The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




Philip Englefield and Joan




Husband Philip Englefield 1

           Born: 1345 - <Berkshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1380 - Fressingfield, Suffolk, England
         Buried: 


         Father: Roger Englefield (1292-1362) 1
         Mother: Joan Roger Englefield (1304-1365) 1


       Marriage: 



Wife Joan 1

           Born: 1345 - <Berkshire>, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1378 - Englefield, Berkshire, England
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Nicholas Englefield 1

           Born: 1378 - Rycote, Oxfordshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Apr 1415 - Haseley, Oxfordshire, England
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Joane Rycote Clerk (1380-1411) 1




Sir Thomas de Chaworth of Alfreton and Norton and Joan




Husband Sir Thomas de Chaworth of Alfreton and Norton 2

           Born: 
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           Died: Bef 20 Oct 1315
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         Father: William de Chaworth (      -      )
         Mother: Alice de Alfreton (      -      )


       Marriage: Bef 1 Nov 1301



Wife Joan

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Children
1 M William de Chaworth 2

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Brian A. Wallace and Jodi




Husband Brian A. Wallace (details suppressed for this person)

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         Father: Richard Allen Wallace
         Mother: Patricia E. Hoiles


       Marriage: 



Wife Jodi (details suppressed for this person)

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Children
1 M Peyton Racer Wallace (details suppressed for this person)

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John Constable of Chester and Alice de Vere




Husband John Constable of Chester

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       Marriage: 



Wife Alice de Vere

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         Father: Aubrey III de Vere 1st Earl of Oxford and Count of Guînes (Abt 1115-1194) 3
         Mother: Agnes of Essex (Abt 1151-Abt 1206)



   Other Spouse: Ernulf de Kemesech (      -      )


Children

Research Notes: Husband - John Constable of Chester

Source: Wikipedia - Agnes of Essex


Research Notes: Wife - Alice de Vere

Source: Wikipedia - Agnes of Essex


John I King of Portugal and the Algarve and Inês Pires Estevez




Husband John I King of Portugal and the Algarve 4

            AKA: João I King of Portugal and the Algarve, John "the Good" King of Portugal and the Algarve
           Born: 11 Apr 1357 - Lisbon, Portugal
     Christened: 
           Died: 14 Aug 1433 - Lisbon, Portugal
         Buried: 


         Father: Peter I King of Portugal and the Algarve (1320-1367) 5
         Mother: Teresa Lourenço (Abt 1330-      ) 5


       Marriage: 

Events

• Lord of Ceuta:

• King of Portugal and the Algarve: 1385.




Wife Inês Pires Estevez 6

            AKA: Inês Pires
           Born: Abt 1350
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1400
         Buried: 


Children
1 F Beatrix of Portugal 7 8

            AKA: Beatrice of Portugal, Beatriz of Portugal
           Born: Abt 1386 - <Portugal>
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 Oct 1437 - Bordeaux, (Gironde), Aquitaine, France
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Thomas FitzAlan 12th Earl of Arundel, Earl of Surrey (1381-1415) 9 10 11 12
           Marr: 26 Nov 1405 - London, England



Research Notes: Husband - John I King of Portugal and the Algarve

Natural son. Grand Master of the Order of Aviz . Succeeded his half-brother Ferdinand I after the 1383-1385 Crisis as John I, 10th King of Portugal, the first of the House of Aviz.
-------

From Wikipedia - John I of Portugal :

John I (or João I, Portuguese pronunciation: [?u'?~u] ; Lisbon , 11 April 1357 - 14 August 1433 in Lisbon), called the Good (sometimes the Great) or of Happy Memory, was the tenth King of Portugal and the Algarve and the first to use the title Lord of Ceuta . He was the natural son of Peter I by a noble Galician woman named Teresa Lourenço, daughter of Lourenço Martins, o da Praça, and wife Sancha Martins. In 1364 he was created Grand Master of the Order of Aviz . He became king in 1385, after the 1383-1385 Crisis .

On the death of his half-brother Ferdinand I in October 1383, without a male heir, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for princess Beatrice , Ferdinand's only daughter. As heiress presumptive , Beatrice had married king John I of Castile , but popular sentiment was against an arrangement in which Portugal would have become virtually united with Castile. The 1383-1385 Crisis followed, a period of political anarchy, when no monarch ruled the country.

On 6 April 1385, the council of the kingdom (cortes in Portuguese ) met in Coimbra and declared John, then Master of Aviz, king of Portugal. This was in effect a declaration of war against Castile and its claims to the Portuguese throne. Soon after, the king of Castile invaded Portugal, with the purpose of conquering Lisbon and removing John I from the throne. John I of Castile was accompanied by French allied cavalry while English troops and generals took the side of John (see Hundred Years War ). John I then named Nuno Álvares Pereira , his loyal and talented supporter, general and protector of the Kingdom. The invasion was repelled during the summer after the Battle of Atoleiros and, especially, the decisive battle of Aljubarrota ( 14 August 1385), where the Castilian army was virtually annihilated. John I of Castile then retreated and the stability of John I's throne was permanently secured.

On 11 February, 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster , daughter of John of Gaunt , who had proved to be a worthy ally, consolidating the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance that endures to the present day.

After the death of John I of Castile in 1390, without leaving issue by Beatrice, John I of Portugal ruled in peace and pursued the economic development of the country. The only significant military action was the siege and conquest of the city of Ceuta in 1415. By this step he aimed to control navigation of the African coast. But in longer perspective, this was the first step opening the Arabian world to medieval Europe, which in fact led to the Age of Discovery with Portuguese explorers sailing across the whole world. It should be noted that the global Muslim population had climbed to about 8 per cent as against the Christian population of 14 per cent by 1400.

Contemporaneous writers describe him as a man of wit, very keen on concentrating the power on himself, but at the same time with a benevolent and kind personality. His youthful education as master of a religious order made him an unusually learned king for the Middle Ages. His love for knowledge and culture was passed to his sons: Duarte , the future king, was a poet and a writer, Pedro , the duke of Coimbra, was one of the most learned princes of his time and Prince Henry the Navigator , the duke of Viseu, started a school of navigation and invested heavily in science and development of nautical topics. In 1430, his only surviving daughter, Isabella, married Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy and enjoyed an extremely refined court in his lands; she was the mother of Charles the Bold .

[edit ] Marriages and descendants
John I married at Oporto on 2 February 1387 Philippa of Lancaster , daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Blanche of Lancaster . From that marriage were born several famous princes and princesses of Portugal (infantes ) that became known as the Illustrious Generation (Portuguese : Ínclita Geração).

By Philippa of Lancaster (1359- 19 July 1415; married on 2 February 1387)
- Infanta Branca 13 July 1388 6 March 1389
- Infante Afonso 30 July 1390 22 December 1400
- Infante Duarte 31 October 1391 13 September 1438 Who succeeded him as Duarte I, 11th King of Portugal .
- Infante Pedro 9 December 1392 20 May 1449 Duke of Coimbra . Died in the Battle of Alfarrobeira .
- Infante Henrique 4 March 1394 13 November 1460 Known as Henry the Navigator. Duke of Viseu and Grand-Master of the Order of Christ .
- Infanta Isabel 21 February 1397 11 December 1471 Duchess Consort of Burgundy by marriage to Philip III, Duke of Burgundy .
Infanta Branca 11 April 1398 27 July 1398
- Infante João 13 January 1400 18 October 1442 Constable of the Kingdom and grandfather of Isabella of Castile .
- Infante Fernando 29 September 1402 5 June 1443 Grand Master of the Order of Aviz . Died in captivity in Fes , Morocco .

By Inês Peres Esteves (c. 1350-1400?)

- Afonso 10 August 1377 15 December 1461 Natural son and 1st Duke of Braganza .

- Branca 1378 1379 Natural daughter.
- Beatriz c. 1382 25 October 1439 Natural daughter. Countess Consort of Arundel by marriage to Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel . Countess Consort of Huntingdon by marriage to John Holland, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon , later Duke of Exeter .



Research Notes: Wife - Inês Pires Estevez

Mistress of King John I of Portugal


Death Notes: Child - Beatrix of Portugal

Died from the Black Death.


Research Notes: Child - Beatrix of Portugal

Illegitimate daughter of King John I of Portugal.

From Archæologia Cambrensis, Vol. VII, 6th Series, 1907, pp. 16-17:

"[Earl Thomas] died without children surviving, and Henry V assigned to his widow, Beatrix of Portugal, as dower, certain possessions of the deceased lord. We learn what these lands were from the inquisition taken in Pentecost week, in the eighteenth year of Henry VI, after the death of Beatrix, on 23rd October, 1437. This inquisition has been printed in pp. 385-388, vol. i, of Powys Fadog, and I extract therefrom all that concerns Holt, Hewlington, and what is now the parish of Isycoed. The said Countess Beatrix had, among other things, 'a third of the gaol within the Castle Leonis, by the name of the Castle of Holt, with free ingress and egress, and safe custody of prisoners, and also the third part of a house called 'The Chekers' [the Exchequer Tower] within the said Castle; also the third part of all houses outside the ward of the Castle. Also l l l a certain stable for five horses next the court-house and near the ditch of the said Castle; also the third part of a garden, together with a pasture called 'Le Quarrer' [the quarry forming part of the moat whence the stone was hewed to build the Castle] adjoining the same; also the manor of Hewlington, the ringildry of Iscoed, and the park of Merseley.'

"...As Thomas Earl of Arundel died without heirs male surviving, his estates were divided, subject to the aforesaid dower, among his three sisters, or among their children or grandchildren in right of them. These sisters were Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk; Joan, wife of William Beauchamp, Lord Abergavenny; and Margaret, wife of Sir Roland Lenthall, knight, all of whom were still living on the 20th July, 1416. The inheritors of the three portions after the death of the Countess Beatrix were (1) John Mowbray, son of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk; (2) Elizabeth, wife of Sir Edward Neville, and daughter of Richard, Earl of Worcester, who was the son of Joan, Lady Abergavenny; and (3) Edmund, son of Sir Roland and Margaret Lenthall."
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From Wikipedia - Beatriz, Countess of Arundel :

Beatriz of Portugal (Portuguese pronunciation: [bi?'t?i?] ; c. 1386 - 1447), LG (English : Beatrice or Beatrix) was a natural daughter of John I of Portugal and Inês Pires . She was a sister of Afonso, Duke of Braganza and half-sister of Edward of Portugal , Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra , Henry the Navigator , Isabella of Portugal , Infante João, Lord of Reguengos and Fernando, the Saint Prince (the so called Ínclita Geração ).

Beatrice was born c. 1386 perhaps in Veiros , Alentejo and married Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel on November 26 , 1405 in London , with King Henry IV in attendance. Thomas died on October 13 , 1415 ; she may have married John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon in 1432.

She died in Bordeaux , of black death in October 25 , 1447 .

She is sometimes confused with another Portuguese lady, Beatrice, wife of Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron Talbot and subsequently of his steward, Thomas Fettiplace of East Shefford in Berkshire .




Joscelin de Louvain and Agnes de Percy




Husband Joscelin de Louvain 13 14

            AKA: Joscelin of Leuven, Joscelin de Lorraine, Joscelin "Barbatus" de Louvain, Joscelyn de Louvain, Joscelin de Louvain de Percy, Joscelyn Percy
           Born: Abt 1121 - <Louvain [Leuven]>, Belgium
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 1180 - Egmanton, Nottinghamshire, England
         Buried: Bef 29 Sep 1180


         Father: Godefroi de Louvain Duc de Basse-Lorraine (Abt 1060-1139) 15 16
         Mother: Clementia of Burgundy (Abt 1078-Abt 1122) 13 14


       Marriage: Abt 1154 - Egmanton, Nottinghamshire, England



Wife Agnes de Percy 13 14 17

           Born: Abt 1134 - <Whitby>, Yorkshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1205
         Buried: 


         Father: William de Percy 4th Baron Percy (Abt 1088-Abt 1175) 14 18
         Mother: Alice de Clare (Abt 1102-After 1148) 14 17




Children
1 M Henry de Percy 5th Baron Percy 14 18

           Born: Abt 1156 - <Whitby>, Yorkshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 29 Sep 1198
         Buried:  - <Saint-Lô or Rouen>, France
         Spouse: Isabel Brus (Abt 1160-After 1230) 14
           Marr: Abt 1182 - Cleveland, Yorkshire, England


2 M Richard de Percy 13

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1244
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Joscelin de Louvain

From Wikipedia - Joscelin of Leuven :

Joscelin of Leuven [1] (1121-1180) was a Brabantian nobleman who married an English heiress, Agnes de Percy , and settled in England. He took the name Percy.
He was given lands at Petworth , by William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel . William had married Adeliza of Louvain , Joscelin's half-sister, and widow of Henry I of England .[2]

Family
He was a son of Godfrey I of Leuven and Clementia of Burgundy .
Joscelin and Agnes had at least seven children[3]:
Henry de Percy
Richard de Percy , (d.1244), who was a Magna Carta surety
Joscelin
Radulph, went to France
Eleanor
Maud (b. c. 1164), married John de Daiville [4]
Lucy
The Percy estate was divided between William, son of Henry, and Richard.


Private and Private




Husband Private (details suppressed for this person)

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         Father: Private
         Mother: Private


       Marriage: 



Wife Private (details suppressed for this person)

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Children
1 M Private (details suppressed for this person)

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         Spouse: Private



Research Notes: Husband - Judah King of Goshen

From Wikipedia - Judah (Bible) :

Judah/Yehuda (Hebrew : , Standard Y Tiberian Y) was, according to the Book of Genesis , the fourth son of Jacob and Leah , and the founder of the Israelite Tribe of Judah ; however some Biblical scholars view this as postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an aetiology of the connectedness of the tribe to others in the Israelite confederation.[1] With Leah as a matriarch, Biblical scholars regard the tribe as having been believed by the text's authors to have been part of the original Israelite confederation; however, it is worthy of note[2] that the tribe of Judah was not purely Israelite, but contained a large admixture of non-Israelites, with a number of Kenizzite groups, the Jerahmeelites , and the Kenites , merging into the tribe at various points.[3]
The text of the Torah argues that the name of Judah, meaning to praise, refers to Leah's intent to praise Yahweh , on account of having achieved four children, and derived from odeh, meaning I will give praise. In classical rabbinical literature , the name is interpreted as just being a combination of Yahweh and a dalet (the letter d); in Gematria , the dalet has the numerical value 4, which these rabbinical sources argue refers to Judah being Jacob's fourth son.[4]
When Reuben lost his firstborn right ( kingship, preisthood, and the double-portion), Judah inherited kingship instead.


Births and deaths
Main article: Tamar (biblical figure)
According to Classical rabbinical literature , Judah was born on the 15th of Sivan ;[2] classical sources differ on the date of death, with the Book of Jubilees advocating a death at age 119, 18 years before Levi ,[5] but the midrashic Book of Jasher advocating a death at the age of 129.[6] The marriage of Judah and births of his children are described in a passage widely regarded as an abrupt change to the surrounding narrative.[7] The passage is often regarded as presenting a significant chronological issue, as the surrounding context appears to constrain the events of the passage to happening within 22 years,[8] and the context together with the passage itself requires the birth of the grandson of Judah and of his son's wife,[9] and the birth of that son,[10] to have happened within this time (to be consistent, this requires an average of less than 8 years gap per generation). According to textual scholars, the reason for the abrupt interruption this passage causes to the surrounding narrative, and the chronological anomaly it seems to present, is that it derives from the Jahwist source, while the immediately surrounding narrative is from the Elohist [11].[2][12]
In this passage, Judah married the daughter of Shuah , a Canaanite . The Book of Jubilees argues for Bat Shua as the name of the wife,[13] the midrashic Book of Jasher argues for lllit as her name.[14] The passage goes on to state that Judah and his wife had three children between them - Er , Onan , and Shelah - and that the first married Tamar ;[15] after Er died without any children, Tamar became Onan's wife in accordance with custom , but he too died without children.[16] The narrative continues by stating that Judah decided that marriage to Tamar was cursed to be fatal, and so avoided letting Shelah marry her;[17] this would have left Tamar unable to have children, so she managed to trick Judah into having sex with her, by pretending to be a prostitute .[18] According to the text, when Judah discovered that Tamar was pregnant, he intended to have her burnt ,[19] but when he discovered that he was the father, he recanted and confessed that he had used a prostitute;[20] she was pregnant with twins, and they were Pharez and Zerah , the fourth and fifth sons of Judah.[21] According to the Talmud , Judah's confession atoned for some of his prior faults, and itself resulted in him being divinely rewarded by a share in the future world .[22]
The main motive of the Tamar narrative, is, according to many Biblical scholars, an eponymous aetiological myth concerning the fluctuations in the constituency of the tribe of Judah; textual scholars attribute the narrative to the Yahwist , though Biblical scholars regard it as concerning the state of the clans not much earlier.[23][24] A number of scholars have proposed that the deaths of Er and Onan reflect the dying out of two clans;[25][26] Onan may represent an Edomite clan named Onam,[27] who are mentioned in an Edomite genealogy in Genesis,[28] while Er appears from a genealogy in the Book of Chronicles [29] to have later been subsumed by the Shelah clan.[30][31]
Some scholars have argued that the narrative secondarily aims to either assert the institution of levirate marriage , or present an aetiological myth for its origin, since it highlights cases of marriage for pleasure not for having children (Onan), of refusal to perform the marriage (Jacob, on behalf of Shelah), and of levirate activities with men related to the dead husband other than fraternally;[32] Emerton regards the evidence for this as inconclusive, though according to classical rabbinical writers this is the origin of levirate marriage.[33] A number of scholars, particularly in recent decades (as of 1980), have proposed that the narrative reflects an anachronistic interest in the biblical account of king David , with the character of Tamar being the same;[34][35] the proposals partly being due to the scenes of the narrative - Adullam , Chezib , and Timnah - overlapping.[36][37]
The Book of Chronicles mentions that ... a ruler came from Judah ...,[38] which classical rabbinical sources took to imply that Judah was the leader of his brothers, terming him the king.[39][40] The same part of the Book of Chronicles also describes Judah as the strongest of his brothers,[41] and rabbinical literature portrays him as having had extraordinary physical strength, able to shout for over 400 parasangs , able to crush iron into dust by his mouth, and with hair that stiffened so much, when he became angry, that it pierced his clothes.[42]

[edit ] Fighting Canaanites
Classical rabbinical sources allude to a war between the Canaanites and Judah's family (which isn't mentioned in the Bible), as a result of their destruction of Shechem in revenge for the rape of Dinah [43][44][45];[46][47] Judah features heavily as a protagonist in accounts of this war. In these accounts Judah kills Jashub , king of Tappuah , in hand-to-hand combat, after first having deposed Jashub from his horse by throwing an extremely heavy stone (60 shekels in weight) at him from a large distance away (the Midrash Wayissau states 177 cubits, while other sources have only 30 cubits );[2] the accounts say that Judah was able to achieve this even though he was himself under attack, from arrows which Jashub was shooting at him with both hands.[48] The accounts go on to state that while Judah was trying to remove Jashub's armour from his corpse, nine assistants of Jashub fell upon him in combat, but after Judah killed one, he scared away the others;[49] nevertheless, Judah killed several members of Jashub's army (42 men according to the midrashic Book of Jasher , but 1000 men according to the Testament of Judah ).[50]
[edit ] Selling Joseph
In the Torah's Joseph narrative, when his brothers are jealous of Joseph and contemplate murdering him, Judah suggests that the brothers should sell Joseph to some passing Ishmaelites ;[51] it is unclear from the narrative whether Judah's motives were to save Joseph, or to harm him but keep him alive but does clearly state that he sold him for 20 pieces of silver saying "how can we profit from conselling our brothers blood". The narrative goes on to state that the brothers dipped Joseph's coat in fresh goat's blood, and showed it to Jacob, after Joseph had gone, so that he would think that Joseph was dead; according to some classical rabbinical sources, Jacob suspected that Judah had killed Joseph,[52] especially, according to the Midrash Tanhuma , when Judah was the one who had brought the blood stained coat to Jacob.[2]
Since rabbinical sources held Judah to have been the leader of his brothers, these sources also hold him responsible for this deception, even if it was not Judah himself who brought the coat to Jacob.[53] Even if Judah had been trying to save Joseph, the classical rabbinical sources still regard him negatively for it; these sources argue that, as the leader of the brothers, Judah should have made more effort, and carried Joseph home to Jacob on his (Judah's) own shoulders.[54] These sources argue that Judah's brothers, after witnessing Jacob's grief at the loss of Joseph, deposed and excommunicated Judah, as the brothers held Judah entirely responsible, since they would have brought Joseph home if Judah had asked them to do so.[55] Divine punishment, according to such classical sources, was also inflicted on Judah in punishment; the death of Er and Onan, and of his wife, are portrayed in by such classical rabbis as being acts of divine retribution.[56]
[edit ] Protecting Benjamin
The Biblical Joseph narrative eventually describes Joseph as meeting his brothers again, while he is in a position of power, and without his brothers recognising him; in this latter part of the narrative, Benjamin initially remains in Canaan, and so Joseph takes Simeon hostage, and insists that the brothers return with their younger brother (Benjamin) to prove they aren't spies.[57] The narrative goes on to state that Judah offers himself to Jacob as surety for Benjamin's safety, and manages to persuade him to let them take Benjamin to Egypt ; according to classical rabbinical literature, because Judah had proposed that he should bear any blame forever, this ultimately led to his bones being rolled around his coffin without cease, while it was being carried during the Exodus , until Moses interceded with God, by arguing that Judah's confession (in regard to having sex with Tamar) had led to Reuben confessing his own incest.[2]
When, in the Joseph narrative, the brothers return with Benjamin to Joseph, Joseph tests whether the brothers have reformed by tricking them into a situation where he can demand the enslavement of Benjamin .[58] The narrative describes Judah as making an impassioned plea against enslaving Benjamin, ultimately making Joseph recant and reveal his identity;[59] the Genesis Rabbah , and particularly the midrashic book of Jasher, expand on this by describing Judah's plea as much more extensive than given in the Torah, and more vehement.[60][61]
The classical rabbinical literature goes on to argue that Judah reacted violently to the threat against Benjamin, shouting so loudly that Hushim , who was then in Canaan, was able to hear Judah ask him to travel to Egypt , to help Judah destroy it;[2] some sources have Judah angrily picking up an extremely heavy stone (400 shekels in weight), throwing it into the air, then grinding it to dust with his feet once it had landed.[62] These rabbinical sources argue that Judah had Naphtali enumerate the districts of Egypt , and after finding out that there were 12 (historically, there were actually 20 in Lower Egypt and 22 in Upper Egypt ), he decided to destroy three himself, and have his brothers destroy one of the remaining districts each;[2] the threat of destroying Egypt was, according to these sources, what really motivated Joseph to reveal himself to his brothers.[63]


Research Notes: Wife - Tamar

FamilySearch.org Disc #94 Pin #92591 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer)


Research Notes: Child - Private

Fifth son of Judah.

From Wikipedia - Zerah :

Zerah or Zérach ( / "Sunrise", Standard Hebrew Zéra / Zára, Tiberian Hebrew Zéra / Z) refers to five different people in the Bible .


The Cushite
Zerah the Cushite, is an individual mentioned by the Book of Chronicles as having invaded the Kingdom of Judah with an enormous army, in the days of Asa .[1] According to the text, when Zerah's army reached that of Asa at Zephathah ,[2] Zerah's army was utterly defeated, by divine intervention,[3] and Asa's forces collected a large volume of spoils of war.[4]
The invasion, and its implied time-frame, means that the traditional view was to consider this Zerah to have actually been Osorkon II or Osorkon I ,[5] both being rulers of Egypt . Osorkon II, is known to have entered the Kingdom of Judah, with a huge army, in 853BC; however, rather than attacking Judah, the army was just passing through, on its way to attack the Assyrian forces. In addition, Asa's reign is traditionally dated to have ended in 873BC, making it impossible for the biblical text to be accurate if Osorkon II was Zerah, since Osorkon II's reign hadn't even begun until one year later - 872BC. In the Book of Kings , which doesn't mention Asa's defeat of Zerah, Asa is described as being extremely weak from a defensive point of view,[6] and Biblical scholars regard the idea that Asa could defeat an enormous Egyptian army to be untenable.[7]
Furthermore, Cushite refers to Kush (historic Ethiopia ), and it is unclear why either Osorkon should be described as a Cushite,[8] since the assertion would be unjustified.[9] It is a possibility that Cushite ( )is a typographic error for Kassite ( ), and that it consequently refers to a Babylonian (Kassite ) invasion,[8] but it is considered far more likely that it refers to an invasion by a marauding group of Arabs [10],[8][11] whose numbers have been vastly exaggerated.[12]
Son of Tamar
According to the Book of Genesis , Zerah was the son of Tamar and of Judah , and was the twin of Pharez .[13] The text argues that he was called Zerah because he had stuck his hand out before being born, and the midwife had tied a scarlet thread;[14] although all other biblical uses of the word zerah translate as sunrise, here the name is implied to derive from the colour of the thread - scarlet - which is similar to the initial colour of sunrise.
According to biblical scholars , the birth narrative here is an eponymous aetiological myth concerning the ethnological relationship between parts of the tribe of Judah .[8][15] The narrative would be more appropriate for describing the birth of Shuni ( ), one of the sons that the Bible later attributes to Gad ,[16] since the word used for scarlet is shani ( ); in addition, the bible also identifies Zerah as the name of the founder of one of the Simeonite clans.[17]
Names in the Genealogies of the Book of Chronicles
Zerah was a Gershonite Levite (1 Chr. 6:21, 41).



Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks and Judith of Bavaria




Husband Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks 19 20 21 22




            AKA: Louis I "the Fair" Holy Roman Emperor, Louis the Debonaire Holy Roman Emperor, Louis the Pious Holy Roman Emperor
           Born: 16 Apr 778 - <Villa Cassinogilum (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou), (Poitou-Charentes)>, Aquitaine (France)
     Christened: 
           Died: 20 Jun 840 - Ingelheim Kaiserpfalz, (Ingelheim am Rhein, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany)
         Buried: 


         Father: Charlemagne King of France, Emperor of Rom (0747-0814) 23 24 25 26
         Mother: Hildegard of Vinzgouw (Abt 0758-0783) 27 28 29 30


       Marriage: Feb 819

   Other Spouse: Ermengarde of Hesbaye (Abt 0778-0818) 31 32 33 - Between 794 and 795 - Garonne, France

Events

• King of Aquitaine: 781-817.

• King of the Franks: 814-840.

• Holy Roman Emperor: 814-840.




Wife Judith of Bavaria 34 35 36

            AKA: Iudit of Bavaria
           Born: Abt 798 - Bavaria, Germany
     Christened: 
           Died: 19 Apr 843 - Tours, Touraine (Indre-et-Loire), France
         Buried: 


         Father: Welf I of Metz (      -Abt 0825) 37
         Mother: Hedwig Duchess of Bavaria (      -      ) 37




Children
1 F Gisèle 20 38 39

            AKA: Gisela
           Born: 820 - France
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Jul 874
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Eberhard Margrave of Friuli (Abt 0818-0866)
           Marr: Bef 840


2 M Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor 40 41




            AKA: Charles the Bald King of West Francia and Holy Roman Emperor
           Born: 13 Jun 823 - Frankfurt-am-Main, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia (Germany)
     Christened: 


           Died: 5 Oct 877 - Mont Cenis, Brides-les-Bains, Bourgogne, (France)
         Buried:  - Church of Saint Peter, Abbey of Nantua, (Ain, Rhône-Alpes), Burgundy, (France)
         Spouse: Ermentrude of Orléans (0830-0869) 14 42 43
           Marr: 14 Dec 842 - Crécy, (Somme), Picardy, France
         Spouse: Richildis (      -      )



Death Notes: Husband - Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks

Near Mainz


Research Notes: Husband - Louis I Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks

Holy Roman Emperor 814-840

King of the Franks, Crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rheims 816-840. Louis began the partitioning of his father's empire.

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From Wikipedia - Louis the Pious :

Louis the Pious (also known as Louis I, Louis the Fair, and Louis the Debonaire, German : Ludwig der Fromme, French : Louis le Pieux or Louis le Débonnaire, Italian : Luigi il Pio or Ludovico il Pio, Spanish : Luis el Piadoso or Ludovico Pío) (778 - 20 June 840 ) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks from 814 to his death in 840 .

Birth and Rule in Aquitaine
Louis was born while his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain, at the Carolingian villa of Cassinogilum, according to Einhard and the anonymous chronicler called Astronomus ; the place is usually identified with Chasseneuil , near Poitiers.[1] He was the third son of Charlemagne by his wife Hildegard .

Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine as a child in 781 and sent there with regents and a court. Charlemagne constituted the sub-kingdom in order to secure the border of his kingdom after his devastating defeat at the hands of Basques in Roncesvalles in (778).

In 794, Charlemagne settled four former Gallo-Roman villas on Louis, in the thought that he would take in each in turn as winter residence: Doué-la-Fontaine in today's Anjou , Ebreuil in Allier , Angeac-Charente , and the disputed Cassinogilum. Charlemagne's intention was to see all his sons brought up as natives of their given territories, wearing the national costume of the region and ruling by the local customs. Thus were the children sent to their respective realms at so young an age. Each kingdom had its importance in keeping some frontier, Louis's was the Spanish March . In 797 , Barcelona , the greatest city of the Marca, fell to the Franks when Zeid, its governor, rebelled against Córdoba and, failing, handed it to them. The Umayyad authority recaptured it in 799 . However, Louis marched the entire army of his kingdom, including Gascons with their duke Sancho I of Gascony , Provençals under Leibulf , and Goths under Bera , over the Pyrenees and besieged it for two years, wintering there from 800 to 801 , when it capitulated. The sons were not given independence from central authority, however, and Charlemagne ingrained in them the concepts of empire and unity by sending them on military expeditions far from their home bases. Louis campaigned in the Mezzogiorno against the Beneventans at least once.

Louis was one of Charlemagne's three legitimate sons to survive infancy, and, according to Frankish custom, Louis had expected to share his inheritance with his brothers, Charles the Younger , King of Neustria , and Pepin , King of Italy . In the Divisio Regnorum of 806 , Charlemagne had slated Charles the Younger as his successor as emperor and chief king, ruling over the Frankish heartland of Neustria and Austrasia , while giving Pepin the Iron Crown of Lombardy , which Charlemagne possessed by conquest. To Louis's kingdom of Aquitaine, he added Septimania , Provence , and part of Burgundy .

But in the event, Charlemagne's other legitimate sons died - Pepin in 810 and Charles in 811 - and Louis alone remained to be crowned co-emperor with Charlemagne in 813 . On his father's death in 814 , he inherited the entire Frankish kingdom and all its possessions (with the sole exception of Italy, which remained within Louis's empire, but under the direct rule of Bernard , Pepin's son).

Emperor
He was in his villa of Doué-la-Fontaine , Anjou , when he received news of his father's passing. Hurrying to Aachen , he crowned himself and was proclaimed by the nobles with shouts of Vivat Imperator Ludovicus.
In his first coinage type, minted from the start of his reign, he imitated his father Charlemagne's portrait coinage, giving an image of imperial power and prestige in an echo of Roman glory [2]. He quickly enacted a "moral purge", in which he sent all of his unmarried sisters to nunneries, forgoing their diplomatic use as hostage brides in favour of the security of avoiding the entanglements that powerful brothers-in-law might bring. He spared his illegitimate half-brothers and tonsured his father's cousins, Adalard and Wala, son of Bernard , shutting them up in Noirmoutier and Corbie , respectively, despite the latter's initial loyalty.

His chief councillors were Bernat, margrave of Septimania , and Ebbo , whom, born a serf, Louis would raise to the archbishopric of Rheims but who would ungratefully betray him later. He retained some of his father's ministers, such as Elisachar , abbot of St Maximin near Trier , and Hildebold, Archbishop of Cologne . Later he replaced Elisachar with Hildwin, abbot of many monasteries.

He also used Benedict of Aniane (the Second Benedict), a Septimanian Visigoth and monastic founder, to help him reform the Frankish church. One of Benedict's primary reforms was to ensure that all religious houses in Louis' realm adhered to the Rule of St Benedict , named for its creator, the First Benedict, Benedict of Nursia (480 -550 ).

In 816 , Pope Stephen V , who had succeeded Leo III , visited Rheims and again crowned Louis. The Emperor thereby strengthened the papacy by recognising the importance of the pope in imperial coronations.

Ordinatio imperii
On Maundy Thursday 817 , Louis and his court were crossing a wooden gallery from the cathedral to the palace in Aachen when the gallery collapsed, killing many. Louis, having barely survived and feeling the imminent danger of death, began planning for his succession; three months later he issued an Ordinatio Imperii, an imperial decree that laid out plans for an orderly succession. In 815 , he had already given his two eldest sons a share in the government, when he had sent his elder sons Lothair and Pepin to govern Bavaria and Aquitaine respectively, though without the royal titles. Now, he proceeded to divide the empire among his three sons and his nephew Bernard of Italy :

Lothair was proclaimed and crowned co-emperor in Aix-la-Chapelle by his father. He was promised the succession to most of the Frankish dominions (excluding the exceptions below), and would be the overlord of his brothers and cousin.

Bernard, the son of Charlemagne's son Pippin of Italy , was confirmed as King of Italy, a title he had been allowed to inherit from his father by Charlemagne.

Pepin was proclaimed King of Aquitaine, his territory including Gascony, the march around Toulouse, and the counties of Carcassonnne, Autun, Avallon and Nevers.

Louis , the youngest son, was proclaimed King of Bavaria and the neighbouring marches.

If one of the subordinate kings died, he was to be succeeded by his sons. If he died childless, Lothar would inherit his kingdom. In the event of Lothar dying without sons, one of Louis the Pious' younger sons would be chosen to replace him by "the people". Above all, the Empire would not be divided: the Emperor would rule supreme over the subordinate kings, whose obedience to him was mandatory.

With this settlement, Louis tried to combine his sense for the Empire's unity, supported by the clergy, while at the same time providing positions for all of his sons. Instead of treating his sons equally in status and land, he elevated his first-born son Lothair above his younger brothers and gave him the largest part of the Empire as his share.

Bernard's rebellion and Louis's penance
The ordinatio imperii of Aachen left Bernard of Italy in an uncertain and subordinate position as king of Italy, and he began plotting to declare independence upon hearing of it. Louis immediately directed his army towards Italy, and betook himself to Chalon-sur-Saône . Intimidated by the emperor's swift action, Bernard met his uncle at Chalon, under invitation, and surrendered. He was taken to Aix-la-Chapelle by Louis, who there had him tried and condemned to death for treason. Louis had the sentence commuted to blinding, which was duly carried out; Bernard did not survive the ordeal, however, dying after two days of agony. Others also suffered: Theodulf of Orleans , in eclipse since the death of Charlemagne, was accused of having supported the rebellion, and was thrown into a monastic prison, where he died soon after - poisoned, it was rumoured.[3] The fate of his nephew deeply marked Louis's conscience for the rest of his life.


In 822, as a deeply religious man, Louis performed penance for causing Bernard's death, at his palace of Attigny near Vouziers in the Ardennes , before Pope Paschal I , and a council of ecclesiastics and nobles of the realm that had been convened for the reconciliation of Louis with his three younger half-brothers, Hugo whom he soon made abbot of St-Quentin, Drogo whom he soon made Bishop of Metz , and Theodoric. This act of contrition, partly in emulation of Theodosius I , had the effect of greatly reducing his prestige as a Frankish ruler, for he also recited a list of minor offences about which no secular ruler of the time would have taken any notice. He also made the egregious error of releasing Wala and Adalard from their monastic confinements, placing the former in a position of power in the court of Lothair and the latter in a position in his own house.

Frontier wars
At the start of Louis's reign, the many tribes - Danes , Obotrites , Slovenes , Bretons , Basques - which inhabited his frontierlands were still in awe of the Frankish emperor's power and dared not stir up any trouble. In 816, however, the Sorbs rebelled and were quickly followed by Slavomir, chief of the Obotrites, who was captured and abandoned by his own people, being replaced by Ceadrag in 818. Soon, Ceadrag too had turned against the Franks and allied with the Danes, who were to become the greatest menace of the Franks in a short time.

A greater Slavic menace was gathering on the southeast. There, Ljudevit Posavski , duke of Pannonia , was harassing the border at the Drava and Sava rivers. The margrave of Friuli , Cadolah , was sent out against him, but he died on campaign and, in 820, his margarvate was invaded by Slovenes. In 821, an alliance was made with Borna , duke of the Dalmatia , and Ljudevit was brought to heel. Peace continued until 827, when the younger Louis had to deal with a Bulgar horde descending on Pannonia.

On the far southern edge of his great realm, Louis had to control the Lombard princes of Benevento whom Charlemagne had never subjugated. He extracted promises from Princes Grimoald IV and Sico , but to no effect.
On the southwestern frontier, problems commenced early when, in 815, Séguin , duke of Gascony , revolted. He was defeated and replaced by Lupus III , who was dispossessed in 818 by the emperor. In 820 an assembly at Quierzy-sur-Oise decided to send an expedition against the Cordoban caliphate. The counts in charge of the army, Hugh , count of Tours , and Matfrid , count of Orléans , were slow in acting and the expedition came to naught.

First civil war
In 818, as Louis was returning from a campaign to Brittany , he was greeted by news of the death of his wife, Ermengarde . Ermengarde was the daughter of Ingerman , the duke of Hesbaye. Louis had been close to his wife, who had been involved in policymaking. It was rumoured that she had played a part in her nephew's death and Louis himself believed her own death was divine retribution for that event. It took many months for his courtiers and advisors to convince him to remarry, but eventually he did, in 820, to Judith , daughter of Welf , count of Altdorf . In 823 Judith gave birth to a son, who was named Charles .

The birth of this son damaged the Partition of Aachen, as Louis's attempts to provide for his fourth son met with stiff resistance from his older sons, and the last two decades of his reign were marked by civil war.

At Worms in 829, Louis gave Charles Alemannia with the title of king or duke (historians differ on this), thus enraging his son and co-emperor Lothair,[4] whose promised share was thereby diminished. An insurrection was soon at hand. With the urging of the vengeful Wala and the cooperation of his brothers, Lothair accused Judith of having committed adultery with Bernard of Septimania, even suggesting Bernard to be the true father of Charles. Ebbo and Hildwin abandoned the emperor at that point, Bernard having risen to greater heights than either of them. Agobard , Archbishop of Lyon , and Jesse , bishop of Amiens , too, opposed the redivision of the empire and lent their episcopal prestige to the rebels.

In 830, at Wala's insistence that Bernard of Septimania was plotting against him, Pepin of Aquitaine led an army of Gascons , with the support of the Neustrian magnates, all the way to Paris . At Verberie , Louis the German joined him. At that time, the emperor returned from another campaign in Brittany to find his empire at war with itself. He marched as far as Compiègne , an ancient royal town, before being surrounded by Pepin's forces and captured. Judith was incarcerated at Poitiers and Bernard fled to Barcelona.

Then Lothair finally set out with a large Lombard army, but Louis had promised his sons Louis the German and Pepin of Aquitaine greater shares of the inheritance, prompting them to shift loyalties in favour of their father. When Lothair tried to call a general council of the realm in Nijmegen , in the heart of Austrasia , the Austrasians and Rhinelanders came with a following of armed retainers, and the disloyal sons were forced to free their father and bow at his feet (831). Lothair was pardoned, but disgraced and banished to Italy. Pepin returned to Aquitaine and Judith - after being forced to humiliate herself with a solemn oath of innocence - to Louis's court. Only Wala was severely dealt with, making his way to a secluded monastery on the shores of Lake Geneva . Though Hilduin , abbot of Saint Denis , was exiled to Paderborn and Elisachar and Matfrid were deprived of their honours north of the Alps; they did not lose their freedom.

Second civil war
The next revolt occurred a mere two years later (832). The disaffected Pepin was summoned to his father's court, where he was so poorly received he left against his father's orders. Immediately, fearing that Pepin would be stirred up to revolt by his nobles and desiring to reform his morals, Louis the Pious summoned all his forces to meet in Aquitaine in preparation of an uprising, but Louis the German garnered an army of Slav allies and conquered Swabia before the emperor could react. Once again the elder Louis divided his vast realm. At Jonac , he declared Charles king of Aquitaine and deprived Pepin (he was less harsh with the younger Louis), restoring the whole rest of the empire to Lothair, not yet involved in the civil war. Lothair was, however, interested in usurping his father's authority. His ministers had been in contact with Pepin and may have convinced him and Louis the German to rebel, promising him Alemannia, the kingdom of Charles.

Soon Lothair, with the support of Pope Gregory IV , whom he had confirmed in office without his father's support, joined the revolt in 833. While Louis was at Worms gathering a new force, Lothair marched north. Louis marched south. The armies met on the plains of the Rothfeld. There, Gregory met the emperor and may have tried to sow dissension amongst his ranks. Soon much of Louis's army had evaporated before his eyes, and he ordered his few remaining followers to go, because "it would be a pity if any man lost his life or limb on my account." The resigned emperor was taken to Saint Médard at Soissons , his son Charles to Prüm , and the queen to Tortona . The despicable show of disloyalty and disingenuousness earned the site the name Field of Lies, or Lügenfeld, or Campus Mendacii, ubi plurimorum fidelitas exstincta est[5]


On November 13 , 833 , Ebbo of Rheims presided over a synod in the Church of Saint Mary in Soissons which deposed Louis and forced him to publicly confess many crimes, none of which he had, in fact, committed. In return, Lothair gave Ebbo the Abbey of Saint Vaast. Men like Rabanus Maurus , Louis' younger half-brothers Drogo and Hugh, and Emma, Judith's sister and Louis the German's new wife, worked on the younger Louis to make peace with his father, for the sake of unity of the empire. The humiliation to which Louis was then subjected at Notre Dame in Compiègne turned the loyal barons of Austrasia and Saxony against Lothair, and the usurper fled to Burgundy , skirmishing with loyalists near Châlons-sur-Saône . Louis was restored the next year, on 1 March 834 .

On Lothair's return to Italy, Wala, Jesse, and Matfrid, formerly count of Orléans, died of a pestilence and, on 2 February 835 , the Synod of Thionville deposed Ebbo, Agobard, Bernard , Bishop of Vienne , and Bartholomew , Archbishop of Narbonne . Lothair himself fell ill; events had turned completely in Louis favour once again.

In 836, however, the family made peace and Louis restored Pepin and Louis, deprived Lothair of all save Italy, and gave it to Charles in a new division, given at the diet of Crémieux . At about that time, the Vikings terrorised and sacked Utrecht and Antwerp . In 837, they went up the Rhine as far as Nijmegen, and their king, Rorik , demanded the wergild of some of his followers killed on previous expeditions before Louis the Pious mustered a massive force and marched against them. They fled, but it would not be the last time they harried the northern coasts. In 838, they even claimed sovereignty over Frisia , but a treaty was confirmed between them and the Franks in 839. Louis the Pious ordered the construction of a North Sea fleet and the sending of missi dominici into Frisia to establish Frankish sovereignty there.

Third civil war
In 837, Louis crowned Charles king over all of Alemannia and Burgundy and gave him a portion of his brother Louis's land. Louis the German promptly rose in revolt, and the emperor redivided his realm again at Quierzy-sur-Oise , giving all of the young king of Bavaria's lands, save Bavaria itself, to Charles. Emperor Louis did not stop there, however. His devotion to Charles knew no bounds. When Pepin died in 838, Louis declared Charles the new king of Aquitaine. The nobles, however, elected Pepin's son Pepin II . When Louis threatened invasion, the third great civil war of his reign broke out. In the spring of 839, Louis the German invaded Swabia, Pepin II and his Gascon subjects fought all the way to the Loire , and the Danes returned to ravage the Frisian coast (sacking Dorstad for a second time).

Lothair, for the first time in a long time, allied with his father and pledged support at Worms in exchange for a redivision of the inheritance. By a final placitum issued there, Louis gave Bavaria to Louis the German and disinherited Pepin II, leaving the entire remainder of the empire to be divided roughly into an eastern part and a western. Lothair was given the choice of which partition he would inherit and he chose the eastern, including Italy, leaving the western for Charles. The emperor quickly subjugated Aquitaine and had Charles recognised by the nobles and clergy at Clermont-en-Auvergne in 840. Louis then, in a final flash of glory, rushed into Bavaria and forced the younger Louis into the Ostmark . The empire now settled as he had declared it at Worms, he returned in July to Frankfurt am Main , where he disbanded the army. The final civil war of his reign was over.

Death
Louis fell ill soon after his final victorious campaigns and went to his summer hunting lodge on an island in the Rhine, by his palace at Ingelheim . On 20 June 840 , he died, in the presence of many bishops and clerics and in the arms of his half-brother Drogo, though Charles and Judith were absent in Poitiers. Soon dispute plunged the surviving brothers into a civil war that was only settled in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun , which split the Frankish realm into three parts, to become the kernels of France and Germany , with Burgundy and the Low Countries between them. The dispute over the kingship of Aquitaine was not fully settled until 860.

Louis the Pious, along with his half-brother Drogo, were buried in Saint Pierre aux Nonnains Basilica in Metz .

Marriage and issue
By his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye (married ca 794-98), he had three sons and three daughters:
Lothair (795 -855 ), king of Middle Francia
Pepin (797 -838 ), king of Aquitaine
Adelaide (b. c. 799 ), perhaps married Robert the Strong
Rotrude (b. 800 ), married Gerard
Hildegard (or Matilda) (b. c. 802 ), married Gerard , Count of Auvergne
Louis the German (c. 805 -875 ), king of East Francia
By his second wife, Judith of Bavaria , he had a daughter and a son:
Gisela , married Eberhard I of Friuli
Charles the Bald , king of West Francia
By Theodelinde of Sens[citation needed ], he had two illegitimate children:
Arnulf of Sens
Alpais
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From Wikipedia - Chasseneuil-du-Poitou :

The town, then simply the villa Cassinogilum, was a royal residence of first the Merovingian , and then Carolingian dynasties in France.[8] Louis the Pious , later King of Aquitaine and King of the Franks was born in the villa on 16 April 778 , when his mother, Hildegard of Vinzgouw was staying in the villa whilst his father Charlemagne was on campaign in Spain .


Birth Notes: Wife - Judith of Bavaria

Ancestral Roots has b. abt 805. Source: http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871879 has b. abt 798.


Research Notes: Wife - Judith of Bavaria

Second wife of Louis I "the Fair."

From Wikipedia - Judith of Bavaria (795-843) :

Queen Judith or Iudit (805 - April 19 or 23, 843), also known as Judith of Bavaria, was the daughter of Count Welf and a Saxon noblewoman named Hedwig, Duchess of Bavaria (780 - 826). She became Queen consort of the Franks.

Marriage and issue
She became the second wife of Louis the Pious , Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Franks ; they married in Aachen in 819 and had the following children:
Gisela (820 - July 5 , 874 ), married Eberhard of Friuli
Charles the Bald

Impact on the Frankish kingdom

Judith ensured that her son Charles received a share of the kingdom, just like his three half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. This contributed to the ensuing civil war among Louis and his sons. Rebels temporarily imprisoned Judith in the convent of Poitiers on allegations of adultery during 830. From 833 to 834, she was exiled in Tortona .

Judith was the first member of the Elder House of Welf to have a leading role in the Frankish kingdom. Whether by coincidence or through Judith's influence, in the years following her marriage to Louis her mother and both of her brothers gained important offices in the kingdom. Her sister Hemma married Louis the German , a son of Louis the Pious from his first marriage, in 827. Judith was buried at the basilica of St. Martin in Tours .


Notes: Marriage

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 2008), line 148-14 (Louis I) has m. 819


Death Notes: Child - Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor

Died near Mont Cenis in the Alps on 5 or 6 October 877.


Burial Notes: Child - Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor

From Wikipedia: "According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body. He was to have been buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis and may have been transferred there later. It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there that was melted down at the Revolution."


Research Notes: Child - Charles II "the Bald" of France and Holy Roman Emperor

Name Suffix: Holy Roman Emperor
Also Known As: King of Lorraine
REFN: 831
King of France 843-877, King of Lorraine 869-877, crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome 25 December 875. In 840, Charles joined with his half-brother Louis in opposing their brother Lothair who attempted to secure the empire for himself upon the death of their father Louis.
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From Wikipedia - Charles the Bald :

Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Empire ) (French : Charles le Chauve; 13 June 823 - 6 October 877 ), Holy Roman Emperor (875 -877 ) and King of West Francia (840 -877 ), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious , by his second wife Judith .

Struggle against his brothers
He was born on 13 June 823 in Frankfurt , when his elder brothers were already adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia and then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (in 832, after the rising of Pepin I of Aquitaine ) were unsuccessful. The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious Lothair and Pepin, as well as their brother Louis the German , King of Bavaria , made Charles's share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land which was once Gaul and would eventually be France. At a diet near Crémieux in 837, Louis the Pious bade the nobles do homage to Charles as his heir. This led to the final rising of his sons against him and Pepin of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles received that kingdom, finally once and for all. Pepin's son Pepin II would be a perpetual thorn in his side.

The death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the new emperor Lothair I, and the two allies defeated Lothair at the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye on June 25 , 841 . In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg . The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the West Franks, which he had been up till then governing and which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse , the Saône , and the Rhône , with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro . Louis received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire , known as the East Francia and later Germany . Lothair retained the imperial title and the Iron Crown of Lombardy . He also received the central regions from Flanders through the Rhineland and Burgundy as king of Middle Francia .

Reign in the West

The first years of Charles's reign, up to the death of Lothair I in 855 , were comparatively peaceful. During these years the three brothers continued the system of "confraternal government", meeting repeatedly with one another, at Koblenz (848 ), at Meerssen (851 ), and at Attigny (854 ). In 858 , Louis the German, invited by disaffected nobles eager to oust Charles, invaded the West Frankish kingdom. Charles was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, and he fled to Burgundy . He was saved only by the support of the bishops, who refused to crown Louis king, and by the fidelity of the Welfs , who were related to his mother, Judith. In 860 , he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence , but was repulsed. On the death of his nephew Lothair II in 869 , Charles tried to seize Lothair's dominions, but by the Treaty of Mersen (870 ) was compelled to share them with Louis the German.

Besides these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against repeated rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons . Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë , who defeated the king at Ballon (845 ) and Juvardeil (851 ), the Bretons were successful in obtaining a de facto independence. Charles also fought against the Vikings , who devastated the country of the north, the valleys of the Seine and Loire , and even up to the borders of Aquitaine. Several times Charles was forced to purchase their retreat at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders and, by the Edict of Pistres of 864 , made the army more mobile by providing for a cavalry element, the predecessor of the French chivalry so famous during the next 600 years. By the same edict, he ordered fortified bridges to be put up at all rivers to block the Viking incursions. Two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during its siege of 885-886 .

Emperor

In 875 , after the death of the Emperor Louis II (son of his half-brother Lothair), Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII , traveled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on December 29 . Louis the German, also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to Francia . After the death of Louis the German (28 August 876 ), Charles in his turn attempted to seize Louis's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at Andernach on October 8 , 876 . In the meantime, John VIII, menaced by the Saracens , was urging Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps , but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by his regent in Lombardy , Boso , and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman , son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bain , on 6 October 877 .

According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body. He was to have been buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis and may have been transferred there later. It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there that was melted down at the Revolution.

Legacy
Charles was succeeded by his son, Louis . Charles seems to have been a prince of education and letters, a friend of the church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens , who betrayed him, and of Hincmar of Reims .
It has been suggested that Charles was not in fact bald, but that his epithet was applied ironically - that, in fact, he was extremely hairy. In support of this idea is the fact that none of his enemies commented on what would be an easy target. However, none of the voluble members of his court comments on his being hairy; and the Genealogy of Frankish Kings, a text from Fontanell dating from possibly as early as 869, and a text without a trace of irony, names him as Karolus Caluus ("Charles the Bald"). Certainly, by the end of the 10th century, Richier of Reims and Adhemar of Chabannes refer to him in all seriousness as "Charles the Bald".[2]

Family
Charles married Ermentrude , daughter of Odo I, Count of Orléans , in 842 . She died in 869 . In 870 , Charles married Richilde of Provence , who was descended from a noble family of Lorraine , but none of the children he had with her played a part of any importance.

With Ermentrude :
Judith (844 -870 ), married firstly with Ethelwulf of Wessex , secondly with Ethelbald of Wessex (her stepson) and thirdly with Baldwin I of Flanders
Louis the Stammerer (846 -879 )
Charles the Child (847 -866 )
Lothar (848 -865 ), monk in 861 , became Abbot of Saint-Germain
Carloman (849 -876 )
Rotrud (852 -912 ), a nun, Abbess of Saint-Radegunde
Ermentrud (854 -877 ), a nun, Abbess of Hasnon
Hildegard (born 856 , died young)
Gisela (857 -874 )
With Richilde:
Rothild (871 -929 ), married firstly with Hugues, Count of Bourges and secondly with Roger, Count of Maine
Drogo (872 -873 )
Pippin (873 -874 )
a son (born and died 875 )
Charles (876 -877 ) 14



Richer de l'Aigle and Judith




Husband Richer de l'Aigle 44

            AKA: Richer de l'Aigle
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Judith

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Gilbert de l'Aigle, Seigneur de l'Aigle in Normandy 45 46

            AKA: Gilbert de l'Aigle Seigneur de l'Aigle
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Juliana of Mortagne and Perche (      -      ) 47


2 F Maud de l'Aigle 48

            AKA: Maud de l'Aigle
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 





Tostig Earl of Northumbria and Judith of Normandy




Husband Tostig Earl of Northumbria 49

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 Sep 1066
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife Judith of Normandy 50

           Born: 1028
     Christened: 
           Died: 4 Mar 1094
         Buried: 


         Father: Richard III Duke of Normandy (Abt 0997-1028) 51
         Mother: Adele Capet Princess of France (Abt 1009-Abt 1079) 52 53



   Other Spouse: Welf IV Duke of Bavaria (      -1101) 54 - 1071


Children

Research Notes: Husband - Tostig Earl of Northumbria

First husband of Judith of Normandy.


Sources


1. Ancestry.com, http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/29106850/family?cfpid=13886631722.

2. Web - Message Boards, Discussion Groups, Email, http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GEN-MEDIEVAL/2005-01/1106320406.

3. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872200.

4. Wikipedia.org, John I of Portugal.

5. Wikipedia.org, Peter I of Portugal.

6. Wikipedia.org, Beatriz, Countess of Arundel.

7. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Beatriz, Countess of Arundel; Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel.

8. Cambrian Archæological Association, Archæologia Cambrensis, the Journal of the Cambrian Archæological Association. (Vol. 7, 6th series. London: Chas. J. Clark, 1907.), pp. 16-17.

9. Wikipedia.org, Elizabeth de Bohun.

10. Glenn, Thomas Allen, ed, Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry. (Philadelphia: (Privately Printed), 1902.), p. 51.

11. Cambrian Archæological Association, Archæologia Cambrensis, the Journal of the Cambrian Archæological Association. (Vol. 7, 6th series. London: Chas. J. Clark, 1907.), pp. 13-14.

12. Wikipedia.org, Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel.

13. Wikipedia.org, Joscelin of Leuven.

14. http://www.familysearch.org.

15. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 155-23.

16. Wikipedia.org, Godfrey I of Leuven.

17. Website - Genealogy, thepeerage.com.

18. Wikipedia.org, Baron Percy.

19. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-14, 148-14.

20. Wikipedia.org, Louis the Pious.

21. Wikipedia.org, Chasseneuil-du-Poitou.

22. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871724.

23. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), 50-13, 140-13, 190-13.

24. Wikipedia.org, Charlemagne.

25. Wikipedia.org, Rhenish Hesse.

26. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #91438 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

27. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 182-5, 140-13 (Charlemagne), 148-13 (Charlemagne), 190-13 (Charlemagne).

28. Wikipedia.org, Hildegard of Vinzgouw.

29. http://www.familysearch.org, (Kevin Bradford).

30. http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #91440 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

31. Wikipedia.org, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

32. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-14 (Louis I).

33. Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f98/a0019865.htm.

34. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-14 (Louis I), 148-14 (Louis I).

35. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871879.

36. Wikipedia.org, Judith of Bavaria (795-843).

37. Wikipedia.org, Welf (father of Judith).

38. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 146-15, 250-15.

39. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871877.

40. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-15, 162-16 (Judith).

41. Wikipedia.org, Charles the Bald.

42. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-15 (Charles II).

43. Wikipedia.org, Odo I, Count of Orléans.

44. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 18A-23 (Nele d'Aubigny), 113A-25 (Garcia VII).

45. Wikipedia.org, Marguerite de l'Aigle.

46. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 113A-25 (Garcia VII).

47. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 113A-25 (Garcia VII), 18A-23 (Nele d'Aubigny).

48. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 18A-23 (Nele d'Aubigny).

49. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 166-23 (Judith).

50. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 166-23.

51. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 132A-23, 166-22.

52. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 128-22, 162-22 (Baldwin V).

53. Wikipedia.org, Adela of France, Countess of Flanders.

54. Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 166-23 (Judith of Normandy).


Sources


1 Ancestry.com, http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/29106850/family?cfpid=13886631722.

2 Web - Message Boards, Discussion Groups, Email, http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GEN-MEDIEVAL/2005-01/1106320406.

3 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872200.

4 Wikipedia.org, John I of Portugal.

5 Wikipedia.org, Peter I of Portugal.

6 Wikipedia.org, Beatriz, Countess of Arundel.

7 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Beatriz, Countess of Arundel; Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel.

8 Cambrian Archæological Association, Archæologia Cambrensis, the Journal of the Cambrian Archæological Association. (Vol. 7, 6th series. London: Chas. J. Clark, 1907.), pp. 16-17.

9 Wikipedia.org, Elizabeth de Bohun.

10 Glenn, Thomas Allen, ed, Reifsnyder-Gillam Ancestry. (Philadelphia: (Privately Printed), 1902.), p. 51.

11 Cambrian Archæological Association, Archæologia Cambrensis, the Journal of the Cambrian Archæological Association. (Vol. 7, 6th series. London: Chas. J. Clark, 1907.), pp. 13-14.

12 Wikipedia.org, Thomas FitzAlan, 12th Earl of Arundel.

13 Wikipedia.org, Joscelin of Leuven.

14 http://www.familysearch.org.

15 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 155-23.

16 Wikipedia.org, Godfrey I of Leuven.

17 Website - Genealogy, thepeerage.com.

18 Wikipedia.org, Baron Percy.

19 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-14, 148-14.

20 Wikipedia.org, Louis the Pious.

21 Wikipedia.org, Chasseneuil-du-Poitou.

22 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871724.

23 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), 50-13, 140-13, 190-13.

24 Wikipedia.org, Charlemagne.

25 Wikipedia.org, Rhenish Hesse.

26 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #91438 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

27 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 182-5, 140-13 (Charlemagne), 148-13 (Charlemagne), 190-13 (Charlemagne).

28 Wikipedia.org, Hildegard of Vinzgouw.

29 http://www.familysearch.org, (Kevin Bradford).

30 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #91440 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

31 Wikipedia.org, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

32 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-14 (Louis I).

33 Website - Genealogy, http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f001/f98/a0019865.htm.

34 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 140-14 (Louis I), 148-14 (Louis I).

35 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871879.

36 Wikipedia.org, Judith of Bavaria (795-843).

37 Wikipedia.org, Welf (father of Judith).

38 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 146-15, 250-15.

39 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593871877.

40 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-15, 162-16 (Judith).

41 Wikipedia.org, Charles the Bald.

42 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 148-15 (Charles II).

43 Wikipedia.org, Odo I, Count of Orléans.

44 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 18A-23 (Nele d'Aubigny), 113A-25 (Garcia VII).

45 Wikipedia.org, Marguerite de l'Aigle.

46 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 113A-25 (Garcia VII).

47 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 113A-25 (Garcia VII), 18A-23 (Nele d'Aubigny).

48 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 18A-23 (Nele d'Aubigny).

49 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 166-23 (Judith).

50 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 166-23.

51 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 132A-23, 166-22.

52 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 128-22, 162-22 (Baldwin V).

53 Wikipedia.org, Adela of France, Countess of Flanders.

54 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 166-23 (Judith of Normandy).


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