Eysteinn King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]
Husband Eysteinn King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary] 1 2
AKA: Östen King of Sweden, Eystein Adilsson King in Sweden Born: Abt 600 - Sweden Christened: Died: Buried:
Father: Eadgils King in Uppsala [Semi-Legendary] ( -Abt 0580) 2 3 Mother: Yrsa of Saxony [Legendary] ( - ) 4
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Ingvar "the Tall" Eysteinsson King in Sweden [Legendary] 5
AKA: Ingvar King of Sweden, Yngvar Harra King in Sweden Born: Christened: Died: Abt 620 Buried:
Research Notes: Husband - Eysteinn King in Sweden [Semi-Legendary]
From Wikipedia - Eysteinn :
Eysteinn (d. ca 600) was the son of Eadgils and Yrsa of Saxony . He was the father of Ingvar .
Snorri Sturluson relates that Eysteinn ruled Sweden at the time when Hrólf Kraki died in Lejre . It was a troubled time when many sea kings ravaged the Swedish shores. One of those kings was named Sölve and he was from Jutland (but according to Historia Norwegiae he was Geatish , see below). At this time Sölve was pillaging in the Baltic Sea and so he arrived in Lofond (probably the island of Lovön or the Lagunda Hundred ), where Eysteinn was at a feast. It was night-time and Sölve and his men surrounded the house and set it on fire burning everyone inside to death. Then Sölve arrived at Sigtuna (Old Sigtuna ) and ordered the Swedes to accept him as king. The Swedes refused and gathered an army that fought against Sölve and his men, but they lost after eleven days. The Swedes had to accept him as king for a while until they rebelled and killed him.
Thorsteins saga Víkingssonar makes Eysteinn the father of Anund and grandfather of Ingjald and consequently skips Ingvar's generation. It adds a second son to Eysteinn named Olaf, who was the king of Fjordane in Norway . 1 2
Research Notes: Child - Ingvar "the Tall" Eysteinsson King in Sweden [Legendary]
Legendary king of Sweden.
From Wikipedia - Ingvar :
Ingvar or Yngvar Harra, Proto-Norse *Ingu-Hariz (d. early 7th century) was the son of Östen and reclaimed the Swedish throne for the House of Yngling after the Swedes had rebelled against Sölvi .
Snorri Sturluson relates in his Ynglinga saga that King Ingvar, Östen's son, was a great warrior who often spent time patrolling the shores of his kingdom fighting Danes and pirates from the east. King Ingvar finally came to a peace agreement with the Danes and could take care of the Estonian pirates .
He consequently started pillaging in Estonia in retribution, and one summer he arrived at a place called Stein (see also Sveigder ). The Estonians (sýslu kind) assembled a great army in the interior and attacked King Ingvar in a great battle. The Estonian forces were too powerful and Ingvar fell and the Swedish forces retreated. Ingvar was buried in a mound at a place called Stone or Hill fort (at Steini) on the shores of Estonia (Aðalsýsla). 5
Faelan King of Leinster and Huaisle
Husband Faelan King of Leinster 2
Born: Abt 570 - Ireland Christened: Died: 663 Buried:
Father: Colman King of Leinster (Abt 0530-0576) 2 Mother:
Wife Huaisle 2
Born: 570 - Meath, Ireland Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Conal 2
Born: Abt 600 - Ireland Christened: Died: Buried:
Theodo IV Duke of Bavaria and Fara of Bavaria
Husband Theodo IV Duke of Bavaria 6 7
AKA: Grimaldo I Duke of Bavaria, Theodo I Duke of Bavaria Born: - <Bavaria, (Germany)> Christened: Died: Abt 680 Buried:
Father: Tassilo I Duke of Bavaria (Abt 0560-0610) 8 9 Mother:
Wife Fara of Bavaria 10 11
AKA: Fara Princess of the Lombards Born: Abt 600 - Bavaria, (Germany) Christened: Died: 641 Buried:
Father: Chrodoald of the Lombards (Abt 0575-0624) 12 13 14 Mother: Chlodosindis (Abt 0577-After 0587) 7 15
1 M Theodo V Duke of Bavaria 7 16
AKA: Theodo II Duke of Bavaria, Theodo of Bavaria, Theodon V Duke of Bavaria, Theudon II Duke of Bavaria Born: Abt 625 - Bavaria, (Germany) Christened: Died: 11 Dec 716 Buried:Spouse: Regintrude of Austrasia ( - ) 7 17Spouse: Folchaide of Salzeburg ( - ) 7
Research Notes: Husband - Theodo IV Duke of Bavaria
From Wikipedia - Theodo of Bavaria :
"His father was Theodo IV, Duke of Bavaria and his mother was probably Fara of Bavaria (b: 600), daughter of Chrodaold of the Lombards (575 - 624) and (her mother) Daughter of Gisulf (b: 577).
" 6 7
Death Notes: Wife - Fara of Bavaria
Sam Geer has d. 641.
Wikipedia has d. 643 or 655
Research Notes: Wife - Fara of Bavaria
Not the same person as Burgundofara (Saint Fara) in Wikipedia.
According to Wikipedia (Theodo of Bavaria), the mother of Fara of Bavaria was Daughter of Gisulf (b. 577). Gisulf is the name of several figures in the political history of Italy (thus not helpful). This may or may not be the same person as Chlodosindis, although the discrepancy in name of the grandparents makes it likely that Chlodosindis in incorrect.
Wikipedia - Agilofings :
Agilolfings in Austrasia
Chrodoald, nobleman at Dagobert I 's court, killed in 624 Fara, opponent to Sigebert III 10 11
Research Notes: Child - Theodo V Duke of Bavaria
From Wikipedia - Theodo of Bavaria :
Theodo (about 625 - 11 December c. 716 ) also known as Theodo V and Theodo II, was the Duke of Bavaria from 670 or, more probably, 680 to his death.
It is with Theodo that the well-sourced history of Bavaria begins. He strengthened Bavaria internally and externally and, according to Arbeo of Freising , he was a prince of great power whose fame extended beyond his borders.
His father was Theodo IV, Duke of Bavaria and his mother was probably Fara of Bavaria (b: 600), daughter of Chrodaold of the Lombards (575 - 624) and (her mother) Daughter of Gisulf (b: 577).
Theodo established his capital at Ratisbon (modern Regensburg ). He married Folchaid, of the aristocracy of Alemannia , to build diplomatic ties there. He intervened in Lombard affairs by harbouring the refugees Ansprand and Liutprand , whom he assisted militarily on his return to claim the Iron Crown . Liutprand later married his daughter Guntrude. Theodo also defended his duchy ably from the Avars (with some failure in the east).
Theodo is the patron to the four great missionaries of Bavaria: Saint Rupert , Saint Erhard , Saint Emmeram , and probably Saint Corbinian . He was the first to draw up plans for the Bavarian church, aiming both at a deeper cultivation of the countryside as well as greater independence from the Frankish Kingdom by a closer association with the Pope. He was the first Bavarian duke to travel to Rome , where he conferred with Pope Gregory II . The diocesan seats were placed in the few urban centres, which served as the Duke's seats: Regensburg, Salzburg, Freising and Passau.
Two of his children are involved with the death of Saint Emmeram . Theodo's daughter Uta had become pregnant by her lover. Fearing her father's wrath, she confided to Emmeram and the saint promised bear the blame, as he was about to travel to Rome. Soon after his departure, Uta's predicament became known and in keeping with the agreement she named Emmeram as the father. Her brother Lantpert went after Emmeram and greeted him as "bishop and brother-in-law" (Aie, episcope et gener noster!) Then he had Emmeram cut and torn into pieces. Theodo had the remains of the saint moved to Regensburg. Nothing more is known of Lantpert and Uta.
Some historians have distinguished between a Duke Theodo I, ruling around 680, and a Duke Theodo II, reigning in the early eight century. Theodo I is attributed with the events involving Saint Emmeram, Uta and Lantpert, while Theodo II is associated with Saints Corbinian and Rupert, the ecclesiastical organisation and the division of the Duchy. However, no contemporary source indicates a distinction between different Dukes of that name.
To complicate matters even further, Bavarian tradition has referred to Theodo I and Theodo II as Theodo IV and Theodo V respectively to differentiate them from legendary Agilolfing ancestors Theodo I to III, all who would have reigned before 550.
Marriage and issue
He married Regintrude of Austrasia , daughter of Dagobert I and Regintrude . They had the following:
Daughter of Theodo , married Godefroy, Duke of Alamannia
He also married Folchiade of Salzeburg . They had the following:
Theodbert Grimoald Theobald Tassilo
Theodo was eventually succeeded by his four other sons, among which he divided his duchy sometime before 715.
As early as 702 , Theodbert had been ruling from Salzburg and from 711 or 712 , Theobald was co-reigning. It is impossible to see if this division was territorial (as with the Merovingians ) or purely a co-regency (as with the later princes of Benevento and Capua ). If so, Theodbert's capital was probably Salzburg and the Vita Corbiniani informs that Grimoald had his seat there. References to Theobald and the Thuringii implies perhaps a capital at Regensburg and this leaves Tassilo at Passau. All of this is educated conjecture. 7 16
Fara Prince of Heruli
Husband Fara Prince of Heruli 18
Born: Christened: Died: 535 Buried:Marriage:
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Sinduald Prince of Heruli 19
Born: Christened: Died: 565 Buried:
2 M Garibald I Duke of Bavaria 20 21
AKA: Garivald I of Bavaria Born: Abt 540 Christened: Died: Abt 591 Buried:Spouse: Waldrada of Lombardy ( - ) 22 Marr: 556
Research Notes: Child - Garibald I Duke of Bavaria
From Wikipedia - Garibald I of Bavaria :
Garibald I (also Garivald) (b. 540 ) was Duke of Bavaria from 555 until 591 . He stands at the head of the Bavarian Dynasty .
After the death of the Merovingian king Theudebald , Theudebald's successor Clotaire I married his widow Waldrada (531 - 572 ), daughter of the Lombard king Wacho . Clotaire's bishops objected, so he gave Waldrada to Garibald to marry in 556 . Not only did this grant Garibald prestige, but it created lasting political ties between the Bavarii and the Lombards of Pannonia and Bohemia . This would have consequences after the Lombards moved into Italy in 568 .
Some time before 585 , the Merovigian court attempted to bind Garibald more closely to their interests by arranging a marriage between Garibald's daughter Theodelinda and king Childebert II . At the same time the Merovigians were attempting to normalise relations with Authari , the Lombard king, by arranging a marriage between Childebert's sister and Authari. Both these proposals fell through. The offended Authari was engaged to Theodelinda in 588 . Fearing an anti-Frankish axis, the Franks sent an army into Bavaria. Garibald's children Gundoald and Theodelinda fled to Italy. Authari married Theodelinda in May 589 and named his brother-in-law, Gundoald, Duke of Asti . In 590 , the Franks invaded Lombardy with help from Byzantium , but were defeated.
In 591, Childebert normalised relations with the Lombards and Bavarii. Authari died in 590 and the Lombard dukes asked Theodelinda to marry again. She chose Agilulf as her husband and he was accepted as the next king. They then negotiated a peace with Childebert which lasted for decades. Peace with Bavaria was restored when Childebert named Tassilo rex (king) according to Paulus Diaconus . It is unknown whether Garibald was deposed or died. Nor is it clear what Tassilo's relationship to Garibald was; though if not his son, he was certainly a close relation. 20 21
Farabert King of the Franks [Semi-legendary]
Husband Farabert King of the Franks [Semi-legendary] 23 24
Born: 122 - <Gallia Lugdunensis (France)>, Gaul Christened: Died: 186 Buried:
Father: Clodomir IV King of the Franks [Semi-legendary] (0104-0166) 25 26 Mother: Hasilda Princess of the Rugij (Abt 0119- ) 27 28
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 M Sunno Duke of the Franks [Semi-legendary] 29 30 31
Born: - <Gallia Lugdunensis (France)>, Gaul Christened: Died: Buried:
Research Notes: Child - Sunno Duke of the Franks [Semi-legendary]
Subsequent generations may be fictional. See Wikipedia - Springer Hoax
From Wikipedia - Sunno :
Sunno was a leader (dux) of the Franks in the late 4th century that invaded the Roman Empire in the year 388 when the usurper and leader of the whole of Roman Gaul , Magnus Maximus was surrounded in Aquileia by Theodosius I
The invasion is documented by Gregory of Tours who cited the now lost work of Sulpicius Alexander . According to this account Marcomer , Sunno and Genobaud invaded the Roman provinces Germania and Belgia. They broke through the lines killed many peoples, destroyed the most fruitfull lands and made the city Köln panic. After this raid the main body of the Franks moved back over the river Rhine with their booty. Some of the Franks remained in the Belgian woods. When the Roman generals of Magnus Maximus, Nanninus and Quintinus heard the news in Trier , they attacked those remaining Frankish forces and killed many of them. After this engagement Quintinus crossed the Rhine to punish the Franks in their own country, however his army was surrounded and beaten. Some Roman soldiers drowned in the marshes, others were killed by Franks, few made it back to their Empire.
Nanninus and Quintinus were replaced by Charietto and Syrus, who were again confronted by an attack of unindentifeid Franks.
Later after the fall of Magnus Maximus, Marcomer and Sunno held a short meeting about the recent attacks with the Frank Arbogastes , who was a general (magister militum) in the Roman army. The Franks delivered hostages as usual and Arbogastes returned to his winter quarters in Trier.
A couple of years later when Arbogastes had seized power and the West Roman army was nearly completely in the hands of Frankish mercenaries he crossed the Rhine with a Roman army into Germania, because he hated his own kin. Marcomer was seen with Chatti and Ampsivarii but the two did not engage.
Later we hear from the poet Claudian that Marcomer was arrested by Romans and banned to a villa in Tuscany. His brother Sunno crossed the Rhine and tried to settle himself as leader of the band of Marcomer, however he was killed by his own people.
According to the later Liber Historiae Francorum Marcomer tried to unite the Franks after the death of Sunno. He proposed that the Franks should live under one king and candidated his own son Pharamond for the kingship. This source does not tell if Marcomer succeeded but from other sources it may seem that Pharamond was regarded as the first king of the Francs. However by modern scholars, like Edward James this account of the Liber Historiae Francorum is not accepted as historical because Marcomer is called the son of the Trojan king Priam , and Sunno was called the son of Antenor which is obviously impossible due to the fact that Priam and Antenor lived hundreds of years earlier. 29 30 31
Ferdinand I King of Castile and Léon and Sancha Princess of Léon
Husband Ferdinand I King of Castile and Léon 2 32
AKA: Fernando I "the Great" King of Castile and Léon Born: Abt 1018 - <Burgos, Castile>, Spain Christened: Died: 27 Dec 1065 - Léon, Léon, Spain Buried:
Father: Sancho III King of Navarre (Abt 0980-1035) 2 Mother: Nunnia Princess of Castile (Abt 0985- ) 2
Marriage: Abt Nov 1032 - Léon, Léon, Spain
Wife Sancha Princess of Léon 2 32
Born: Abt 1013 - Léon, Léon, Spain Christened: Died: 7 Nov 1067 Buried:
Father: Alfonso V King of Léon (Abt 0989-1027) 2 32 Mother: Elvira (Abt 0991- ) 2
1 M Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon 2 32 33
AKA: Alfonso I of Castile Born: Bef Jun 1040 - <Burgos, Castile>, Spain Christened: Died: 29 Jun 1109 - Toledo, Castile, Spain Buried:Spouse: Constance of Burgundy (1046-1092) 34 35 Marr: 1081Spouse: Ximena Nunia de Guzman (Abt 1048-1128) 2 36
Birth Notes: Child - Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon
Ancestral Roots has b. 1039
Research Notes: Child - Alfonso VI "the Brave" of Castile, King of Castile and Leon
Second husband of Constance of Burgundy.
From Wikipedia - Alfonso VI of León and Castile :
Alfonso VI (before June 1040 - June 29 /July 1 , 1109 ), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile from 1072 following the death of his brother Sancho II . In 1077 he proclaimed himself "Emperor of all Spain ". Much romance has gathered around his name.
As the second and favorite son of King Ferdinand I of León and Princess Sancha of León , Alfonso was allotted León, while Castile was given to his eldest brother Sancho , and Galicia to his youngest brother García . Sancho was assassinated in 1072. García was dethroned and imprisoned for life the following year.
In the cantar de gesta The Lay of the Cid , he plays the part attributed by medieval poets to the greatest kings, and to Charlemagne himself. He is alternately the oppressor and the victim of heroic and self-willed nobles - the idealized types of the patrons for whom the jongleurs and troubadours sang. He is the hero of a cantar de gesta which, like all but a very few of the early Spanish songs, like the cantar of Bernardo del Carpio and the Infantes of Lara , exists now only in the fragments incorporated in the chronicle of Alfonso the Wise or in ballad form.
His flight from the monastery of Sahagún (Safagún in Leonese language ), where his brother Sancho endeavoured to imprison him, his chivalrous friendship for his host Almamun of Toledo , caballero aunque moro, "a knight although a Moor ", the passionate loyalty of his vassal, Pero (Pedro) Ansúrez, and his brotherly love for his sister Urraca of Zamora , may owe something to the poet who took him as a hero.
They are the answer to the poet of the nobles who represented the king as having submitted to taking a degrading oath at the hands of Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid ) to deny intervention in his brother's death in the church of Santa Gadea at Burgos , and as having then persecuted the brave man who defied him.
Marriages and children
Alfonso married at least five times and had two mistresses and a fiancée:
In 1067, two brothers from Iberia are said to have competed for the hand of Agatha , one of the daughters of William I of England and Matilda of Flanders and formerly fiancee of Harold Godwinson . Alfonso proved successful, and was betrothed to Agatha. A nun at the time, Agatha is said to have prayed for death rather than being forced to marry Alphonso, and she died before the marriage could take place. In 1069, Alfonso married Agnes of Aquitaine , daughter of William VIII of Aquitaine and his second wife Mateoda. They last appear together in May 1077, and then Alfonso appears alone. This suggests that she had died, although Orderic Vitalis reports that in 1109 Alfonso's 'relict' Agnes remarried to Elias I of Maine , leading some to speculate that Alfonso and Agnes had divorced due to consanguinity . It seems more likely that Orderic gave the wrong name to Alfonso's widow, Beatrice. Agnes and Alfonso had no children. Apparently between his first and second marriages he formed a liaison with Jimena Muñoz , a "most noble" (nobilissima) concubine "derived from royalty" (real generacion). She appears to have been put aside, given land in Ulver, at the time of Alfonso's remarriage. By her Alfonso had two illegitimate daughters, Elvira and Teresa . His second wife, who he married by May 1080, was Constance of Burgundy , daughter of Robert I, Duke of Burgundy . This marriage initially faced papal opposition, apparently due to her kinship with Agnes. Her reign as queen brought significant Cluniac influences into the kingdom. She died in September or October, 1093, the mother of Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter Urraca , and of five other children who died in infancy. Either late in Constance's reign or shortly after her death, Alfonso formed a liaison with a second mistress, Zaida of Seville , said by Iberian Muslim sources to be daughter-in-law of Al Mutamid , the Muslim King of Seville. She fled the fall of Seville for Alfonso's kingdom in 1091, and soon became his lover, having by him Alfonso's only son, Sancho , who, though illegitimate was apparently not born of an adulterous relationship, and hence born after the death of Constance. He would be named his father's heir. Several modern sources have suggested that Zaida, baptised under the name of Isabel, is identical with Alfonso's later wife, queen Isabel (or that she was a second queen Isabel who he married in succession to the first). Zaida/Isabel died in childbirth, but the date is unknown, and it is unclear whether the child being delivered was Sancho, an additional illegitimate child, otherwise unknown, or legitimate daughter Elvira (if Zaida was identical to Queen Isabel). By April 1095, Alfonso married Bertha. Chroniclers report her as being from Tuscany , Lombardy , or alternatively, say she was French. Several theories have been put forward regarding her origin. Based on political considerations, proposals make her daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy or of Amadeus II of Savoy . She had no children and died in late 1099 (Alfonso first appears without her in mid-January 1100). Within months, by May 1100, Alfonso again remarried, to Isabel, having by her two daughters, Sancha, (wife of Rodrigo González de Lara ), and Elvira , (who married Roger II of Sicily ). A non-contemporary tomb inscription says she was daughter of a "king Louis of France ", but this is chronologically impossible. It has been speculated that she was of Burgundian origin, but others conclude that Alfonso married his former mistress, Zaida, who had been baptized as Isabel. (In a novel twist, Reilly suggested that there were two successive queens named Isabel: first the French (Burgundian) Isabel, mother of Sancha and Elvira, with Alfonso only later marrying his mistress Zaida (Isabel), after the death of or divorce from the first Isabel.) Alfonso was again widowed in mid-1107. By May 1108, Alfonso married his last wife, Beatrice . She, as widow of Alfonso, is said to have returned home to France, but nothing else is known of her origin unless she is the woman Orderic named as "Agnes, daughter of William, Duke of Poitou", who as relict of Alfonso, (Agnetem, filiam Guillelmi, Pictavorum ducis, relictam Hildefonsi senioris, Galliciae regis), remarried to Elias of Maine. If this is the case, she is likely daughter of William IX of Aquitaine and niece of Alfonso's first wife. Beatrice had no children by Alfonso.
Alfonso's designated successor, his son Sancho, was slain after being routed at the Battle of Uclés in 1108, making Alfonso's eldest legitimate daughter, the widowed Urraca as his heir. In order to strengthen her position as his successor, Alfonso began negotiations for her to marry her second cousin, Alfonso I of Aragon and Navarre , but died before the marriage could take place, Urraca succeeding. 2 32 33
Fergus King of the Picts
Husband Fergus King of the Picts 2
AKA: Ungust King of the Picts Born: Abt 735 Christened: Died: Buried:
Father: Urgust King of the Picts (Abt 0709- ) 2 Mother:
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
1 F Fergusa 2
AKA: Urgusia Born: Abt 755 Christened: Died: Buried:Spouse: Eochaid "the Poisonous" King of Dál Riata ( -After 0781) 37
Husband Fernando 38
AKA: Ferdinand II of Castile-Aumale Born: Abt 1240 Christened: Died: 1260 Buried:
Father: Fernando III of Castile King of Castile and Leon (1199-1252) 39 Mother: Jeanne de Dammartin (Abt 1220-1279) 40 41
• Count of Aumale: 1252-1260.
Born: Christened: Died: Buried:
Fernando II King of Léon and Urraca of Portugal
Husband Fernando II King of Léon 2 42 43
AKA: Ferdinand II King of Léon, Fernando II Alfonsez King of Léon Born: 1137 - Toledo, Castile, Spain Christened: Died: 22 Jan 1188 - Benavente, Zamora, Castile, Spain Buried:
Father: Alfonso VII King of Castile and Léon (1105-1157) 2 44 45 Mother: Berenguela of Barcelona (Abt 1116-1149) 2 46
Marriage: Abt Jun 1165 - Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
• King of Léon: 1157-1188.
• King of Galicia: 1157-1188.
Wife Urraca of Portugal 2 47 48
AKA: Urraca Affonsez of Portugal Born: Abt 1150 - <Coimbra, Coimbra>, Portugal Christened: Died: 16 Oct 1188 - Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain Buried:
Father: Afonso I King of Portugal (1109-1185) 49 50 Mother: Maud of Savoy (1125-1158) 2 51 52
1 M Alfonso IX King of Léon 2 53 54
AKA: Alfonso IX Fernandez King of Leon Born: 15 Aug 1171 - Zamora, Léon, Spain Christened: Died: 24 Sep 1230 - Villanueva de Sarria, Lugo, Spain Buried:Spouse: Berengaria of Castile (1180-1246) 2 55 56 Marr: 1197
Research Notes: Husband - Fernando II King of Léon
From Wikipedia - Ferdinand II of León :
Ferdinand II (1137 - 22 January 1188) was King of León and Galicia from 1157 to his death.
Born in Toledo , he was the son of King Alfonso VII of Castile and León and of Berenguela , of the House of Barcelona . His father divided his kingdoms upon his death, with Ferdinand receiving León and Galicia , and another son, Sancho , receiving Castile and Toledo . Ferdinand earned the reputation of a good knight and hard fighter, but did not display political or organising faculty.
His reign of thirty years was one of strife marked by no signal success or reverse. He had to contend with his unruly nobles, several of whom he put to death. During the minority of his nephew, Alfonso VIII of Castile , he endeavoured to impose himself on the kingdom as regent . On the west he was in more or less constant strife with the Kingdom of Portugal , which had separated from León in 1139. His relations with the Portuguese House of Burgundy must have suffered by his repudiation of his wife Urraca , daughter of King Afonso I of Portugal . Though he took the King of Portugal prisoner in 1169, he made no political use of his success. He extended his dominions southward in Extremadura at the expense of the Moors .
By Urraca, married, around 1165, Ferdinand had his son and successor:
Alfonso IX .
Following her repudiation, he formed a relationship with Theresa Fernández de Traba, daughter of count Fernando Pérez de Traba, and in August 1179 he married her, having:
Ferdinand (1178-1187), legitimized through his parents' subsequent marriage child, b. and d. 6 February 1180, whose birth led to the death of its mother
e then formed a liaison with Urraca López de Haro, daughter of Lópe Díaz de Haro, who he married in May 1187, having:
García (1182-1184) Alfonso, b.1184, legitimized through the subsequent marriage of his parents, died before his father. Sancho (1186-1220), lord of Fines 2 42 43
Research Notes: Wife - Urraca of Portugal
From Wikipedia - Urraca of Portugal :
Infanta Urraca of Portugal (Coimbra , 1151 - 16 October 1188) was a Portuguese infanta (princess), daughter of Afonso I , 1st King of Portugal and his wife Maud of Savoy . She married Ferdinand II of León (c. 1165) with whom she had Alfonso IX of León . This marriage didn't prevent her father Afonso I from declaring war on his son-in-law. This short war culminated in disaster when Afonso was captured in Badajoz . Perhaps due to his marriage to Urraca, Ferdinand was generous to Afonso, and let him leave. However, the marriage of Ferdinand II and Urraca was annulled in 1175 by the Pope, using the fact that Urraca was his distant cousin as justification.
After the dissolution of her marriage, Urraca returned to the court of her father and died there, aged only 37, nine months after the death of her former husband. 2 47 48
Birth Notes: Child - Alfonso IX King of Léon
Ancestral Roots has b. 1171 and b. 1166.
Research Notes: Child - Alfonso IX King of Léon
Second husband of Berenguela of Castile.
From Wikipedia - Alfonso IX of León :
Alfonso IX (15 August 1171 - 23 September or 24, 1230), was king of León and Galicia , from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death. According to Ibn Khaldun , he is said to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer because he was subject to fits of rage during which he foamed at the mouth.
Alfonso was the only son of King Ferdinand II of León and Urraca of Portugal . He took a part in the work of the reconquest , conquering the whole of Extremadura (including the cities of Cáceres and Badajoz ). He was also the most modern king of his time, founding the University of Salamanca in 1212 and summoning in 1188 the first parliament with representation of the citizenry ever seen in Western Europe, the Cortes of León .
In spite of all the above - some of whose significance became evident only later - this king is often remembered mainly for the difficulties into which his successive marriages led him with the Pope . He was first married in 1191 to his cousin Teresa of Portugal , who bore him two daughters, and a son who died young.
The marriage was declared null by the Pope; however, Alfonso paid no attention until he was presumably tired of his wife. His next step was to marry his second cousin, Berenguela of Castile , in 1197. For this act of contumacy, the king and the kingdom were placed under interdict .
The Pope was, however, compelled to modify his measures by the threat that, if the people could not obtain the services of religion, they would not support the clergy, and that heresy would spread. The king was left under interdict personally, but to that he showed himself indifferent, and he had the support of his clergy. Berenguela left him after the birth of five children, and the king then returned to Teresa, to whose daughters he left his kingdom in his will.
Alfonso's children by Teresa of Portugal were:
1) Fernando (ca. 1192-August 1214, aged around 22), unmarried and without issue 2) Blessed Sancha (ca. 1193-1270) 3) Dulce, also called Aldonza (1194/ca. 1195-ca./aft. 1243), unmarried and without issue
His eldest daughter, Sancha, was engaged to her cousin King Henry I of Castile , but Henry died in 1217 before the marriage could be solemnized. Once the would be inheritor from his first marriage, named Fernando (de Leon y Portugal)who died in 1214, he apparently wanted to disinherit the eldest son from his second marriage, but born around the year 1200, also named Fernando (de Leon y Castilla) , King Alfonso IX invited the quite mature former King Consort of Jerusalem John of Brienne to marry his daughter Sancha and thus inherit the Leonese throne through her.
However, his former second wife, ruling Queen Berenguela of Castile convinced John of Brienne to marry one of her daughters, some 10 years younger than Sancha, instead, named Berenguela of Leon , on account of her father the King of Leon and of her mother divorced Queen Bereguela of Castile .
Though unmarried and pious spinster Sancha was the nominal heiress of Leon-Galicia on her father's death in 1230, Sancha was easily set aside by negotiations, including a good single woman dowry between the former first wife and the former second wife, both divorced from the leonese. Sancha became a nun at Cozollos , where she died in 1270; she was later beatified. Her sister Dulce-Aldonza spent her life with her Consort Queen of Leon mother in Portugal.
Alfonso's children by Berenguela of Castile were:
4)Leonor (1198/1199-31 October 1210) 5)King Fernando III the Saint (1200-1252), named also Fernando III de Castilla y Leon after 1230 when his father Alfonso IX de Leon died. 6)Alfonso, 4th Lord of Molina (1203-1272) 7)Berenguela of Leon (1204-1237), married John of Brienne 8)Constanza (1 May 1200 or 1205-7 September 1242), became a nun at Las Huelgas , Burgos , where she died
Alfonso, father of 3 from his first void marriage and father of another 5 from his second void marriage, also fathered many illegitimate children, some 23 known (3 + 5 + perhaps 15 out of married life, all documented) :
Alfonso's children by Aldonza Martínez da Silva (daughter of Martim Gomes da Silva & Urraca Rodrigues and subsequently wife with issue of Diego Froilaz, Conde de Cifuentes, had issue):
9)Pedro Alfonso of León, 1st Lord of Tenorio (ca. 1196/ca. 1200-1226), Grand Master of Santiago, married N de Villarmayor, and had issue 10)Alfonso Alfonso of León, died yong 11)Fernando Alfonso of León, died young 12)Rodrigo Alfonso of León (ca. 1210-ca. 1267), 1st Lord of Aliger and Governor of Zamora , married ca. 1240 to Inés Rodriguez de Cabrera (ca. 1200-), and had issue 13)Teresa Alfonso of León (ca. 1210-), wife of Nuno Gonzalez de Lara, el Bueno, señor de Lara 14)Aldonza Alonso of León (ca. 1212/ca. 1215-1266), wife, first, of Diego Ramírez Froilaz, nephew of her stepfather, without issue, and, second, of Pedro Ponce de Cabrera , (ca. 1210-), and had issue, ancestors of the notorious Ponce de León family.
Alfonso's child by Inés Iñíguez de Mendoza (ca. 1180-) (daughter of Lope Iñiguez de Mendoza, 1st Lord of Mendoza (ca. 1140-1189) and wife Teresa Ximénez de los Cameros (ca. 1150-)):
15)Urraca Alfonso of León (ca. 1190/ca. 1197-), first wife ca. 1230 of Lopo II Díaz de Haro (1192-15 December 1236), 6th Sovereign Lord of Viscaya, and had issue
Alfonso's child by Estefánia Pérez de Limia , daughter of Pedro Arias de Limia and wife, subsequently wife of Rodrigo Suárez, Merino mayor of Galicia , had issue):
16)Fernando Alfonso of León (ca. 1211-), died young
Alfonso's children by Maua, of unknown origin:
17)Fernando Alfonso of León (ca. 1215/1218/1220-Salamanca , 1278/1279), Archdean of Santiago, married to Aldara de Ulloa and had issue
Alfonso's children by Dona Teresa Gil de Soverosa (ca. 1170-) (daughter of Dom Gil Vasques de Soverosa & first wife Maria Aires de Fornelos):
18)María Alfonso of León (ca. 1190/1200/1222-aft. 1252), married as his second wife Soeiro Aires de Valadares (ca. 1140-) and had issue and Álvaro Fernández de Lara (ca. 1200-) and had female issue, later mistress of her nephew Alfonso X of Castile 19)Sancha Alfonso of León (1210/ca. 1210-1270), a Nun after divorcing without issue Simón Ruíz, Lord of Los Cameros 20)Martín Alfonso of León (ca. 1210/ca. 1225-1274/ca. 1275) 22)Urraca Alfonso of León (ca. 1210/1228-aft.1252, married twice, first to García Romeu of Tormos, without issue, then Pedro Guillén de Guzmán y González Girón
Alfonso's other illegitimate child, mother unknown:
23)Mayor Alfonso de León, married Rodrigo Gómez de Trava, without issue
Alfonso VIII of León was the first King in Western Europe who summoned the citizens to the Parliament (León's Cortes of 1188). He also founded the University of Salamanca in 1208. 2 53 54
Fernando III of Castile King of Castile and Leon and Jeanne de Dammartin
Husband Fernando III of Castile King of Castile and Leon 39
AKA: Saint Ferdinand, San Fernando, Fernando III "el Santo" of Castile Born: 5 Aug 1199 - Monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba, Zamora), (Spain) Christened: Died: 30 May 1252 - Seville, Spain Buried:
Father: Alfonso IX King of Léon (1171-1230) 2 53 54 Mother: Berengaria of Castile (1180-1246) 2 55 56
Marriage: Oct 1237 - Burgos, Castile, Spain
Other Spouse: Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203-1235) 57 - Nov 1219 - Royal Monastery of San Zoilo, Carrión de los Condes (Palencia), Spain
• King of Castile: 1217-1252.
• King of Galicia and Léon: 1230-1252.
• Count of Aumale: 1239-1252.
Wife Jeanne de Dammartin 40 41
AKA: Jeanne Countess of Ponthieu, Joan of Dammartin Born: Abt 1220 Christened: Died: 16 Mar 1279 - Abbeville, (Somme), Ponthieu, Picardy, France Buried:
Father: Simon de Dammartin (1180-1239) 58 Mother: Marie de Ponthieu (1199-1251) 59
• Countess of Ponthieu: 1251-1279.
• Countess of Montreuil: 1251-1279.
• Countess of Aumale: 1239-1278.
1 M Fernando 38
AKA: Ferdinand II of Castile-Aumale Born: Abt 1240 Christened: Died: 1260 Buried:
2 F Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu 60 61
AKA: Alianor, Alienor, Leonor Born: 1241 - Castile, Spain Christened: Died: 28 Nov 1290 - Harby, Nottinghamshire, England
Buried: - Westminster Abbey, London, Midlesex, EnglandSpouse: King Edward I of England (1239-1307) 62 63 Marr: 18 Oct 1254 - Monastery of Las Huelgas
3 M Louis [of Castile]
Born: 1242-1243 Christened: Died: Buried:
Research Notes: Husband - Fernando III of Castile King of Castile and Leon
From Wikipedia - Ferdinand III of Castile :
Saint Ferdinand III (August 5 , 1199 - May 30 , 1252 ), was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of Galicia and Leon from 1230. Through his second marriage he was also Count of Aumale . He finished the work done by his maternal grandfather Alfonso VIII and consolidated the Reconquista . In 1231, he permanently united Castile and Galicia -León. He was canonized in 1671 and, in Spanish , he is Fernando el Santo or San Fernando.
St Ferdinand was the son of Alfonso IX of León and Berenguela of Castile . He was born at the monastery of Valparaíso (Peleas de Arriba , Zamora ) in 1198 or 1199. His parents' marriage was annulled by order of Pope Innocent III in 1204, due to consanguinity. Berenguela took their children, including Ferdinand, to the court of her father. In 1217, her younger brother Henry I died and she succeeded him to the Castilian throne, but she immediately surrendered it to her son Ferdinand, for whom she initially acted as regent. When Alfonso died in 1230, Ferdinand also inherited León, though he had to fight for it with Alfonso's designated heirs, Sancha and Dulce, the daughters of his first wife. He thus became the first sovereign of both kingdoms following the death of Alfonso VII in 1157.
Early in his reign, Ferdinand had to deal with a rebellion of the House of Lara . He also established a permanent border with the Kingdom of Aragon by the Treaty of Almizra (1244).
St Ferdinand spent much of his reign fighting the Moors . Through diplomacy and war, exploiting the internal dissensions in the Moorish kingdoms, he triumphed in expanding Castilian power over southern Iberian Peninsula . He captured the towns of Úbeda in 1233, Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248, and occupied Murcia in 1243, thereby reconquering all Andalusia save Granada , whose king nevertheless did homage to Ferdinand. Ferdinand divided the conquered territories between the Knights , the Church, and the nobility, whom he endowed with great latifundias . When he took Córdoba, he ordered the Liber Iudiciorum to be adopted and observed by its citizens, and caused it to be rendered, albeit inaccurately, into Castilian .
The capture of Córdoba was the result of an uneven and uncoordinated process whereby parts (the Ajarquía) of the city first fell to the independent almogavars of the Sierra Morena to the north, which Ferdinand had not at the time subjugated. Only in 1236 did Ferdinand arrive with a royal army to take Medina, the religious and administrative centre of the city. Ferdinand set up a council of partidores to divide the conquests and between 1237 and 1244 a great deal of land was parcelled out to private individuals and members of the royal family as well as the Church. On 10 March 1241 , Ferdinand established seven outposts to define the boundary of the province of Córdoba.
On the domestic front, he strengthened the University of Salamanca and founded the current Cathedral of Burgos . He was a patron of the newest movement in the Church: that of the friars . Whereas the Benedictines and then the Cistercians and Cluniacs had taken a major part in the Reconquista up til then, Ferdinand founded Dominican , Franciscan , Trinitarian , and Mercedarian houses in Andalusia, thus determining the religious future of that region. Ferdinand has also been credited with sustaining the convivencia in Andalusia.
The Primera Crónica General de España asserts that, on his death bed, Ferdinand commended his son "you are rich in lands and in many good vassals - more so than any other king in Christendom," probably in recognition of his expansive conquests. He was buried within the Cathedral of Seville by his son Alfonso X . His tomb is inscribed with four languages: Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and an early incarnation of Castilian. St Ferdinand was canonized by Pope Clement X in 1671. Several places named San Fernando were founded across the Spanish Empire .
The symbol of his power as a king was his sword Lobera .
Marriages and family
In 1219, Ferdinand married Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen (1203-1235), daughter of the German king Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina . Elisabeth was called Beatriz in Spain. Their children were:
Alfonso X , his successor
Eleanor (born 1227), died young
Berenguela (1228-1288/89), a nun at Las Huelgas
Philip (1231-1274). He was promised to the Church, but was so taken by the beauty of Princess Kristina of Norway , daughter of Haakon IV of Norway , who had been intended as a bride for one of his brothers, that he abandoned his holy vows and married her. She died in 1262, childless.
Sancho, Archbishop of Toledo and Seville (1233-1261)
Juan Manuel , Lord of Villena
Maria, died an infant in November 1235
After he was widowed, he married Jeanne of Dammartin , Countess of Ponthieu , before August 1237. They had four sons and one daughter:
Ferdinand (1239-1260), Count of Aumale
Eleanor (c.1241-1290), married Edward I of England
Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo
John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba 39
Research Notes: Wife - Jeanne de Dammartin
From Wikipedia - Jeanne, Countess of Ponthieu :
Jeanne de Dammartin or Joan of Dammartin (c.1220 - d. Abbeville , March 16 , 1279 ) Queen consort of Castile and León (1252), suo jure Countess of Ponthieu (1251-1279) and Montreuil (1251-1279). She was the mother of Eleanor of Castile , Queen consort of King Edward I of England .
Jeanne was the eldest daughter of Simon de Dammartin , Count of Ponthieu (1180- 21 September 1239) and his wife Marie de Ponthieu , Countess of Montreuil (17 April 1199- 1251). Her paternal grandparents were Alberic II, Count de Dammartin and Mahaut de Clermont, daughter of Renaud de Clermont, Count of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis, and Clémence de Bar. Her maternal grandparents were William IV of Ponthieu and Alys, Countess of the Vexin , daughter of Louis VII of France and Constance of Castile .
Henry III of England
After secret negotiations were undertaken in 1234, it was agreed that Jeanne would marry King Henry III of England . This marriage would have been politically unacceptable to the French, however, since Jeanne stood to inherit not only her mother's county of Ponthieu but also the county of Aumale that was vested in her father's family. Ponthieu bordered on the duchy of Normandy, and Aumale lay within Normandy itself. The French king Philip Augustus had seized Normandy from King John of England as recently as 1205, and Philip's heirs could not risk the English monarchy recovering any land in that area, since it might allow the Plantagenets to re-establish control in Normandy. As it happened, Jeanne's father Simon had become involved in a conspiracy of northern French noblemen against Philip Augustus and to win pardon from Philip's son Louis VIII , Simon-who had only daughters-was compelled to promise that he would marry neither of his two eldest daughters without the permission of the king of France. In 1235, the queen-regent of France, Blanche of Castile , invoked that promise on behalf of her son, King Louis IX , and threatened to deprive Simon of all his lands if Jeanne married Henry III. Henry therefore abandoned the project for his marriage to Jeanne and in January 1236 married Eleanor of Provence , the sister of Louis IX's wife.
Marriages and children
In November 1235, Blanche of Castile's nephew, King Ferdinand III of Castile , lost his wife, Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen , and Blanche's sister Berenguela of Castile , Ferdinand's mother, was concerned that her widowed son might involve himself in liaisons that were unsuited to his dignity as king. Berenguela determined to find her son another wife, and her sister Blanche suggested the young Jeanne de Dammartin, whose marriage to the king of Castile would keep her inheritance from falling into hostile hands. In October 1237, at the age of about seventeen, Jeanne married in Burgos , King Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon (1201-1252).
They had four sons and one daughter:
Ferdinand (1239-ca 1265)
Eleanor , married Edward I of England
Louis (1243-ca 1275)
Simon (1244), died young and buried in a monastery in Toledo
John (1245), died young and buried at the cathedral in Córdoba
Upon her mother's death in 1251, Jeanne succeeded to the titles of Countess of Ponthieu and Countess of Montreuil which she held in her own right.
After Ferdinand III died in 1252, Jeanne did not enjoy a cordial relationship with his heir, her stepson Alfonso X of Castile , with whom she quarreled over some of the lands and income she should have received as dowager queen of Castile. Sometime in 1253, she became the ally and supporter of another of her stepsons, Henry of Castile, who also felt Alfonso had not allowed him all the wealth their father had meant him to have. Jeanne unwisely attended secret meetings with Henry and his supporters, and it was rumored that she and Henry were lovers. This further strained her relations with Alfonso and in 1254, shortly before her daughter Eleanor was to marry Edward of England, Jeanne and her eldest son Ferdinand left Castile and returned to her native Ponthieu.
Sometime between May 1260 and 9 February 1261, Jeanne took a second husband, Jean de Nesle, Seigneur de Falvy et de La Hérelle (died 2 February 1292). This marriage is sometimes said to have produced a daughter, Béatrice, but she was in fact a child of Jean de Nesle's first marriage. In 1263, Jeanne was recognized as countess of Aumale after the death of a childless Dammartin cousin. But her son Ferdinand died around 1265, leaving a young son known as John de Ponthieu.
During her marriage to Jean de Nesle, Jeanne ran up considerable debts and also appears to have allowed her rights as countess in Ponthieu to weaken. The death of her son Ferdinand made her next son, Louis, her heir in Ponthieu but around 1275 he, too, died, leaving two children. But according to inheritance customs in Picardy, where Ponthieu lay, Jeanne's young grandson John de Ponthieu could not succeed her there; her heir in Ponthieu automatically became her adult daughter Eleanor, who was married to the king of England. It does not appear that Jeanne was displeased at the prospect of having Ponthieu pass under English domination; from 1274 to 1278, in fact, she had her granddaughter Joan of England with her in Ponthieu, and appears to have treated the girl so indulgently that when she was returned to England her parents found that she was thoroughly spoiled.
That same indulgent nature appears to have made Jeanne inattentive to her duties as countess. When she died in March 1279, her daughter and son-in-law were thus confronted with Jeanne's vast debts, and to prevent the king of France from involving himself in the county's affairs, they had to pay the debts quickly by taking out loans from citizens in Ponthieu and from wealthy abbeys in France. They also had to deal with a lengthy legal struggle with Eleanor's nephew, John de Ponthieu, to whom Jeanne bequeathed a great deal of land in Ponthieu as well as important legal rights connected with those estates. The dispute was resolved when John de Ponthieu was recognized as Jeanne's successor in Aumale according to the inheritance customs that prevailed in Normandy, while Edward and Eleanor retained Ponthieu and John gave up all his claims there. By using English wealth, Edward and Eleanor restored stability to the administration and the finances of Ponthieu, and added considerably to the comital estate by purchasing large amounts of land there. 40 41
Research Notes: Child - Eleanor of Castile, Countess of Ponthieu
From Wikipedia - Eleanor of Castile :
Eleanor of Castile (1241 - 28 November 1290 ) was the first Queen consort of Edward I of England .
Eleanor was born in Castile , Spain , daughter of Fernando III , King of Castile and Leon and his second wife, Jeanne, Countess of Ponthieu . Her Castilian name, Leonor, became Alienor or Alianor in England, and Eleanor in modern English. She was the second of five children born to Fernando and Jeanne. Her elder brother Fernando was born in 1239/40, her younger brother Louis in 1242/43; two sons born after Louis died young. For the ceremonies in 1291 marking the first anniversary of Eleanor's death, 49 candlebearers were paid to walk in the public procession to commemorate each year of her life. This would date her birth to the year 1241. Since her parents were apart from each other for thirteen months while King Ferdinand conducted a military campaign in Andalusia from which he returned to the north of Spain only in February 1241, Eleanor was probably born toward the end of that year.
Prospective bride to Theobald II of Navarre
Eleanor's marriage in 1254 to the future Edward I of England was not the first marriage her family planned for her. The kings of Castile had long claimed to be paramount lords of the Kingdom of Navarre in the Pyrenees , and from 1250 Ferdinand III and his heir, Eleanor's half-brother Alfonso X of Castile , hoped she would marry Theobald II of Navarre . To avoid Castilian control, Margaret of Bourbon (mother to Theobald II) in 1252 allied with James I of Aragon instead, and as part of that treaty solemnly promised that Theobald would never marry Eleanor.
Then, in 1252, Alfonso X resurrected flimsy ancestral claims to the duchy of Gascony , in the south of Aquitaine , last possession of the Kings of England in France. Henry III of England swiftly countered Alfonso's claims with both diplomatic and military moves. Early in 1254 the two kings began to negotiate; after haggling over the financial provision for Eleanor, Henry and Alfonso agreed she would marry Henry's son Edward, and Alfonso would transfer his Gascon claims to Edward. Henry was so anxious for the marriage to take place that he willingly abandoned elaborate preparations already made for Edward's knighting in England, and agreed that Alfonso would knight Edward before the wedding took place.
The young couple married at the monastery of Las Huelgas , Burgos on 1 November 1254. Henry III took pride in resolving the Gascon crisis so decisively, but his English subjects feared that the marriage would bring Eleanor's kinfolk and countrymen to live off Henry's ruinous generosity. Several of her relatives did come to England soon after her marriage. She was too young to stop them or prevent Henry III paying for them, but she was blamed anyway and her marriage was unpopular...
Queen consort of England
Arranged royal marriages in the Middle Ages were not always happy, but available evidence indicates that Eleanor and Edward were devoted to each other. Edward is among the few medieval English kings not known to have conducted extramarital affairs or fathered children out of wedlock. The couple were rarely apart; she accompanied him on military campaigns in Wales , famously giving birth to their son Edward on 25 April 1284 in a temporary dwelling erected for her amid the construction of Caernarfon Castle .
Their household records witness incidents that imply a comfortable, even humorous, relationship. Each year on Easter Monday, Edward let Eleanor's ladies trap him in his bed and paid them a token ransom so he could go to her bedroom on the first day after Lent ; so important was this custom to him that in 1291, on the first Easter Monday after Eleanor's death, he gave her ladies the money he would have given them had she been alive. Edward disliked ceremonies and in 1290 refused to attend the marriage of Earl Marshal Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk ; Eleanor thoughtfully (or resignedly) paid minstrels to play for him while he sat alone during the wedding.
That Edward remained single until he wed Marguerite of France in 1299 is often cited to prove he cherished Eleanor's memory. In fact he considered a second marriage as early as 1293, but this does not mean he did not mourn Eleanor. Eloquent testimony is found in his letter to the abbot of Cluny in France (January 1291), seeking prayers for the soul of the wife "whom living we dearly cherished, and whom dead we cannot cease to love." In her memory, Edward ordered the construction of twelve elaborate stone crosses (of which three survive) between 1291 and 1294, marking the route of her funeral procession between Lincoln and London. (The story that the name "Charing" is from the French chère reine or "dear Queen" is mere legend, as is the name's supposed derivation from "char ring," allegedly referring to a circular roadway in which the nobles' carriages (chars) waited while their owners attended court. The name Charing is found for that part of London in the 1250s and probably existed long before that.)
However, only one of Eleanor's five sons survived childhood and, even before she died, Edward worried over the succession: if that son died, their daughters' husbands might cause a succession war. Despite personal grief, Edward faced his duty and married again. He delighted in the sons his new wife bore, but attended memorial services for Eleanor to the end of his life, Marguerite at his side on at least one occasion...
Further information: Eleanor cross
In the autumn of 1290, news reached Edward that Margaret, the Maid of Norway , heiress of Scotland, had died. He had just held a parliament at Clipstone in Nottinghamshire , and continued to linger in those parts, presumably to await news of further developments in Scotland. Eleanor followed him at a leisurely pace as she was unwell with a feverish illness, probably a quartan fever first reported in 1287. After the couple left Clipstone they travelled slowly toward the city of Lincoln, a destination Eleanor would never reach.
Her condition worsened when they reached the village of Harby, Nottinghamshire , less than 10 miles (16 km) from Lincoln [citation needed ]). The journey was abandoned, and the queen was lodged in the house of Richard de Weston, the foundations of which can still be seen near Harby's parish church. After piously receiving the Church's last rites, she died there on the evening of the 28th of November 1290, aged 49 and after 36 years of marriage. Edward was at her bedside to hear her final requests...
Eleanor of Castile's queenship is significant in English history for the evolution of a stable financial system for the king's wife, and for the honing this process gave the queen-consort's prerogatives. The estates Eleanor assembled became the nucleus for dower assignments made to later queens of England into the 15th century , and her involvement in this process solidly established a queen-consort's freedom to engage in such transactions. Few later queens exerted themselves in economic activity to the extent Eleanor did, but their ability to do so rested on the precedents settled in her lifetime...
Children of Queen Eleanor and King Edward I
The Northampton Cross
Daughter, stillborn in May 1255 in Bordeaux, France .
Katherine, (before June 17 , 1264 - September 5 , 1264 ) and buried at Westminster Abbey .
Joan, born January 1265, buried at Westminster Abbey before September 7 , 1265 .
John, (13 July 1266 - August 3 , 1271 ) at Wallingford , in the custody of his granduncle, Richard, Earl of Cornwall . Buried at Westminster Abbey .
Henry of England , (before 6 May 1268 - October 16 , 1274 ).
Eleanor , (18 June 1269 - 29 August 1298 ). Buried 12 October 1298 . She was long betrothed to Alfonso III of Aragon , who died in 1291 before the marriage could take place, and in 1293 she married Count Henry III of Bar , by whom she had one son and one daughter.
Daughter, (28 May 1271 Palestine - 5 September 1271 ). Some sources call her Juliana, but there is no contemporary evidence for her name.
Joan of Acre . (April 1272 - April 7 , 1307 ). She married (1) in 1290 Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Hertford , who died in 1295, and (2) in 1297 Ralph Morthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer . She had four children by each marriage.
Alphonso, Earl of Chester , born 24 November 1273 , died 19 August 1284 , buried in Westminster Abbey .
Margaret Plantagenet , (15 March 1275 - after 1333). In 1290 she married John II of Brabant , who died in 1318. They had one son.
Berengaria, (1 May 1276 - before 27 June 1278 ), buried in Westminster Abbey .
Daughter, died shortly after birth at Westminster, on or about3 January 1278 . There is no contemporary evidence for her name.
Mary, (11 March 1279 - 29 May 1332 ), a Benedictine nun in Amesbury , Wiltshire (England), where she was probably buried.
A son, born in 1280 or 1281 who died very shortly after birth. There is no contemporary evidence for his name.
Elizabeth of Rhuddlan , (7 August 1282 - 5 May 1316 ). She married (1)in 1297 John I, Count of Holland , (2) in 1302 Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford & 3rd Earl of Essex . The first marriage was childless; by Bohun, Elizabeth had ten children.
Edward II of England , also known as Edward of Caernarvon , (25 April 1284 - 21 September 1327 ). In 1308 he married Isabella of France . 60 61
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34 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 113-23.
35 Wikipedia.org, Constance of Burgundy.
36 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-24 (Henry I).
37 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 170-11.
38 Wikipedia.org, Counts and Dukes of Aumale.
39 Wikipedia.org, Ferdinand III of Castile.
40 Wikipedia.org, Jeanne, Countess of Ponthieu.
41 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 109-30.
42 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 114-26.
43 Wikipedia.org, Ferdinand II of León.
44 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 113-25, 114-25.
45 Wikipedia.org, Alfonso VII of León and Castile.
46 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 113-25 (Alfonso VII).
47 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-26, 114-26 (Fernando II).
48 Wikipedia.org, Urraca of Portugal.
49 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-25.
50 Wikipedia.org, Afonso I of Portugal.
51 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 112-25 (Alfonso I).
52 Wikipedia.org, Maud of Savoy.
53 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 120-28 (Berengaria of Castile).
54 Wikipedia.org, Alfonso IX of León.
55 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 120-28.
56 Wikipedia.org, Berengaria of Castile.
57 Wikipedia.org, Elisabeth of Hohenstaufen.
58 Wikipedia.org, Simon of Dammartin.
59 Wikipedia.org, Marie, Countess of Ponthieu.
60 Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 110-30.
61 Wikipedia.org, Eleanor of Castile.
62 Wikipedia.org, Edward I of England.
Weis, Frederick Lewis and Walter Lee Sheppard, Jr; William R. Beall and Kaleen E. Beall, eds, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700 (8th ed. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2008.), Line 1-27.