Norway , but when Margaret died with no clear successor, the Scottish Guardians invited Edward's arbitration, to prevent the country from descending into dynastic war. Before the process got underway Edward insisted that he be recognized as Lord Paramount of Scotland, the feudal superior of the realm and, after some initial resistance, this precondition was finally accepted.
Edward presided over a feudal court held at the castle of Berwick-upon-Tweed in November 1292, where judgment was given in favour of John Balliol over other candidates . Balliol was chosen as the candidate with the strongest claim in feudal law, but Edward subsequently used the concessions he had gained to undermine the authority of the new king even summoning Balliol to do homage to him in Westminster in 1293. Edward also made it clear he expected John's military and financial support against France. This was too much for Balliol, who concluded a pact with France and prepared an army to invade England.
In response Edward gathered his largest army yet (25,000) and razed Berwick , massacring almost the whole population of 11,000 inhabitants. During the Scottish campaign, he made extensive use of a large trebuchet called the Warwolf .
After Berwick, he proceeded to Dunbar and Edinburgh , also removing the Stone of Destiny from Perth to Westminster Abbey. Balliol renounced the crown and was imprisoned in the Tower of London for three years before withdrawing to his estates in France. All freeholders in Scotland were required to swear an oath of homage to Edward, and he ruled Scotland like a province through English viceroys .
Opposition sprang up (see Wars of Scottish Independence ), and Edward executed the focus of discontent, William Wallace , on 23 August 1305 , having earlier defeated him at the Battle of Falkirk (1298) .
Edward was known to be fond of falconry and horse riding . The names of his horses have survived: Lyard, his war horse; Ferrault his hunting horse; and his favourite, Bayard. At the Siege of Berwick, Edward is said to have led the assault personally, using Bayard to leap over the earthen defences of the city.

Later career and death
Edward's later life was fraught with difficulty, as he lost his beloved first wife Eleanor and his heir failed to develop the expected kingly character.
Edward's plan to conquer Scotland never came to fruition during his lifetime, however, as he died in 1307 at Burgh-by-Sands , Cumberland on the Scottish border, while on his way to wage another campaign against the Scots under the leadership of Robert the Bruce . According to chroniclers, Edward desired to have his bones carried on Scottish military campaigns, and that his heart be taken to the Holy Land. Against his wishes, Edward was buried in Westminster Abbey in a plain black marble tomb, which in later years was painted with the words Scottorum malleus, Latin for Hammer of the Scots.[7] He was buried in a lead casket wishing to be moved to the usual regal gold casket only when Scotland was fully conquered and part of the Kingdom of England.
On 2 January 1774 , the Society of Antiquaries opened the coffin and discovered that his body had been perfectly preserved for 467 years. His body was measured to be 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm).[8]
To this day he still lies in the lead casket - although the thrones of Scotland and England were united in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I and the accession of James VI of Scotland to the English throne, and the Kingdom of Great Britain was created in 1707 by the Acts of Union 1707 , uniting Scotland and England in an incorporating union, the conquest Edward envisaged was never completed. His son, King Edward II of England , succeeded him...

Issue
Children of Edward and Eleanor:
Eleanor , born ca. 17 June 1264 (or possibly as late as 1269, although the issue rolls of 1302 describe her as Edward's eldest daughter) and died 12 October 1298 . She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon , who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and on 20 September 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar .
Joan, born Summer 1265, either in Paris, or perhaps at Abbeville, Ponthieu. She died in France but was buried at Westminster Abbey before September 7 , 1265 .
John, born at either Windsor or Kenilworth Castle June or July 10 , 1266 , died August 1 or 1271 at Wallingford , in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall . Buried at Westminster Abbey .
Henry , born on July 13 1267/8 at Windsor Castle, died October 14 , 1274 either at Merton, Surrey, or at Guildford Castle.
Alice, born at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, but the date of her birth is unknown. May have died at the age of twelve. Sometimes identified with the child, Isabella, born in March 1279 , but this cannot be correct, as that infant's funeral took place during the same year.
Juliana (also known as Katherine) born at Acre, Palestine, in 1271, and died there on 28 May or 5 September 1271
Joan of Acre . Born at Acre in Spring 1272 and died at her manor of Clare, Suffolk on April 23 , 1307 and was buried in the priory church of the Austin friars, Clare, Suffolk. She married (1) Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , (2) Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer .
Alphonso, Earl of Chester , born either at Bayonne, at Bordeaux, Gascony or at Maine 24 November 1273 , died 14 or 19 August 1284 , at Windsor Castle, buried in Westminster Abbey .
Margaret , born September 11 , 1275 at Windsor Castle and died in 1318, being buried in the Collegiate Church of St. Gudule, Brussels. She married John II of Brabant .
Berengaria (also known as Berenice), born 1 May 1276 at Kempton Palace, Surrey and died on June 27 , 1278 , buried in Westminster Abbey .
Mary, born 11 March or 22 April 1278 at Windsor Castle and died 8 July 1332 , a nun in Amesbury , Wiltshire , England.
Isabella, born on 12 March 1279 , either at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, at Windsor Castle or at Marlbourgh Castle Wiltshire, she died in 1279, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan , born August 1282 at Rhuddlan Castle, Flintshire, Wales, died c.5 May 1316 at Quendon, Essex, in childbirth, and was buried in Walden Abbey, Essex. She married (1) John I, Count of Holland , (2) Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex .
Edward II of England , also known as Edward of Caernarvon , born 25 April 1284 at Caernarvon Castle, Wales, murdered 21 September 1327 at Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire, buried in Gloucester Cathedral. He married Isabella of France .
Beatrice born after 12 August 1286 either in Gascony or in Aquitaine. She died young.
Blanche born in 1289/90 and died young.
Children of Edward and Marguerite:
Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk born 1 June 1300 at Brotherton, Yorkshire, died between the 4 August and 20 September 1338, was buried in the abbey of Bury-St.-Edmunds, married (1) Alice Hayles, with issue; (2) Mary Brewes, with issue.
Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent , 5 August 1301 at Woodstock Palace, Oxon, married Margaret Wake, 3rd Baroness Wake of Liddell with issue. Executed by Isabella of France and Roger Mortimer on the 19 March 1330 following the overthrow of Edward II.
Eleanor, born 4 May 1306 at Winchester, died in 1311 at Amesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, buried in Beaulieu Abbey, Hants.

References
Michael Prestwich , Edward I (London: Methuen, 1988, updated edition Yale University Press , 1997 ISBN 0-300-07209-0 )
Thomas B. Costain, The Three Edwards (Popular Library, 1958, 1962, ISBN 0-445-08513-4 )
The Times Kings & Queens of The British Isles, by Thomas Cussans (page 84, 86, 87) ISBN 0-0071-4195-5
GWS Barrow, Robert Bruce and the community of the realm of scotland 30 31




Research Notes: Wife - Marguerite of France

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 155-30. 36


Research Notes: Child - Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 16-29


Edward I "the Elder" King of England




Husband Edward I "the Elder" King of England 3 4 5




            AKA: Eadweard se Ieldra King of England
           Born: Between 871 and 875 - Wessex, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 17 Jul 924 or 925 - Fardon-on-Dee, Cheshire, England
         Buried:  - New Minster, Winchester, England


         Father: Alfred the Great King of Wessex, King of England (Between 0847/0849-0899) 27 55 56
         Mother: Ealhswith of the Gaini, Queen of the Anglo-Saxons (Abt 0852-0904/0905) 57 58 59


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Ecgwynn (      -      ) - Abt 893

   Other Spouse: Elfreda (Abt 0878-      ) 4 6 7 - 899

   Other Spouse: Eadgifu (Abt 0881-0968) 60 61 - Abt 919

Events

• King of England: 899-924.




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Edward I "the Elder" King of England

From Wikipedia - Edward the Elder :

Edward I the Elder (Old English : se Ieldra) (c. 870 - 17 July 924 ) was King of England (899 - 924 ). He was the son of Alfred the Great (Ælfr se Gr) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith , and became King of Wessex upon his father's death in 899 .

Family
Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda , Queen of the Mercians and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders .

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too.

Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893 , and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric , King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest . [5][6]

When he became king in 899 , Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married Ælfflæd , a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire . [7] Their son was the future king, Ælfweard , and their daughter Eadgyth married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor . The couples other children included five more daughters: Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple ; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great , Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married Conrad King of Burgundy; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. According to the entry on Boleslaus II of Bohemia , the daughter Adiva (referred to in the entry for Eadgyth ) was his wife. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[8] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.

Edward married for a third time, about 919 , to Edgiva , aka Eadgifu,[7] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent . They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred , and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis d'Aveugle, King of Arles.

Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar . William of Malmsbury 's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim. 3 4 5


Sources


1 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 45-17, 147-19.

2 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 45-17.

3 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-15, 45-16.

4 Wikipedia.org, Edward the Elder.

5 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872162.

6 http://www.familysearch.org.

7 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872375.

8 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 45-18.

9 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 192-20, 45-18.

10 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176-2.

11 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176-1.

12 Lee, Sidney, ed, Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. XII (New York, 1909.), p. 1015.

13 Davies, John, A History of Wales. (Rev. ed. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.), p. 81.

14 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176-1 (Llywelyn ap Seisyll).

15 Website - Genealogy, http://www.gencircles.com/users/kristinhopper/4/pedigree/7137.

16 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-4.

17 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-3.

18 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-3 (Aelfgar).

19 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1B-23.

20 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 177-2.

21 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 177-2 (Nesta).

22 Website:, http://wiki.whitneygen.org/wrg/index.php/.

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24 Wikipedia.org, Edward III of England.

25 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 103-34, 1-29 (Edward III).

26 Wikipedia.org, Peter of Castile.

27 Wikipedia.org, Alfred the Great.

28 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 176A-1.

29 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 66-27 (Isabel de Clare).

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31 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-27.

32 Wikipedia.org, Henry III of England.

33 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-26, 17-27.

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35 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 111-30, 1-26 (Henry III).

36 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 155-30.

37 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 110-30.

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39 Wikipedia.org, Ferdinand III of Castile.

40 Wikipedia.org, Jeanne, Countess of Ponthieu.

41 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 109-30.

42 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 8-29.

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44 Wikipedia.org, Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford.

45 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 63-30.

46 Wikipedia.org, Elizabeth of Rhuddlan.

47 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 6-29, 97-31 (Humphrey VIII de Bohun).

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49 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 97-31.

50 Wikipedia.org, Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford.

51 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-28.

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53 Wikipedia.org, Isabella of France.

54 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 101-31, 1-28 (Edward II).

55 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-14, 44-15.

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61 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-15 (Edward I).


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