The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Private and Private




Husband Private (details suppressed for this person)

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         Father: Private
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife Private (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
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         Father: Private
         Mother: Hecuba (      -      )




Children
1 M Private (details suppressed for this person)

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Research Notes: Husband - Aenius King of Latium [Mythological]

From Wikipedia - Aeneas :

In Greco-Roman mythology , Aeneas (Greek : Aineķas; pronounced /?'ni??s/ in English ) was a Trojan hero, the son of prince Anchises and the goddess Venus . His father was also the second cousin of King Priam of Troy. The journey of Aeneas from Troy, (led by Venus, his mother) which led to the founding of the city Rome , is recounted in Virgil 's Aeneid . He is considered an important figure in Greek and Roman legend and history. Aeneas is a character in Homer 's Iliad , Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica , and Shakespeare 's Troilus and Cressida . Also, Aeneas has been known for his skills in combat during the battle of Troy. He also was one of the keys to the founding of Rome.

Mythology
In the Iliad , Aeneas is the leader of the Dardanians (Trojans - descendants of Dardanus), and a principal lieutenant of Hector , son of the Trojan king Priam . In the poem, Aeneas's mother Aphrodite frequently comes to his aid on the battlefield; he is also a favorite of Apollo . Aphrodite and Apollo rescue Aeneas from combat with Diomedes of Argos , who nearly kills him, and carry him away to Pergamos for healing. Even Poseidon , who normally favors the Greeks, comes to Aeneas's rescue when the latter falls under the assault of Achilles , noting that Aeneas, though from a junior branch of the royal family, is destined to become king of the Trojan people.


As seen in the first books of the Aeneid, Aeneas is one of the few Trojans who were not killed in battle or enslaved when Troy fell. When Troy was sacked by the Greeks, Aeneas, after being commanded by the gods to flee, gathered a group, collectively known as the Aeneads , who then traveled to Italy and became progenitors of the Romans . The Aeneads included Aeneas's trumpeter Misenus , his father Anchises , his friends Achates , Sergestus and Acmon , the healer Lapyx, the steady helmsman Palinurus , and his son Ascanius (also known as Iulus, Julus, or Ascanius Julius.) He carried with him the Lares and Penates , the statues of the household gods of Troy, and transplanted them to Italy.


(From here on, the Greek myths make room for the Roman mythology, so the Roman names of the gods will be used.) After a brief, but fierce storm sent up against the group at Juno 's request, and several failed attempts to found cities, Aeneas and his fleet made landfall at Carthage after six years of wanderings. Aeneas had a year long affair with the Carthaginian queen Dido (also known as Elissa), who proposed that the Trojans settle in her land and that she and Aeneas reign jointly over their peoples. Once again, this was in favour of Juno, who was told of the fact that her favorite city would eventually be defeated by the Trojans' descendants. However, the messenger god Mercury was sent by Jupiter and Venus to remind Aeneas of his journey and his purpose, thus compelling him to leave secretly and continue on his way. When Dido learned of this, she ordered her sister Anna to construct a pyre, she said, to get rid of Aeneas' possessions, left behind by him in his haste to leave. Standing on it, Dido uttered a curse that would forever pit Carthage against Rome. She then committed suicide by stabbing herself with the same sword she gave Aeneas when they first met and then falling on the pyre. Anna reproached the mortally wounded Dido. Meanwhile, Juno, looking down on the tragedy and moved by Dido's plight, sent Iris to make Dido's passage to Hades quicker and less painful. When Aeneas later traveled to Hades, he called to her ghost but she neither spoke to nor acknowledged him.


The company stopped on the island of Sicily during the course of their journey. After the first trip, before the Trojans went to Carthage, Achaemenides , one of Odysseus ' crew who had been left behind, traveled with them. After visiting Carthage, the Trojans returned to Sicily where they were welcomed by Acestes , king of the region and son of the river Crinisus by a Dardanian woman.


Latinus , king of the Latins , welcomed Aeneas's army of exiled Trojans and let them reorganize their life in Latium . His daughter Lavinia had been promised to Turnus , king of the Rutuli , but Latinus received a prophecy that Lavinia would be betrothed to one from another land - namely, Aeneas. Latinus heeded the prophecy, and Turnus consequently declared war on Aeneas at the urging of Juno, who was aligned with King Mezentius of the Etruscans and Queen Amata of the Latins. Aeneas' forces prevailed. Turnus was killed and his people were captured. According to Livy , Aeneas was victorious but Latinus died in the war. Aeneas founded the city of Lavinium , named after his wife. He later welcomed Dido's sister, Anna Perenna , who then committed suicide after learning of Lavinia's jealousy.

After his death, his mother, Venus asked Jupiter to make her son immortal. Jupiter agreed and the river god Numicus cleansed Aeneas of all his mortal parts and Venus anointed him with Ambrosia and Nectar, making him a god. Aeneas was recognized as the god Jupiter Indiges . Inspired by the work of James Frazer , some have posited that Aeneas was originally a life-death-rebirth deity .

Family and legendary descendants
Aeneas had an extensive family tree. His wet-nurse was Caieta , and he is the father of Ascanius with Creusa , and of Silvius with Lavinia. The former, also known as Iulus (or Julius), founded Alba Longa and was the first in a long series of kings. According to the mythology outlined by Virgil in the Aeneid, Romulus and Remus were both descendants of Aeneas through their mother Rhea Silvia, making Aeneas progenitor of the Roman people. Some early sources call him their father or grandfather,[1] but considering the commonly accepted dates of the fall of Troy (1184 BC) and the founding of Rome (753 BC), this seems unlikely. The Julian family of Rome, most notably Julius Cęsar and Augustus , traced their lineage to Ascanius and Aeneas, thus to the goddess Venus. Through the Julians, the Palemonids also make this claim. The legendary kings of Britain also trace their family through a grandson of Aeneas, Brutus .


Research Notes: Wife - Creusa of Troy [Mythological]

From Wikipedia - Creusa :

Daughter of Priam
Creusa was the daughter of Priam , wife of Aeneas , mother of Ascanius . In Virgil 's Aeneid she died escaping from Troy during the sack of Troy by the Greeks.




Research Notes: Child - Private

From Wikipedia - Ascanius :

In Greek and Roman mythology , Ascanius was the son of Aeneas and Creusa . After the Trojan War , as the city burned, Aeneas escaped to Latium in Italy , taking his father Anchises and his child Ascanius with him, though Creusa died during the escape. Ascanius later fought in the Italian Wars. Virgil 's Aeneid says he had a role in the founding of Rome as the first king of Alba Longa .

According to another legend mentioned by Livy , Ascanius may have been the son of Aeneas and Lavinia and thus born in Latium , not Troy . Thirty years after the founding of Lavinium, Ascanius founded Alba Longa . He had a son or grandson called Aeneas Silvius .

Ascanius was also called Iulus or Julus. The Gens Julia , or the Julians , the clan to which Julius Caesar belonged, claimed to have been descended from Ascanius/Iulus, his father Aeneas, and, ultimately, the goddess Venus , the mother of Aeneas in myth, his father being the mortal Anchises.

The name Iulus was popularised by Virgil in the Aeneid : replacing the Greek name Ascanius with Iulus linked the Julian family of Rome to earlier mythology. The emperor Augustus , who commissioned the work, was a great patron of the arts. As a member of the Julian family, he could claim to have three major Olympian gods in his family tree: (Venus; Jupiter ; and Mars ), so he encouraged his many poets to emphasize his supposed descent from Aeneas.

Ascanius, in the Aeneid, first used the phrase "annue coeptis ," the root phrase of what later became a motto of the United States of America.


Ęthelbald King of Wessex and Judith Princess of France




Husband Ęthelbald King of Wessex 1

            AKA: Ethelbald King of Wessex
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 860
         Buried: 


         Father: Ęthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent (Between 0795/0800-0858) 2 3
         Mother: Osburga (Abt 0805-After 0876) 4 5 6


       Marriage: After 13 Jan 858

Events

• King of Wessex: 858-860.




Wife Judith Princess of France 7 8 9

            AKA: Judith of Flanders
           Born: Oct 844 - France
     Christened: 
           Died: After 870
         Buried: 


         Father: Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor (0823-0877) 10 11
         Mother: Ermentrude of Orléans (0830-0869) 12 13 14



   Other Spouse: Ęthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent (Between 0795/0800-0858) 2 3 - 1 Oct 856 - Verberie-sur-Oise, (Oise), France

   Other Spouse: Baldwin I Count of Flanders (Abt 0836-0879) 12 15 16 17 - Jan 862 - <Flanders (Belgium)>

Marriage Events

• Annulment: of marriage to Aethelbald, 860.


Children

Research Notes: Wife - Judith Princess of France

Baldwin I was her third husband.

From Wikipedia - Judith of Flanders :

Judith of Flanders (844 - 870 ) was a daughter of the Frankish king Charles the Bald . Through her marriage to two kings of Wessex she was first a queen, then later through her third marriage to Baldwin, she became Countess of Flanders .

Judith was born in October of 844, the daughter of Charles the Bald , King of the Franks , and Ermentrude .

Her father gave her in marriage to Ethelwulf , King of Wessex on October 1 , 856 at Verberie sur Oise , France. Soon after, Ethelwulf's son Ethelbald forced his father to abdicate. Following Ethelwulf's death on January 13 , 858 , Ethelbald married his widowed stepmother. However, the marriage was annulled in 860 on the grounds of consanguinity .

Elopement
Judith eloped with Baldwin in January 862 . They were likely married at the monastery of Senlis before they eloped. The couple was in hiding from Judith's father, King Charles the Bald, until October after which they went to her uncle Lothair II for protection. From there they fled to Pope Nicholas I . The pope took diplomatic action and asked Judith's father to accept the union as legally binding and welcome the young couple into his circle - which ultimately he did. The couple then returned to France and were officially married at Auxerre .

Baldwin was accepted as son-in-law and was given the land directly south of the Scheldt to ward off Viking attacks. Although it is disputed among historians as to whether King Charles did this in the hope that Baldwin would be killed in the ensuing battles with the Vikings, Baldwin managed the situation remarkably well. Baldwin succeeded in quelling the Viking threat, expanded both his army and his territory quickly, and became one of the most faithful supporters of King Charles. The March of Baldwin came to be known as the County of Flanders and was for a long time the most powerful principality of France.

Succession
Judith and Baldwin had a son, Baldwin II , Count of Flanders, born in 864 . Judith died in 870.



Ęthelred II "the Redeless" King of England and Emma Princess of Normandy




Husband Ęthelred II "the Redeless" King of England 12 18 19




            AKA: Ethelred II "the Unready" King of England
           Born: Abt 968 - <Wessex>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 23 Apr 1016 - <London, Middlesex>, England
         Buried:  - St. Paul's, London, Middlesex, England


         Father: Edgar "the Peaceful" King of England (0944-0975) 12 20
         Mother: Ęlfthryth (0945-1000) 12 21


       Marriage: Abt 1002

   Other Spouse: Ęlfgifu of York (Abt 0968-Abt 1002) 12 22 23 - 985

Events

• King of England: 978-1016.




Wife Emma Princess of Normandy 12 24

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1052
         Buried: 


         Father: Richard I Duke of Normandy (0933-0996) 12 25 26 27 28
         Mother: Gunnora de Crepon (Abt 0936-Abt 1031) 29 30 31 32



   Other Spouse: Canute King of Denmark and England (      -      ) - 1017


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Ęthelred II "the Redeless" King of England

From Wikipedia - Ethelred the Unready :

Ethelred II (c. 968 - April 23 , 1016 ), also known as Ethelred the Unready or Aethelred the Unready (Old English Ęželręd Unręd), was King of England (978 -1013 , and 1014 -1016 ). He was the son of Edgar , King of all England (959 -975 ) and Ęlfthryth . The majority of his reign (991 -1016) was marked by a defensive war against Viking invaders...

Conflict with the Danes
England had experienced a period of peace after the reconquest of the Danelaw in the mid-10th century . However, a new wave of raids began in 980 and a sizable Danish force began a sustained campaign in 991 . During the next quarter of a century England was devastated by a succession of large Danish armies, either under the leadership of King Sweyn I of Denmark or of other commanders such as Olaf Tryggvason and Thorkell the Tall , which Ethelred's government failed to combat effectively. He was only able to halt the depredations of these armies by the payment of large sums of money known as Danegeld . Each payment led to the withdrawal of the Danes, but on each occasion a fresh onslaught began after a year or two, and each Danegeld payment was much larger than the last. Ethelred's most desperate response was the massacre of the Danes living in England on St Brice 's Day (November 13 ) 1002 . Finally in 1013 English resistance collapsed and Sweyn conquered the country, forcing Ethelred into exile, but after his victory Sweyn lived for only another five weeks. In 1014 , Canute the Great was proclaimed King of England by the Danish army in England, but was forced out of England that year. Canute launched a new invasion in 1015 . Subsequently, Ethelred's control of England was already collapsing once again when he died at London on 23 April 1016 . Ethelred was buried in St Paul's and was succeeded by his son, Edmund Ironside .

Marriages and issue

Ethelred married first Ęlfgifu , daughter of Thored , the ealdorman of York , by whom he had six sons: Ęthelstan Ętheling (died 1011), Edmund Ironside , Ecgberht Ętheling , Eadred Ętheling , Eadwig Ętheling (killed 1017) and Eadgar Ętheling the Elder . They also had as many as four daughters: Edith, who married Eadric Streona , ealdorman of Mercia , and Ęlfgifu, who married Uchtred the Bold , ealdorman of Bamburgh . Less certainly there may also have been a daughter named Wulfhild married to Ulfcytel Snillingr , and perhaps a fourth daughter, whose name is not recorded, who was abbess of Wherwell .

His second marriage, in 1002, was to Emma of Normandy , whose grandnephew, William I of England , would later use this relationship as the basis of his claim on the throne. They had two sons, Eadweard (later King of England and known now as Edward the Confessor ) and Ęlfred Ętheling . By this marriage, he also had Goda of England , who married Drogo of Mantes , Count of Vexin ...


Research Notes: Wife - Emma Princess of Normandy

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 1-18 (Aethelred II)


Gospatric I 1st Earl of Dunbar and Ęthelreda Princess of England




Husband Gospatric I 1st Earl of Dunbar 12 33

            AKA: Gospatric Earl of Northumberland
           Born: Abt 1040 - <Northumberland, England>
     Christened: 
           Died: 1075
         Buried:  - Norham, Northumberland, England


         Father: Maldred Lord of Carlisle and Allerdale (Abt 1015-1045) 12 34
         Mother: Ealdgyth Princess of Northumbria (Abt 1020-      ) 12 35


       Marriage: 

Events

• Earl of Northumberland: 1067.

• 1st Earl of Dunbar: 1072-1075.

• Lord of Carlisle and Allerdale:

• Visited Rome: 1061.




Wife Ęthelreda Princess of England 12

           Born: Abt 1042 - <Dunbar, East Lothian, Scotland>
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Waltheof Lord of Allerdale 12 36

            AKA: Waldeve Lord of Allerdale, Waltheof Earl of Dunbar
           Born: Abt 1062 - <Dunbar, East Lothian, Scotland>
     Christened: 
           Died: 1138
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Sigrid (Abt 1075-After 1126) 12 37


2 M Uchtred of North Umberland 12

           Born: Abt 1080 - <Raby>, Durham, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 





Ęthelswith and Burgred of Mercia




Husband Ęthelswith 38

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Ęthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent (Between 0795/0800-0858) 2 3
         Mother: Osburga (Abt 0805-After 0876) 4 5 6


       Marriage: 



Wife Burgred of Mercia

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children

Research Notes: Wife - Burgred of Mercia

Source: Wikipedia - Ęthelwulf King of Wessex


Ęthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent and Osburga




Husband Ęthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent 2 3




            AKA: Aethelwulf King of Wessex, Ethelwulf King of Wessex
           Born: Between 795 and 800
     Christened: 
           Died: 13 Jan 858
         Buried: 


         Father: Egbert King of Wessex (Abt 0775-Between 0837/0839)
         Mother: Rędburga (Abt 0777-      ) 39


       Marriage: Bef 844

   Other Spouse: Judith Princess of France (0844-After 0870) 7 8 40 - 1 Oct 856 - Verberie-sur-Oise, (Oise), France

Events

• King of Wessex: 839-855.




Wife Osburga 4 5 6

            AKA: Osburh
           Born: Abt 805 - Hampshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: After 876 - England
         Buried: 


         Father: Oslac Royal Cup Bearer (Abt 0779-      ) 41
         Mother: 


Events

• Repudiated: by Aethelwulf, 853.


Children
1 M Aethelred I King of Wessex

           Born: Abt 844
     Christened: 
           Died: 871 - Merton, England
         Buried: 



2 M Alfred the Great King of Wessex, King of England 4 42 43




            AKA: Ęlfred King of the Anglo-Saxons, Ęlfred se Greata King of the Anglo-Saxons


           Born: Between 847 and 849 - Wantage, Berkshire, England
     Christened: 


           Died: 26 Oct 899
         Buried:  - Old Minster [New Minster], Wessex, [Winchester, ] England
         Spouse: Ealhswith of the Gaini, Queen of the Anglo-Saxons (Abt 0852-0904/0905) 44 45 46
           Marr: 869


3 F Judith

           Born: 850 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



4 M Ęthelstan 38

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



5 M Ęthelswith 38

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Burgred of Mercia (      -      )


6 M Ęthelbald King of Wessex 1

            AKA: Ethelbald King of Wessex
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 860
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Judith Princess of France (0844-After 0870) 7 8 47
           Marr: After 13 Jan 858


7 M Ęthelbert 38

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 866
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Ęthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent

From Wikipedia - Ęthelwulf of Wessex :

Ęthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English : Ęželwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 - 858 ) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex . He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839 , whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames .

In 839 , Ęthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Ęthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Ęthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Ęthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Ęthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga , had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald , Ethelbert , Ethelred , and Alfred . Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Ęthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith , was married as a child to the king of Mercia .

... In 853 Ęthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855 , about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Ęthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome . In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald , King of the West Franks .

Upon their return to England in 856 Ęthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Ęthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Ęthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Ęthelwulf yielded Wessex proper to his son, and accepted Surrey, Sussex and Essex for himself. he ruled there until his death on January 13 , 858 . The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Ęthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

... He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester . His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral .



Research Notes: Wife - Osburga



Research Notes: Child - Aethelred I King of Wessex

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874491 :

King of Wessex 866-871. Died while fighting the Danes at Merton. The year before, 870, Aethelred had beaten the Danes in battle at Englefield in Berkshire.


Research Notes: Child - Alfred the Great King of Wessex, King of England

King of England 871-899.

From http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871980:(b. abt 846, d. 26 Oct 899) :

Alfred the Great, King of England 871-899. The only English King to be known as "the Great", Alfred acceded to the throne of Wessex upon the death of his brother Aethelred in 871. Over the next few years he spent much time fighting off Viking invasions. After routing the Great Army of the Vikings in 878, Alfred signed the Treaty of Wedmore with its leader Guthrum, dividing England along a line running roughly north-west from London to Chester. Alfred ruled to the south of this line and was recognised overlord of the area to the north, known as Danelaw. Further Viking incursions followed until, in 886, Alfred captured London and was finally accepted by Saxon and Dane alike as King of all England. Alfred reformed and codified Saxon law, promoted a revival in learning and instigated the compilation of the famous 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle', a 1,200 year history of England from before Julius Caesar's invasion in 55 B.C. As a boy, Alfred was taken twice to visit the Pope in Rome. He learned to read and write in his teens and he developed a profound interest in learning and a reverence of religion. Alfred devoted much of his energy to reviving the schools and monasteries, and translating important Latin works into Anglo-Saxon himself, notably Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation' and St. Augustine's 'Sililoquies.'

! 'The Kings and Queens of England and Scotland' pgs.
12-13


Father: Aethelwulf UNKNOWN b: Bef 0797 in ,France
Mother: Osburga UNKNOWN b: Abt 0805 in ,Hampshire,England

Marriage 1 Aethelwitha UNKNOWN b: Abt 0849 in Gaines,Lincolnshire,England
Married: 0868/0869
Note: _UID01D80C94B92194489CF33DFC6AC9FE83ABAC
Children
Aelfreda UNKNOWN b: Abt 0869 in ,England
Aethelflaeda UNKNOWN b: Abt 0877 in ,England
Edward UNKNOWN b: Abt 0871/0872

-----------

From Wikipedia - Alfred the Great :

Alfred the Great (also Ęlfred from the Old English Ęlfr pronounced [ (c. 849 - 26 October 899 ) was king of the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred is noted for his defence of the kingdom against the Danish Vikings , becoming the only English King to be awarded the epithet "the Great".[1] Alfred was the first King of the West Saxons to style himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons ". Details of his life are discussed in a work by the Welsh scholar Asser . Alfred was a learned man, and encouraged education and improved his kingdom's law system as well as its military structure.

Childhood
Further information: House of Wessex family tree
Alfred was born sometime between 847 and 849 at Wantage in the present-day ceremonial county of Oxfordshire (then in the historic county of Berkshire ). He was the fifth and youngest son of King Ęthelwulf of Wessex , by his first wife, Osburga .[2] In 868 Alfred married Ealhswith, daughter of Ethelred Mucill, who is called ealdorman of the Gaini, an unidentified district.[3]


At five years old, Alfred is said to have been sent to Rome where, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , he was confirmed by Pope Leo IV who "anointed him as king." Victorian writers interpreted this as an anticipatory coronation in preparation for his ultimate succession to the throne of Wessex. However, this coronation could not have been foreseen at the time, since Alfred had three living elder brothers. A letter of Leo IV shows that Alfred was made a "consul " and a misinterpretation of this investiture, deliberate or accidental, could explain later confusion.[4] It may also be based on Alfred later having accompanied his father on a pilgrimage to Rome and spending some time at the court of Charles the Bald , King of the Franks , around 854-855. On their return from Rome in 856, Ęthelwulf was deposed by his son Ęthelbald. Ęthelwulf died in 858 , and Wessex was ruled by three of Alfred's brothers in succession.

Asser tells the story about how as a child Alfred won a prize of a volume of poetry in English, offered by his mother to the first of her children able to memorize it. This story may be true, or it may be a myth designed to illustrate the young Alfred's love of learning.

Under Ethelred
During the short reigns of his two eldest brothers, Ęthelbald and Ethelbert , Alfred is not mentioned. However with the accession of the third brother, Ethelred I , in 866, the public life of Alfred began. It is during this period that Asser applies to him the unique title of "secundarius", which may indicate a position akin to that of the Celtic tanist, a recognized successor closely associated with the reigning monarch. It is possible that this arrangement was sanctioned by the Witenagemot , to guard against the danger of a disputed succession should Ethelred fall in battle. The arrangement of crowning a successor as Royal prince and military commander is well-known among Germanic tribes , such as the Swedes and Franks , with whom the Anglo-Saxons had close ties.

In 868, Alfred is recorded fighting beside his brother Ethelred, in an unsuccessful attempt to keep the invading Danes out of the adjoining Kingdom of Mercia . For nearly two years, Wessex was spared attacks because Alfred paid the Vikings to leave him alone. However, at the end of 870, the Danes arrived in his homeland. The year that followed has been called "Alfred's year of battles". Nine martial engagements were fought with varying fortunes, though the place and date of two of the battles have not been recorded. In Berkshire, a successful skirmish at the Battle of Englefield , on 31 December 870 , was followed by a severe defeat at the Siege and Battle of Reading , on 5 January 871 , and then, four days later, a brilliant victory at the Battle of Ashdown on the Berkshire Downs , possibly near Compton or Aldworth . Alfred is particularly credited with the success of this latter conflict. However, later that month, on 22 January , the English were again defeated at Basing and, on the following 22 March at the Battle of Merton (perhaps Marden in Wiltshire or Martin in Dorset ) in which Ethelred was killed. The two unidentified battles may also have occurred in between.

Family
In 868, Alfred married Ealhswith , daughter of Ealdorman of the Gaini (who is also known as Aethelred Mucill), who was from the Gainsborough region of Lincolnshire . She appears to have been the maternal granddaughter of a King of Mercia . They had five or six children together, including Edward the Elder , who succeeded his father as King of Wessex , Ethelfleda , who would become Queen of Mercia in her own right, and Ęlfthryth who married Baldwin II the Count of Flanders .

Death, burial and Legacy
Alfred died on 26 October . The actual year is not certain, but it was not necessarily 901 as stated in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. How he died is unknown. He was originally buried temporarily in the Old Minster in Winchester , then moved to the New Minster (perhaps built especially to receive his body). When the New Minster moved to Hyde, a little north of the city, in 1110, the monks transferred to Hyde Abbey along with Alfred's body. His grave was apparently excavated during the building of a new prison in 1788 and the bones scattered. However, bones found on a similar site in the 1860s were also declared to be Alfred's and later buried in Hyde churchyard. Extensive excavations in 1999 revealed what is believed to be his grave-cut, that of his wife Eahlswith, and that of their son Edward the Elder but barely any human remains.[13]


Research Notes: Child - Judith

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593875108


Ęthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent and Judith Princess of France




Husband Ęthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent 2 3




            AKA: Aethelwulf King of Wessex, Ethelwulf King of Wessex
           Born: Between 795 and 800
     Christened: 
           Died: 13 Jan 858
         Buried: 


         Father: Egbert King of Wessex (Abt 0775-Between 0837/0839)
         Mother: Rędburga (Abt 0777-      ) 39


       Marriage: 1 Oct 856 - Verberie-sur-Oise, (Oise), France

   Other Spouse: Osburga (Abt 0805-After 0876) 4 5 6 - Bef 844

Events

• King of Wessex: 839-855.




Wife Judith Princess of France 7 8 48

            AKA: Judith of Flanders
           Born: Oct 844 - France
     Christened: 
           Died: After 870
         Buried: 


         Father: Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor (0823-0877) 10 11
         Mother: Ermentrude of Orléans (0830-0869) 12 13 14



   Other Spouse: Ęthelbald King of Wessex (      -0860) 1 - After 13 Jan 858

   Other Spouse: Baldwin I Count of Flanders (Abt 0836-0879) 12 15 16 17 - Jan 862 - <Flanders (Belgium)>


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Ęthelwulf King of Wessex and King of Kent

From Wikipedia - Ęthelwulf of Wessex :

Ęthelwulf, also spelled Aethelwulf or Ethelwulf; Old English : Ęželwulf, means 'Noble Wolf' (c. 795 - 858 ) was the elder son of King Egbert of Wessex . He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled King of Kent [1] until he succeeded his father as King of Wessex in 839 , whereupon he became King of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. [2] He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames .

In 839 , Ęthelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as King. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Ęthelwulf had a worrying style of Kingship. He had come naturally to the throne of Wessex. He proved to be intensly religious, cursed with little political sense, and too many able and ambitious sons. [Humble, Richard. The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980. 41.] One of the first acts Ęthelwulf did as King, was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, that of Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex to his eldest son Athelstan (not to be confused with the later Athelstan the Glorious). Ęthelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Ęthelwulf and his first wife, Osburga , had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Ethelbald , Ethelbert , Ethelred , and Alfred . Each of his sons succeeded to the throne. Alfred, the youngest son, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Ęthelwulf's only daughter, Aethelswith , was married as a child to the king of Mercia .

... In 853 Ęthelwulf, sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855 , about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Ęthelwulf followed Alfred to Rome . In Rome, he was generous with his wealth. He distributed gold to the clergy of St. Peter's, and offered the Blessed Peter chalices of the purest gold and silver-gilt candelabra of Saxon work. [Hodgkin, RH. A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford UP, 1935. 512.] During the return journey in 856 he married Judith a Frankish princess and a great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles the Bald , King of the West Franks .

Upon their return to England in 856 Ęthelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest son Ethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the Ealdorman of Somerset and the Bishop of Sherborne to oppose Ęthelwulf's resumption of the kingship once he returned. There was enough support of Ęthelwulf to either have a civil war, or to banish Ethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Ęthelwulf yielded Wessex proper to his son, and accepted Surrey, Sussex and Essex for himself. he ruled there until his death on January 13 , 858 . The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert. Ęthelwulf and his advisors deserved the adoration bestowed upon them for their restraint and tolerance.

... He was buried first at Steyning and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester . His bones now reside in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral .



Research Notes: Wife - Judith Princess of France

Baldwin I was her third husband.

From Wikipedia - Judith of Flanders :

Judith of Flanders (844 - 870 ) was a daughter of the Frankish king Charles the Bald . Through her marriage to two kings of Wessex she was first a queen, then later through her third marriage to Baldwin, she became Countess of Flanders .

Judith was born in October of 844, the daughter of Charles the Bald , King of the Franks , and Ermentrude .

Her father gave her in marriage to Ethelwulf , King of Wessex on October 1 , 856 at Verberie sur Oise , France. Soon after, Ethelwulf's son Ethelbald forced his father to abdicate. Following Ethelwulf's death on January 13 , 858 , Ethelbald married his widowed stepmother. However, the marriage was annulled in 860 on the grounds of consanguinity .

Elopement
Judith eloped with Baldwin in January 862 . They were likely married at the monastery of Senlis before they eloped. The couple was in hiding from Judith's father, King Charles the Bald, until October after which they went to her uncle Lothair II for protection. From there they fled to Pope Nicholas I . The pope took diplomatic action and asked Judith's father to accept the union as legally binding and welcome the young couple into his circle - which ultimately he did. The couple then returned to France and were officially married at Auxerre .

Baldwin was accepted as son-in-law and was given the land directly south of the Scheldt to ward off Viking attacks. Although it is disputed among historians as to whether King Charles did this in the hope that Baldwin would be killed in the ensuing battles with the Vikings, Baldwin managed the situation remarkably well. Baldwin succeeded in quelling the Viking threat, expanded both his army and his territory quickly, and became one of the most faithful supporters of King Charles. The March of Baldwin came to be known as the County of Flanders and was for a long time the most powerful principality of France.

Succession
Judith and Baldwin had a son, Baldwin II , Count of Flanders, born in 864 . Judith died in 870.


Notes: Marriage

Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871945


Afonso I King of Portugal and Maud of Savoy




Husband Afonso I King of Portugal 49 50




            AKA: Affonso I "the Conqueror" King of Portugal and the Algarves, Afonso Henriques King of Portugal, Alfonso I King of Portugal, Henriquez I King of Portugal
           Born: 25 Jul 1109 - Viseu, Viseu, Portugal
     Christened: 
           Died: 6 Dec 1185 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
         Buried:  - Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal


         Father: Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal (1069-1112) 12 51 52
         Mother: Theresa of Leon and Castile (Abt 1070-1130) 12


       Marriage: Bef Jun 1146 - Chambéry, Savoie, France



Wife Maud of Savoy 12 53 54




            AKA: Mafalda of Savoy, Mahaut of Savoy, Mathilda of Savoy, Matilde Countess of Savoy
           Born: 1125 - <Chambéry, Savoie>, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 4 Nov 1158 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
         Buried:  - Igreja Santa Cruz, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal


         Father: Amadeus III Count of Savoy, Maurienne and Turin (Abt 1095-1148) 55
         Mother: Mathilde Comtesse d'Albon (Abt 1116-After 1145) 12 56




Children
1 F Urraca of Portugal 12 57 58

            AKA: Urraca Affonsez of Portugal
           Born: Abt 1150 - <Coimbra, Coimbra>, Portugal
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Oct 1188 - Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Fernando II King of Léon (1137-1188) 12 59 60
           Marr: Abt Jun 1165 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal


2 M Sancho I King of Portugal




           Born: 11 Nov 1154 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
     Christened: 
           Died: 26 Mar 1212 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Dulce Berenguer of Barcelona (1152-1198)
           Marr: 1174



Research Notes: Husband - Afonso I King of Portugal

First king of Portugal.

From Wikipedia - Afonso I of Portugal :

Afonso I (English Alphonzo or Alphonse), more commonly known as Afonso Henriques (pronounced [?'fõsu ?'?ik??] ), or also Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician ) or Alphonsus (Latin version), (Viseu , 1109 , traditionally July 25 - Coimbra , 1185 December 6 ), also known as the Conqueror (Port. o Conquistador), was the first King of Portugal , declaring his independence from León .


Life
Afonso I was the son of Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal and Teresa of León , the illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso VI of Castile and León . He was proclaimed King on July 26 , 1139 , immediately after the Battle of Ourique , and died on December 6 , 1185 in Coimbra .

At the end of the 11th century , the Iberian Peninsula political agenda was mostly concerned with the Reconquista , the driving out of the Muslim successor-states to the Caliphate of Cordoba after its collapse. With European military aristocracies focused on the Crusades , Alfonso VI called for the help of the French nobility to deal with the Moors . In exchange, he was to give the hands of his daughters in wedlock to the leaders of the expedition and bestow royal privileges to the others. Thus, the royal heiress Urraca of Castile wedded Raymond of Burgundy , younger son of the Count of Burgundy , and her half-sister, princess Teresa of León , wedded his cousin, another French crusader, Henry of Burgundy , younger brother of the Duke of Burgundy . Henry was made Count of Portugal, a burdensome county south of Galicia , where Moorish incursions and attacks were to be expected. With his wife Teresa as co-ruler of Portugal, Henry withstood the ordeal and held the lands for his father-in-law.

From this wedlock several sons were born, but only one, Afonso Henriques (meaning "Afonso son of Henry") thrived. The boy, probably born around 1109, followed his father as Count of Portugal in 1112 , under the tutelage of his mother. The relations between Teresa and her son Afonso proved difficult. Only eleven years old, Afonso already had his own political ideas, greatly different from his mother's. In 1120 , the young prince took the side of the archbishop of Braga , a political foe of Teresa, and both were exiled by her orders. Afonso spent the next years away from his own county , under the watch of the bishop. In 1122 Afonso became fourteen, the adult age in the 12th century . He made himself a knight on his own account in the Cathedral of Zamora , raised an army , and proceeded to take control of his lands. Near Guimarćes , at the Battle of Sćo Mamede (1128 ) he overcame the troops under his mother's lover and ally Count Fernando Peres de Trava of Galicia , making her his prisoner and exiling her forever to a monastery in León . Thus the possibility of incorporating Portugal into a Kingdom of Galicia was eliminated and Afonso become sole ruler (Duke of Portugal) after demands for independence from the county's people, church and nobles. He also vanquished Alfonso VII of Castile and León , another of his mother's allies, and thus freed the county from political dependence on the crown of León and Castile . On April 6 , 1129 , Afonso Henriques dictated the writ in which he proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal.

...In 1169 , Afonso was disabled in an engagement near Badajoz by a fall from his horse , and made prisoner by the soldiers of the king of León. Portugal was obliged to surrender as his ransom almost all the conquests Afonso had made in Galicia in the previous years.

In 1179 the privileges and favours given to the Roman Catholic Church were compensated. In the papal bull Manifestis Probatum , Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King and Portugal as an independent land with the right to conquer lands from the Moors. With this papal blessing, Portugal was at last secured as a country and safe from any Castilian attempts at annexation.

In 1184 , in spite of his great age, he still had sufficient energy to relieve his son Sancho, who was besieged in Santarém by the Moors. He died shortly after, on December 6 , 1185 .

The Portuguese revere him as a hero, both on account of his personal character and as the founder of their nation . There are stories that it would take 10 men to carry his sword, and that Afonso would want to engage other monarchs in personal combat, but no one would dare accept his challenge.


Death Notes: Wife - Maud of Savoy

Ancestral Roots has d. 1157


Research Notes: Wife - Maud of Savoy

From Wikipedia - Maud of Savoy :

Maud of Savoy (1125 -1158 ), also known as Mafalda, Mahaut or Matilda (in Portuguese always as Mafalda),was the first queen of Portugal. She was Queen consort of Portugal through her marriage to King Afonso I of Portugal (of the House of Burgundy ; first king of Portugal ) in 1146 .
She was the second or third daughter of Amadeus III of Savoy , Count of Savoy and Maurienne , and Mahaut of Albon (the sister of Guigues IV, Comte d'Albon , "le Dauphin").


Afonso's and Maud descendants
Henrique (died 1147 ).
Mafalda, Princess of Portugal (1148 -c.1160 ).
Urraca, princess of Portugal (1151 -1188 ), married to King Ferdinand II of León .
Sancho I, King of Portugal (1154 -1212 ), married to Dulce Berenguer of Barcelona , Princess of Aragon (daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona and Queen Petronila of Aragon ).
Teresa, Princess of Portugal (1157 -1218 ), married to Philip I of Flanders and next to Eudes III of Burgundy .
Joćo (?-?).
Sancha (?-?).


Research Notes: Child - Urraca of Portugal

From Wikipedia - Urraca of Portugal :

Infanta Urraca of Portugal (Coimbra , 1151 - 16 October 1188) was a Portuguese infanta (princess), daughter of Afonso I , 1st King of Portugal and his wife Maud of Savoy . She married Ferdinand II of León (c. 1165) with whom she had Alfonso IX of León . This marriage didn't prevent her father Afonso I from declaring war on his son-in-law. This short war culminated in disaster when Afonso was captured in Badajoz . Perhaps due to his marriage to Urraca, Ferdinand was generous to Afonso, and let him leave. However, the marriage of Ferdinand II and Urraca was annulled in 1175 by the Pope, using the fact that Urraca was his distant cousin as justification.

After the dissolution of her marriage, Urraca returned to the court of her father and died there, aged only 37, nine months after the death of her former husband.


Research Notes: Child - Sancho I King of Portugal

Wikipedia - Afonso II of Portugal

From Wikipedia - Sancho I of Portugal :

Sancho I (pronounced ['s??u] ; rarely translated to Sanctius I), nicknamed the Populator (Portuguese o Povoador), second monarch of Portugal , was born on November 11 , 1154 in Coimbra and died on March 26 , 1212 in the same city. He was the second but only surviving legitimate son and fourth child of Afonso I Henriques of Portugal by his wife, Maud of Savoy . Sancho succeeded his father in 1185 . He used the title King of the Algarve and/or King of Silves between 1189 and 1191
In 1170 , Sancho was knighted by his father, King Afonso I, and from then on he became his second in command, both administratively and militarily. At this time, the independence of Portugal (declared in 1139 ) was not firmly established. The kings of León and Castile were trying to re-annex the country and the Roman Catholic Church was late in giving its blessing and approval. Due to this situation Afonso I had to search for allies within the Iberian Peninsula . Portugal made an alliance with the Kingdom of Aragon and together they fought Castile and León. To secure the agreement, Infante Sancho of Portugal married, in 1174 , Infanta Dulce Berenguer , younger sister of King Alfonso II of Aragon . Aragon was thus the first Iberian kingdom to recognize the independence of Portugal.
With the death of Afonso I in 1185 , Sancho I became the second king of Portugal. Coimbra was the centre of his kingdom; Sancho terminated the exhausting and generally pointless wars against his neighbours for control of the Galician borderlands. Instead, he turned all his attentions to the south, towards the Moorish small kingdoms (called taifas ) that still thrived. With Crusader help he took Silves in 1191 . Silves was an important city of the South, an administrative and commercial town with population estimates around 20,000 people. Sancho ordered the fortification of the city and built a castle which is today an important monument of Portuguese heritage. However, military attention soon had to be turned again to the North, where León and Castile threatened again the Portuguese borders. Silves was again lost to the Moors. It should be noted that the global Muslim population had climbed to about 6 per cent as against the Christian population of 12 per cent by 1200.
Sancho I dedicated much of his reign to political and administrative organization of the new kingdom. He accumulated a national treasure, supported new industries and the middle class of merchants. Moreover, he created several new towns and villages (like Guarda in 1199 ) and took great care in populating remote areas in the northern Christian regions of Portugal, notably with Flemings and Burgundians - hence the nickname "the Populator". The king was also known for his love of knowledge and literature. Sancho I wrote several books of poems and used the royal treasure to send Portuguese students to European universities.


Afonso II King of Portugal and Urracca of Castile




Husband Afonso II King of Portugal




           Born: 23 Apr 1185 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 Mar 1223 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
         Buried:  - Santa Cruz Monastery, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal


         Father: Sancho I King of Portugal (1154-1212)
         Mother: Dulce Berenguer of Barcelona (1152-1198)


       Marriage: 1208



Wife Urracca of Castile

           Born: 1186
     Christened: 
           Died: 1220
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Sancho II King of Portugal

           Born: 8 Sep 1207
     Christened: 
           Died: 4 Jan 1248
         Buried: 



2 M Afonso III King of Portugal and the Algarve

            AKA: Alphonzo King of Portugal and the Algarve
           Born: 5 May 1210 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Feb 1279 - Alcobaēa, Portugal
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Beatrice of Castile (1242-1303) 61
           Marr: 1253



Research Notes: Husband - Afonso II King of Portugal

From Wikipedia - Afonso II of Portugal :

Afonso II (Portuguese pronounced [?'fõsu] ; English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician ) or Alphonsus (Latin version), nicknamed "the Fat" (Portuguese o Gordo), third king of Portugal , was born in Coimbra on April 23 , 1185 and died on March 25 , 1223 in the same city. He was the second but eldest surviving son of Sancho I of Portugal by his wife, Dulce Berenguer of Barcelona , Infanta of Aragon . Afonso succeeded his father in 1212.


Marriage and descendants
Afonso married Infanta Urraca of Castile , daughter of Alfonso VIII , King of Castile , and Leonora of Aquitaine , in 1208.


Research Notes: Wife - Urracca of Castile

Wikipedia - Afonso II of Portugal


Research Notes: Child - Sancho II King of Portugal

Wikipedia - Afonso II of Portugal


Research Notes: Child - Afonso III King of Portugal and the Algarve

From Wikipedia - Afonso III of Portugal :

Afonso III (pronounced [?'fõsu] in Portuguese ; rare English alternatives: Alphonzo or Alphonse), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician ) or Alphonsus (Latin ), the Bolognian (Port. o Bolonhźs) or the Brave (Port. o Bravo), the fifth King of Portugal (May 5 , 1210 in Coimbra - February 16 , 1279 in Alcobaēa , Coimbra or Lisbon ) and the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve , since 1249 . He was the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal and his wife, Urraca, princess of Castile ; he succeeded his brother, King Sancho II of Portugal on 4 January 1248 .
As the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal , Afonso was not expected to inherit the throne, which was destined to go to his elder brother Sancho. He lived mostly in France , where he married Matilda, the heiress of Boulogne , in 1238 , thereby becoming Count of Boulogne . In 1246 , conflicts between his brother, the king, and the church became unbearable. Pope Innocent IV then ordered Sancho II to be removed from the throne and be replaced by the Count of Boulogne. Afonso, of course, did not refuse the papal order and marched to Portugal. Since Sancho was not a popular king, the order was not hard to enforce; he was exiled to Castile and Afonso III became king in 1248 after his brother's death. To ascend the throne, he abdicated from the county of Boulogne and later (1253 ) divorced Matilda.

Determined not to commit the same mistakes as his brother, Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254 , in the city of Leiria , he held the first session of the Cortes , a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities . He also made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favoured part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration.

Secure on the throne, Afonso III then proceeded to make war with the Muslim communities that still thrived in the south. In his reign the Algarve became part of the kingdom, following the capture of Faro -Portugal thus becoming the first Iberian kingdom to complete its Reconquista .
Following his success against the Moors, Afonso III had to deal with a political situation arising from the borders with Castile. The neighbouring kingdom considered that the newly acquired lands of the Algarve should be Castilian, not Portuguese, which led to a series of wars between the two kingdoms. Finally, in 1267 , a treaty was signed in Badajoz , determining that the southern border between Castile and Portugal should be the River Guadiana , as it is today.

Afonso's first wife was Matilda II of Boulogne , daughter of Renaud, Count of Dammartin , and Ida of Boulogne . She had two sons (Roberto and an unnamed one), but both died young. He divorced Matilda in 1253 and, in the same year, married Beatrix of Castile , illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X , King of Castile , and Maria de Guzman .




Afonso III King of Portugal and the Algarve and Beatrice of Castile




Husband Afonso III King of Portugal and the Algarve

            AKA: Alphonzo King of Portugal and the Algarve
           Born: 5 May 1210 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
     Christened: 
           Died: 16 Feb 1279 - Alcobaēa, Portugal
         Buried: 


         Father: Afonso II King of Portugal (1185-1223)
         Mother: Urracca of Castile (1186-1220)


       Marriage: 1253



Wife Beatrice of Castile 61




            AKA: Beatriz de Castilla
           Born: 1242
     Christened: 
           Died: 1303
         Buried: 


         Father: Alfonso X "El Sabio" King of Galicia, Castile and León (1221-1284) 62
         Mother: Mayor Guillén de Guzmįn (      -      ) 61




Children
1 M Dinis King of Portugal and the Algarve




            AKA: Denis King of Portugal and the Algarve, Diniz King of Portugal and the Algarve
           Born: 9 Oct 1261 - Lisbon, Portugal
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 Jan 1325 - Santarém, Portugal
         Buried: 
         Spouse: St. Elizabeth of Aragon (      -      )



Research Notes: Husband - Afonso III King of Portugal and the Algarve

From Wikipedia - Afonso III of Portugal :

Afonso III (pronounced [?'fõsu] in Portuguese ; rare English alternatives: Alphonzo or Alphonse), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician ) or Alphonsus (Latin ), the Bolognian (Port. o Bolonhźs) or the Brave (Port. o Bravo), the fifth King of Portugal (May 5 , 1210 in Coimbra - February 16 , 1279 in Alcobaēa , Coimbra or Lisbon ) and the first to use the title King of Portugal and the Algarve , since 1249 . He was the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal and his wife, Urraca, princess of Castile ; he succeeded his brother, King Sancho II of Portugal on 4 January 1248 .
As the second son of King Afonso II of Portugal , Afonso was not expected to inherit the throne, which was destined to go to his elder brother Sancho. He lived mostly in France , where he married Matilda, the heiress of Boulogne , in 1238 , thereby becoming Count of Boulogne . In 1246 , conflicts between his brother, the king, and the church became unbearable. Pope Innocent IV then ordered Sancho II to be removed from the throne and be replaced by the Count of Boulogne. Afonso, of course, did not refuse the papal order and marched to Portugal. Since Sancho was not a popular king, the order was not hard to enforce; he was exiled to Castile and Afonso III became king in 1248 after his brother's death. To ascend the throne, he abdicated from the county of Boulogne and later (1253 ) divorced Matilda.

Determined not to commit the same mistakes as his brother, Afonso III paid special attention to what the middle class, composed of merchants and small land owners, had to say. In 1254 , in the city of Leiria , he held the first session of the Cortes , a general assembly comprising the nobility, the middle class and representatives of all municipalities . He also made laws intended to restrain the upper classes from abusing the least favoured part of the population. Remembered as a notable administrator, Afonso III founded several towns, granted the title of city to many others and reorganized public administration.

Secure on the throne, Afonso III then proceeded to make war with the Muslim communities that still thrived in the south. In his reign the Algarve became part of the kingdom, following the capture of Faro -Portugal thus becoming the first Iberian kingdom to complete its Reconquista .
Following his success against the Moors, Afonso III had to deal with a political situation arising from the borders with Castile. The neighbouring kingdom considered that the newly acquired lands of the Algarve should be Castilian, not Portuguese, which led to a series of wars between the two kingdoms. Finally, in 1267 , a treaty was signed in Badajoz , determining that the southern border between Castile and Portugal should be the River Guadiana , as it is today.

Afonso's first wife was Matilda II of Boulogne , daughter of Renaud, Count of Dammartin , and Ida of Boulogne . She had two sons (Roberto and an unnamed one), but both died young. He divorced Matilda in 1253 and, in the same year, married Beatrix of Castile , illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X , King of Castile , and Maria de Guzman .



Research Notes: Wife - Beatrice of Castile

From Wikipedia - Beatrice of Castile (1242-1303) :

Beatrice Alfonso of Castile-León (1242-1303) was the second Queen consort of Afonso III of Portugal . She was an illegitimate daughter of Alfonso X of Castile and his mistress Mayor Guillén de Guzmįn.
She was married to Afonso III in 1253. Earlier that year he had divorced his first wife, Matilda II of Boulogne , because she was unable to provide him with an heir and was considered infertile. The bride was about eleven years old and the groom was 32 years old. They had the following children:


Research Notes: Child - Dinis King of Portugal and the Algarve

From Wikipedia - Denis of Portugal :

Denis (Portuguese : Dinis or Diniz, pronounced [di'ni?] ; 9 October 1261 in Lisbon - 7 January 1325 in Santarém ), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador), was the sixth King of Portugal and the Algarve . The eldest son of Afonso III of Portugal by his second wife, Beatrice of Castile , Dinis succeeded his father in 1279 .




Sources


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50. Wikipedia.org, Afonso I of Portugal.

51. Wikipedia.org, Henry, Count of Portugal.

52. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-24.

53. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-25 (Alfonso I).

54. Wikipedia.org, Maud of Savoy.

55. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 274B-25.

56. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 274B-25 (Amadeus III).

57. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-26, 114-26 (Fernando II).

58. Wikipedia.org, Urraca of Portugal.

59. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 114-26.

60. Wikipedia.org, Ferdinand II of León.

61. Wikipedia.org, Beatrice of Castile (1242–1303).

62. Wikipedia.org, Alfonso X of Castile.


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1 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593874489.

2 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13.

3 Wikipedia.org, Ęthelwulf of Wessex.

4 Wikipedia.org, Alfred the Great.

5 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13 (Aethelwulf).

6 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871983.

7 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871945.

8 Wikipedia.org, Judith of Flanders.

9 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13 (AEthelwulf).

10 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-15, 162-16 (Judith).

11 Wikipedia.org, Charles the Bald.

12 http://www.familysearch.org.

13 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-15 (Charles II).

14 Wikipedia.org, Odo I, Count of Orléans.

15 Wikipedia.org, Baldwin I, Count of Flanders.

16 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 162-16 (Judith).

17 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871946.

18 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-18, 34-19.

19 Wikipedia.org, Ethelred "the Unready."

20 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-17.

21 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-17 (Edgar).

22 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-18 (Ethelred II).

23 Wikipedia.org, Ęlfgifu of York.

24 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-18 (Aethelred II).

25 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 177-3 (Nesta).

26 Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f87/a0018708.htm.

27 Wikipedia.org, Richard I, Duke of Normandy.

28 Website - Genealogy, thepeerage.com.

29 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #125 Pin #875034 Maitland Dirk Brower.

30 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 121E-20.

31 Wikipedia.org, Gunnora, Duchess of Normandy.

32 Website:, http://cybergata.com/roots/442.htm.

33 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 38-22.

34 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 172-20.

35 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 34-21.

36 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 38-23.

37 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 38-23 (Waldeve).

38 Wikipedia.org, Ęthelwulf King of Wessex.

39 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872467.

40 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13 (AEthelwulf).

41 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872466.

42 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-14, 44-15.

43 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I59387198.

44 Wikipedia.org, Ealhswith, Alfred the Great.

45 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-14 (Alfred the Great), 44-15 (Alfred the Great).

46 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871981.

47 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13 (AEthelwulf).

48 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-13 (AEthelwulf).

49 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-25.

50 Wikipedia.org, Afonso I of Portugal.

51 Wikipedia.org, Henry, Count of Portugal.

52 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-24.

53 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-25 (Alfonso I).

54 Wikipedia.org, Maud of Savoy.

55 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 274B-25.

56 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 274B-25 (Amadeus III).

57 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-26, 114-26 (Fernando II).

58 Wikipedia.org, Urraca of Portugal.

59 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 114-26.

60 Wikipedia.org, Ferdinand II of León.

61 Wikipedia.org, Beatrice of Castile (1242–1303).

62 Wikipedia.org, Alfonso X of Castile.


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