The Johnson-Wallace & Fish-Kirk Families




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Husband Private (details suppressed for this person)

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1 M Cerwyd of Cornwall 1

           Born: Abt 237 B.C.
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Llywelyn the Great Prince of Gwynedd and Crysten




Husband Llywelyn the Great Prince of Gwynedd




            AKA: Llewellyn the Great Prince of Gwynedd, Llywelyn Fawr Prince of Gwynedd, Llywelyn I of Wales, Llywelyn ap Iorwerth
           Born: Abt 1173 - <Dolwyddelan, Conwy>, Wales
     Christened: 
           Died: 11 Apr 1240 - Cistercian Abbey of Aberconwy, Wales
         Buried:  - Llanrwst Parish Church, Wales


         Father: Iorwerth Drwyndwn ap Owain Gwynedd Prince of North Wales (      -Abt 1174)
         Mother: Marared ferch Madog ap Maredudd (      -      )


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Joan Princess of Gwynedd (Bef 1200-Between 1236/1237) 3 4 5 - 1205

   Other Spouse: Tangwystl verch Llywarch (Abt 1168-      ) 6 7 8

   Other Spouse: Gwenllian verch Ednyfed Vychan (      -      )



Wife Crysten

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Children
1 M Tegwared ap Llywelyn (details suppressed for this person)

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Research Notes: Husband - Llywelyn the Great Prince of Gwynedd

Source: Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr, ed. by William R. Beall & Kaleen E. Beall, Baltimore, 2008, Line 176B-27. "He had a number of mistresses, one of whom, Tangwystl, was the mother of [28. Gladys Dhu.]"

Source: A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, p.80

From Wikipedia - Llywelyn the Great :

Llywelyn the Great (Welsh Llywelyn Fawr...), full name Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, (c. 1173 - April 11 , 1240 ) was a Prince of Gwynedd in North Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales. He is occasionally called Llywelyn I of Wales.[1] By a combination of war and diplomacy he dominated Wales for forty years, and was one of only two Welsh rulers to be called 'the Great'. Llywelyn's main home and court throughout his reign was at Garth Celyn on the north coast of Gwynedd, between Bangor and Conwy, overlooking the port of Llanfaes. Throughout the thirteenth century, up to the Edwardian conquest, Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn , was in effect the capital of Wales. (Garth Celyn is now known as Pen y Bryn , Bryn Llywelyn, Abergwyngregyn and parts of the medieval buildings still remain).

During Llywelyn's boyhood Gwynedd was ruled by two of his uncles, who had agreed to split the kingdom between them following the death of Llywelyn's grandfather, Owain Gwynedd , in 1170. Llywelyn had a strong claim to be the legitimate ruler and began a campaign to win power at an early age. He was sole ruler of Gwynedd by 1200, and made a treaty with King John of England the same year. Llywelyn's relations with John remained good for the next ten years. He married John's illegitimate daughter Joan , also known as Joanna, in 1205, and when John arrested Gwenwynwyn ab Owain of Powys in 1208 Llywelyn took the opportunity to annex southern Powys. In 1210 relations deteriorated and John invaded Gwynedd in 1211. Llywelyn was forced to seek terms and to give up all his lands east of the River Conwy, but was able to recover these lands the following year in alliance with the other Welsh princes. He allied himself with the barons who forced John to sign Magna Carta in 1215. By 1216 he was the dominant power in Wales, holding a council at Aberdyfi that year to apportion lands to the other princes.

Following King John's death, Llywelyn concluded the Treaty of Worcester with his successor Henry III in 1218. During the next fifteen years Llywelyn was frequently involved in fighting with Marcher lords and sometimes with the king, but also made alliances with several of the major powers in the Marches. The Peace of Middle in 1234 marked the end of Llywelyn's military career as the agreed truce of two years was extended year by year for the remainder of his reign. He maintained his position in Wales until his death in 1240, and was succeeded by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn .

Genealogy and early life
Llywelyn was born about 1173, the son of Iorwerth ap Owain and the grandson of Owain Gwynedd , who had been ruler of Gwynedd until his death in 1170. Llywelyn was a descendant of the senior line of Rhodri Mawr and therefore a member of the princely house of Aberffraw.[2] He was probably born at Dolwyddelan though he could not have been born in the present Dolwyddelan castle, which was built by Llywelyn himself. He may have been born in the old castle which occupied a rocky knoll on the valley floor.[3] Little is known about his father, Iorwerth Drwyndwn, who may have died when Llywelyn was an infant. There is no record of Iorwerth having taken part in the power struggle between some of Owain Gwynedd's other sons following Owain's death, although he was the eldest surviving son. There is a tradition that he was disabled or disfigured in some way that excluded him from power.[4]

By 1175 Gwynedd had been divided between two of Llywelyn's uncles. Dafydd ab Owain held the area east of the River Conwy and Rhodri ab Owain held the west. Dafydd and Rhodri were the sons of Owain by his second marriage to Cristin ferch Goronwy. This marriage was not considered valid by the church as Cristin was Owain's first cousin, a degree of relationship which according to Canon law prohibited marriage. Giraldus Cambrensis refers to Iorwerth Drwyndwn as the only legitimate son of Owain Gwynedd.[5] Following Iorwerth's death, Llywelyn was, at least in the eyes of the church, the legitimate claimant to the throne of Gwynedd.[6]
Llywelyn's mother was Marared, sometimes anglicized to Margaret, daughter of Madog ap Maredudd , prince of Powys . There is evidence that after Iorwerth's death Marared married into the Corbet family of Caux in Shropshire , and Llywelyn may have spent part of his boyhood there.[7]...

Marital problems 1230
Following his capture, William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny decided to ally himself to Llywelyn, and a marriage was arranged between his daughter Isabella and Llywelyn's heir, Dafydd ap Llywelyn. At Easter 1230 William visited Llywelyn's court Garth Celyn , Aber Garth Celyn now known as Pen y Bryn , Abergwyngregyn . During this visit he was found in Llywelyn's chamber together with Llywelyn's wife Joan. On 2 May , De Braose was hanged in the marshland under Garth Celyn , the place now remembered as Gwern y Grog, Hanging Marsh, a deliberately humiliating execution for a nobleman, and Joan was placed under house arrest for a year. The Brut y Tywysogion chronicler commented:

" ... that year William de Breos the Younger, lord of Brycheiniog, was hanged by the lord Llywelyn in Gwynedd, after he had been caught in Llywelyn's chamber with the king of England's daughter, Llywelyn's wife.[42] " A letter from Llywelyn to William's wife, Eva de Braose, written shortly after the execution enquires whether she still wishes the marriage between Dafydd and Isabella to take place.[43] The marriage did go ahead, and the following year Joan was forgiven and restored to her position as princess.

Until 1230 Llywelyn had used the title princeps Norwalliæ 'Prince of North Wales', but from that year he changed his title to 'Prince of Aberffraw and Lord of Snowdon', possibly to underline his supremacy over the other Welsh princes.[44] He did not formally style himself 'Prince of Wales ' although as J.E. Lloyd comments "he had much of the power which such a title might imply".[45]...

Arrangements for the succession
In his later years Llywelyn devoted much effort to ensuring that his only legitimate son Dafydd would follow him as ruler of Gwynedd. Dafydd's older but illegitimate brother, Gruffydd , was excluded from the succession. This was a departure from Welsh custom, not as is often stated because the kingdom was not divided between Dafydd and Gruffydd but because Gruffydd was excluded from consideration as a potential heir owing to his illegitimacy. This was contrary to Welsh law which stipulated that illegitimate sons had equal rights with legitimate sons, provided they had been acknowledged by the father.[50]

In 1220 Llywelyn induced the minority government of King Henry to acknowledge Dafydd as his heir.[51] In 1222 he petitioned Pope Honorius III to have Dafydd's succession confirmed. The original petition has not been preserved but the Pope's reply refers to the "destestable custom ... in his land whereby the son of the handmaiden was equally heir with the son of the free woman and illegitimate sons obtained an inheritance as if they were legitimate". The Pope welcomed the fact that Llywelyn was abolishing this custom.[52] In 1226 Llywelyn persuaded the Pope to declare his wife Joan, Dafydd's mother, to be a legitimate daughter of King John, again in order to strengthen Dafydd's position, and in 1229 the English crown accepted Dafydd's homage for the lands he would inherit from his father.[53] In 1238 Llywelyn held a council at Strata Florida Abbey where the other Welsh princes swore fealty to Dafydd.[54] Llywelyn's original intention had been that they should do homage to Dafydd, but the king wrote to the other rulers forbidding them to do homage.[55]

Gruffydd was given an appanage in Meirionnydd and Ardudwy but his rule was said to be oppressive, and in 1221 Llywelyn stripped him of these territories.[56] In 1228 Llywelyn imprisoned him, and he was not released until 1234. On his release he was given part of Ll to rule. His performance this time was apparently more satisfactory and by 1238 he had been given the remainder of Ll and a substantial part of Powys.[57]

Death and the transfer of power
Joan died in 1237 and Llywelyn appears to have suffered a paralytic stroke the same year.[58] From this time on, his heir Dafydd took an increasing part in the rule of the principality. Dafydd deprived his brother Gruffydd of the lands given him by Llywelyn, and later seized him and his eldest son Owain and held them in Criccieth Castle . In 1240 the chronicler of Brut y Tywysogion records:

" ... the lord Llywelyn ap Iorwerth son of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of Wales, a second Achilles , died having taken on the habit of religion at Aberconwy, and was buried honourably.[59] "

Llywelyn died at the Cistercian abbey of Aberconwy , which he had founded, and was buried there. This abbey was later moved to Maenan near Llanrwst , and Llywelyn's stone coffin can now be seen in Llanrwst parish church. Among the poets who lamented his passing was Einion Wan:

"True lord of the land - how strange that today
He rules not o'er Gwynedd;
Lord of nought but the piled up stones of his tomb,
Of the seven-foot grave in which he lies."[60]

Dafydd succeeded Llywelyn as prince of Gwynedd, but King Henry was not prepared to allow him to inherit his father's position in the remainder of Wales. Dafydd was forced to agree to a treaty greatly restricting his power and was also obliged to hand his brother Gruffydd over to the king, who now had the option of using him against Dafydd. Gruffydd was killed attempting to escape from the Tower of London in 1244. This left the field clear for Dafydd, but Dafydd himself died without an heir in 1246 and was eventually succeeded by his nephew, Gruffydd's son, Llywelyn the Last ...

Children
The identity of the mother of some of Llywelyn's children is uncertain. He was survived by nine children, two legitimate, one probably legitimate and six illegitimate. Elen ferch Llywelyn (c.1207-1253), his only certainly legitimate daughter, first married John de Scotia, Earl of Chester. This marriage was childless, and after John's death Elen married Sir Robert de Quincy , the brother of Roger de Quincy, Earl of Winchester . Llywelyn's only legitimate son, Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c.1208-1246), married Isabella de Braose, daughter of William de Braose, 10th Baron Abergavenny , Lord of Abergavenny. William was the son of Reginald de Braose , who married another of Llywelyn's daughters. Dafydd and Isabella may have had one child together, Helen of Wales (1246-1295), but the marriage failed to produce a male heir.

Another daughter, Gwladus Ddu (c.1206-1251), was probably legitimate. Adam of Usk states that she was a legitimate daughter by Joan, although some sources claim that her mother was Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch.[64] She first married Reginald de Braose of Brecon and Abergavenny, but had no children by him. After Reginald's death she married Ralph de Mortimer of Wigmore and had several sons.

The mother of most of Llywelyn's illegitimate children is known or assumed to have been Llywelyn's mistress, Tangwystl Goch (c.1168-1198). Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c.1196-1244) was Llywelyn's eldest son and is known to be the son of Tangwystl. He married Senena, daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas of Anglesey . Their four sons included Llywelyn ap Gruffydd , who for a period occupied a position in Wales comparable to that of his grandfather, and Dafydd ap Gruffydd who ruled Gwynedd briefly after his brother's death. Llywelyn had another son, Tegwared ap Llywelyn, by a woman known only as Crysten.
Marared ferch Llywelyn (c.1198-after 1263) married John de Braose of Gower, a nephew of Reginald de Braose, and after his death married Walter Clifford of Bronllys and Clifford. Other illegitimate daughters were Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn, who married William de Lacey, and Angharad ferch Llywelyn, who married Maelgwn Fychan. Susanna ferch Llywelyn was sent to England as a hostage in 1228, but no further details are known...

References

[edit ] Primary sources
Hoare, R.C., ed. 1908. Giraldus Cambrensis: The Itinerary through Wales; Description of Wales. Translated by R.C. Hoare. Everyman's Library. ISBN 0-460-00272-4
Jones, T., ed. 1941. Brut y Tywysogion: Peniarth MS. 20. University of Wales Press.
Pryce, H., ed. 2005. The Acts of Welsh rulers 1120-1283. University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1897-5

[edit ] Secondary sources
Bartrum, P.C. 1966. Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts. University of Wales Press.
Carr, A. D. 1995. Medieval Wales. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-54773-X
Davies, R. R. 1987. Conquest, Coexistence and Change: Wales 1063-1415 Clarendon Press, University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-19-821732-3
Lloyd, J. E. 1911. A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest. Longmans, Green & Co..
Lynch, F. 1995. Gwynedd (A Guide to Ancient and Historic Wales series). HMSO. ISBN 0-11-701574-1
Maund, K. 2006. The Welsh Kings: Warriors, Warlords and Princes. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2973-6
Moore, D. 2005. The Welsh wars of independence: c.410-c.1415. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-3321-0
Powicke, M. 1953. The Thirteenth Century 1216-1307 (The Oxford History of England). Clarendon Press.
Stephenson, D. 1984. The Governance of Gwynedd. University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-0850-3
Williams, G. A. 1964. "The Succession to Gwynedd, 1238-1247" Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies XX (1962-64) 393-413
Weis, Frederick Lewis. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700, lines: 27-27, 29A-27, 29A-28, 132C-29, 176B-27, 177-7, 184A-9, 236-7, 246-30, 254-28, 254-29, 260-31




Research Notes: Wife - Crysten

Source: Wikipedia - Llywelyn the Great


Research Notes: Child - Tegwared ap Llywelyn

Source: Wikipedia - Llywelyn the Great


Private




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1 M Private (details suppressed for this person)

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Research Notes: Child - Private

From Wikipedia - Rivallo :

Rivallo (Welsh : Rhiwallon) was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth . He was the son of King Cunedagius and was noted as a young king who reigned frugally[citation needed ].

His reign was troubled by disasters: a rain of blood which lasted three days, a devastating plague, and a great swarm of flies. He was succeeded by his son, Gurgustius . 11


Wigeric Count of Bidgau and Cunigonde




Husband Wigeric Count of Bidgau 8 12 13

            AKA: Wideric of Lotharingia, Count of the Bidgau, Wigeric of Lotharingia, Wigerich Count of Trier and Ardennes
           Born: Abt 882 - <Aachen, Rheinland, Prussia (Germany)>
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 923
         Buried: 
       Marriage: Between 907 and 909

Events

• Living: 899-916.

• Count Palatine: of Lotharingia, 916-923.




Wife Cunigonde 8 14 15

            AKA: Cunegonde, Cunigunda, Kunigunde
           Born: Abt 890 - <Aachen, Rheinland, Prussia (Germany)>
     Christened: 
           Died: After 923
         Buried: 


         Father: 
         Mother: Ermentrude of France (0870-      ) 16




Children
1 M Gozlin Count of Bidgau and Methingau 8 17

            AKA: Gozelo von Ardennes
           Born: Abt 911 - <Aachen, Rheinland, Prussia (Germany)>
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Dec 943
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Oda of Metz (Abt 0915-0963) 8 17



2 M Siegfried of Luxembourg 18

            AKA: Sigefroy of Luxembourg
           Born: Abt 922
     Christened: 
           Died: 28 Oct 988
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Hedwig of Nordgau (Between 0922/0937-0993) 19
           Marr: Abt 950



3 M Frederic I Duc de la Haute Lorraine, Comte de Bar

            AKA: Frederick I Duke of Upper Lorraine, Count of Bar
           Born: Abt 942
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 May 978
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Beatrice (      -      ) 20




Death Notes: Husband - Wigeric Count of Bidgau

May have died by 919.


Research Notes: Husband - Wigeric Count of Bidgau

First husband of Cunigonde. Founder of the house of Ardennes.

From Wikipedia - Wigeric of Lotharingia :

Wigeric or Wideric (French : Wigéric or Wéderic) (died before 923 ) was the count of the Bidgau (pagus Bedensis) and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier . He received also the advocacy of the abbey of Saint Rumbold's at Mechelen from Charles III of France . From 915 or 916 he was the count palatine of Lotharingia . He was the founder of the House of Ardennes .

At the death of Louis the Child , the Lotharingians rejected the suzerainty of Conrad I and elected Charles of France as their king. At the time, the military authority in Lotharingia was assigned to Count Reginar I of Hainaut (d. 915), but at his death it fell to Wigeric, who became count palatine, exercising as such the military authority in Lotharingia.

Wigeric founded the monastery of Hastière , of which he also assumed the advocacy. He married Cunigunda, daughter of Ermentrude and granddaughter of Louis II of France . Their children were:
Frederick (d.978 ), count of Bar , the duke of Upper Lorraine from 959
Adalberon (d.962 ), bishop of Metz
Gilbert (d.964 ), count in the Ardennes
Sigebert (fl.c.942 )
Gozlin (d.942 ), count of Bidgau, married Uda of Metz, father of:
Godfrey the Prisoner
Adalberon, Archbishop of Reims
Siegfried , count of Luxembourg

Some genealogies record two other children, Henry and Liutgard, who were in fact son and daughter of another Wigeric, son of Roric, a contemporary living in the shire of Bidgau-Trier. 8 12 13


Research Notes: Wife - Cunigonde

Granddaughter of Louis II "the Stammerer" of France. 8 14 15


Research Notes: Child - Siegfried of Luxembourg

From Wikipedia - Siegfried of Luxembourg :

Siegfried or Sigefroy (c.922-28 Oct 998 ) is considered the first count of Luxembourg . He was actually count in the Moselgau and the Ardennes . He was also the advocate of the abbeys of Saint-Maximin de Trêves and Saint-Willibrod d'Echternach . He was a son of the Count Palatine Wigeric of Lotharingia and Cunigunda. He is the founder of the House of Luxembourg , a cadet branch of the House of Ardennes .

He had possessions from his father in Upper Lorraine . At the centre of his dominions he constructed the fortress of Luxembourg in 963. A town soon grew up around the castle. Though he used the title of count, the title "count of Luxembourg" was only applied to William some 150 years later.

Around 950, he married Hedwig of Nordgau (937-992), daughter of Eberhard IV of Nordgau . They had the following issue:
Henry I of Luxembourg
Siegfried, cited in 985
Frederick I, Count of Salm and Luxembourg , married Ermentrude of Gleiberg, daughter of Heribert I, Count of Gleiberg and Ermentrud (Imizi).
Thierry II, Bishop of Metz
Adalberon, canon of Trier
Poloaner, count in the Moselgau , married Lolital
Gislebert (d.1004), count in the Moselgau
Cunigunda , married Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
Eve, married Gerard, Count of Metz
Ermentrude, abbess
Luitgarde , married Arnulf, Count of Holland
a daughter, married Thietmar
a son, married Mietzer 18


Cunigunde




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Wife Cunigunde 21

            AKA: Cunigunda
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 835
         Buried: 

   Other Spouse: Bernard King of Italy (0797-0818) 22 23


Children

Research Notes: Wife - Cunigunde

Source: Also familysearch.org (Kevin Bradford) 21


Cunobelinus King of Britain




Husband Cunobelinus King of Britain 24 25

            AKA: Cunobelin King of Britain, Cymbeline, Cynfelyn, Kymbelinus
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 0040
         Buried: 


         Father: Tasciovanus King of Britain, King of the Catuvellauni (      -Abt 0009) 25 26
         Mother: Anna of Arimathea (      -      ) 27


       Marriage: 



Wife

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Children
1 M Arviragus Gweirgydd ap Cunobelin King of Siluria [Legendary] 28 29 30 31

            AKA: Arvirargus, Aviragus, Caradog, Caratacus, Caratauc map Cinbelin map Teuhant, Gweirydd ap Cynfelyn
           Born: abt 0010
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 0074
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Venissa [Legendary] (      -      ) 32



2 M Togodumnus

            AKA: Gwydyr ap Cynfelyn
           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 M Amminius

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Research Notes: Husband - Cunobelinus King of Britain

King of Britain, contemporary with Augustus.
----------
From A History of Wales, pp. 25-26:

"By about AD 30, Cunobelinus (the Cynfelyn of Welsh tradition) of the tribe of the Catuvellauni had brough the area from Essex to Surrey under his control. His kingdom, with its coinage, its wheel pottery, its livelyt trade, its prosperous agriculture and its suggestion of the beginnings of literacy, was highly develoed. In an arc around Cunobelinus's kingdom lived the Iceni, the Coritani and the Dubonni, tribes which had not been conquered by the Belgae but which had adopted some of their innovations, in particular coinage and wheel pottery. Beyond them dwelt the tribes of Wales -- the Silures, the Demetae, the Ordovices and Deceangli; although elements of the culture of the Belgae were rare among them, they also felt the effects of the new power in south-eastern Britain, as the strengthened fortifications of their hill-forts bear witness.

"Cunobelinus died about AD 40 and his kingdom was inherited by his sons, Caratacus and Togodumnus."
------
From Wikipedia - Cunobelinus :

Cunobelinus (also written Kynobellinus, in Greek, sometimes abbreviated to Cunobelin) (late 1st century BC - 40s AD) was a historical king in pre-Roman Britain , known from passing mentions by classical historians Suetonius and Dio Cassius , and from his many inscribed coins. He appears to have controlled a substantial portion of south-eastern England, and is called "Britannorum rex" ("king of the Britons ") by Suetonius. He also appears in British legend as Cynfelyn (Welsh), Kymbelinus (Medieval Brito-Latin) or Cymbeline (Shakespeare, et al.), in which form he is the subject of a play by William Shakespeare . His name is a compound made up of cuno- "hound" and "Belenos" (the god ) Belenus ".

History

From numismatic evidence Cunobelinus appears to have taken power around AD 9, minting coins from both Camulodunum (Colchester , capital of the Trinovantes ) and Verlamion (later the Roman town of Verulamium , now modern St Albans ), capital of the Catuvellauni . Some of the Verulamium coins name him as the son of Tasciovanus , a previous king of the Catuvellauni; unlike his father's, his coins name no co-rulers.[1] However his earliest issues are from Camulodunum, indicating that he took power there first,[2] and some have a palm or laurel wreath design, a motif borrowed from the Romans indicating a military victory. He may have been emboldened to act against the Trinovantes by the Roman defeat in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in Germania in AD 9. The Trinovantes were a Roman ally whose independence was protected by a treaty made by Julius Caesar in 54 BC, but problems in Germania severely discouraged Augustus 's territorial ambitions and ability to defend allies in Britain.[3]

Cunobelinus appears to have maintained quite good relations with the Roman Empire . He used the title Rex (Latin "king") and classical motifs on his coins, and his reign saw an increase in trade with the continent. Archaeology shows an increase in luxury goods imported from the continent, including Italian wine and drinking vessels, olive oil and fish sauces from Hispania , glassware, jewellery and Gallo-Belgic tableware, which from their distribution appear to have entered Britain via the port of Camulodunum.[4] He was probably one of the British kings that Strabo says sent embassies to Augustus. Strabo reports Rome's lucrative trade with Britain: the island's exports included grain, gold, silver, iron, hides, slaves and hunting dogs.[5]

Cunobelinus had three sons, Adminius , Togodumnus and Caratacus , and a brother, Epaticcus , known to history. Epaticcus expanded his influence into the territory of the Atrebates in the early 20s AD, taking the Atrebatan capital Calleva (Silchester ) by about 25. He continued to expand his territory until his death in about 35, when Caratacus took over from him and the Atrebates recovered some of their territory.

Adminius, judging by his coins, had control of Kent by this time. Suetonius tells us that in ca. 40 he was banished from Britain by his father and sought refuge with the emperor Caligula ; Caligula treated this as if the entire island had submitted to him. Caligula prepared an invasion of Britain, but abandoned it in farcical circumstances, ordering his soldiers to attack the waves and gather seashells as the spoils of victory.[6]

Cunobelinus died some time before 43. Caratacus completed the conquest of the Atrebates, and their king, Verica , fled to Rome, providing the new emperor, Claudius , with a pretext for the conquest of Britain . Caratacus and Togodumnus led the initial resistance to the invasion. Dio Cassius tells us that the "Bodunni", a tribe who were tributary to the Catuvellauni, changed sides and supported the Romans. This is probably a misspelling of the Dobunni of Gloucestershire , indicating that Cunobelinus's hegemony extended as far as the West Country.[7]

It is possible, based on epigraphic evidence, that Sallustius Lucullus , Roman governor of Britain in the late 1st century, was his grandson.[8] 24 25


Research Notes: Child - Arviragus Gweirgydd ap Cunobelin King of Siluria [Legendary]

Legendary King of Britain, contemporary with Claudius and Vespasian.

Wikipedia (Caratacus).
"...a historical British chieftain of the Catuvellanuni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest. He may correspond with the legendary Welsh character Caradog and the legendary British king Arvirargus."
------

From A History of Wales , p. 26:

"Cunobelinus died about AD 40 and his kingdom was inherited by his sons, Caratacus and Togodumnus. Their brother, Amminius, had been exiled by Cunobelinus, and he appealed to Rome to help him gain a share of his father's territories. Amminius's appeal, along with the complaints of the tribes which had suffered from the attacks of the Belgae, provided the Romans with an excuse to invade the island, although their real motive was their desire to seize the fertile lowlands...

"In May AD 43, Aulus Plautius sailed across the Channel with four legions and a host of auxiliary soldiers--forty thousand men in all. Within three months, it was considered that Rome's hold upon south-eastern Britain was secure enough to allow the emperor Claudius, the most inoffensive member of the complex Julio-Claudian family, to visit the new province and to make a ceremonial entry into Camulodunum (Colchester), the capital of the Catuvellauni, on an elephant...

"Roman power came under attack from the independent tribes living beyond [the Fosse Way]. Chief among them were the Silures of south-east Wales. They attacked the new province in AD 47 and 48 at the behest of Caratacus (the Caradog of Welsh tradition), who had fled to the territory of the Silures following the defeat of the Catuvellauni [in AD43]...

"In AD 49, a fort was erected for the Twentieth Legion near the place where the city of Gloucester would latyer be founded and it was linked with smaller forts at Usk, Clyro and other places, with the intention of putting pressure on the Silures. Caratacus continued his resistance among the Ordovices and it was in their territory, near Caersws perhaps, that he was defeated and his wife and children were captured in AD 51. Caratacus himself fled to the Brigantes, but he was yielded up to the Romans by their queen, Cartimandua. He was taken to Rome and there, according to Tacitus, he made a speech which has reounded down the ages.

"The resistance of the tribes of Wales did not come to an end with the capture of Caratacus. In AD 52, a legion--probably the twentieth--was defeated by the Silures..."

---
From Wikipedia - Arvirargus :

Arvirargus (or Arviragus) was a legendary, and possibly historical, British king of the 1st century AD. A shadowy historical Arviragus is known only from a cryptic reference in a satirical poem by Juvenal , in which a giant turbot presented to the Roman emperor Domitian (AD 81 - 96) is said to be an omen that "you will capture some king, or Arviragus will fall from his British chariot-pole".[1]

Geoffrey of Monmouth 's Historia Regum Britanniae (1136) presents a legendary Arviragus who is contemporary with the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54).[2][3] However, Geoffrey's work is highly romanticized and contains little trustworthy historical fact, rendering his account of Arvirargus suspect.

According to Geoffrey, Arvirargus is a son of the former king Kimbelinus . He succeeds to the throne of Britain after his elder brother, Guiderius , dies fighting the invading Romans under Claudius. Arviragus puts on his brother's armour and leads the army of the Britons against the Romans. When he learns that Claudius and his commander, Hamo , have fled into the woods, Arvirargus follows him until they reach the coast. The Britons kill Hamo as he tries to flee onto a ship and the place is named Southampton after him. Claudius is able to reassemble his troops elsewhere and he besieges Portchester until it falls to his forces.

Following Hamo's death, Arvirargus seeks refuge at Winchester , but Claudius follows him there with his army. The Britons break the siege and attack the Romans, but Claudius halts the attack and offers a treaty. In exchange for peace and tribute with Rome, Claudius offers Arvirargus his own daughter in marriage. They accept each other's terms and Arvirargus aids Claudius in subduing Orkney and other northern lands.

In the following spring, Arvirargus weds Claudius' daughter, Genvissa , and names the city of Gloucester after her father. Following the wedding, Claudius leaves Britain in the control of Arvirargus. In the years following Claudius' departure, Arvirargus rebuilds the cities that have been ruined and becomes feared by his neighbours. This causes him to halt his tribute to Rome , forcing Claudius to send Vespasian with an army to Britain. As Vespasian prepares to land, such a large British force stands ready that he flees to another port, Totnes , where he sets up camp.

Once a base is established, he marches to Exeter and besieges the city. Arvirargus meets him in battle there and the fight is stalemated. The following morning, Queen Genvissa mediates peace between the two foes. Vespasian returnes to Rome and Arvirargus rules the country peacefully for some years. When he finally dies, he is buried in Gloucester, the city he built with Claudius. He is succeeded by his son, Marius .

Geoffrey's legendary Arvirargus appears to correspond to some degree to the historical Caratacus , son of Cunobelinus , who, along with his brother Togodumnus , led the initial resistance to the Roman invasion of AD 43, and went on to be a thorn in Rome's side for nearly a decade after Togodumnus's death.[4] Welsh versions of Geoffrey's Historia call him Gweirydd and his brother Gwydr.[5]

Arvirargus is a character in William Shakespeare 's play Cymbeline . He and his brother Guiderius had been kidnapped in childhood by Belarius, a nobleman wrongly banished by Cymbeline, and brought up in secret in Wales, but are reunited with their father and sister Imogen in time for the Roman invasion.[6] 28 29 30 31


Research Notes: Child - Togodumnus

Wikipedia (Caratacus)


Research Notes: Child - Amminius

From A History of Wales by John Davies, London, 2007, p. 26:

"Cunobelinus died about AD 40 and his kingdom was inherited by his sons, Caratacus and Togodumnus. Their brother, Amminius, had been exiled by Cunobelinus, and he appealed to Rome to help him gain a share of his father's territories. Amminius's appeal, along with the complaints of the tribes which had suffered from the attacks of the Belgae, provided the Romans with an excuse to invade the island, although their real motive was their desire to seize the fertile lowlands...

"In May AD 43, Aulus Plautius sailed across the Channel with four legions and a host of auxiliary soldiers--forty thousand men in all. Within three months, it was considered that Rome's hold upon south-eastern Britain was secure enough to allow the emperor Claudius, the most inoffensive member of the complex Julio-Claudian family, to visit the new province and to make a ceremonial entry into Camulodunum (Colchester), the capital of the Catuvellauni, on an elephant..."


Cutha Cathwulf




Husband Cutha Cathwulf 33 34 35

            AKA: Cutha, Cuthwulf
           Born: Abt 583
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Cuthwine (Abt 0557-0584) 36 37 38
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Ceolwold of Wessex 39 40 41

           Born: Abt 613
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Cutha Cathwulf

Did not rule.

From Wikipedia - Cutha Cathwulf :

Cutha Cathwulf was the third son of Cuthwine and consequently a member of the House of Wessex . Although a member of the direct male line from Cynric to Egbert , (see House of Wessex family tree ), Cathwulf was never king due to usurpations by junior branches of the family. He was born c. 592 and his death date is unknown.

His brothers were Cynebald and Cedda ; his son was Ceolwald of Wessex ; nothing more of his life is known. 33 34 35


Research Notes: Child - Ceolwold of Wessex

Did not rule.

Wikipedia - Ceolwald of Wessex :

Ceolwald of Wessex was a member of the House of Wessex (see House of Wessex family tree ). Although a member of the direct male line from Cynric to Egbert , Ceolwald was never king due to usurpations by junior branches of the family. His birth and death dates are unknown.
His father was Cutha Cathwulf and his child Coenred of Wessex . Nothing more of him is known.

Sources
[1] - brief outline of Ceolwald's reign although gives a birth date of before 597 but his father's birthdate is given as 592. 39 40 41



Cuthwine




Husband Cuthwine 36 37 38

           Born: Abt 557
     Christened: 
           Died: 584
         Buried: 


         Father: Ceawlin of Wessex [Semi-legendary] (Abt 0529-Abt 0593) 42 43 44
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Cutha Cathwulf 33 34 35

            AKA: Cutha, Cuthwulf
           Born: Abt 583
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Death Notes: Husband - Cuthwine

Killed in battle


Research Notes: Husband - Cuthwine

According to Wikipedia - Ceawlin of Wessex - "Ceawlin died in 593, having been deposed the year before, possibly by his successor, Ceol . He is recorded in various sources as having two sons, Cutha and Cuthwine , but the genealogies in which this information is found are known to be unreliable."

From Wikipedia - Cuthwine :

Cuthwine was a member of the House of Wessex , son of Ceawlin of Wessex . After the deposition of his father Ceawlin from the throne of Wessex in 592 he did not inherit the throne which passed to his cousin, Ceol .

Little more of Cuthwine is known, but it is known that he had three sons; Cynebald, born c. 585; Cedda , born c. 590, and Cutha Cathwulf , born c. 592. Through Cutha Cathwulf were ultimately descended the Kings of Wessex after the line of Ceol became extinct in 672. 36 37 38


Research Notes: Child - Cutha Cathwulf

Did not rule.

From Wikipedia - Cutha Cathwulf :

Cutha Cathwulf was the third son of Cuthwine and consequently a member of the House of Wessex . Although a member of the direct male line from Cynric to Egbert , (see House of Wessex family tree ), Cathwulf was never king due to usurpations by junior branches of the family. He was born c. 592 and his death date is unknown.

His brothers were Cynebald and Cedda ; his son was Ceolwald of Wessex ; nothing more of his life is known. 33 34 35



Cynddelw




Husband Cynddelw

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1120
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 



Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Hwva ap Cynddelw Lord of Llifion

           Born: Cir 1130
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Research Notes: Husband - Cynddelw

Source: http://www.varrall.net/pafg363.htm#959


Research Notes: Child - Hwva ap Cynddelw Lord of Llifion

Source: http://www.varrall.net/pafg328.htm#7720. Notes: Lord of Llifion (Cwmwd Lhivon, Carernarvonshire).
Founder of the 1st of 15 noble tribes of North Wales.
Lived circa 1150-1200 at Prsaddfed, near Bodedern, Anglesey.


Private




Husband Private (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Private
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 



Wife (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Children
1 M Private (details suppressed for this person)

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




Sources


1 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105921 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

2 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105922 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

3 Davies, John, A History of Wales. (Rev. ed. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_England.

4 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 29A-27.

5 Wikipedia.org, John of England; Llywelyn the Great.

6 Wikipedia.org, Llywelyn the Great.

7 Powys-Land Club, Collections Historical & Archæological Relating to Montgomeryshire, and Its Borders. (Vol. 13. London: Thomas Richards, 1880.), p. 121.

8 http://www.familysearch.org.

9 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105930 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

10 Wikipedia.org, Cunedagius; Legendary Dukes of Cornwall; List of legendary kings of Britain.

11 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105929 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

12 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 100B-20.

13 Wikipedia.org, "Wigeric of Lotharingia," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigeric_of_Lotharingia.

14 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 143-18, 100B-20 (Wigeric).

15 Wikipedia.org, Wigeric of Lotharingia.

16 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 143-17.

17 Wikipedia.org, Godfrey I, Count of Verdun.

18 Wikipedia.org, Siegfried of Luxembourg.

19 Wikipedia.org, Hedwig of Nordgau.

20 Wikipedia.org, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wigeric_of_Lotharingia.

21 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 50-15 (Bernard).

22 Wikipedia.org, Bernard of Italy.

23 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 50-15.

24 Wikipedia.org, Cunobelinus.

25 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105893 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

26 Wikipedia.org, Tasciovanus.

27 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #97877 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

28 Wikipedia.org, Arvirargus.

29 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873365.

30 Davies, John, A History of Wales. (Rev. ed. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.), p. 26.

31 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #111888.

32 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593873366.

33 Wikipedia.org, Cutha Cathwulf.

34 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872474.

35 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-5.

36 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872475.

37 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-4.

38 Wikipedia.org, Cuthwine; Ceawlin of Wessex.

39 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872473.

40 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1.

41 Wikipedia.org, Ceolwald of Wessex.

42 http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:3174654&id=I593872476.

43 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-3.

44 Wikipedia.org, Ceawlin of Wessex.

45 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105935 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).

46 http://www.familysearch.org, Compact Disc #94 Pin #105936 (submitted by Samuel Taylor "Sam" Geer).


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