The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Alfonso IX King of Léon and Berengaria of Castile




Husband Alfonso IX King of Léon 1 2 3

            AKA: Alfonso IX Fernandez King of Leon
           Born: 15 Aug 1171 - Zamora, Léon, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Sep 1230 - Villanueva de Sarria, Lugo, Spain
         Buried: 


         Father: Fernando II King of Léon (1137-1188) 2 4 5
         Mother: Urraca of Portugal (Abt 1150-1188) 2 6 7


       Marriage: 1197

Events

• King of Léon: 1188-1230.

• King of Galicia: 1188-1230.




Wife Berengaria of Castile 2 8 9

            AKA: Berenguela of Castile, Berenguela Queen of Castile
           Born: 1180 - <Burgos, Castile>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Nov 1246 - Burgos, Castile, Spain
         Buried: 

Events

• Queen of Castile: 1217.


Children
1 F Berenguela Princess of Leon and Castile 2

            AKA: Berengaria of Leon
           Born: Abt 1199 - <Léon, Léon>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 12 Apr 1237
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Jean de Brienne King of Jerusalem (Abt 1195-1237) 2 10


2 M Fernando III of Castile King of Castile and Leon 11

            AKA: Saint Ferdinand, San Fernando, Fernando III "el Santo" of Castile
           Born: 5 Aug 1199 - Monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora), (Spain)
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 May 1252 - Seville, Spain
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203-1235) 12
           Marr: Nov 1219 - Royal Monastery of San Zoilo, Carrión de los Condes (Palencia), Spain
         Spouse: Jeanne de Dammartin (Abt 1220-1279) 13 14
           Marr: Oct 1237 - Burgos, Castile, Spain


3 M Alfonso de Molina 15

            AKA: Alfonso of Léon
           Born: 1203
     Christened: 
           Died: 1272
         Buried: 




Birth Notes: Husband - Alfonso IX King of Léon

Ancestral Roots has b. 1171 and b. 1166.


Research Notes: Husband - Alfonso IX King of Léon

Second husband of Berenguela of Castile.

From Wikipedia - Alfonso IX of León :

Alfonso IX (15 August 1171 - 23 September or 24, 1230), was king of León and Galicia , from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death. According to Ibn Khaldun , he is said to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer because he was subject to fits of rage during which he foamed at the mouth.

Alfonso was the only son of King Ferdinand II of León and Urraca of Portugal . He took a part in the work of the reconquest , conquering the whole of Extremadura (including the cities of Cáceres and Badajoz ). He was also the most modern king of his time, founding the University of Salamanca in 1212 and summoning in 1188 the first parliament with representation of the citizenry ever seen in Western Europe, the Cortes of León .

In spite of all the above - some of whose significance became evident only later - this king is often remembered mainly for the difficulties into which his successive marriages led him with the Pope . He was first married in 1191 to his cousin Teresa of Portugal , who bore him two daughters, and a son who died young.

The marriage was declared null by the Pope; however, Alfonso paid no attention until he was presumably tired of his wife. His next step was to marry his second cousin, Berenguela of Castile , in 1197. For this act of contumacy, the king and the kingdom were placed under interdict .

The Pope was, however, compelled to modify his measures by the threat that, if the people could not obtain the services of religion, they would not support the clergy, and that heresy would spread. The king was left under interdict personally, but to that he showed himself indifferent, and he had the support of his clergy. Berenguela left him after the birth of five children, and the king then returned to Teresa, to whose daughters he left his kingdom in his will.

Children
Alfonso's children by Teresa of Portugal were:
1) Fernando (ca. 1192-August 1214, aged around 22), unmarried and without issue
2) Blessed Sancha (ca. 1193-1270)
3) Dulce, also called Aldonza (1194/ca. 1195-ca./aft. 1243), unmarried and without issue

His eldest daughter, Sancha, was engaged to her cousin King Henry I of Castile , but Henry died in 1217 before the marriage could be solemnized. Once the would be inheritor from his first marriage, named Fernando (de Leon y Portugal)who died in 1214, he apparently wanted to disinherit the eldest son from his second marriage, but born around the year 1200, also named Fernando (de Leon y Castilla) , King Alfonso IX invited the quite mature former King Consort of Jerusalem John of Brienne to marry his daughter Sancha and thus inherit the Leonese throne through her.

However, his former second wife, ruling Queen Berenguela of Castile convinced John of Brienne to marry one of her daughters, some 10 years younger than Sancha, instead, named Berenguela of Leon , on account of her father the King of Leon and of her mother divorced Queen Bereguela of Castile .

Though unmarried and pious spinster Sancha was the nominal heiress of Leon-Galicia on her father's death in 1230, Sancha was easily set aside by negotiations, including a good single woman dowry between the former first wife and the former second wife, both divorced from the leonese. Sancha became a nun at Cozollos , where she died in 1270; she was later beatified. Her sister Dulce-Aldonza spent her life with her Consort Queen of Leon mother in Portugal.

Alfonso's children by Berenguela of Castile were:
4)Leonor (1198/1199-31 October 1210)
5)King Fernando III the Saint (1200-1252), named also Fernando III de Castilla y Leon after 1230 when his father Alfonso IX de Leon died.
6)Alfonso, 4th Lord of Molina (1203-1272)
7)Berenguela of Leon (1204-1237), married John of Brienne
8)Constanza (1 May 1200 or 1205-7 September 1242), became a nun at Las Huelgas , Burgos , where she died

Alfonso, father of 3 from his first void marriage and father of another 5 from his second void marriage, also fathered many illegitimate children, some 23 known (3 + 5 + perhaps 15 out of married life, all documented) :

Alfonso's children by Aldonza Martínez da Silva (daughter of Martim Gomes da Silva & Urraca Rodrigues and subsequently wife with issue of Diego Froilaz, Conde de Cifuentes, had issue):
9)Pedro Alfonso of León, 1st Lord of Tenorio (ca. 1196/ca. 1200-1226), Grand Master of Santiago, married N de Villarmayor, and had issue
10)Alfonso Alfonso of León, died yong
11)Fernando Alfonso of León, died young
12)Rodrigo Alfonso of León (ca. 1210-ca. 1267), 1st Lord of Aliger and Governor of Zamora , married ca. 1240 to Inés Rodriguez de Cabrera (ca. 1200-), and had issue
13)Teresa Alfonso of León (ca. 1210-), wife of Nuno Gonzalez de Lara, el Bueno, señor de Lara
14)Aldonza Alonso of León (ca. 1212/ca. 1215-1266), wife, first, of Diego Ramírez Froilaz, nephew of her stepfather, without issue, and, second, of Pedro Ponce de Cabrera , (ca. 1210-), and had issue, ancestors of the notorious Ponce de León family.

Alfonso's child by Inés Iñíguez de Mendoza (ca. 1180-) (daughter of Lope Iñiguez de Mendoza, 1st Lord of Mendoza (ca. 1140-1189) and wife Teresa Ximénez de los Cameros (ca. 1150-)):
15)Urraca Alfonso of León (ca. 1190/ca. 1197-), first wife ca. 1230 of Lopo II Díaz de Haro (1192-15 December 1236), 6th Sovereign Lord of Viscaya, and had issue

Alfonso's child by Estefánia Pérez de Limia , daughter of Pedro Arias de Limia and wife, subsequently wife of Rodrigo Suárez, Merino mayor of Galicia , had issue):
16)Fernando Alfonso of León (ca. 1211-), died young

Alfonso's children by Maua, of unknown origin:
17)Fernando Alfonso of León (ca. 1215/1218/1220-Salamanca , 1278/1279), Archdean of Santiago, married to Aldara de Ulloa and had issue

Alfonso's children by Dona Teresa Gil de Soverosa (ca. 1170-) (daughter of Dom Gil Vasques de Soverosa & first wife Maria Aires de Fornelos):
18)María Alfonso of León (ca. 1190/1200/1222-aft. 1252), married as his second wife Soeiro Aires de Valadares (ca. 1140-) and had issue and Álvaro Fernández de Lara (ca. 1200-) and had female issue, later mistress of her nephew Alfonso X of Castile
19)Sancha Alfonso of León (1210/ca. 1210-1270), a Nun after divorcing without issue Simón Ruíz, Lord of Los Cameros
20)Martín Alfonso of León (ca. 1210/ca. 1225-1274/ca. 1275)
22)Urraca Alfonso of León (ca. 1210/1228-aft.1252, married twice, first to García Romeu of Tormos, without issue, then Pedro Guillén de Guzmán y González Girón

Alfonso's other illegitimate child, mother unknown:
23)Mayor Alfonso de León, married Rodrigo Gómez de Trava, without issue

Alfonso VIII of León was the first King in Western Europe who summoned the citizens to the Parliament (León's Cortes of 1188). He also founded the University of Salamanca in 1208.


Death Notes: Wife - Berengaria of Castile

Ancestral Roots has d. 1246 and d. 1244.


Research Notes: Wife - Berengaria of Castile

Widow of Konrad II of Swabia.

From Wikipedia - Berengaria of Castile :

Berengaria (Castilian : Berengaria; 1180 - 8 November 1246), was briefly queen of Castile and León . The eldest daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England , she was briefly engaged to Conrad II, Duke of Swabia , but he was murdered in 1196 before they could be married.

Marriage
Berengaria married King Alfonso IX of León in 1198, but this was annulled in 1204 by Pope Innocent III because they were second cousins. Berengaria and Alfonso had five children, including one who died in infancy, and when she returned to her father's court in Castile, she brought her children with her to Otella.

Berengaria often found herself politically at odds with her former husband. Alfonso had two daughters, Sancha and Dulce, by his first wife, Theresa of Portugal, and wished to disinherit Berengaria's children in favor of these daughters. To this end, he invited John of Brienne to marry his eldest daughter, Sancha, and thus inherit his kingdom. Berengaria sabotaged this plan by convincing John of Brienne to marry her own daughter, Berengaria of Leon , instead. Later, on 24 September 1230 when Alfonso died, Berengaria and Ferdinand acted to set aside the rights of Sancha and Dulce by offering them a lifetime appanage, which they accepted. This was done so that, with Berengaria's aid, he could assume the Leonese throne.

Queen
When her brother Henry died by accident in 1217, Berengaria became sovereign of Castile. She soon renounced her crown in favor of her son Ferdinand . Thereafter she served as the king's motherly advisor; according to the Cronica Latina , her "total intent and desire being to procure honor for her son in every way possible". Berengaria helped quell the rebellious nobles, and then arranged for Ferdinand to marry a high-born wife, Beatrice of Swabia.

Berengaria maintained strong connections with her sister Blanche , who was Queen of France. It was Blanche who suggested sending Jeanne of Ponthieu as a bride for Ferdinand after his first wife's death.

Children
Her children with Alfonso IX included:
Eleanor (1198/1199-31 October 1210)
King Ferdinand III of Castile (1200-1252)
Alfonso, 4th Lord of Molina (1203-1272)
Berengaria of Leon (1204-1237), married John of Brienne
Constance (1 May 1200 or 1205-7 September 1242), became a nun at Las Huelgas , Burgos , where she died


Research Notes: Child - Berenguela Princess of Leon and Castile

Third wife of Jean de Brienne


Research Notes: Child - Fernando III of Castile King of Castile and Leon

From Wikipedia - Ferdinand III of Castile :

Saint Ferdinand III (August 5 , 1199 - May 30 , 1252 ), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of Galicia and Leon from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale . He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista . In 1231, he permanently united Castile and Galicia -León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish , he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.


St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile . He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba , Zamora ) in 1198 or 1199. His parents' marriage was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms following the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.

Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara . He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).

St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors . Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula . He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada , whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights , the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias . When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian .


The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Morena to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated.[1] Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city.[1] Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church.[2] On 10 March 1241 , Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.

On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos . He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church: that of the friars . Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican , Franciscan , Trinitarian , and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.[3]

The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals - more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests.[4] He was buried within the Cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X . His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian.[5] St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire .

The symbol of his power as a king was his sword Lobera .

Marriages and family

In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203-1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina . Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:
Alfonso X , his successor
Fadrique
Ferdinand (1225-1243/1248)
Eleanor (born 1227), died young
Berenguela (1228-1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas
Henry
Philip (1231-1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway , daughter of Haakon IV of Norway , who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.
Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233-1261)
Juan Manuel , Lord of Villena
Maria, died an infant in November 1235

After he was widowed, he married Jeanne of Dammartin , Countess of Ponthieu , before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:
Ferdinand (1239-1260), Count of Aumale
Eleanor (c.1241-1290), married Edward I of England
Louis (1243-1269)
Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo
John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba


Research Notes: Child - Alfonso de Molina

From Wikipedia - Alfonso of Molina :

Alfonso of Leon, Lord of Molina (1203 - 1272) was the second son of King Alfonso IX of Leon and Berenguela of Castile , and a younger brother of King Ferdinand III of Castile .

In 1240 he gained control of Molina by marrying Mafalda Manrique de Lara, the heiress of Molina. They had a son, Fernando, who died young, and a daughter and heiress, Blanca of Molina.

After Mafalda's death in 1242, Alfonso married Teresa Gonzalez de Lara, who gave him another daughter, Juana. Teresa died in 1246, and Alfonso married for a third time to Mayor Alonso de Meneses. Alfonso and Major had two children: Alfonso, lord of Meneses, and Maria of Molina , who married King Sancho IV of Castile .

Aside from his legitimate children by his three wives, Alfonso also had a number of illegitimate children, including Juan, Bishop of Palencia , and Berenguela, a mistress of King James I of Aragon .


Alfonso V King of Léon and Elvira




Husband Alfonso V King of Léon 2 16

            AKA: Alphonso V King of Léon
           Born: Abt 989 - <Léon, Léon>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 1027
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Elvira 2

           Born: Abt 991 - <Léon, Léon>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Melendo Gonzalez (Abt 0965-      ) 2
         Mother: 




Children
1 F Sancha Princess of Léon 2 16

           Born: Abt 1013 - Léon, Léon, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 Nov 1067
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Ferdinand I King of Castile and Léon (Abt 1018-1065) 2 16
           Marr: Abt Nov 1032 - Léon, Léon, Spain




Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Constance of Burgundy




Husband Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon 2 16 17

            AKA: Alfonso I of Castile
           Born: Bef Jun 1040 - <Burgos, Castile>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Jun 1109 - Toledo, Castile, Spain
         Buried: 


         Father: Ferdinand I King of Castile and Léon (Abt 1018-1065) 2 16
         Mother: Sancha Princess of Léon (Abt 1013-1067) 2 16


       Marriage: 1081

   Other Spouse: Ximena Nunia de Guzman (Abt 1048-1128) 2 18



Wife Constance of Burgundy 19 20

           Born: 1046 - <Burgundy, (France)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 1092
         Buried: 


         Father: Robert "the Old" Duke of Burgundy (Abt 1011-1076) 21 22
         Mother: Hélie (1016-1055) 23




Children
1 F Urraca of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon 2 24 25

            AKA: Urraca of Léon, Urraca I Queen of Léon and Castile, Urraca Alfonsez of Castile and Léon
           Born: Abt 1082 - <Burgos, Castile>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Mar 1126 - Saldana, Palencia, Spain
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Raymond of Burgundy, Count of Amous (Abt 1060-1107) 26 27
           Marr: Abt 1087 - Toledo, Castile, Spain



Birth Notes: Husband - Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon

Ancestral Roots has b. 1039


Research Notes: Husband - Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon

Second husband of Constance of Burgundy.

From Wikipedia - Alfonso VI of León and Castile :

Alfonso VI (before June 1040 - June 29 /July 1 , 1109 ), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile from 1072 following the death of his brother Sancho II . In 1077 he proclaimed himself "Emperor of all Spain ". Much romance has gathered around his name.

Early life
As the second and favorite son of King Ferdinand I of León and Princess Sancha of León , Alfonso was allotted León, while Castile was given to his eldest brother Sancho , and Galicia to his youngest brother García . Sancho was assassinated in 1072. García was dethroned and imprisoned for life the following year.

In the cantar de gesta The Lay of the Cid , he plays the part attributed by medieval poets to the greatest kings, and to Charlemagne himself. He is alternately the oppressor and the victim of heroic and self-willed nobles - the idealized types of the patrons for whom the jongleurs and troubadours sang. He is the hero of a cantar de gesta which, like all but a very few of the early Spanish songs, like the cantar of Bernardo del Carpio and the Infantes of Lara , exists now only in the fragments incorporated in the chronicle of Alfonso the Wise or in ballad form.

His flight from the monastery of Sahagún (Safagún in Leonese language ), where his brother Sancho endeavoured to imprison him, his chivalrous friendship for his host Almamun of Toledo , caballero aunque moro, "a knight although a Moor ", the passionate loyalty of his vassal, Pero (Pedro) Ansúrez, and his brotherly love for his sister Urraca of Zamora , may owe something to the poet who took him as a hero.

They are the answer to the poet of the nobles who represented the king as having submitted to taking a degrading oath at the hands of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid ) to deny intervention in his brother's death in the church of Santa Gadea at Burgos , and as having then persecuted the brave man who defied him.

Marriages and children
Alfonso married at least five times and had two mistresses and a fiancée:

In 1067, two brothers from Iberia are said to have competed for the hand of Agatha , one of the daughters of William I of England and Matilda of Flanders and formerly fiancee of Harold Godwinson . Alfonso proved successful, and was betrothed to Agatha. A nun at the time, Agatha is said to have prayed for death rather than being forced to marry Alphonso, and she died before the marriage could take place.

In 1069, Alfonso married Agnes of Aquitaine , daughter of William VIII of Aquitaine and his second wife Mateoda. They last appear together in May 1077, and then Alfonso appears alone. This suggests that she had died, although Orderic Vitalis reports that in 1109 Alfonso's 'relict' Agnes remarried to Elias I of Maine , leading some to speculate that Alfonso and Agnes had divorced due to consanguinity . It seems more likely that Orderic gave the wrong name to Alfonso's widow, Beatrice. Agnes and Alfonso had no children.

Apparently between his first and second marriages he formed a liaison with Jimena Muñoz , a "most noble" (nobilissima) concubine "derived from royalty" (real generacion). She appears to have been put aside, given land in Ulver, at the time of Alfonso's remarriage. By her Alfonso had two illegitimate daughters, Elvira and Teresa .

His second wife, who he married by May 1080, was Constance of Burgundy , daughter of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy . This marriage initially faced papal opposition, apparently due to her kinship with Agnes. Her reign as queen brought significant Cluniac influences into the kingdom. She died in September or October, 1093, the mother of Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter Urraca , and of five other children who died in infancy.

Either late in Constance's reign or shortly after her death, Alfonso formed a liaison with a second mistress, Zaida of Seville , said by Iberian Muslim sources to be daughter-in-law of Al Mutamid , the Muslim King of Seville. She fled the fall of Seville for Alfonso's kingdom in 1091, and soon became his lover, having by him Alfonso's only son, Sancho , who, though illegitimate was apparently not born of an adulterous relationship, and hence born after the death of Constance. He would be named his father's heir. Several modern sources have suggested that Zaida, baptised under the name of Isabel, is identical with Alfonso's later wife, queen Isabel (or that she was a second queen Isabel who he married in succession to the first). Zaida/Isabel died in childbirth, but the date is unknown, and it is unclear whether the child being delivered was Sancho, an additional illegitimate child, otherwise unknown, or legitimate daughter Elvira (if Zaida was identical to Queen Isabel).

By April 1095, Alfonso married Bertha. Chroniclers report her as being from Tuscany , Lombardy , or alternatively, say she was French. Several theories have been put forward regarding her origin. Based on political considerations, proposals make her daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy or of Amadeus II of Savoy . She had no children and died in late 1099 (Alfonso first appears without her in mid-January 1100).

Within months, by May 1100, Alfonso again remarried, to Isabel, having by her two daughters, Sancha, (wife of Rodrigo González de Lara ), and Elvira , (who married Roger II of Sicily ). A non-contemporary tomb inscription says she was daughter of a "king Louis of France ", but this is chronologically impossible. It has been speculated that she was of Burgundian origin, but others conclude that Alfonso married his former mistress, Zaida, who had been baptized as Isabel. (In a novel twist, Reilly suggested that there were two successive queens named Isabel: first the French (Burgundian) Isabel, mother of Sancha and Elvira, with Alfonso only later marrying his mistress Zaida (Isabel), after the death of or divorce from the first Isabel.) Alfonso was again widowed in mid-1107.

By May 1108, Alfonso married his last wife, Beatrice . She, as widow of Alfonso, is said to have returned home to France, but nothing else is known of her origin unless she is the woman Orderic named as "Agnes, daughter of William, Duke of Poitou", who as relict of Alfonso, (Agnetem, filiam Guillelmi, Pictavorum ducis, relictam Hildefonsi senioris, Galliciae regis), remarried to Elias of Maine. If this is the case, she is likely daughter of William IX of Aquitaine and niece of Alfonso's first wife. Beatrice had no children by Alfonso.

Alfonso's designated successor, his son Sancho, was slain after being routed at the Battle of Uclés in 1108, making Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter, the widowed Urraca as his heir. In order to strengthen her position as his successor, Alfonso began negotiations for her to marry her second cousin, Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre , but died before the marriage could take place, Urraca succeeding.


Death Notes: Wife - Constance of Burgundy

Wikipedia has d. 1093


Research Notes: Wife - Constance of Burgundy

Second wife of Alfonso VI.

From Wikipedia - Constance of Burgundy :

Constance of Burgundy (1046 - 1093), was the daughter of Duke Robert I of Burgundy and Helie de Semur-en-Brionnais .
She built a monastery in Burgos for Adelelmus in 1079. She married Alfonso VI of Castile on May 8 , 1079 . They had two children:
Urraca of Castile (1079 - March 8 , 1126 ).
Elvira of Castile. Considered to have died young.


Research Notes: Child - Urraca of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon

From Wikipedia - Urraca of León and Castile :

Urraca of León (1078 - March 8 , 1126 ) was Queen of León and Castile from 1109 to her death. She was the first woman ever to reign in a western European monarchy. Urraca was the daughter of Alfonso VI of León by his second wife, Constance of Burgundy . She became heiress to her father's kingdom after her only brother was killed in the Battle of Uclés (1108) .
In childhood, she was betrothed to and later married Raymond of Burgundy who died in September 1107. They had two children: the Infante Alfonso Raimúndez (born 1104) and the Infanta Sancha (born before 1095). The widow Urraca was now ruler of Galicia, and as She her father's only surviving legitimate child, she could claim to be heiress of the reign of Castile. King Alfonso VI of León selected the king of Navarre and Aragon, Alfonso I of Aragon as her husband. They had hoped for an alliance that would safeguard the kingdom, since Alfonso was renowned as a great warrior. However, the marriage proved barren and turned exceedingly bitter. According to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir , Alfonso once remarked that "a real soldier lives with men, not with women".

Urraca and Alfonso of Aragon were also second cousins, and Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo , objected to the marriage on these grounds and condemned it as consanguineous . Nevertheless, Urraca and Alfonso were married in October 1109 in Monzón . Their inability to produce a child created a rift, and Urraca accused Alfonso of being physically abusive to her. The royal couple were soon separated. By October of 1110 or 1111, her supporters fought a battle against Alfonso's forces at Candespina , in which her premier nobleman and former aspirant to her hand, count Gómez González , was killed. A further defeat was inflicted at Viadangos , at which Pedro Froilaz de Traba was captured. Their marriage was annulled in 1114. Urraca never remarried, though she took as lover another powerful nobleman, count Pedro González de Lara.

Urraca's reign was disturbed by strife among the powerful nobles and especially by constant warfare with her husband who had seized her lands. Another thorn on her side was her brother-in-law, Henry , the husband of her half-sister Teresa of Leon . He alternatively allied with Alfonso I of Aragon , then betrayed Alfonso for a better offer from Urraca's court. After Henry's death in 1112, his widow, Teresa, still contested ownership of lands with Urraca. With the aid of her son, Alfonso Raimúndez, Urraca was able to win back much of her domain and ruled successfully for many years.
According to the Chronicon Compostellanum , Urraca died in childbirth in 1126. The supposed father was her lover, Count Pedro González of Lara. However the author of the chronicles was openly hostile to the adulterous queen, and the historian Reilly notes that a pregnancy was unlikely at the queen's age of 48. She was succeeded by her legitimate son, Alfonso VII .

Illegitimate children
Besides her two legitimate children by Raymond of Burgundy, Urraca also had an illegitimate son by her lover, Pedro González de Lara. She recognized their son, Fernando Perez Furtado , in 1123.


Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Ximena Nunia de Guzman




Husband Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon 2 16 17

            AKA: Alfonso I of Castile
           Born: Bef Jun 1040 - <Burgos, Castile>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Jun 1109 - Toledo, Castile, Spain
         Buried: 


         Father: Ferdinand I King of Castile and Léon (Abt 1018-1065) 2 16
         Mother: Sancha Princess of Léon (Abt 1013-1067) 2 16


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Constance of Burgundy (1046-1092) 19 20 - 1081



Wife Ximena Nunia de Guzman 2 18

            AKA: Ximena Nuñez de Guzman
           Born: Abt 1048 - <Léon, Léon>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 1128
         Buried: 


         Father: Nuño Rodriguez de Guzman (Abt 1026-      ) 2
         Mother: Ximena Ordonez (Abt 1030-      ) 2




Children
1 F Theresa of Leon and Castile 2

            AKA: Teresa Alfonsez of Léon and Castile
           Born: Abt 1070 - <Toledo, Castile>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Nov 1130
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal (1069-1112) 2 28 29
           Marr: 1093



Birth Notes: Husband - Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon

Ancestral Roots has b. 1039


Research Notes: Husband - Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon

Second husband of Constance of Burgundy.

From Wikipedia - Alfonso VI of León and Castile :

Alfonso VI (before June 1040 - June 29 /July 1 , 1109 ), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile from 1072 following the death of his brother Sancho II . In 1077 he proclaimed himself "Emperor of all Spain ". Much romance has gathered around his name.

Early life
As the second and favorite son of King Ferdinand I of León and Princess Sancha of León , Alfonso was allotted León, while Castile was given to his eldest brother Sancho , and Galicia to his youngest brother García . Sancho was assassinated in 1072. García was dethroned and imprisoned for life the following year.

In the cantar de gesta The Lay of the Cid , he plays the part attributed by medieval poets to the greatest kings, and to Charlemagne himself. He is alternately the oppressor and the victim of heroic and self-willed nobles - the idealized types of the patrons for whom the jongleurs and troubadours sang. He is the hero of a cantar de gesta which, like all but a very few of the early Spanish songs, like the cantar of Bernardo del Carpio and the Infantes of Lara , exists now only in the fragments incorporated in the chronicle of Alfonso the Wise or in ballad form.

His flight from the monastery of Sahagún (Safagún in Leonese language ), where his brother Sancho endeavoured to imprison him, his chivalrous friendship for his host Almamun of Toledo , caballero aunque moro, "a knight although a Moor ", the passionate loyalty of his vassal, Pero (Pedro) Ansúrez, and his brotherly love for his sister Urraca of Zamora , may owe something to the poet who took him as a hero.

They are the answer to the poet of the nobles who represented the king as having submitted to taking a degrading oath at the hands of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid ) to deny intervention in his brother's death in the church of Santa Gadea at Burgos , and as having then persecuted the brave man who defied him.

Marriages and children
Alfonso married at least five times and had two mistresses and a fiancée:

In 1067, two brothers from Iberia are said to have competed for the hand of Agatha , one of the daughters of William I of England and Matilda of Flanders and formerly fiancee of Harold Godwinson . Alfonso proved successful, and was betrothed to Agatha. A nun at the time, Agatha is said to have prayed for death rather than being forced to marry Alphonso, and she died before the marriage could take place.

In 1069, Alfonso married Agnes of Aquitaine , daughter of William VIII of Aquitaine and his second wife Mateoda. They last appear together in May 1077, and then Alfonso appears alone. This suggests that she had died, although Orderic Vitalis reports that in 1109 Alfonso's 'relict' Agnes remarried to Elias I of Maine , leading some to speculate that Alfonso and Agnes had divorced due to consanguinity . It seems more likely that Orderic gave the wrong name to Alfonso's widow, Beatrice. Agnes and Alfonso had no children.

Apparently between his first and second marriages he formed a liaison with Jimena Muñoz , a "most noble" (nobilissima) concubine "derived from royalty" (real generacion). She appears to have been put aside, given land in Ulver, at the time of Alfonso's remarriage. By her Alfonso had two illegitimate daughters, Elvira and Teresa .

His second wife, who he married by May 1080, was Constance of Burgundy , daughter of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy . This marriage initially faced papal opposition, apparently due to her kinship with Agnes. Her reign as queen brought significant Cluniac influences into the kingdom. She died in September or October, 1093, the mother of Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter Urraca , and of five other children who died in infancy.

Either late in Constance's reign or shortly after her death, Alfonso formed a liaison with a second mistress, Zaida of Seville , said by Iberian Muslim sources to be daughter-in-law of Al Mutamid , the Muslim King of Seville. She fled the fall of Seville for Alfonso's kingdom in 1091, and soon became his lover, having by him Alfonso's only son, Sancho , who, though illegitimate was apparently not born of an adulterous relationship, and hence born after the death of Constance. He would be named his father's heir. Several modern sources have suggested that Zaida, baptised under the name of Isabel, is identical with Alfonso's later wife, queen Isabel (or that she was a second queen Isabel who he married in succession to the first). Zaida/Isabel died in childbirth, but the date is unknown, and it is unclear whether the child being delivered was Sancho, an additional illegitimate child, otherwise unknown, or legitimate daughter Elvira (if Zaida was identical to Queen Isabel).

By April 1095, Alfonso married Bertha. Chroniclers report her as being from Tuscany , Lombardy , or alternatively, say she was French. Several theories have been put forward regarding her origin. Based on political considerations, proposals make her daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy or of Amadeus II of Savoy . She had no children and died in late 1099 (Alfonso first appears without her in mid-January 1100).

Within months, by May 1100, Alfonso again remarried, to Isabel, having by her two daughters, Sancha, (wife of Rodrigo González de Lara ), and Elvira , (who married Roger II of Sicily ). A non-contemporary tomb inscription says she was daughter of a "king Louis of France ", but this is chronologically impossible. It has been speculated that she was of Burgundian origin, but others conclude that Alfonso married his former mistress, Zaida, who had been baptized as Isabel. (In a novel twist, Reilly suggested that there were two successive queens named Isabel: first the French (Burgundian) Isabel, mother of Sancha and Elvira, with Alfonso only later marrying his mistress Zaida (Isabel), after the death of or divorce from the first Isabel.) Alfonso was again widowed in mid-1107.

By May 1108, Alfonso married his last wife, Beatrice . She, as widow of Alfonso, is said to have returned home to France, but nothing else is known of her origin unless she is the woman Orderic named as "Agnes, daughter of William, Duke of Poitou", who as relict of Alfonso, (Agnetem, filiam Guillelmi, Pictavorum ducis, relictam Hildefonsi senioris, Galliciae regis), remarried to Elias of Maine. If this is the case, she is likely daughter of William IX of Aquitaine and niece of Alfonso's first wife. Beatrice had no children by Alfonso.

Alfonso's designated successor, his son Sancho, was slain after being routed at the Battle of Uclés in 1108, making Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter, the widowed Urraca as his heir. In order to strengthen her position as his successor, Alfonso began negotiations for her to marry her second cousin, Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre , but died before the marriage could take place, Urraca succeeding.


Research Notes: Wife - Ximena Nunia de Guzman

Mistress of Alfonso VI


Research Notes: Child - Theresa of Leon and Castile

Natural daughter of Alkfonso VI by his mistress Ximena Nunia de Guzman.


Alfonso VII King of Castile and Léon and Berenguela of Barcelona




Husband Alfonso VII King of Castile and Léon 2 30 31

            AKA: Alfonso Raimundez, Alfonso VII of Léon and Castile, Alfonso VII Emperor of Spain, Alfonso VII "Pierre-Raimund" King of Castile and Leon and Galicia
           Born: 1 Mar 1105 - Toledo, Castile, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 21 Aug 1157 - La Fresneda, Teruel, Aragon, Spain
         Buried:  - Catedral De Toledo, Toledo, Castile


         Father: Raymond of Burgundy, Count of Amous (Abt 1060-1107) 26 27
         Mother: Urraca of Castile, Queen of Castile and Léon (Abt 1082-1126) 2 24 25


       Marriage: Nov 1128

Events

• King of Galicia: 1111-1157, Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.

• King of León and Castile: 10 Mar 1126-21 Aug 1157.

• Emperor of All the Spains: 1135-1157, Cathedral of Léon.




Wife Berenguela of Barcelona 2 32

            AKA: Berenguela Raimundo de Barcelona
           Born: Abt 1116 - <Barcelona, Aragon>, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 3 Feb 1149 - Palencia, Léon, Spain
         Buried: 


         Father: Raymond III Berenger Count of Barcelona (1080/1082-1131) 2
         Mother: Dulce Aldonza Milhaud (Abt 1095-1190) 2 33




Children
1 M Sancho III of Castile 34 35

            AKA: Sancho "el Deseado" of Castile
           Born: 1134
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 Aug 1158
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Blanca Garcés of Navarre (After 1133-1156) 36 37
           Marr: 30 Jan 1151 - Catahorra, Logroño


2 M Fernando II King of Léon 2 4 5

            AKA: Ferdinand II King of Léon, Fernando II Alfonsez King of Léon
           Born: 1137 - Toledo, Castile, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 22 Jan 1188 - Benavente, Zamora, Castile, Spain
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Urraca of Portugal (Abt 1150-1188) 2 6 7
           Marr: Abt Jun 1165 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal


3 F Sancha

           Born: 1137
     Christened: 
           Died: 1179
         Buried: 



4 F Constance

           Born: 1141
     Christened: 
           Died: 1160
         Buried: 




Death Notes: Husband - Alfonso VII King of Castile and Léon

FamilySearch has d. in La Fresneda, Teruel, Aragon. Wikipedia (?) has Sierra Morena.


Research Notes: Husband - Alfonso VII King of Castile and Léon

Second husband of Berenguela of Barcelona.

From Wikipedia - Alfonso VII of León and Castile :
Alfonso VII (1 March 1105 - 21 August 1157 ), called the Emperor, became the King of Galicia in 1111 and King of León and Castile in 1126. He was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains " in 1135. He was the son of Urraca of León and Raymond of Burgundy , the first of the House of Burgundy to rule in Hispania .

Alfonso was a dignified and somewhat enigmatic figure. His rule was characterised by the renewed supremacy of the western kingdoms of Christian Hispania over the eastern (Navarre and Aragón ) after the reign of Alfonso the Battler . He also sought to make the imperial title meaningful in practice, though his attempts to rule over both Christian and Muslim populations was even less successful. His hegemonic intentions never saw fruition, however. During his tenure, Portugal became de facto independent, in 1128, and was recognized as de jure independent, in 1143. He was a patron of poets, including, probably, the troubadour Marcabru .

Succession to three kingdoms
In 1111, Diego Gelmírez , Bishop of Compostela , and the count of Traba crowned Alfonso King of Galicia in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela . He was but a child at the time, but his mother had already (1109) succeeded to the united throne of León-Castile-Galicia and desired to assure her son's prospects and groom him for his eventual succession. By 1125 he had inherited the formerly Muslim Kingdom of Toledo . On 10 March 1126 , after the death of his mother, he was crowned in León and immediately began the recovery of the Kingdom of Castile , which was then under the domination of Alfonso the Battler. By the Peace of Támara of 1127, the Battler recognised Alfonso VII of Castile. The territory in the far east of his dominion, however, had gained much independence during the rule of his mother and experienced many rebellions. After his recognition in Castile, Alfonso fought to curb the autonomy of the local barons.

When Alfonso the Battler, King of Navarre and Aragón , died without descendants in 1134, he willed his kingdom to the military orders . The aristocracy of both kingdoms did not accept this and García Ramírez , Count of Monzón was elected in Navarre while Alfonso pretended to the throne of Aragón. The nobles chose another candidate in the dead king's brother, Ramiro II . Alfonso responded by occupying La Rioja , conquering Zaragoza , and governing both realms in unison. From this point, the arms of Zaragoza began to appear in those of León.

In several skirmishes, he defeated the joint Navarro-Aragonese army and put the kingdoms to vassalage. He had the strong support of the lords north of the Pyrenees , who held lands as far as the River Rhône . In the end, however, the combined forces of the Navarre and Aragón were too much for his control. At this time, he helped Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona , in his wars with the other Catalan counties to unite the old Marca Hispanica .

Imperial rule
A vague tradition had always assigned the title of emperor to the sovereign who held León. Sancho the Great considered the city the imperiale culmen and minted coins with the inscription Imperator totius Hispaniae after being crowned in it. Such a sovereign was considered the most direct representative of the Visigothic kings, who had been themselves the representatives of the Roman Empire . But though appearing in charters, and claimed by Alfonso VI of León and Alfonso the Battler , the title had been little more than a flourish of rhetoric.

In 1135, Alfonso was crowned "Emperor of All the Spains" in the Cathedral of León . By this, he probably wished to assert his authority over the entire peninsula and his absolute leadership of the Reconquista . He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity which Hispania had never possessed since the fall of the Visigothic kingdom. The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together. The weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective, although Afonso I of Portugal never recognised him as liege , thereby affirming Portugal's independence. In 1143, he himself recognised this status quo and consented to the marriage of Petronila of Aragon with Ramon Berenguer IV , a union which combined Aragon and Catalonia into the Crown of Aragon .

Family
In November 1128, he married Berenguela , daughter of Ramon Berenguer III. She died in 1149. Their children were:
Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158)
Ramon, living 1136, died in infancy
Ferdinand II of León (1137-1188)
Constance (c.1138-1160), married Louis VII of France
Sancha (c.1139-1179), married Sancho VI of Navarre
García (c.1142-1145/6)
Alfonso (c.1144-by 1149)
In 1152, Alfonso married Richeza of Poland , the daughter of Ladislaus II the Exile . They had:
Ferdinand, (1153-1157)
Sancha (1155-1208), the wife of Alfonso II of Aragón .

Alfonso also had two mistresses, having children by both. By an Asturian noblewoman named Guntroda Pérez , he had an illegitimate daughter, Urraca (1132-1164), who married García Ramírez of Navarre , the mother retiring to a convent in 1133. Later in his reign, he formed a liaison with Urraca Fernández, widow of count Rodrigo Martínez and daughter of Fernando García of Hita, an apparent grandson of García Sánchez III of Navarre , having a daughter Stephanie 'the Unfortunate' (1148-1180), who was killed by her jealous husband, Fernan Ruiz de Castro.


Death Notes: Wife - Berenguela of Barcelona

FamilySearch has d. 2 Feb 1148/1149


Research Notes: Child - Sancho III of Castile

From Wikipedia - Sancho III of Castile :

Sancho III of Castile (1134 - 31 August 1158) was King of Castile and Toledo for one year, from 1157 to 1158. During the Reconquista , in which he took an active part, he founded the Order of Calatrava . He was called el Deseado (the Desired) due to his position as the first child of his parents, born after eight years of childless marriage.
He was the eldest son of King Alfonso VII of Castile and Berenguela of Barcelona . During his father's reign, he appears as "king of Nájera " as early as 1149. His father's will partitioned the kingdom between his two sons: Sancho inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Toledo, and Fernando inherited Leon. The two brothers had just signed a treaty when Sancho suddenly died in the summer of 1158, being buried at Toledo. He had married in 1151 to Blanca of Navarre , daughter of García Ramírez of Navarre , having two sons, his successor Alfonso VIII of Castile , and infante García, who died at birth in 1156, apparently also resulting in the death of Blanca. There may also have been an older son who died in infancy.


Research Notes: Child - Fernando II King of Léon

From Wikipedia - Ferdinand II of León :

Ferdinand II (1137 - 22 January 1188) was King of León and Galicia from 1157 to his death.

Born in Toledo , he was the son of King Alfonso VII of Castile and León and of Berenguela , of the House of Barcelona . His father divided his kingdoms upon his death, with Ferdinand receiving León and Galicia , and another son, Sancho , receiving Castile and Toledo . Ferdinand earned the reputation of a good knight and hard fighter, but did not display political or organising faculty.

His reign of thirty years was one of strife marked by no signal success or reverse. He had to contend with his unruly nobles, several of whom he put to death. During the minority of his nephew, Alfonso VIII of Castile , he endeavoured to impose himself on the kingdom as regent . On the west he was in more or less constant strife with the Kingdom of Portugal , which had separated from León in 1139. His relations with the Portuguese House of Burgundy must have suffered by his repudiation of his wife Urraca , daughter of King Afonso I of Portugal . Though he took the King of Portugal prisoner in 1169, he made no political use of his success. He extended his dominions southward in Extremadura at the expense of the Moors .

Family

By Urraca, married, around 1165, Ferdinand had his son and successor:
Alfonso IX .

Following her repudiation, he formed a relationship with Theresa Fernández de Traba, daughter of count Fernando Pérez de Traba, and in August 1179 he married her, having:
Ferdinand (1178-1187), legitimized through his parents' subsequent marriage
child, b. and d. 6 February 1180, whose birth led to the death of its mother
H
e then formed a liaison with Urraca López de Haro, daughter of Lópe Díaz de Haro, who he married in May 1187, having:
García (1182-1184)
Alfonso, b.1184, legitimized through the subsequent marriage of his parents, died before his father.
Sancho (1186-1220), lord of Fines


Alfonso VIII "the Noble" King of Castile and Eleanor of England




Husband Alfonso VIII "the Noble" King of Castile 38 39

            AKA: Alfonso VIII "the Good" King of Castile, El de las Navas
           Born: 11 Nov 1155
     Christened: 
           Died: 5 Oct 1214
         Buried: 


         Father: Sancho III of Castile (1134-1158) 34 35
         Mother: Blanca Garcés of Navarre (After 1133-1156) 36 37


       Marriage: Sep 1180

Events

• King of Castile: 1158-1214.




Wife Eleanor of England 40 41

            AKA: Leonora of England and Aquitaine
           Born: 13 Oct 1162 - Domfront, Normandy
     Christened: 
           Died: 31 Oct 1214
         Buried: 


         Father: Henry II "Curtmantel" King of England (1132-1189)
         Mother: Eleanor of Aquitaine (Abt 1124-1204)




Children
1 F Blanche of Castile 42 43




            AKA: Blanca de Castilla
           Born: 4 Mar 1188 - Palencia, (Palencia, Castile-Léon), Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 26 Nov 1252 - Paris, Île-de-France, France
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Louis VIII King of France (1187-1226) 44 45
           Marr: 23 May 1200



Research Notes: Husband - Alfonso VIII "the Noble" King of Castile

From Wikipedia - Alfonso VIII of Castile :
Alfonso VIII (11 November 1155 - 5 October 1214 ), called the Noble or el de las Navas, was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and King of Toledo [1]. He is most remembered for his part in the Reconquista and the downfall of the Almohad Caliphate . After having suffered a great defeat with his own army at Alarcos against the Almohads, he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohads in the Battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212, an event which marked the arrival of an irreversible tide of Christian supremacy on the Iberian peninsula .
His reign saw the domination of Castile over León and, by his alliance with Aragon, he drew those two spheres of Christian Iberia into close connection.


Regency and civil war
Alfonso was born to Sancho III of Castile and Blanca , daughter of García Ramírez of Navarre , in Soria on 11 November 1155. He was named after his grandfather Alfonso VII . His early life resembled that of other medieval kings. His father died in 1158 when his mother was also dead. Though proclaimed king when only three years of age, he was regarded as a mere name by the unruly nobles to whom a minority was convenient. Immediately, Castile was plunged into conflicts between the various noble houses vying for ascendancy in the inevitable regency. The devotion of a squire of his household, who carried him on the pommel of his saddle to the stronghold of San Esteban de Gormaz , saved him from falling into the hands of the contending factions. The noble houses of Lara and Castro both claimed the regency, as did the boy's uncle, Ferdinand II of León . In March 1160 the former two families met at the Battle of Lobregal and the Castro were victorious.
Alfonso was put in the custody of the loyal village Ávila . At barely fifteen, he came forth to do a man's work by restoring his kingdom to order. It was only by a surprise that he recovered his capital Toledo from the hands of the Laras.

[edit ] Reconquista
In 1174, he ceded Uclés to the Order of Santiago and afterwards this became the order's principal seat. From Uclés, he began a campaign which culminated in the reconquest of Cuenca in 1177. The city surrendered on 21 September , the feast of Saint Matthew , ever afterwards celebrated by the citizens of the town.
Alfonso took the initiative to ally all the major Christian kingdoms of the peninsula - Navarre , León , Portugal , and Aragon - against the Almohads . By the Treaty of Cazola of 1179, the zones of expansion of each kingdom were defined.
After founding Plasencia (Cáceres ) in 1186, he embarked on a major initiative to unite the Castilian nobility around the Reconquista. In that year, he recuperated part of La Rioja from the Kingdom of Navarre .
In 1195, after the treaty with the Almohads was broken, he came to the defence of Alarcos on the river Guadiana , then the principal Castilian town in the region. At the subsequent Battle of Alarcos , he was roundly defeated by the caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansur . The reoccupation of the surrounding territory by the Almohads was quickly commenced with Calatrava falling first. For the next seventeen years, the frontier between Moor and Castilian was fixed in the hill country just outside Toledo.
Finally, in 1212, through the mediation of Pope Innocent III , a crusade was called against the Almohads. Castilians under Alfonso, Aragonese and Catalans under Peter II , Navarrese under Sancho VII , and Franks under the archbishop Arnold of Narbonne all flocked to the effort. The military orders also lent their support. Calatrava first, then Alarcos, and finally Benavente were captured before a final battle was fought at Las Navas de Tolosa near Santa Elena on 16 July . The caliph Muhammad an-Nasir was routed and Almohad power broken.

[edit ] Cultural legacy

Tombs of Alfonso and Eleanor
Alfonso was the founder of the first Spanish university, a studium generale at Palencia , which, however, did not survive him. His court also served as an important instrument for Spanish cultural achievement. His marriage (Burgos , September 1180) with Eleanor (Leonora), daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine , brought him under the influence of the greatest governing intellect of his time. Troubadours and sages were always present, largely due to the influence of Eleanor.
Alfonso died at Gutierre-Muñoz and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Henry I , named after his maternal grandfather.


[edit ] Children
With Eleanor, (Leonora of England ) he had 11 children:
Berenguela , or Berengaria, (August 1180 - 8 November 1246 ), married Alfonso IX of Leon
Sancho (1181)
Sancha (1182 - 3 February 1184 )
Henry (1184)
Urraca (1186 - 1220), married Alfonso II of Portugal
Blanch (4 March 1188 - 26 November 1252 ), married Louis VIII of France
Ferdinand (29 September 1189 - 1211), on whose behalf Diego of Acebo and the future Saint Dominic travelled to Denmark in 1203 to secure a bride[2]
Mafalda (1191 - 1204)
Constance (1195 - 1243), abbess of Santa María la Real of Las Huelgas
Eleanor (1200 - 1244), married James I of Aragon
Henry I (14 April 1204 - 1217), successor


Birth Notes: Wife - Eleanor of England

Ancestral Roots has b. 1162 and b. 1161


Research Notes: Wife - Eleanor of England

From Wikipedia - Eleanor of England (1162-1214) :

Eleanor of England (known in Castilian as Leonora; 13 October 1162 - 31 October 1214) was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile .

She was born in the castle at Domfront , Normandy , and was baptised by Henry of Marcy . She was the sixth child and second daughter of King Henry II of England and his wife Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine . Her godfather was the chronicler Robert of Torigny , who had a special interest in her and recorded her life as best he could. She received her first name as a namesake of her mother, whose name "Eleanor" (or Alienor) had previously been unrecorded though may have been related to the Greek Helen or the Italian Elena . Another view holds that in the Occitan language , Eleanor simply meant "the other Aenor," since Eleanor of Aquitaine was named for her mother, called Aenor .

Eleanor was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France . She was a younger sister of William IX, Count of Poitiers , Henry the Young King , Matilda, Duchess of Saxony , Richard I of England and Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany . She was also an older sister of Joan of Sicily and John of England .

When she was eighteen years old, in September 1180, she was married to Alfonso VIII . The marriage was arranged to secure the Pyrennean border, with Gascony offered as her dowry.

Of all Eleanor of Aquitaine's daughters, her namesake Eleanor best inherited her mother's political influence. She was almost as powerful as her husband, who specified in his will that she was to rule alongside their son in the event of his death. It was she who persuaded him to marry their daughter Berenguela to the king of Leon in the interest of peace.

When Alfonso died, his queen was reportedly so devastated with grief that she was unable to preside over the burial. Their daughter Berenguela instead performed these honors. Leonora then took sick and died only twenty-eight days after her husband, and was buried at Las Huelgas abbey in Burgos.

Children
Berenguela, Queen of Castile (August 1180 - 8 November 1246 ), married King Alfonso IX of Leon
Sancho of Castile (born & died 1181)
Sancha of Castile (1182 - 3 February 1184 )
Henry of Castile (born & died 1184)
Urraca of Castile (1186-1220), married King Alfonso II of Portugal
Blanca of Castile (4 March 1188 - 26 November 1252 ), married King Louis VIII of France
Fernando of Castile (29 September 1189 - 1211)
Mafalda of Castile (1191-1204)
Constance of Castile (1195-1198)
Constanza, nun at Las Huelgas (1201-1243)
Eleanor of Castile , married King James I of Aragon
Henry I, King of Castile (14 April 1204 - 1217)


Notes: Marriage

Ancestral Roots has m. 1177.


Death Notes: Child - Blanche of Castile

Ancestral Roots 113-28 has d. 27 Nov. 1252


Research Notes: Child - Blanche of Castile

From Wikipedia - Blanche of Castile :

Blanche of Castile (Blanca de Castilla in Spanish ; 4 March 1188 - 26 November 1252), wife of Louis VIII of France . She was born in Palencia , Spain , the third daughter of Alfonso VIII , king of Castile , and of Eleanor of England . Eleanor was a daughter of Henry II of England and his Queen consort Eleanor of Aquitaine .

Biography
In consequence of a treaty between Philip Augustus and John of England , Blanche's sister Urraca was betrothed to the former's son, Louis. Their grandmother Eleanor, upon getting acquainted with the two sisters, judged that Blanche's personality was more fit for a queen of France. In the spring of 1200 she brought her to France instead. On 22 May 1200 the treaty was finally signed, John ceding with his niece the fiefs of Issoudun and Gracay , together with those that André de Chauvigny , lord of Châteauroux, held in Berry , of the English crown. The marriage was celebrated the next day, at Portmort on the right bank of the Seine , in John's domains, as those of Philip lay under an interdict.
Blanche first displayed her great qualities in 1216, when Louis, who on the death of John claimed the English crown in her right, invaded England, only to find a united nation against him. Philip Augustus refused to help his son, and Blanche was his sole support. The queen established herself at Calais and organized two fleets, one of which was commanded by Eustace the Monk , and an army under Robert of Courtenay ; but all her resolution and energy were in vain. Although it would seem that her masterful temper exercised a sensible influence upon her husband's gentler character, her role during his reign (1223-1226) is not well known.
Upon his death he left Blanche regent and guardian of his children. Of her twelve or thirteen children, six had died, and Louis, the heir - afterwards the sainted Louis IX - was but twelve years old.
The situation was critical, for the hard-won domains of the house of Capet seemed likely to fall to pieces during a minority. Blanche had to bear the whole burden of affairs alone, to break up a league of the barons (1226), and to repel the attack of the king of England (1230). But her energy and firmness overcame all dangers.
There was an end to the calumnies circulated against her, based on the poetical homage rendered her by Count Theobald IV of Champagne , a.k.a. KingTheobald I of Navarre since 1234, and the prolonged stay in Paris of the papal legate, Romano Bonaventura , cardinal of Sant' Angelo. The nobles were awed by her warlike preparations or won over by adroit diplomacy, and their league was broken up. St Louis owed his realm to his mother, but he himself always remained somewhat under the spell of her imperious personality.
After he came of age, in 1234, aged 20, her influence upon him may still be traced. The same year, he was married, and Blanche became Queen mother . Louis IX married Marguerite of Provence, who was the eldest of four daughters of Ramon, count of Provence, and Beatrice of Savoy. In 1248 Blanche again became Queen regent, during Louis IX's absence on the crusade, a project which she had strongly opposed. In the disasters which followed she maintained peace, while draining the land of men and money to aid her son in the East. At last her strength failed her. She fell ill into a bale of hay at Melun in November 1252, and was taken to Paris , but lived only a few days. She was buried at Maubuisson .

[edit ] Issue
Blanche (1205-1206).
Agnes (b. and d. 1207).
Philippe (9 September 1209 - July 1218), married (or only betrothed) in 1217 to Agnes of Donzy.
Alphonse (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213).
John (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213), twin of Alphonse.
Louis IX (Poissy, 25 April 1214 - 25 August 1270, Tunis), King of France as successor to his father.
Robert (25 September 1216 - 9 February 1250, killed in battle, Manssurah, Egypt)
Philippe (2 January 1218-1220).
John Tristan (21 July 1219-1232), Count of Anjou and Maine.
Alphonse (Poissy, 11 November 1220 - 21 August 1271, Corneto), Count of Poitou and Auvergne, and by marriage, of Toulouse.
Philippe Dagobert (20 February 1222-1232).
Isabel (14 April 1225 - 23 February 1269).
Charles Etienne (21 March 1226 - 7 January 1285), Count of Anjou and Maine, by marriage Count of Provence and Folcalquier, and King of Sicily.


Alfonso X "El Sabio" King of Galicia, Castile and León and Mayor Guillén de Guzmán




Husband Alfonso X "El Sabio" King of Galicia, Castile and León 46

            AKA: Alfonso X of Castile King of Galicia, Castile and León
           Born: 23 Nov 1221 - Toledo, Castile, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 4 Apr 1284 - Seville, Spain
         Buried: 


         Father: Fernando III of Castile King of Castile and Leon (1199-1252) 11
         Mother: Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203-1235) 12


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Yolanda of Aragon (1236-1301) 47 - 26 Dec 1246 - Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain



Wife Mayor Guillén de Guzmán 48

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Beatrice of Castile 48




            AKA: Beatriz de Castilla
           Born: 1242
     Christened: 
           Died: 1303
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Afonso III King of Portugal and the Algarve (1210-1279)
           Marr: 1253



Research Notes: Husband - Alfonso X "El Sabio" King of Galicia, Castile and León

From Wikipedia - Alfonso X of Castile :

Alfonso X (Toledo, Spain , November 23, 1221 - April 4, 1284 in Seville, Spain ) was a Castilian monarch who ruled as the King of Castile , León and Galicia from 1252 until his death. He also was elected King of the Germans (formally King of the Romans ) in 1257, though the Papacy prevented his confirmation.

He established Castilian as a language of higher learning, founded universities such as the University of Toledo ) and earned his nicknames (Spanish : 'el Sabio', Galician : 'O Sabio') ("the Wise" or "the Learned") and (Spanish : 'el Astrólogo', Galician : 'O Astrólogo') ("the Astronomer") through his own prolific writings, including Galician-Portuguese poetry .

Life

Alfonso was the eldest son of Ferdinand III of Castile and Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen , through whom he was a cousin of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor , to whom Alfonso is often compared. His maternal grandparents were Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina .

Ruler
As a ruler, Alfonso showed legislative capacity, and a wish to provide the kingdoms expanded under his father with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system. The Fuero Real was undoubtedly his work. He began medieval Europe's most comprehensive code of law, the Siete Partidas , which, however, thwarted by the nobility of Castile, was only promulgated by his great-grandson. Because of this, and because the Partidas remain fundamental law in the American Southwest, he is one of the 23 lawmakers depicted in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol .

Alfonso "turned to the vernacular for the kind of intellectual commitments that formerly were inconceivable outside Latin ."[2] He was the first king who initiated the use of the Castilian language extensively, although his father, Fernando III, had begun to use it for some documents, instead of Latin, as the language used in courts, churches, and in books and official documents.

Throughout his reign, Alfonso contended with the nobles, particularly the families of Nuño González de Lara , Diego López de Haro and Esteban Fernández de Castro, all of whom were formidable soldiers and instrumental in maintaining Castile's military strength in frontier territories. According to some scholars, Alfonso lacked the singleness of purpose required by a ruler who would devote himself to organization, and also the combination of firmness with temper needed for dealing with his nobles.[3] Others have argued that his efforts were too singularly focused on the diplomatic and financial arrangements surrounding his bid for Holy Roman Emperor .

Alfonso's descent from the Hohenstaufen through his mother, a daughter of the emperor Philip of Swabia, gave him a claim to represent the Swabian line. Alfonso's election by the prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire in 1257 misled him into wild schemes that involved excessive expense but never took effect. To obtain money, he debased the coinage and then endeavoured to prevent a rise in prices by an arbitrary tariff . The little trade of his dominions was ruined, and the burghers and peasants were deeply offended. His nobles, whom he tried to cow by sporadic acts of violence, rebelled against him.

Music
Alfonso X commissioned or co-authored numerous works of music during his reign. These works included Cantigas d'escarnio e maldicer and the vast compilation Cantigas de Santa Maria ("Songs to the Virgin Mary"), which was written in Galician-Portuguese and figures among the most important of his works. The Cantigas form one of the largest collections of vernacular monophonic songs to survive from the Middle Ages . They consist of 420 poems with musical notation. The poems are for the most part on miracles attributed to the Virgin Mary . One of the miracles Alfonso relates is his own healing in Puerto de Santa María .

Lineage
Alfonso's eldest son, Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile , died in 1275 when Morocco and Granada invaded Castile, leaving two infant sons. Alfonso's second son, Sancho , claimed to be the new heir, in preference to the children of Ferdinand de la Cerda, basing his claim on an old Castilian custom, that of proximity of blood and agnatic seniority . Alfonso preferred to leave the throne to his grandsons, but Sancho had the support of the nobility. A bitter civil war broke out resulting in Alfonso's being forced in 1282 to accept Sancho as his heir instead of his young grandsons. Son and nobles alike supported the Moors when he tried to unite the nation in a crusade; and when he allied himself with Abu Yusuf Yakub , the ruling Marinid Sultan of Morocco , they denounced him as an enemy of the faith. A reaction in his favor was beginning in his later days, but he died defeated and deserted at Seville , leaving a will, by which he endeavored to exclude Sancho, and a heritage of civil war.

Family
In 1246, Alfonso X married Violante of Aragon , the daughter of King James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary in 1249, although betrothed already in 1246. Because of her young age (Violante was only 10 years old at the time of the marriage), she produced no children for several years and it was feared that she was barren. Alfonso almost had their marriage annulled, but they went on to have ten children:
Fernando, died in infancy, and buried in Las Huelgas in Burgos .
Berengaria of Castile (1253 - after 1284). She was betrothed to Louis, the son and heir of King Louis IX of France , but her fiance died prematurely in 1260. She entered the convent in Las Huelgas, where she was living in 1284.
Beatriz of Castile (1254-1280). She married William VII, Marquess of Montferrat .
Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile (October 23, 1255 - July 25, 1275). He married Blanche, the daughter of King Louis IX of France, by whom he had two children. Because he predeceased his father, his younger brother Sancho inherited the throne.
Leonor of Castile (1257-1275)
Urraca of Castile (1256-?). She married Pedro Nunez de Guzman y Manzanedo .
Sancho IV of Castile (May 13, 1258 - 1295)
Constanza of Castile (1258 - August 22, 1280), a nun at Las Huelgas.
Pedro of Castile (June 1260 - October 10, 1283)
Juan of Castile, Lord of Valencia (March or April, 1262 - June 25, 1319).
Isabella, died young.
Violante of Castile (1265-1296). She married Diego Lopez de Haro
Jaime of Castile (August 1266 - August 9, 1284)

Alfonso X also had several illegitimate children. His illegitimate daughter, Beatriz de Castilla , married King Afonso III of Portugal . An illegitimate son, Martin, was Abbot of Valladolid.


Research Notes: Wife - Mayor Guillén de Guzmán

Mistress of Alfonso X.


Research Notes: Child - Beatrice of Castile

From Wikipedia - Beatrice of Castile (1242-1303) :

Beatrice Alfonso of Castile-León (1242-1303) was the second Queen consort of Afonso III of Portugal . She was an illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X of Castile and his mistress Mayor Guillén de Guzmán.
She was married to Afonso III in 1253. Earlier that year he had divorced his first wife, Matilda II of Boulogne , because she was unable to provide him with an heir and was considered infertile. The bride was about eleven years old and the groom was 32 years old. They had the following children:


Alfonso X "El Sabio" King of Galicia, Castile and León and Yolanda of Aragon




Husband Alfonso X "El Sabio" King of Galicia, Castile and León 46

            AKA: Alfonso X of Castile King of Galicia, Castile and León
           Born: 23 Nov 1221 - Toledo, Castile, Spain
     Christened: 
           Died: 4 Apr 1284 - Seville, Spain
         Buried: 


         Father: Fernando III of Castile King of Castile and Leon (1199-1252) 11
         Mother: Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203-1235) 12


       Marriage: 26 Dec 1246 - Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain

   Other Spouse: Mayor Guillén de Guzmán (      -      ) 48



Wife Yolanda of Aragon 47

            AKA: Violant of Aragon, Violante of Aragon
           Born: 1236 - Zaragoza, Aragon (Zaragoza), (Spain)
     Christened: 
           Died: 1301 - Roncevalles
         Buried: 


         Father: James I of Aragon (1208-1276) 49
         Mother: Violant of Hungary (Abt 1216-1253) 50


Events

• Queen consort of Castile and León: 1252-1284.


Children
1 M Sancho IV "El Bravo" of Castile 51

           Born: 13 May 1258
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 Apr 1295 - Toledo, Castile, Spain
         Buried: 
         Spouse: María de Molina (Abt 1265-1321) 52



Research Notes: Husband - Alfonso X "El Sabio" King of Galicia, Castile and León

From Wikipedia - Alfonso X of Castile :

Alfonso X (Toledo, Spain , November 23, 1221 - April 4, 1284 in Seville, Spain ) was a Castilian monarch who ruled as the King of Castile , León and Galicia from 1252 until his death. He also was elected King of the Germans (formally King of the Romans ) in 1257, though the Papacy prevented his confirmation.

He established Castilian as a language of higher learning, founded universities such as the University of Toledo ) and earned his nicknames (Spanish : 'el Sabio', Galician : 'O Sabio') ("the Wise" or "the Learned") and (Spanish : 'el Astrólogo', Galician : 'O Astrólogo') ("the Astronomer") through his own prolific writings, including Galician-Portuguese poetry .

Life

Alfonso was the eldest son of Ferdinand III of Castile and Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen , through whom he was a cousin of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor , to whom Alfonso is often compared. His maternal grandparents were Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina .

Ruler
As a ruler, Alfonso showed legislative capacity, and a wish to provide the kingdoms expanded under his father with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system. The Fuero Real was undoubtedly his work. He began medieval Europe's most comprehensive code of law, the Siete Partidas , which, however, thwarted by the nobility of Castile, was only promulgated by his great-grandson. Because of this, and because the Partidas remain fundamental law in the American Southwest, he is one of the 23 lawmakers depicted in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol .

Alfonso "turned to the vernacular for the kind of intellectual commitments that formerly were inconceivable outside Latin ."[2] He was the first king who initiated the use of the Castilian language extensively, although his father, Fernando III, had begun to use it for some documents, instead of Latin, as the language used in courts, churches, and in books and official documents.

Throughout his reign, Alfonso contended with the nobles, particularly the families of Nuño González de Lara , Diego López de Haro and Esteban Fernández de Castro, all of whom were formidable soldiers and instrumental in maintaining Castile's military strength in frontier territories. According to some scholars, Alfonso lacked the singleness of purpose required by a ruler who would devote himself to organization, and also the combination of firmness with temper needed for dealing with his nobles.[3] Others have argued that his efforts were too singularly focused on the diplomatic and financial arrangements surrounding his bid for Holy Roman Emperor .

Alfonso's descent from the Hohenstaufen through his mother, a daughter of the emperor Philip of Swabia, gave him a claim to represent the Swabian line. Alfonso's election by the prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire in 1257 misled him into wild schemes that involved excessive expense but never took effect. To obtain money, he debased the coinage and then endeavoured to prevent a rise in prices by an arbitrary tariff . The little trade of his dominions was ruined, and the burghers and peasants were deeply offended. His nobles, whom he tried to cow by sporadic acts of violence, rebelled against him.

Music
Alfonso X commissioned or co-authored numerous works of music during his reign. These works included Cantigas d'escarnio e maldicer and the vast compilation Cantigas de Santa Maria ("Songs to the Virgin Mary"), which was written in Galician-Portuguese and figures among the most important of his works. The Cantigas form one of the largest collections of vernacular monophonic songs to survive from the Middle Ages . They consist of 420 poems with musical notation. The poems are for the most part on miracles attributed to the Virgin Mary . One of the miracles Alfonso relates is his own healing in Puerto de Santa María .

Lineage
Alfonso's eldest son, Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile , died in 1275 when Morocco and Granada invaded Castile, leaving two infant sons. Alfonso's second son, Sancho , claimed to be the new heir, in preference to the children of Ferdinand de la Cerda, basing his claim on an old Castilian custom, that of proximity of blood and agnatic seniority . Alfonso preferred to leave the throne to his grandsons, but Sancho had the support of the nobility. A bitter civil war broke out resulting in Alfonso's being forced in 1282 to accept Sancho as his heir instead of his young grandsons. Son and nobles alike supported the Moors when he tried to unite the nation in a crusade; and when he allied himself with Abu Yusuf Yakub , the ruling Marinid Sultan of Morocco , they denounced him as an enemy of the faith. A reaction in his favor was beginning in his later days, but he died defeated and deserted at Seville , leaving a will, by which he endeavored to exclude Sancho, and a heritage of civil war.

Family
In 1246, Alfonso X married Violante of Aragon , the daughter of King James I of Aragon and Yolande of Hungary in 1249, although betrothed already in 1246. Because of her young age (Violante was only 10 years old at the time of the marriage), she produced no children for several years and it was feared that she was barren. Alfonso almost had their marriage annulled, but they went on to have ten children:
Fernando, died in infancy, and buried in Las Huelgas in Burgos .
Berengaria of Castile (1253 - after 1284). She was betrothed to Louis, the son and heir of King Louis IX of France , but her fiance died prematurely in 1260. She entered the convent in Las Huelgas, where she was living in 1284.
Beatriz of Castile (1254-1280). She married William VII, Marquess of Montferrat .
Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile (October 23, 1255 - July 25, 1275). He married Blanche, the daughter of King Louis IX of France, by whom he had two children. Because he predeceased his father, his younger brother Sancho inherited the throne.
Leonor of Castile (1257-1275)
Urraca of Castile (1256-?). She married Pedro Nunez de Guzman y Manzanedo .
Sancho IV of Castile (May 13, 1258 - 1295)
Constanza of Castile (1258 - August 22, 1280), a nun at Las Huelgas.
Pedro of Castile (June 1260 - October 10, 1283)
Juan of Castile, Lord of Valencia (March or April, 1262 - June 25, 1319).
Isabella, died young.
Violante of Castile (1265-1296). She married Diego Lopez de Haro
Jaime of Castile (August 1266 - August 9, 1284)

Alfonso X also had several illegitimate children. His illegitimate daughter, Beatriz de Castilla , married King Afonso III of Portugal . An illegitimate son, Martin, was Abbot of Valladolid.


Research Notes: Wife - Yolanda of Aragon

From Wikipedia - Violant of Aragon :

Violant or Violante of Aragon, also known as Yolanda of Aragon (1236 - 1301) Queen consort of Castile and León (1252-1284).

She was born in Zaragoza , the daughter of King James I of Aragon (1213-1276) and his second wife the queen Yolande of Hungary (ca.1215-1253). Her maternal grandparents were Andrew II of Hungary and Violant of Courtenay.

On December 26, 1246 she married in Valladolid with the future King Alfonso X of Castile and Leon (1221-1284). Because of her youth (Violante was only 10 years old at the time of the marriage), she produced no children for several years and it was feared that she was barren. The oft-repeated claim that Alfonso almost had their marriage annulled is untrue, and they went on to have twelve children:
Fernando, died in infancy, and buried in Las Huelgas in Burgos .
Berengaria of Castile (1253-after 1284). She was betrothed to Louis, the son and heir of King Louis IX of France , but her fiance died prematurely in 1260. She entered the convent in Las Huelgas , where she was living in 1284.
Beatriz of Castile (1254-1280). She married William VII, Marquess of Montferrat .
Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile (October 23, 1255-July 25, 1275). He married Blanche , the daughter of King Louis IX of France , by whom he had two children. Because he predeceased his father, his younger brother Sancho inherited the throne.
Leonor of Castile (1257-1275)
Sancho IV of Castile (May 13, 1258-1295)
Constanza of Castile (1258-August 22, 1280), a nun at Las Huelgas.
Pedro of Castile (June 1260-October 10, 1283)
Juan of Castile, Lord of Valencia (March or April, 1262-June 25, 1319).
Isabella, died young.
Violante of Castile (1265-1296). She married Diego Lopez de Haro
Jaime of Castile (August 1266-August 9, 1284)

She died at Roncevalles .


Research Notes: Child - Sancho IV "El Bravo" of Castile

From Wikipedia - Sancho IV of Castile :

Sancho IV the Brave (1257 or 1258 - 25 April 1295 , Toledo ) was the king of Castile , León and Galicia from 1284 to his death. He was the second son of Alfonso X and Yolanda , daughter of James I of Aragon .

His elder brother, Ferdinand de la Cerda , died in November 1275, and in 1282 Sancho assembled a coalition of nobles to declare for him against Ferdinand's son Alfonso, then took control of the kingdom when Alfonso X died in 1284. This was all against the wishes of their father, but Sancho was crowned in Toledo nevertheless.

Sancho was recognised and supported by the majority of the nobility and the cities, but a sizable minority opposed him throughout his reign and worked for the heirs of Ferdinand de la Cerda. One of the leaders of the opposition was Don Juan, his uncle, who united to his cause the lord of Vizcaya, Lope Díaz III de Haro. Sancho responded by executing the lord of Vizcaya and incarcerating his uncle. According to the chroniclers, he cemented his hold on power by executing 4,000 other followers of the infante Alfonso, son of Ferdinand de la Cerda, in Badajoz . He executed 400 more in Talavera and much more als in Ávila and Toledo.

Upon dispensing with this opposition, Sancho pardoned his uncle, who was released. Don Juan bided his time before fomenting revolt again: the conflict over Tarifa . He called in the aid of the Marinids of Morocco and besieged Guzmán the Good in his castle (1291). At this siege occurred that famous act of heroism, the innocent death of the son of Guzmán. Tarifa was faithfully defended until Sancho could rescue it and the Marinids retreated to Morocco. The intent of both Don Juan and the king of Morocco (to invade) was foiled.

When James II succeeded to the Crown of Aragon , he endeavoured to bind the two crowns more closely and to unite in the Reconquista . Indeed, both of James predecessors had tried to do likewise. Sancho was also the friend and tutor of Juan Manuel, Lord of Villena .

Just before succumbing to a fatal illness, he appointed his queen, María de Molina , to act as regent for his nine year-old son, Ferdinand IV . He died in 1295 in Toledo .

Family
Sancho married Maria de Molina in 1282 and they had the following children:
Isabella of Castile (1283-1328). Married first James II of Aragon and secondly John III, Duke of Brittany .
Ferdinand IV (1285-1312).
Alfonso (1286-1291)
Peter (1290-1319) married Maria daughter of James II of Aragon
Enrique (1288-1299)
Felipe (1292-1327). Married his cousin Margarita de la Cerda , daughter of Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile .
Beatrice of Castile (1293-1359). Married Afonso IV of Portugal .


Alfonso XI of Castile, King of Castile and Leon and Maria of Portugal




Husband Alfonso XI of Castile, King of Castile and Leon

           Born: 13 Aug 1311
     Christened: 
           Died: 26-27 Mar 1350
         Buried: 


         Father: Ferdinand IV of Castile (1285-1312)
         Mother: Constance of Portugal (1290-1313)


       Marriage: 



Wife Maria of Portugal 53 54

           Born: 9 Feb 1313
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Jan 1357 - Évora
         Buried:  - Seville Cathedral, Seville, Spain


         Father: Afonso IV "the Brave" King of Portugal and the Algarve (1291-1357) 53
         Mother: Beatrice of Castile (1293-1359) 55




Children
1 M Peter I "the Cruel" King of Castile 53 56

            AKA: Pedro "the Cruel" King of Castile, Pedro "the Lawful" King of Castille
           Born: 30 Aug 1334
     Christened: 
           Died: 23 Mar 1369
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Maria de Padilla (1334-1361) 53 56



Research Notes: Husband - Alfonso XI of Castile, King of Castile and Leon

Wikipedia (Alfonso XI of Castile)


Burial Notes: Wife - Maria of Portugal

Buried in the Chapel of the Kings.


Research Notes: Wife - Maria of Portugal

From Wikipedia - Maria of Portugal :

Infanta Maria of Portugal (Portuguese pronunciation: [m?'?i?] ) was a Portuguese infanta (princess), first daughter of King Afonso IV of Portugal and his first wife Beatrice of Castile . Her maternal grandparents were Sancho IV of Castile and María de Molina .

She was born on 9 February 1313 and became Queen consort of Castile by marriage to Alfonso XI in 1328. She was the mother of Pedro of Castile .

She died in Évora on 18 January 1357 and is buried in the Chapel of the Kings in the Seville Cathedral .


Research Notes: Child - Peter I "the Cruel" King of Castile

From Wikipedia - Peter of Castile :

Peter or Pedro (30 August 1334 - 23 March 1369), sometimes called the Cruel (el Cruel or O Cruel) or the Lawful (Spanish : 'el Justiciero', Galician : 'O Justiçeyro', was the king of Castile from 1350 to 1369. He was the son of Alfonso XI and Maria of Portugal , daughter of Afonso IV of Portugal . He was the last ruler of the main branch of the House of Burgundy .

Legacy and reputation
Popular memory generally views Pedro as a vicious monster. Much of Pedro's reputation comes from the works of the chronicler López de Ayala who served Pedro's usurper. After time passed, there was a reaction in Pedro's favour, and an alternative name was found for him. It became a fashion to speak of him as El Justiciero, the executor of justice (the Lawful). Apologists were found to say that he had only killed men who themselves would not submit to the law or respect the rights of others. Pedro did have his supporters. Even Ayala confessed that the king's fall was regretted by the merchants, who enjoyed security under his rule. The English, who backed Pedro, also remembered the king positively. Geoffrey Chaucer visited Castile during Pedro's reign and lamented the monarch's death in The Monk's Tale , part of The Canterbury Tales . (Chaucer's patron, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster , fought on Pedro's side in his struggle to reclaim the throne.)

Early life
Pedro began to reign at the age of sixteen, and found himself subjected to the control of his mother and her favourites. Pedro was to be married to Joan Plantagenet , the daughter of Edward III of England , but on the way to Castile, she travelled through cities infested with plague , ignoring townspeople who had warned her not to enter the town. Joan soon contracted the disease and died.

He was unfaithful to his wife, as his father had been. But Alfonso XI did not imprison his wife, or cause her to be murdered, which Pedro did. He had not even the excuse that he was passionately in love with his mistress, María de Padilla ; for, at a time when he asserted that he was married to her, and when he was undoubtedly married to Blanca of Bourbon , he went through the form of marriage with a lady of the family of Castro, who bore him a son, and then deserted her. María de Padilla was the only lady of his harem of whom he never became quite tired.

At first he was controlled by his mother, but emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Albuquerque and became attached to María de Padilla, marrying her in secret in 1353. María turned him against Albuquerque. In the summer of 1353 the king was practically coerced by his mother and the nobles into marrying Blanca of Bourbon, but deserted her at once. This marriage necessitated Pedro's denying that he had married María, but his relationship with her continued and she bore him four children. A period of turmoil followed in which the king was for a time overpowered and in effect imprisoned. The dissension within the party striving to coerce him enabled him to escape from Toro , where he was under observation, to Segovia .

Wars with Aragon
From 1356 to 1366 he engaged in constant wars with Aragon in the "War of the Two Peters ", in which he showed neither ability nor daring. It was during this period that he perpetrated the series of murders which made him notorious. In 1366 began the calamitous Castilian Civil War which would see him dethroned. He was assailed by his bastard brother Henry of Trastamara at the head of a host of soldiers of fortune, including Bertrand du Guesclin and Hugh Calveley , and abandoned the kingdom without daring to give battle, after retreating several times (first from Burgos , then from Toledo , and lastly from Seville ) in the face of the oncoming armies. Peter fled, with his treasury, to Portugal, where he was coldly received by his uncle, King Pedro I of Portugal , and thence to Galicia , in the northern Iberian Peninsula , where he ordered the murder of Suero, the archbishop of Santiago , and the dean , Peralvarez.

Peter and anti-Semitism
Henry continuously depicted Pedro as "King of the Jews," and had some success in taking advantage of Castilian anti-Semitism . He instigated pogroms, beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots and forced conversions in Castile that lasted approximately from 1370 to 1390. Peter took forceful measures against this, including the execution of at least five leaders of a riot by boiling and roasting.

Death
In the summer of 1366, Peter took refuge with Edward the Black Prince , who restored him to his throne in the following year after the Battle of Nájera . But he disgusted his ally with his faithlessness and ferocity, as well as his failure to repay the costs of the campaign, as he had promised to do. The health of the Black Prince broke down, and he left the Iberian Peninsula . Left to his own resources, Peter was soon overthrown by his brother Henry, with the aid of Bertrand du Guesclin and a body of French and English free companions[?]. After Pedro's decisive loss at the Battle of Montiel , he was murdered by Henry in du Guesclin's tent on March 23 , 1369 .

Pedro's daughters by María de Padilla, Constance and Isabella , were both married to sons of Edward III , King of England, Constance to John of Gaunt and Isabella to Edmund of Langley .




Alfred the Great King of Wessex, King of England and Ealhswith of the Gaini, Queen of the Anglo-Saxons




Husband Alfred the Great King of Wessex, King of England 57 58 59




            AKA: Ælfred King of the Anglo-Saxons, Ælfred se Greata King of the Anglo-Saxons


           Born: Between 847 and 849 - Wantage, Berkshire, England
     Christened: 


           Died: 26 Oct 899
         Buried:  - Old Minster [New Minster], Wessex, [Winchester, ] England


         Father: Æthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent (Between 0795/0800-0858) 60 61
         Mother: Osburga (Abt 0805-After 0876) 58 62 63


       Marriage: 869

Events

• King of England: 871-899.




Wife Ealhswith of the Gaini, Queen of the Anglo-Saxons 64 65 66

            AKA: Aethelwitha, Ealswitha of the Gaini
           Born: Abt 852 - Mercia <Gaines, Lincolnshire, England>
     Christened: 
           Died: 5 Dec 904 or 905
         Buried:  - St. Mary's Abbey, Winchester, Hampshire, England


         Father: Æthelred Mucill Ealdorman of the Gaini (      -      ) 67
         Mother: Edburga (      -      )




Children
1 F Ælfthryth of Wessex 68 69 70 71

            AKA: Ælflaeda, Ælfreda, Elfleda, Elfrida Countess of Flanders, Ethelswith of Wessex
           Born: Abt 869 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: 9 Jun 929
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Baldwin II Count of Flanders and Artois (Abt 0864-0918) 2 72 73 74
           Marr: 884


2 M Edward I "the Elder" King of England 75 76 77




            AKA: Eadweard se Ieldra King of England
           Born: Between 871 and 875 - Wessex, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 17 Jul 924 or 925 - Fardon-on-Dee, Cheshire, England
         Buried:  - New Minster, Winchester, England
         Spouse: Ecgwynn (      -      )
           Marr: Abt 893
         Spouse: Elfreda (Abt 0878-      ) 2 76 78
           Marr: 899
         Spouse: Eadgifu (Abt 0881-0968) 79 80
           Marr: Abt 919


3 F Ethelfleda Queen of Mercia 2 58

            AKA: Æthelflaeda Queen of the Mercians
           Born: Abt 877 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 12 Jun 918 - Tamworth, Mercia (Staffordshire, England) 81
         Buried:  - St. Peter's, Gloucestershire, England
         Spouse: Ethelred Duke of Mercia (Abt 0865-0912) 2


4 F Æthelgiva Abbess of Shaftesbury 58

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



5 F Æthelwærd 58

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Oct 922
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Alfred the Great King of Wessex, King of England

King of England 871-899.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871980:(b. abt 846, d. 26 Oct 899) :

Alfred the Great, King of England 871-899. The only English King to be known as "the Great", Alfred acceded to the throne of Wessex upon the death of his brother Aethelred in 871. Over the next few years he spent much time fighting off Viking invasions. After routing the Great Army of the Vikings in 878, Alfred signed the Treaty of Wedmore with its leader Guthrum, dividing England along a line running roughly north-west from London to Chester. Alfred ruled to the south of this line and was recognised overlord of the area to the north, known as Danelaw. Further Viking incursions followed until, in 886, Alfred captured London and was finally accepted by Saxon and Dane alike as King of all England. Alfred reformed and codified Saxon law, promoted a revival in learning and instigated the compilation of the famous 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle', a 1,200 year history of England from before Julius Caesar's invasion in 55 B.C. As a boy, Alfred was taken twice to visit the Pope in Rome. He learned to read and write in his teens and he developed a profound interest in learning and a reverence of religion. Alfred devoted much of his energy to reviving the schools and monasteries, and translating important Latin works into Anglo-Saxon himself, notably Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation' and St. Augustine's 'Sililoquies.'

! 'The Kings and Queens of England and Scotland' pgs.
12-13


Father: Aethelwulf UNKNOWN b: Bef 0797 in ,France
Mother: Osburga UNKNOWN b: Abt 0805 in ,Hampshire,England

Marriage 1 Aethelwitha UNKNOWN b: Abt 0849 in Gaines,Lincolnshire,England
Married: 0868/0869
Note: _UID01D80C94B92194489CF33DFC6AC9FE83ABAC
Children
Aelfreda UNKNOWN b: Abt 0869 in ,England
Aethelflaeda UNKNOWN b: Abt 0877 in ,England
Edward UNKNOWN b: Abt 0871/0872

-----------

From Wikipedia - Alfred the Great :

Alfred the Great (also Ælfred from the Old English Ælfr pronounced [ (c. 849 - 26 October 899 ) was king of the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred is noted for his defence of the kingdom against the Danish Vikings , becoming the only English King to be awarded the epithet "the Great".[1] Alfred was the first King of the West Saxons to style himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons ". Details of his life are discussed in a work by the Welsh scholar Asser . Alfred was a learned man, and encouraged education and improved his kingdom's law system as well as its military structure.

Childhood
Further information: House of Wessex family tree
Alfred was born sometime between 847 and 849 at Wantage in the present-day ceremonial county of Oxfordshire (then in the historic county of Berkshire ). He was the fifth and youngest son of King Æthelwulf of Wessex , by his first wife, Osburga .[2] In 868 Alfred married Ealhswith, daughter of Ethelred Mucill, who is called ealdorman of the Gaini, an unidentified district.[3]


At five years old, Alfred is said to have been sent to Rome where, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , he was confirmed by Pope Leo IV who "anointed him as king." Victorian writers interpreted this as an anticipatory coronation in preparation for his ultimate succession to the throne of Wessex. However, this coronation could not have been foreseen at the time, since Alfred had three living elder brothers. A letter of Leo IV shows that Alfred was made a "consul " and a misinterpretation of this investiture, deliberate or accidental, could explain later confusion.[4] It may also be based on Alfred later having accompanied his father on a pilgrimage to Rome and spending some time at the court of Charles the Bald , King of the Franks , around 854-855. On their return from Rome in 856, Æthelwulf was deposed by his son Æthelbald. Æthelwulf died in 858 , and Wessex was ruled by three of Alfred's brothers in succession.

Asser tells the story about how as a child Alfred won a prize of a volume of poetry in English, offered by his mother to the first of her children able to memorize it. This story may be true, or it may be a myth designed to illustrate the young Alfred's love of learning.

Under Ethelred
During the short reigns of his two eldest brothers, Æthelbald and Ethelbert , Alfred is not mentioned. However with the accession of the third brother, Ethelred I , in 866, the public life of Alfred began. It is during this period that Asser applies to him the unique title of "secundarius", which may indicate a position akin to that of the Celtic tanist, a recognized successor closely associated with the reigning monarch. It is possible that this arrangement was sanctioned by the Witenagemot , to guard against the danger of a disputed succession should Ethelred fall in battle. The arrangement of crowning a successor as Royal prince and military commander is well-known among Germanic tribes , such as the Swedes and Franks , with whom the Anglo-Saxons had close ties.

In 868, Alfred is recorded fighting beside his brother Ethelred, in an unsuccessful attempt to keep the invading Danes out of the adjoining Kingdom of Mercia . For nearly two years, Wessex was spared attacks because Alfred paid the Vikings to leave him alone. However, at the end of 870, the Danes arrived in his homeland. The year that followed has been called "Alfred's year of battles". Nine martial engagements were fought with varying fortunes, though the place and date of two of the battles have not been recorded. In Berkshire, a successful skirmish at the Battle of Englefield , on 31 December 870 , was followed by a severe defeat at the Siege and Battle of Reading , on 5 January 871 , and then, four days later, a brilliant victory at the Battle of Ashdown on the Berkshire Downs , possibly near Compton or Aldworth . Alfred is particularly credited with the success of this latter conflict. However, later that month, on 22 January , the English were again defeated at Basing and, on the following 22 March at the Battle of Merton (perhaps Marden in Wiltshire or Martin in Dorset ) in which Ethelred was killed. The two unidentified battles may also have occurred in between.

Family
In 868, Alfred married Ealhswith , daughter of Ealdorman of the Gaini (who is also known as Aethelred Mucill), who was from the Gainsborough region of Lincolnshire . She appears to have been the maternal granddaughter of a King of Mercia . They had five or six children together, including Edward the Elder , who succeeded his father as King of Wessex , Ethelfleda , who would become Queen of Mercia in her own right, and Ælfthryth who married Baldwin II the Count of Flanders .

Death, burial and Legacy
Alfred died on 26 October . The actual year is not certain, but it was not necessarily 901 as stated in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. How he died is unknown. He was originally buried temporarily in the Old Minster in Winchester , then moved to the New Minster (perhaps built especially to receive his body). When the New Minster moved to Hyde, a little north of the city, in 1110, the monks transferred to Hyde Abbey along with Alfred's body. His grave was apparently excavated during the building of a new prison in 1788 and the bones scattered. However, bones found on a similar site in the 1860s were also declared to be Alfred's and later buried in Hyde churchyard. Extensive excavations in 1999 revealed what is believed to be his grave-cut, that of his wife Eahlswith, and that of their son Edward the Elder but barely any human remains.[13]


Research Notes: Wife - Ealhswith of the Gaini, Queen of the Anglo-Saxons


From Wikipedia - Ealhswith :

Ealhswith (or Ealswitha) of the Gaini was born c. 852 in Mercia . Her name means "Temple strength".

Her father was Æthelred Mucil, Ealdorman of the Gaini. She was married in 868 , to Alfred the Great , king of Wessex . The children of Alfred and Ealhswith included Edward the Elder , later king of Wessex, Ælfthryth , who married Baldwin II, Count of Flanders , and Ethelfleda , who ruled as Lady of the Mercians.
After Alfred's death in 899 , Ealhswith became a nun . She died on 5 December 905 , and is buried in St. Mary's Abbey , Winchester , Hampshire .
Also ref. History of the Anglo-Saxons (1831 ) by Sir Francis Palgrave for more details on her husband Alfred the Great .


Death Notes: Child - Ælfthryth of Wessex

Ancestral Roots has d. 7 June 929 and d. 9 June 929


Research Notes: Child - Ælfthryth of Wessex

From Wikipedia - Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders

Ælfthryth, also known as Elfrida, (died 929), was the last child of Alfred the Great , the Saxon King of England and his wife Ealhswith . She had four or five siblings, including KingEdward the Elder and Ethelfleda .

Ælfthryth married Baldwin II (d. 918), Count of Flanders . One of their descendants, Matilda of Flanders (d. 1083), would go on to marry William the Conqueror , therefore starting the Anglo-Norman line of Kings of England . Through her descendant, Henry I of England , she is also a direct ancestor of the current monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , Elizabeth II .


Research Notes: Child - Edward I "the Elder" King of England

From Wikipedia - Edward the Elder :

Edward I the Elder (Old English : se Ieldra) (c. 870 - 17 July 924 ) was King of England (899 - 924 ). He was the son of Alfred the Great (Ælfr se Gr) and Alfred's wife, Ealhswith , and became King of Wessex upon his father's death in 899 .

Family
Edward had four siblings, including Ethelfleda , Queen of the Mercians and Ælfthryth, Countess of Flanders .

King Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages, and may have had illegitimate children too.

Edward married (although the exact status of the union is uncertain) a young woman of low birth called Ecgwynn around 893 , and they became the parents of the future King Athelstan and a daughter who married Sihtric , King of Dublin and York in 926. Nothing is known about Ecgwynn other than her name, which was not even recorded until after the Conquest . [5][6]

When he became king in 899 , Edward set Ecgwynn aside and married Ælfflæd , a daughter of Æthelhelm, the ealdorman of Wiltshire . [7] Their son was the future king, Ælfweard , and their daughter Eadgyth married Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor . The couples other children included five more daughters: Edgiva aka Edgifu, whose first marriage was to Charles the Simple ; Eadhild, who married Hugh the Great , Duke of Paris; Ælfgifu who married Conrad King of Burgundy; and two nuns Eadflæd and Eadhild. According to the entry on Boleslaus II of Bohemia , the daughter Adiva (referred to in the entry for Eadgyth ) was his wife. A son, Edwin Ætheling who drowned in 933[8] was possibly Ælfflæd's child, but that is not clear.

Edward married for a third time, about 919 , to Edgiva , aka Eadgifu,[7] the daughter of Sigehelm, the ealdorman of Kent . They had two sons who survived infancy, Edmund and Edred , and two daughters, one of whom was Saint Edburga of Winchester the other daughter, Eadgifu, married Louis d'Aveugle, King of Arles.

Eadgifu outlived her husband and her sons, and was alive during the reign of her grandson, King Edgar . William of Malmsbury 's history De antiquitate Glastonie ecclesiae claims that Edward's second wife, Aelffaed, was also alive after Edward's death, but this is the only known source for that claim.


Birth Notes: Child - Ethelfleda Queen of Mercia

FamilySearch has b. abt. 869, Wessex


Research Notes: Child - Ethelfleda Queen of Mercia

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874915
and
Wikipedia - Alfred the Great


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72. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 162-17.

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74. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871978.

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76. Wikipedia.org, Edward the Elder.

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80. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-15 (Edward I).

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48 Wikipedia.org, Beatrice of Castile (1242–1303).

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76 Wikipedia.org, Edward the Elder.

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81 Ingram, James, translator, The Annales Cambriae 447-954 (The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. London: Everyman Press, 1912.), 917 Queen Aethelflaed died.


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